Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Coronavirus 229E, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Coronavirus, Feline: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus: A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Coronavirus OC43, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Coronavirus, Canine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Coronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Feline Infectious Peritonitis: Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Feline Panleukopenia: A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.Coronavirus NL63, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.Sarcoma Viruses, Feline: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Feline panleukopenia virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.Coronavirus, Rat: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Coronavirus, Turkey: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus: A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.Leukemia, Feline: A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine: A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Viverridae: The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Enteritis, Transmissible, of Turkeys: An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Lentiviruses, Feline: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in cats.Puma: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Parvovirus, Canine: A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Animals, ZooViral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Nidovirales: An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 126.96.36.199.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Saudi ArabiaRecombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
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CPV2a and CPV2b have been isolated from a small percentage of symptomatic cats and is more common than feline panleukopenia in ... Clinically, the intestinal form of the infection can sometimes be confused with coronavirus or other forms of enteritis. ... The drug may limit the ability of the virus to invade the crypt cells of the small intestine and decrease gastrointestinal ... and the dog may remain an asymptomatic carrier and shed the virus periodically. The virus is usually more deadly if the host is ...
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Patterns of feline coronavirus infection and fecal shedding from cats in multiple-cat environments. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1997, ... gastrointestinal infection, inflammation or neoplasia) or extra-gastrointestinal disease. A number of potential enteropathogens ... Possible explanations include asymptomatic infection, passive viral carriage, or false positive results occurring as a result ... foetus was higher in pedigree cats compared to non-pedigree cats (DSH) and decreased with age for feline coronavirus, feline ...
Coronavirus infections in animals, such as feline enteric coronavirus, are usually alpha coronaviruses. ... 11 Serologic evidence suggests asymptomatic infections in cats may be more common than initially suspected.12 Infection in cats ... Common coronaviruses causing respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in our veterinary patients are alpha coronaviruses. ... and feline enteric coronavirus. Enteric coronaviruses can cause intestinal infections leading to diarrhea, particularly in ...
Serologic Screening of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection in Cats and Dogs during First Coronavirus ... Antibody Responses 8 Months after Asymptomatic or Mild SARS-CoV-2 Infection [PDF - 344 KB - 4 pages] P. Choe et al. View ... We noted necrotic or ulcerative foci in the gastrointestinal tract in 3 cases, the lung in 2 cases, and the liver in 4 cases. ... Histopathological Characterization of Cases of Spontaneous Fatal Feline Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome, Japan Y. ...
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Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections appear to be restricted to members of the cat family, including domestic breeds as well as ... The vast majority of all virus infections appear to be asymptomatic in nature that is, the infections are so mild and the host ... the organism causing feline infectious anemia).. Gastrointestinal, ocular, and neurologic signs may also occur in cases of ... Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV). Feline panleukopenia (also called feline infectious enteritis, feline distemper, and feline ...
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Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs and other domesticated animals to SARS-coronavirus 2. Science. 2020;eabb7015. doi:10.1126 ... Recent peer-reviewed research also showed cats and ferrets may be more susceptible to clinical infections while dogs seem ... Bordetella bronchiseptica, Chlamydophila felis, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) Quant, H7N2 avian ... For gastrointestinal manifestations: 3-5 g (1 g minimum) fresh feces in a sterile container and deep pharyngeal swab (with ...
Feces samples were tested for canine distemper virus, canine coronavirus, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), Clostridium ... Whereas the healthy dogs had only single infections, about half the diarrheic dogs had co-infections. Therefore, multiple ... with quadruple infections. In the control group, 13/43 (30.2%) dogs were positive, all with single infections only. The most ... in the presence or absence of single or co-infections. Diarrheic dogs showed a higher prevalence of pathogen infections than ...
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We found 6 cases of apparent human-to-feline transmission involving healthy cats. Virus genomes sequenced from 1 cat and its ... Small Particle Aerosol Exposure of African Green Monkeys to MERS-CoV as a Model for Highly Pathogenic Coronavirus Infection [ ... His first infection did not produce virus neutralizing antibodies. In August, he had asymptomatic reinfection, suggesting that ... Eating undercooked meat was significantly associated with gastrointestinal anthrax, but boiling the meat for ,60 minutes was ...
... carriers of trichomonas both sexual partners who do not have symptoms of infection, metronidazole mg bv Giardia infections of ... feline panleukopenia virus, hemorrhagic calicivirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, enteric coronaviruses, and feline infectious ... Although adult cats can also have infectious, parasitic, mechanical e. In many adult cats, Giardia species infections are ... The disease caused by this infection can range from an asymptomatic carrier state; to mild, transient illness; to prolonged, ...
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- This disease is caused by a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 and is believed to have originated from bats. (idexx.com)
- in early 2003, World Health Organization issued a worldwide alert for a previously unrecognized illness that was subsequently found to be caused by a novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus]. (frontiersin.org)
- A novel coronavirus causing an outbreak of respiratory disease in humans has led to questions about the importance of this newly discovered virus, if any, to our veterinary patients. (idexx.com)
- Idexx Laboratories is making its test for novel coronavirus commercially available to veterinarians, as new evidence emerges that the disease is sickening pets, and they're apparently catching it from their owners. (vin.com)
- In the five months that the novel coronavirus has spread from Wuhan, China, to sicken millions of people around the world and kill more than 169,000, a uthorities have reported that two dogs and two cats have tested positive for the pathogen. (vin.com)
- The understanding that pets can catch the novel coronavirus from people with COVID-19 represents an evolution in the government's characterization of the virus's impact on companion animals. (vin.com)
- SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the recent COVID-19 respiratory outbreaks in humans, is a beta coronavirus. (idexx.com)
- The equine coronavirus, a beta coronavirus, has been recently isolated from a number of outbreaks across the United States, Europe and Japan, with its rising incidence being associated with increased awareness and testing. (cornell.edu)
- Although beta coronavirus commonly causes enteric and respiratory symptoms in cattle, the prevalence of equine coronavirus in the nasal secretions of horses with fever and respiratory disease is low (Pusterla et al. (cornell.edu)
- feline coronavirus ( Co ), feline panleukopenia virus ( Pa ), Clostridium perfringens ( Cl ), S almonella enterica ( Sa ), Giardia spp. (biomedcentral.com)
- Feline panleukopenia (FP) vaccine can be given intramuscularly (IM) or subcutaneously (SQ) with equal effect. (maxshouse.com)
- All members of the cat family (Felidae) are susceptible to infection with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), as are raccoons, coatimundis, and ringtails, in the family Procyoniclae. (maxshouse.com)
- Many excellent vaccines are available to protect cats against panleukopenia. (maxshouse.com)
- In unvaccinated populations, however, panleukopenia remains the most severe and destructive disease of cats. (maxshouse.com)
- Feline panleukopenia virus is a very small and very stable virus classified in the parvovina group. (maxshouse.com)
- Although it can affect cats of all ages, feline panleukopenia is primarily a disease of kittens. (maxshouse.com)
- 3 Natural infections with FCoV are often transient and asymptomatic or result in mild gastrointestinal disease. (vin.com)
- Alpha coronaviruses can cause mild gastrointestinal or respiratory disease in livestock, similar to the signs seen with canine and feline coronaviruses. (idexx.com)
- The strains that affect cats and dogs can cause mild gastrointestinal signs and, very rarely, can lead to a disease in cats called Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP). (vetsonparker.com.au)
- FECV is very common, and an FECV infection can have symptoms ranging from none, to flu-like with or without diarrhea. (blogspot.com)
- If the immune system is not functioning properly, a mutant FECV can become a more systemic infection that we call FIP. (blogspot.com)
- So, if your cat had FECV as a kitten, it may cause the same reaction in the current test as true FIP (more on the tests below). (blogspot.com)
- The ONLY similarity between FIP, FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) and FeLV (Feline Leukemia Virus) to HIV (which is believed to cause AIDS) is in their genetic makeup. (blogspot.com)
- We've known about feline immunodeficiency virus for many, many years. (worldfamousastro.com)
- Visna infections in sheep, simian immunodeficiency virus infections (SIV) in monkeys, or feline immunodeficiency virus infections (FIV) in cats are typical examples of lentivirus infections. (ormedmedical.us)
- Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV ple ) is thought to have been endemic in lions for a much longer time. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- In humans, co-infection between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus increases disease burden. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Both feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV ple ) and Mycobacterium bovis , causing bovine tuberculosis (BTB), are found in the lion ( Panthera leo ) population in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Although a direct comparison cannot be made, human coronaviruses have been shown to survive longest at cooler temperatures (39.2F) for 14 days in waste water and 17 days in feces. (cornell.edu)
- This figure is relatively high taking in account that we did not have the possibility to test the specimens for human coronaviruses, and comparable to or higher than in some recent similar studies performed elsewhere [29- (datexis.com)
- Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). (cdc.gov)
- Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an uncommon, fatal, progressive, and immune-augmented disease of cats caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. (cdc.gov)
- Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is the name given to an uncommon, but usually fatal, aberrant immune response to infection with feline coronavirus (FCoV). (wikipedia.org)
- The enteric form of infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract, leading to asymptomatic infections, mild enteritis, or fatal infectious peritonitis in cats (Pedersen et. (animalrapidtest.com)
- Canine parvovirus is a sometimes fatal gastrointestinal infection that mainly affects puppies. (wmflabs.org)
- Since the first wave of coronavirus disease in March 2020, citizens and permanent residents returning to New Zealand have been required to undergo managed isolation and quarantine (MIQ) for 14 days and mandatory testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (cdc.gov)
- As of October 20, 2020, of 62,698 arrivals, testing of persons in MIQ had identified 215 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. (cdc.gov)
- Except for 2020, when it was cancelled due to the coronavirus pandemic, the tournament has been held every year since 1954, the ACC's first season. (bayareahq.com)
- The virus is shed in feces and cats become infected by ingesting or inhaling the virus, usually by sharing cat litter trays, or by the use of contaminated litter scoops or brushes transmitting infected microscopic cat litter particles to uninfected kittens and cats. (wikipedia.org)
- The virus is typically shed in feces by healthy recovered cats and can survive in the environment for up to 7 weeks (Hartmann, 2005). (animalrapidtest.com)
- Feces samples were tested for canine distemper virus, canine coronavirus, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin (CPA), Cryptosporidium spp. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, infection giardia antibiotics dose T. Diagnosis of this infection can be made by one of four approaches, listed according to relative ease of use and expense: 1 direct examination of the feces for trophozoites, 2 fecal cultures for the organism using the InpouchTF kit, Biomed Diagnostics, White City, OR3 polymerase chain reaction PCR of feces must be submitted to specific labs, Dr. (gazprojekt.hu)
- others seem to prefer cat feces (which, due to the feline digestive system, are high in protein and consumed by many animals in the wild) This can be harmful if the feces has any pathogens or parasites or contain excreted drugs. (thedogtrainingnetwork.com)
- Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an important feline pathogen world-wide. (animalrapidtest.com)
- Overall, 71/104 (68.3%) dogs with diarrhea were positive for at least one pathogen: a single infection in 39/71 dogs (54.9%) and co-infections in 32/71 dogs (45.1%), including 21/32 dogs (65.6%) with dual, 5/32 (15.6%) with triple, and 6/32 (18.8%) with quadruple infections. (biomedcentral.com)
- CPV-2 was the most prevalent pathogen in the dual co-infections, associated with CPA, Cryptosporidium spp. (biomedcentral.com)
- Diarrheic dogs showed a higher prevalence of pathogen infections than the controls. (biomedcentral.com)
- Trichomoniasis Trichomoniasis, caused by Tritrichomonas foetus, has been recently recognized as a pathogen in kittens and adult cats. (gazprojekt.hu)
- Direct, cat-to-cat, virus transmission does not commonly occur. (wikipedia.org)
- Mild or asymptomatic infections may also occur. (idexx.com)
- Diarrhoea is common in domestic cats [ 1 ], and can occur as a result of gastrointestinal disease (including dietary causes, gastrointestinal infection, inflammation or neoplasia) or extra-gastrointestinal disease. (biomedcentral.com)
- These are most common in kittens, but can occur in cats of any age. (blogspot.com)
- The authors note that PCR evidence of FCoV in the serum may occur in viremic cats who do not develop clinical FIP, and that technical issues may also yield negative PCR results in some patients who have histopathologically confirmed FIP. (vetcontact.com)
- Most infections are diagnosed in young kittens giardia antibiotics dose chronic diarrhea average age giardia antibiotics dose monthsbut infection can occur at any age. (gazprojekt.hu)
- While there is currently no evidence that dogs or cats play a role in transmitting the disease to humans, it became clear offering the test was the right thing to do when we saw clinical evidence that pets - especially cats and ferrets - can in rare cases be at risk for infection. (vin.com)
- Recent studies have demonstrated that cats and ferrets may be infected in experimental settings and transmit to other animals, while dogs are generally resistant to infection, likely due to species differences in their ACE-2 receptors. (idexx.co.nz)
- Recent peer-reviewed research also showed cats and ferrets may be more susceptible to clinical infections while dogs seem generally more resistant to infection. (idexx.com)
- The rhinotracheitis virus (herpesvirus type 1) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats. (ashlandanimalhospital.com)
- Bordetella bronchiseptica , Chlamydophila felis , feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) Quant, H7N2 avian influenza virus, influenza A virus (includes H3N2, H1N1, H3N8) and Mycoplasma felis RealPCR tests. (idexx.com)
- Alpha and beta coronaviruses (including coronaviruses such as those responsible for the common cold in humans) usually infect mammals, while gamma and delta coronaviruses usually infect birds and fish. (idexx.com)
- 6 The coronaviruses detected by these tests are species-specific and do not infect humans. (idexx.com)
- As with the test above, these tests are specific to various veterinary coronaviruses and do not detect SARS-CoV-2, and the coronaviruses detected by these tests are species-specific and do not infect humans. (idexx.com)
- Swine enteric coronaviruses are several coronaviruses that infect swine and cause respiratory or gastrointestinal signs, including transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). (idexx.com)
- In some cases, vaccine virus may be shed from the vaccinated cat to infect other cats that may come in contact with the vaccinated cat. (maxshouse.com)
- Bacteria can infect the peritoneum due to a severe case of pelvic inflammatory disease (a massive infection of the female organs, including the uterus and fallopian tubes). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Feline disease are those infections buy cheap aralen 500 mg tablets or diseases that infect cats. (bayareahq.com)
- Understanding of coronaviruses and their transmission is rapidly evolving, and for the most up-to-date information, we suggest you check the reference sources provided at the end of this update. (idexx.com)
- Leading health authorities and IDEXX veterinarians agree that transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is primarily person to person and advise against testing asymptomatic pets. (idexx.co.nz)
- Transmission of FPV occurs most commonly by direct contact with infected cats or their excretions. (maxshouse.com)
- Although it has been theorised that the new coronavirus emerged from an animal source, the pangolin, the current main known route of transmission is human-to-human. (vetsonparker.com.au)
- Cold and dry conditions might favor the transmission of viruses, and cold or rainy days could decrease outdoor activities of children and increase the probabilities of close contact and transmission of infections. (datexis.com)
- Reports of 3 or more pathogens occurring simultaneously in feline faeces are scarce. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition to SARS, other respiratory pathogens have also emerged recently, contributing to the high burden of respiratory tract infection-related morbidity and mortality. (frontiersin.org)
- Among the recently emerged respiratory pathogens contributing to the high burden of respiratory tract infection-related morbidity and mortality, displayed graphically in Figure 1 , are influenza viruses, coronaviruses, enteroviruses (EVs), and adenoviruses (Ads). (frontiersin.org)
- The objective of this study was to use a real-time PCR diarrhea panel to survey the frequencies of pathogens and co-infections in owned dogs attended in a veterinary hospital with and without diarrhea, as well the frequency in different countries. (biomedcentral.com)
- The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, is a unique coronavirus that infects the human respiratory tract and is different from previously identified coronaviruses infecting humans or veterinary patients. (idexx.com)
- A gamma coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), is of significant economic importance in poultry. (idexx.com)
- Since mid-February, IDEXX Reference Laboratories has tested over 5,000 specimens for the COVID-19 virus, from cats, dogs and horses with respiratory symptoms in 17 countries. (idexx.co.nz)
- To date, IDEXX has found no positive results in pets for the COVID-19 virus, suggesting that dogs and cats living with infected people generally remain uninfected, except in rare and isolated cases. (idexx.co.nz)
- To assess possible points of infection, we analyzed information about their journeys, disease progression, and virus genomic data. (cdc.gov)
- Canine Influenza , or "dog flu", is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection caused by the influenza virus. (ashlandanimalhospital.com)
- In this type of vaccine, a portion of the infectious agent is separated from the rest of the agent and serves to stimulate the immune system of the cat to develop antibodies against the whole virus or agent. (maxshouse.com)
- The vast majority of all virus infections appear to be asymptomatic in nature that is, the infections are so mild and the host response so effective that clinical signs of disease never develop. (maxshouse.com)
- clinically useful drugs with specific antiviral activity are still relatively few in number and restricted almost exclusively to some very specific virus infections. (maxshouse.com)
- Elevated total serum protein concentration may be seen with chronic antigen stimulation as with calici virus infection, upper respiratory disease or multiple myeloma. (vetcontact.com)
- In most cases, dogs that are infected with the virus do not develop the disease (called asymptomatic infection). (thedogtrainingnetwork.com)
- Canine minute virus is an infectious disease that can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal signs in young puppies. (wmflabs.org)
- What is important here is this seems to be the first case of an asymptomatic human being looking after the animals has transmitted the virus to a big cat. (worldfamousastro.com)
- Currently, the only pets incidentally exposed to COVID-19 that have tested positive to the virus are two pet dogs in Hong Kong and two pet cats (one in Belgium and the other in Hong Kong). (vetsonparker.com.au)
- This study revealed that all major respiratory virus groups tested for can be detected in Nigerian children with respiratory tract infection. (datexis.com)
- Non-effusive FIP can be ruled out as a diagnosis if the cat is seronegative, provided the antibody test has excellent sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
- High antibody titers are frequently found in asymptomatic cats, and most of those cats will never develop clinical FIP. (vetcontact.com)
- In addition, antibody titers may decrease terminally in cats with fulminant FIP, or be non-detectable because they are bound in antigen-antibody complexes. (vetcontact.com)
- It is most often due to infection by bacteria, but may also be due to some kind of a chemical irritant (such as spillage of acid from the stomach, bile from the gall bladder and biliary tract, or enzymes from the pancreas during the illness called pancreatitis ). (thefreedictionary.com)
- 2015). This finding may suggest a lack of tropism by equine coronavirus for the equine respiratory tract epithelium. (cornell.edu)
- IDEXX also offers tests for a number of coronaviruses that impact livestock and production animals. (idexx.com)
- For more in-depth information, read the IDEXX coronavirus diagnostic update . (idexx.co.nz)
- The specimens were submitted to IDEXX Reference Laboratories for respiratory tests of sick cats, dogs and horses in 17 different countries. (idexx.co.nz)
- Massachusetts State Law requires that all dogs and cats be kept up-to-date on the rabies vaccine! (ashlandanimalhospital.com)
- Although no vaccine is 100 percent effective, the proper use of vaccines allows kittens the best opportunity to grow up as healthy, robust cats. (maxshouse.com)
- The IN respiratory vaccines are administered by allowing the cat to inhale drops of vaccine into the nostrils. (maxshouse.com)
- Vaccinated cats shed vaccine viruses for long periods after IN vaccination. (maxshouse.com)
- Vaccination with the commercially available Giardia vaccine GiardiaVax, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Overland Park, KS does not prevent infection or shedding of cysts but may reduce the severity and the duration of shedding. (gazprojekt.hu)
- As a result of studiesperformed by Lappin, et al, evaluating the effectiveness of this vaccine, it is not recommended for routine use in household cats. (gazprojekt.hu)
- There is a vaccine available for the canine form of coronavirus. (vetsonparker.com.au)
- Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses consisting of multiple subgroups of viruses that are commonly found in humans as well as other mammals, birds, and reptiles. (idexx.com)
- This raises the question, can humans give this to cats, can cats carry it? (worldfamousastro.com)
- Actually, if you look around the world at the evidence, there's no evidence that dogs or cats have become ill themselves or have given this coronavirus to humans, or humans to their pets. (worldfamousastro.com)
- 1930 due to hunting by humans and animals, such as dogs, cats, and stoats, which are small weasels. (ormedmedical.us)
- The geographical location of first detections (with known reservoirs) for recently emerged adenoviruses (Ads), enteroviruses (EVs), coronaviruses, and influenza viruses. (frontiersin.org)
- Zoonotic (coronaviruses and influenza viruses) and non-zoonotic viruses (Ads and EVs) are shown. (frontiersin.org)
- Cats too can develop viruses," Dr Hilary told Lorraine. (worldfamousastro.com)
- Simultaneous infections with two or even three viruses were also found, similar to observations by others in comparable studies [9, (datexis.com)
- Enteric coronaviruses can cause intestinal infection leading to diarrhea, particularly in younger animals. (idexx.com)
- No statistical difference (P = 0.8374) was observed in the duration of diarrhea or the number of deaths (P = 0.5722) in the presence or absence of single or co-infections. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate pathogenic co-infections in populations of diarrheic and control owned dogs using a real-time PCR analysis of a panel of diarrhea-causing agents. (biomedcentral.com)
- Debra L. Conversely, while adult cats often have different and more chronic causes of diarrhea than kittens, the condition remains a common reason for cats to be presented to veterinarians for care. (gazprojekt.hu)
- In that study, the kittens did not have diarrhea from Giardia infection, but Giardia antigen test results became negative after therapy, suggesting complete removal of the organism. (gazprojekt.hu)
- However, in cats, the organism infects the large intestinal mucosa and causes chronic large bowel diarrhea characterized by increased mucus, tenesmus, hematochezia, and increased frequency of defecation. (gazprojekt.hu)
- We are just now understanding and appreciating that our aged cats are vulnerable to dementia just like people and dogs. (thehealthyplanet.com)
- This suggests that dogs and cats living with infected people generally remain uninfected, except in rare and isolated cases. (idexx.co.nz)
- Cataracts are very common in dogs but not so in cats. (petvetoasis.com)
- Cataracts can be juvenile (congenital or acquired early), pathological (secondary to Diabetes Mellitus) and senile (cataracts that develop in older dogs and very old cats. (petvetoasis.com)
- The prognosis for dogs and cats with cataracts is very good. (petvetoasis.com)
- Unfortunately most people don't know much about AIDS and the resulting effect is to scare people out of their wits and have them dump their cats or dogs at the nearest pound because they are so deathly afraid of catching AIDS from them. (blogspot.com)
- The identification of co-infections in dogs is important to determine the prognosis and to plan strategies for their treatment and prophylaxis. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the control group, 13/43 (30.2%) dogs were positive, all with single infections only. (biomedcentral.com)
- Whereas the healthy dogs had only single infections, about half the diarrheic dogs had co-infections. (biomedcentral.com)
- Salmonella infections have been linked to some brands of dry dog food, treats, and chew toys like pig ears and to "raw food" diets for dogs. (thedogtrainingnetwork.com)
- The Windsor-Essex County Health Unit in southwestern Ontario announced this week it has confirmed infections in two dogs brought to Canada from South Korea by a U.S.-based dog rescue group. (thedogtrainingnetwork.com)
- The World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that there's no evidence that pet cats or dogs can pass on the coronavirus. (worldfamousastro.com)
- Can cats and dogs get coronavirus? (vetsonparker.com.au)
- These results suggest a possible shared pathogenesis or symbiotic relationship involving selected feline enteropathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
- Evaluating enteropathogen co-infection patterns could therefore provide important information on the pathogenesis, treatment options and prognosis in affected cats. (biomedcentral.com)