Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage: Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Melena: The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.Hematemesis: Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. It generally indicates bleeding of the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Mallory-Weiss Syndrome: A condition characterized by mucosal tears at the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION, sometimes with HEMATEMESIS. Typically it is caused by forceful bouts of retching or VOMITING.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Esophageal Diseases: Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Hemostatic Techniques: Techniques for controlling bleeding.Hemostasis, Endoscopic: Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.Gastropexy: Surgical fixation of the stomach to the abdominal wall.Meckel Diverticulum: A congenital abnormality characterized by the outpouching or sac formation in the ILEUM. It is a remnant of the embryonic YOLK SAC in which the VITELLINE DUCT failed to close.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Hemobilia: Hemorrhage in or through the BILIARY TRACT due to trauma, inflammation, CHOLELITHIASIS, vascular disease, or neoplasms.Jejunal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Double-Balloon Enteroscopy: Endoscopy of the small intestines accomplished while advancing the endoscope into the intestines from the stomach by alternating the inflation of two balloons, one on an innertube of the endoscope and the other on an overtube.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Gastric Fistula: Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Jejunal Diseases: Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Intestinal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Vascular Fistula: An abnormal passage between two or more BLOOD VESSELS, between ARTERIES; VEINS; or between an artery and a vein.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Vitreous Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.Eye Hemorrhage: Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage: Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.SulfonesMedical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive: Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Choroid Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage from the vessels of the choroid.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Putaminal Hemorrhage: Intracranial bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is associated with HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include HEMIPARESIS; HEADACHE; and alterations of consciousness.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

Responses of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells to Shiga toxins 1 and 2 and pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis. (1/2175)

Endothelial damage is characteristic of infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Because Stx-mediated endothelial cell damage at the site of infection may lead to the characteristic hemorrhagic colitis of STEC infection, we compared the effects of Stx1 and Stx2 on primary and transformed human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC) to those on macrovascular endothelial cells from human saphenous vein (HSVEC). Adhesion molecule, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and Stx receptor expression, the effects of cytokine activation and Stx toxins on these responses, and Stx1 and Stx2 binding kinetics and bioactivity were measured. Adhesion molecule and IL-8 expression increased in activated HIMEC, but these responses were blunted in the presence of toxin, especially in the presence of Stx1. In contrast to HSVEC, unstimulated HIMEC constitutively expressed Stx receptor at high levels, bound large amounts of toxin, were highly sensitive to toxin, and were not further sensitized by cytokines. Although the binding capacities of HIMEC for Stx1 and Stx2 were comparable, the binding affinity of Stx1 to HIMEC was 50-fold greater than that of Stx2. Nonetheless, Stx2 was more toxic to HIMEC than an equivalent amount of Stx1. The decreased binding affinity and increased toxicity for HIMEC of Stx2 compared to those of Stx1 may be relevant to the preponderance of Stx2-producing STEC involved in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis and its systemic complications. The differences between primary and transformed HIMEC in these responses were negligible. We conclude that transformed HIMEC lines could represent a simple physiologically relevant model to study the role of Stx in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis.  (+info)

Validation of the Rockall risk scoring system in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (2/2175)

BACKGROUND: Several scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of rebleeding or death in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). These risk scoring systems have not been validated in a new patient population outside the clinical context of the original study. AIMS: To assess internal and external validity of a simple risk scoring system recently developed by Rockall and coworkers. METHODS: Calibration and discrimination were assessed as measures of validity of the scoring system. Internal validity was assessed using an independent, but similar patient sample studied by Rockall and coworkers, after developing the scoring system (Rockall's validation sample). External validity was assessed using patients admitted to several hospitals in Amsterdam (Vreeburg's validation sample). Calibration was evaluated by a chi2 goodness of fit test, and discrimination was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Calibration indicated a poor fit in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (p<0.0001, Vreeburg; p=0.007, Rockall), but a better fit for the prediction of mortality in both validation samples (p=0.2, Vreeburg; p=0.3, Rockall). The areas under the ROC curves were rather low in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (0.61, Vreeburg; 0.70, Rockall), but higher for the prediction of mortality (0.73, Vreeburg; 0.81, Rockall). CONCLUSIONS: The risk scoring system developed by Rockall and coworkers is a clinically useful scoring system for stratifying patients with acute UGIB into high and low risk categories for mortality. For the prediction of rebleeding, however, the performance of this scoring system was unsatisfactory.  (+info)

Management and outcome of patients undergoing surgery after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Steering Group for the National Audit of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage. (3/2175)

Most patients with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage are managed conservatively or with endoscopic intervention but some ultimately require surgery to arrest the haemorrhage. We have conducted a population-based multicentre prospective observational study of management and outcomes. This paper concerns the subgroup of 307 patients who had an operation because of continued or recurrent haemorrhage or high risk of further bleeding. The principal diagnostic group was those with peptic ulcer. Of 2071 patients with peptic ulcer presenting with acute haemorrhage, 251 (12%) had an operative intervention with a mortality of 24%. In the non-operative group mortality was 10%. The operative intervention rate increased with risk score, ranging from 0% in the lowest risk categories to 38% in the highest. Much of the discrepancy between operative and non-operative mortality was explainable by case mix; however, for high-risk cases mortality was significantly higher in the operated group. In 78% of patients who underwent an operation for bleeding peptic ulcer there had been no previous attempt at endoscopic haemostasis. For patients admitted to surgical units, the operative intervention rate was about four times higher than for those admitted under medical teams. In patients with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage operative intervention is infrequent and largely confined to the highest-risk patients. The continuing high mortality in surgically treated patients is therefore to be expected. The reasons for the low use of endoscopic treatment before surgery are not revealed by this study, but wider use of such treatments might further reduce the operative intervention rate. Physicians and surgeons have not yet reached consensus on who needs surgery and when.  (+info)

Hemorrhagic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in a dog. (4/2175)

A female Shetland sheep dog died suddenly with hemorrhagic diarrhea and vomitting, and was examined pathologically and microbiologically. Gross pathological change was restricted to the intestinal tract. The intestine contained watery, blood-stained fluid. Histopathologically, the principal intestinal lesion was superficial mucosal hemorrhagic necrosis at the jejunoileum. Many Gram-positive bacilli were found adhering to the necrotic mucosal surface in parts of the intestinal tract. Clostridium perfringens in pure culture were isolated from jejunal contents by anaerobic culture. These results suggested that the typical lesion of this case coincided with canine hemorrhagic enteritis and enterotoxemia due to C. perfringens infection could be the cause of sudden death.  (+info)

Comparison of endoscopic ligation and propranolol for the primary prevention of variceal bleeding. (5/2175)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We compared propranolol therapy and endoscopic ligation for the primary prevention of bleeding from esophageal varices. This prospective, controlled trial included consecutive eligible patients who had large varices (>5 mm in diameter) that were at high risk for bleeding. The patients were assigned to either propranolol therapy, at a dose sufficient to decrease the base-line heart rate by 25 percent, or variceal ligation, to be performed weekly until the varices were obliterated or so reduced in size that it was not possible to continue treatment. RESULTS: Of the 89 patients, 82 of whom had cirrhosis of the liver, 44 received propranolol and 45 underwent variceal ligation. The mean (+/-SD) duration of follow-up in each group was 14+/-9 and 13+/-10 months, respectively. The mean time required to achieve an adequate reduction in the heart rate was 2.5+/-1.7 days; the mean number of sessions needed to complete variceal ligation was 3.2+/-1.1. After 18 months, the actuarial probability of bleeding was 43 percent in the propranolol group and 15 percent in the ligation group (P=0.04). Twelve patients in the propranolol group and four in the ligation group had bleeding. Three of the four in the ligation group had bleeding before their varices had been obliterated. Nine patients in the ligation group had recurrent varices, a mean of 3.7 months after the initial treatment. Five patients in each group died; bleeding from the varices was the cause of death of four patients in the propranolol group and of three in the ligation group. There were no serious complications of variceal ligation; in the propranolol group, treatment was stopped in two patients because of side effects. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with high-risk esophageal varices, endoscopic ligation of the varices is safe and more effective than propranolol for the primary prevention of variceal bleeding.  (+info)

Effect of angiotensin II and telmisartan, an angiotensin1 receptor antagonist, on rat gastric mucosal blood flow. (6/2175)

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (ATII) has been suggested to contribute to shock-induced dysfunction of the gastric circulation. AIM: To substantiate this conjecture, the effects on gastric mucosal haemodynamics and the hyperaemic response to acid back-diffusion of ATII and the angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, telmisartan, were examined in normal rats and in animals subjected to haemorrhage. METHODS: Gastric mucosal blood flow in phenobarbital-anaesthetized rats was recorded with the hydrogen clearance technique, and acid back-diffusion was induced by perfusing the stomach with ethanol (25%) in HCl (0.05 M). RESULTS: Intravenous infusion of ATII (0.3-10 nmol/min/kg) led to dose-dependent hypertension and a reduction of blood flow and vascular conductance in the gastric mucosa. The gastric hyperaemia caused by acid back-diffusion was attenuated by ATII (1 nmol/min/kg). These effects of ATII were antagonized by intravenous injection of telmisartan (1-10 mg/kg) which per se caused hypotension and dilated the gastric mucosal vasculature, but did not modify the gastric mucosal hyperaemia evoked by acid back-diffusion. Hypotension induced by haemorrhage (1.3 mL blood per 100 g body weight) failed to alter the hyperaemia due to acid back-diffusion, but caused gastric mucosal vasoconstriction, an effect that was left unaffected by telmisartan. CONCLUSIONS: ATII constricts the rat gastric microvasculature via an action involving AT1 receptors. The effects of telmisartan indicate that endogenous ATII contributes to the homeostatic regulation of gastric vascular tone but does not compromise the ability of the gastric microvasculature to react to influxing acid. These results negate the concept that ATII contributes to the gastric vascular perturbances in haemorrhagic shock.  (+info)

Thrombelastographic changes and early rebleeding in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding. (7/2175)

BACKGROUND: Routine coagulation tests do not necessarily reflect haemostasis in vivo in cirrhotic patients, particularly those who have bleeding varices. Thrombelastography (TEG) can provide a global assessment of haemostatic function from initial clot formation to clot dissolution. AIM: To evaluate TEG changes in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding and their association with early rebleeding. PATIENTS/METHODS: Twenty cirrhotic patients with active variceal bleeding had serial TEG and routine coagulation tests daily for seven days. The TEG variables before the day of rebleeding (n = 6) were compared with those of patients without rebleeding (n = 14). RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the rebleeding and non-rebleeding groups were comparable apart from a higher incidence of uncontrolled infection on the day of rebleeding in the rebleeding group (p = 0.007). The patients in the rebleeding group were more hypocoagulable before the day of rebleeding as shown by longer r (42 v 24 mm, p < 0.001) and k (48 v 13 mm, p < 0.001) and smaller a (12 v 38 degrees, p < 0.001) compared with the mean of daily results of the non-rebleeding group. Routine coagulation tests, however, showed no significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The results of serial TEG measurements suggest that hypocoagulability may be associated with early rebleeding in cirrhotic patients.  (+info)

Two way push videoenteroscopy in investigation of small bowel disease. (8/2175)

AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic yield and safety of a new push type videoenteroscope (PVE) for diagnosis of small bowel disease. METHODS: Three hundred and thirteen patients were referred for one or two way PVE from December 1993 to June 1996. Indications for PVE were: an unexplained iron deficiency anaemia with or without clinically evident gastrointestinal bleeding; or a complementary investigation for suspected small bowel disease, after a small bowel barium follow through (SBBFT) considered as normal or abnormal, but without a definite diagnosis. RESULTS: A jejunoscopy and a retrograde ileoscopy were carried out in 306 and 234 patients, respectively. In patients with isolated anaemia (n = 131) and those with clinically evident gastrointestinal bleeding associated anaemia (n = 72), PVE provided a diagnosis in 26 (19.8%) and 22 (30.5%) cases, respectively. Lesions found were located in the jejunoileum in 30 (14.7%) patients and in the gastroduodenum or the colon in 18 (8.8%) patients--that is, within the reach of the conventional gastroscope/colonoscope. In patients with normal (n = 54) or abnormal (n = 56) SBBFT, PVE provided a diagnosis in 17 (31%) and 27 (48%) cases, respectively. In 25% of cases, the abnormal appearance of SBBFT was not confirmed. The site of the radiological abnormality was not reached in 27% of cases. Lesions were located at the jejunum and the ileum in 59 (64%) and 33 (36%) cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PVE is useful in around 30% of cases of unexplained anaemia or after an SBBFT which failed to provide an accurate aetiological diagnosis. Use of retrograde videoenteroscopy increases diagnostic yield by one third.  (+info)

  • Phytolacca americana, ( pokeweed ) Pokeweed, ingredient of "poke sallet" is also toxic, especially to children Poke weed causes gastrointestinal upset and even hemorrhaging [pediatric-house-calls.djmed.net] Symptoms may include gastroenteritis, delirium, refractory seizures , and coma. (symptoma.com)
  • The source of hemorrhage is usually not determined by standard endoscopic techniques, and the symptoms of the condition are usually grouped as a cause of obscure overt gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergency combined angiographic and endoscopic Neodymium-YAG laser treatment is described in an elderly patient with massive hemorrhage from the afferent limb stump of a Billroth II anastomosis after surgical resection of a gastric carcinoma. (ebscohost.com)
  • Despite making it through the direct ramifications of intracranial hemorrhage, in-hospital individuals tend to be at risky for multiple medical morbidities, that are significantly linked to an unfavorable prognosis of buy Losmapimod SAH3,4. (biomarketx.net)
  • The self-expandable metal stent has been described in case series as having a very high efficacy at control of haemorrhage from oesophageal varices when used as rescue therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Transcatheter embolization using Gelfoam plugs or autologous clot is an alternative or adjunct to the conventional management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (nih.gov)
  • This may also be used to treat hemosuccus, as embolization of the end vessel may terminate the hemorrhage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exsanguinating hemorrhage from the colon in adults is caused by diverticular disease, angiodysplasia, solitary ulcer, ulcerative colitis, ischemic colitis , or a variety of uncommon lesions such as coagulation disorders, radiation injury, chemotherapeutic toxicity, and others. (for-surgeons.com)
  • Similarly, we examined rates of admission to hospital because of upper GI hemorrhage (International Classification of Diseases, revision 9 [ICD-codes 531, 532, 534, 578.0, 578.1 and 578.9) obtained from the Canadian Institute for Heath Information Discharge Abstract Database, which contains a detailed record of all hospital admissions, including diagnostic and procedural information. (cmaj.ca)
  • SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Upper Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Diseases Group Trials Register to February 2008, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to February 2008), EMBASE (1974 to February 2008), the Systematic Review Initiative database of randomised controlled trials, haematology and gastroenterology conference proceedings, and reference lists of articles. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The case of a 37-year-old female, hospitalized for massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to a GIST-type tumor of the small intestine, is presented in this article. (viamedica.pl)
  • Aside from the obvious flow of blood from a wound or body orifice, massive hemorrhage can be detected by other signs, such as restlessness, cold and clammy skin, thirst, increased and thready pulse, rapid and shallow respirations, and a drop in blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Veterinarians and owners should not be misled into thinking that all instances of vomiting blood and black tarry feces indicate hemorrhage of GI origin. (blogspot.com)
Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Hemorrhage | Case Files: Surgery 5e | AccessSurgery | McGraw-Hill Medical
Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Hemorrhage | Case Files: Surgery 5e | AccessSurgery | McGraw-Hill Medical (accesssurgery.mhmedical.com)
December 1991 - Volume 7 - Issue 6 : Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
December 1991 - Volume 7 - Issue 6 : Current Opinion in Gastroenterology (journals.lww.com)
BLINDNESS FOLLOWING MASSIVE GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
BLINDNESS FOLLOWING MASSIVE GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians (annals.org)
April 2014 - Volume 48 - Issue 4 : Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
April 2014 - Volume 48 - Issue 4 : Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology (journals.lww.com)
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DailyMed - ZALTRAP- ziv-aflibercept solution, concentrate (dailymed.nlm.nih.gov)
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Changing Epidemiology of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in the Last Decade: A Nationwide Analysis | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
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Vomiting blood: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia (medlineplus.gov)
Compound Report Card
Compound Report Card (ebi.ac.uk)
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Internal Medicine - An Illustrated Radiological Guide | Jarrah Ali Al-Tubaikh | Springer
Internal Medicine - An Illustrated Radiological Guide | Jarrah Ali Al-Tubaikh | Springer (springer.com)
Andreoli and Carpenter's Cecil Essentials of Medicine - 9th Edition
Andreoli and Carpenter's Cecil Essentials of Medicine - 9th Edition (elsevier.com)
The ASCRS Textbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery | SpringerLink
The ASCRS Textbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
St. Jude Medical Center - Hospital - Official Ratings - Reviews
St. Jude Medical Center - Hospital - Official Ratings - Reviews (calhospitalcompare.org)
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Imaging the ICU Patient | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
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Side Effects of Zemplar (Paricalcitol Tablets), Warnings, Uses (rxlist.com)
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Thalidomide Reduces Arteriovenous Malformation Related Gastrointestinal Bleeding - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov)
Deferasirox Side Effects: Common, Severe, Long Term - Drugs.com
Deferasirox Side Effects: Common, Severe, Long Term - Drugs.com (drugs.com)
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Trisenox (Arsenic Trioxide Injection): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses (rxlist.com)