Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Colonic Diseases, Functional
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sensitivity and Specificity
Dose-loading with hydroxychloroquine improves the rate of response in early, active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind six-week trial with eighteen-week extension. (1/2511)OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) dose-loading to increase the percentage of responders or rate of response in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Two hundred twelve patients with early RA (mean duration 1.5 years) were enrolled in a 24-week trial. Patients were stabilized with 1,000 mg naproxen/day and then began a 6-week, double-blind trial comparing treatment with HCQ at 400 mg/day (n = 71), 800 mg/day (n = 71), and 1,200 mg/day (n = 66), followed by 18 weeks of open-label HCQ treatment at 400 mg/day. RESULTS: All patients had mild, active disease at the time of initiation of HCQ treatment (31-43% rheumatoid factor positive; no previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; mean swollen joint count 8.6-10.4). Based on the Paulus criteria, response during the 6-week double-blind portion of the study was 47.97%, 57.7%, and 63.6% in the 400 mg/day, 800 mg/day, and 1,200 mg/day groups, respectively (P = 0.052). Discontinuations for adverse events were dose related (3 in the 400 mg/day group, 5 in the 800 mg/day group, 6 in the 1,200 mg/day group). Most involved the gastrointestinal (GI) system, with the background naproxen treatment possibly contributing. Ocular abnormalities occurred in 17 of 212 patients (8%) but were not dose related. CONCLUSION: Dose-loading with HCQ increased the degree of response at 6 weeks in this group of patients with early, predominantly seronegative RA. Adverse GI events were dose related, while adverse ocular events were not. (+info)
Phase I trial of docetaxel with estramustine in androgen-independent prostate cancer. (2/2511)PURPOSE: To evaluate the toxicity, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of docetaxel when combined with oral estramustine and dexamethasone in a phase I study in patients with progressive metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four men were stratified into minimally pretreated (MPT) and extensively pretreated (EPT) groups. Estramustine 280 mg PO tid was administered 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals on days 1 through 5, with escalated doses of docetaxel from 40 to 80 mg/m2 on day 2. Treatment was repeated every 21 days. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were assessable for toxicity and 33 for response. In the MPT patients, dose-limiting myelosuppression was reached at 80 mg/m2, with six patients experiencing grade 3/4 granulocytopenia. In EPT patients, escalation above 70 mg/m2 was not attempted. Fourteen MPT (70%) and six EPT (50%) patients had a > or = 50% decline in serum PSA on two consecutive measurements taken at least 2 weeks apart. The overall 50% PSA response rate was 63% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28% to 81%). Of the 18 patients with bidimensionally measurable disease, five (28%; 95% CI, 11% to 54%) achieved a partial response. At the time of entry onto the study, 15 patients required narcotic analgesics for bone pain; after treatment, eight (53%) discontinued their pain medications. The area under the curve for docetaxel increased linearly from 40 to 70 mg/m2. At 80 mg/m2, the measured area under the curve was 8.37 (standard deviation, 0.724), which was significantly higher than the previously reported values. CONCLUSION: The recommended phase II dose of docetaxel combined with estramustine is 70 mg/m2 in MPT patients and 60 mg/m2 in EPT patients. This combination is active in men with androgen-independent prostate cancer. (+info)
Outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness of unknown etiology associated with eating burritos--United States, October 1997-October 1998. (3/2511)From October 1997 through October 1998, 16 outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness associated with eating burritos occurred in Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. All but one outbreak occurred in schools, and most of the approximately 1700 persons affected were children. This report summarizes investigations of two of these outbreaks and describes the collaborative efforts of CDC, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to identify the etiologic agent(s); these outbreaks may have been caused by an undetected toxin or a new agent not previously associated with illness. (+info)
Prescription of acid-suppressing drugs in relation to endoscopic diagnosis: a record-linkage study. (4/2511)BACKGROUND: Although widely used, few data are available on the appropriateness of prescribing of acid-suppressing drugs (ASDs), despite guidelines on the investigation and treatment of dyspeptic patients. METHODS: We created a database of 62 000 endoscopy examinations and record-linked these to a prescribing database. Endoscopic diagnoses were classified into peptic, nonpeptic and others. The H2-antagonists, omeprazole and misoprostol, were studied. RESULTS: 35 000 patients had one or more endoscopies during 1978-93; two-thirds were over 45 years of age at first endoscopy. A quarter of all patients who had been endoscoped had consistently normal examinations. Peptic oesophageal pathology was the commonest positive finding. A quarter of those prescribed ASDs between 1989 and 1993 had been endoscoped between 1978 and 1993. In those with a peptic diagnosis prescribed any ASD, the pathologies found were: oesophageal (42.9%), duodenal (36.3%) and gastro-pyloric (21.3%). Patients prescribed omeprazole were more likely to have undergone endoscopy than those prescribed other ASDs, and they were also more likely to have peptic oesophageal pathology. Long-term prescribing (>56 days per year) occurred in two-thirds of patients prescribed ASDs and 40% had at least one endoscopy. In those prescribed short-term ASDs, 20% had undergone at least one endoscopy. Peptic and nonpeptic endoscopic pathology was associated with increased ASD prescribing, but a normal endoscopy did not reduce prescribing. CONCLUSION: ASD prescribing appeared to be mainly symptom-driven. Positive endoscopic findings increased the prescribing of ASDs, but normal findings did not reduce it. (+info)
Childcare needs of female street vendors in Mexico City. (5/2511)This article reports on strategies developed by female street vendors (vendedoras ambulantes) in Mexico City to ensure the care of their young children in the absence of a specific and operational government policy to fulfil this need. The information concerning child care and health was gathered by a survey of 426 street traders selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling in four of the administrative districts (delegaciones politicas) of Mexico City during 1990. It was found that, as mothers of young children, street vendors most frequently looked after their children personally on the street or left them with other members of the family. Related factors were availability of alternative child care providers in the family, the age of the children and working conditions of the mother. Children who remained on the streets with their mothers suffered more frequently from gastro-intestinal diseases and accidents than the national average. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases, however, was similar in the cases of maternal care in the street and care by family members in another environment. Existing public health measures show a greater concern for the health of food consumers than that of workers in this area. Current public policy seeks to regulate street vending activities and to concentrate traders in ad hoc areas and facilities. Our research results document the need for actions that can contribute to an improvement in the care and health conditions of these young children. (+info)
Gastrointestinal illness in managed care: healthcare utilization and costs. (6/2511)Identification of inefficiencies is a first step to improving the quality of gastrointestinal (GI) care at the most reasonable cost. This analysis used administrative data to examine the healthcare utilization and associated costs of the management of GI illnesses in a 2.5 million-member private managed care plan containing many benefit designs. An overall incidence of 10% was found for GI conditions, with a preponderance in adults (patients older than 40 years) and women. The most frequently occurring conditions were abdominal pain, nonulcer peptic diseases, lower GI tract diseases, and other GI tract problems. These conditions, along with gallbladder/biliary tract disease, were also the most costly. Claims submitted for care during GI episodes averaged $17 per member per month. Increasing severity of condition was associated with substantial increases in utilization and costs (except for medication use). For most GI conditions, approximately 40% of charges were for professional services (procedures, tests, and visits) and 40% of charges were for facility admissions. The prescription utilization analysis indicated areas where utilization patterns may not match accepted guidelines, such as the low use of anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy, the possible concomitant use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with upper GI diseases, and the use of narcotics in treating patients with lower GI disease and abdominal pain. Also, there was no clear relationship between medication utilization and disease severity. Thus, this analysis indicated that GI disease is a significant economic burden to managed care, and identified usage patterns that potentially could be modified to improve quality of care. (+info)
Early detection by ultrasound scan of severe post-chemotherapy gut complications in patients with acute leukemia. (7/2511)BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute leukemia patients may develop life-threatening gut complications after intensive chemotherapy. We evaluated the role of abdominal and pelvic ultrasound (US) examination in early detection of these complications. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of twenty adult acute leukemia patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for remission induction entered the study. All chemotherapy regimens included cytarabine by continuous i.v. infusion for several days. RESULTS: Three patients had severe gut complications: 2 cases of enterocolitis and 1 case of gall bladder overdistension in the absence of calculi. In all cases the abnormality was documented by US examination: US scan showed thickening of the intestinal wall (two cases), and gall bladder overdistension with biliary sludge (one case). Immediate medical care included bowel rest, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, antimycotic treatment, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. All patients recovered from the complication. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We believe that the favorable outcome obtained in our small series can be attributed to early diagnosis followed by appropriate treatment. Early recognition by US and immediate medical management can lead to complete recovery of severe intestinal complications in patients with acute leukemia undergoing intensive chemotherapy. (+info)
Detection of cytomegalovirus in upper gastrointestinal biopsies from heart transplant recipients: comparison of light microscopy, immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridisation, and nested PCR. (8/2511)AIM: To establish the diagnostic value of in situ hybridisation and the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting clinically relevant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in upper gastrointestinal biopsies from heart transplant patients. METHODS: Test sensitivity and specificity for detection of CMV early gene RNA by in situ hybridisation and CMV intermediate early gene by PCR were established and then compared with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunocytochemical detection of CMV in order to establish the best pathological diagnostic approach. All investigations were carried out on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue. RESULTS: Nested PCR had the highest test sensitivity, followed by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry with the same sensitivity; H&E had the lowest. H&E and immunocytochemistry were the most specific but both had a significant false negative rate which was less of a problem with PCR. However, PCR gave no other diagnostic information, and in situ hybridisation was no better than immunocytochemistry. Both in situ hybridisation and PCR were technically complex and more expensive. CONCLUSIONS: H&E and immunocytochemistry represent the best initial screen for CMV and other diseases in upper gastrointestinal biopsies from heart transplant patients. If H&E and immunocytochemistry were negative, nested PCR could significantly increase the diagnostic yield of clinically relevant CMV infection. In situ hybridisation appeared to have no advantages and some drawbacks compared with immunocytochemistry and PCR. (+info)
Types of Gastrointestinal Diseases:
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer Disease: A condition characterized by ulcers in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
5. Diverticulitis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the colon and become inflamed.
6. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, often caused by infection or excessive alcohol consumption.
7. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophagus, often caused by acid reflux or infection.
8. Rectal Bleeding: Hemorrhage from the rectum, which can be a symptom of various conditions such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or inflammatory bowel disease.
9. Functional Dyspepsia: A condition characterized by recurring symptoms of epigastric pain, bloating, nausea, and belching.
10. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, leading to inflammation and damage in the small intestine.
Causes of Gastrointestinal Diseases:
1. Infection: Viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections can cause gastrointestinal diseases.
2. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract.
3. Diet: Consuming a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats can contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
4. Genetics: Certain genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
5. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and lack of physical activity can all contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
6. Radiation Therapy: Exposure to radiation therapy can damage the GI tract and increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
7. Medications: Certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids can cause gastrointestinal side effects.
The exact cause of ECN is not well understood, but it is believed to be associated with a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as infections, medications, and underlying medical conditions like inflammatory bowel disease.
The symptoms of ECN can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Abdominal pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Weight loss
* Loss of appetite
If you suspect that you or someone else may have ECN, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare professional will perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as blood cultures, abdominal imaging (e.g., CT scan), and endoscopy to confirm the diagnosis and determine the extent of the condition.
Treatment of ECN typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, address any underlying infections or other medical conditions, and prevent complications. This may include:
* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Pain management with medication
* Intravenous fluids and nutrition to prevent dehydration and malnutrition
* Surgical intervention to repair any perforations or remove damaged tissue
The prognosis for ECN can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, early recognition and aggressive management of the condition can improve outcomes. However, the condition can be life-threatening and may result in long-term complications such as short bowel syndrome or chronic inflammatory bowel disease.
Prevention of ECN is not always possible, but good hand hygiene practices and proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) can help reduce the risk of transmission. In addition, prompt recognition and treatment of underlying medical conditions can help prevent the development of ECN.
Dyspepsia is not a specific disease but rather a symptom complex that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as:
1. Gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining)
2. Peptic ulcer
3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
4. Functional dyspepsia
5. Inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
6. Food allergies or intolerances
7. Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menstruation
8. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics
The diagnosis of dyspepsia is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, gastric emptying studies, and blood tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of dyspepsia and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and dietary modifications.
There are several subtypes of IBS, including:
* IBS-C (constipation-predominant)
* IBS-D (diarrhea-predominant)
* IBS-M (mixed)
The symptoms of IBS can vary in severity and frequency from person to person, and may include:
* Abdominal pain or cramping
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Mucus in the stool
* Feeling of incomplete evacuation after bowel movements
There is no cure for IBS, but symptoms can be managed with dietary changes, stress management techniques, and medications such as fiber supplements, antispasmodics, and antidepressants. It is important to seek medical advice if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as IBS can have a significant impact on quality of life and may be associated with other conditions such as anxiety or depression.
There are several types of diarrhea, including:
1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.
Symptoms of diarrhea may include:
* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Fatigue and weakness
Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea
Complications of diarrhea can include:
* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.
Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.
Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.
1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, which can be acute or chronic.
2. Peptic ulcer disease: Ulcers in the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) that are caused by H. pylori infection.
3. Gastric adenocarcinoma: A type of stomach cancer that is associated with long-term H. pylori infection.
4. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma: A rare type of cancer that affects the immune cells in the stomach and small intestine.
5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation.
6. Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis: A type of chronic inflammation of the stomach lining that can lead to stomach ulcers and stomach cancer.
7. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS): A condition that develops after a gastrointestinal infection, characterized by persistent symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
Helicobacter infections are typically diagnosed through endoscopy, where a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted into the stomach and small intestine to visualize the mucosa and look for signs of inflammation or ulcers. Laboratory tests such as breath tests and stool tests may also be used to detect the presence of H. pylori bacteria in the body. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications to eradicate the infection and reduce symptoms.
Preventing Helicobacter Infections:
While it is not possible to completely prevent Helicobacter infections, there are several measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing these conditions:
1. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands regularly, especially before eating and after using the bathroom.
2. Avoid close contact with people who have Helicobacter infections.
3. Avoid sharing food, drinks, or utensils with people who have Helicobacter infections.
4. Avoid consuming undercooked meat, especially pork and lamb.
5. Avoid consuming raw shellfish, especially oysters.
6. Avoid consuming unpasteurized dairy products.
7. Avoid alcohol and caffeine, which can irritate the stomach lining and increase the risk of developing Helicobacter infections.
8. Maintain a healthy diet that is high in fiber and low in fat.
9. Manage stress, as stress can exacerbate symptoms of Helicobacter infections.
10. Practice good oral hygiene to prevent gum disease and other oral infections that can increase the risk of developing Helicobacter infections.
Helicobacter infections are a common cause of stomach ulcers, gastritis, and other gastrointestinal disorders. These infections are caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which can be found in the stomach lining and small intestine. While these infections can be difficult to diagnose, a combination of endoscopy, blood tests, and stool tests can help confirm the presence of Helicobacter bacteria. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications to eradicate the infection and reduce symptoms. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who have Helicobacter infections, and maintaining a healthy diet.
A peptic ulcer is a break in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine), which can cause pain and bleeding. The stomach acid and digestive enzymes flowing through the ulcer can irritate the surrounding tissue, leading to inflammation and discomfort.
Peptic ulcers are commonly caused by an infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or aspirin. Other contributing factors include stress, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
Symptoms of a peptic ulcer may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. Treatment options typically involve antibiotics to eradicate H. pylori infection or stopping NSAID use, along with medications to reduce acid production in the stomach and protect the ulcer from further damage. Surgery may be necessary for severe cases or if other treatments fail.
Prevention methods include avoiding NSAIDs, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, managing stress, and getting regular screenings for H. pylori infection. Early detection and proper treatment can help alleviate symptoms and prevent complications such as ulcer perforation or bleeding.
In summary, peptic ulcers are painful and potentially harmful conditions that can be caused by various factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
1) The patient was diagnosed with enterocolitis after presenting with severe abdominal pain and diarrhea.
2) The doctor suspected enterocolitis based on the patient's symptoms, but further testing was needed to confirm the diagnosis.
3) Enterocolitis can be a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications such as dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
Crohn's disease can affect any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus, and causes symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. Ulcerative colitis primarily affects the colon and rectum and causes symptoms such as bloody stools, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic conditions, meaning they cannot be cured but can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment options for IBD include anti-inflammatory medications, immunosuppressants, and biologics. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the GI tract.
There is no known cause of IBD, although genetics, environmental factors, and an abnormal immune response are thought to play a role. The condition can have a significant impact on quality of life, particularly if left untreated or poorly managed. Complications of IBD include malnutrition, osteoporosis, and increased risk of colon cancer.
Preventing and managing IBD requires a comprehensive approach that includes medication, dietary changes, stress management, and regular follow-up with a healthcare provider. With proper treatment and lifestyle modifications, many people with IBD are able to manage their symptoms and lead active, fulfilling lives.
Symptoms of enteritis may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. In severe cases, the condition can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and even death if left untreated.
The diagnosis of enteritis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, imaging studies, and laboratory tests (e.g., blood tests, stool cultures). Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
Crohn disease can occur in any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the ileum (the last portion of the small intestine) and the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn disease can lead to the formation of scar tissue, which can cause narrowing or blockages in the intestines. This can lead to complications such as bowel obstruction or abscesses.
The exact cause of Crohn disease is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract. Genetic factors and environmental triggers such as smoking and diet also play a role in the development of the disease.
There is no cure for Crohn disease, but various treatments can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. These may include medications such as anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, and biologics, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications and stress management techniques. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged portions of the GI tract.
Crohn disease can have a significant impact on quality of life, and it is important for individuals with the condition to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their symptoms and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with Crohn disease are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
Functional colonic diseases include:
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by recurring abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits (diarrhea or constipation).
2. Functional dyspepsia: A condition characterized by recurring symptoms of epigastric pain, discomfort, bloating, and nausea, without any identifiable organic cause.
3. Functional constipation: A condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements, hard or difficult-to-pass stools, and sensation of incomplete evacuation.
4. Functional diarrhea: A condition characterized by frequent, loose, and watery bowel movements.
5. Functional abdominal pain: Recurring abdominal pain without any identifiable organic cause.
The exact causes of functional colonic diseases are not fully understood, but they are thought to be related to abnormalities in the functioning of the enteric nervous system, immune system, and gut microbiome. These conditions are often associated with stress, dietary factors, and other lifestyle factors.
The diagnosis of functional colonic diseases is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, physical examination, and laboratory tests (such as stool studies and gastrointestinal imaging). Treatment typically involves lifestyle modifications (such as dietary changes and stress management) and medications (such as antispasmodics, antidepressants, and laxatives) to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Gastroenteritis can be classified into different types based on the cause:
Viral gastroenteritis - This is the most common type of gastroenteritis and is caused by norovirus or rotavirus.
Bacterial gastroenteritis - This type is caused by bacteria such as salmonella, E. coli, or campylobacter.
Parasitic gastroenteritis - This is caused by parasites such as giardia or cryptosporidium.
Foodborne gastroenteritis - This type is caused by consuming contaminated food or water.
Gastroenteritis can be treated with antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-diarrheal medications, and hydration therapy to prevent dehydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention measures include proper hand washing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and avoiding contaminated food and water. Vaccines are also available for some types of gastroenteritis such as rotavirus.
Calculi are typically classified into three types based on their composition:
1. Calcium oxalate calculi: These are the most common type of calculus and are often found in the kidneys and urinary tract. They are more likely to occur in people with a history of kidney stones or other conditions that affect calcium metabolism.
2. Magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi: These calculi are less common and typically form in the kidneys or bladder. They are often associated with chronic kidney disease or other underlying medical conditions.
3. Uric acid calculi: These calculi are rare and often form in the joints, but can also occur in the urinary tract. They are more common in people with gout or other conditions that affect uric acid metabolism.
Calculi can cause a range of symptoms depending on their size and location, including:
* Pain in the abdomen, flank, or back
* Blood in the urine (hematuria)
* Frequent urination or difficulty urinating
* Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
* Fever or chills
* Nausea and vomiting
If calculi are small and do not cause any symptoms, they may not require treatment. However, if they grow large enough to block the flow of urine or cause pain, treatment may be necessary. Treatment options for calculi include:
1. Medications: Drugs such as alpha-blockers and potassium citrate can help to dissolve calculi and reduce symptoms.
2. Shock wave lithotripsy: This is a non-invasive procedure that uses high-energy shock waves to break up calculi into smaller pieces that can be passed more easily.
3. Endoscopic surgery: A small, flexible tube with a camera and specialized tools can be inserted through the ureter or bladder to remove calculi.
4. Open surgery: In some cases, open surgery may be necessary to remove large or complex calculi.
Prevention is key in avoiding calculi. Here are some tips for preventing calculi:
1. Drink plenty of water: Adequate hydration helps to dilute uric acid and other substances in the urine, reducing the risk of calculi formation.
2. Limit alcohol intake: Alcohol can increase levels of uric acid in the blood, which can contribute to calculi formation.
3. Maintain a healthy diet: Eating a balanced diet that is low in purines and high in fruits and vegetables can help to reduce the risk of calculi.
4. Manage underlying conditions: Conditions such as gout, hyperparathyroidism, and kidney disease can increase the risk of calculi. Managing these conditions with medication and lifestyle changes can help to reduce the risk of calculi.
5. Avoid certain medications: Certain medications, such as some antibiotics and diuretics, can increase the risk of calculi formation.
6. Monitor urine output: If you have a medical condition that affects your urinary tract, such as a blockage or an obstruction, it is important to monitor your urine output to ensure that your kidneys are functioning properly.
7. Avoid prolonged bed rest: Prolonged bed rest can increase the risk of calculi formation by slowing down urine flow and allowing minerals to accumulate in the urinary tract.
8. Stay active: Regular exercise can help to improve circulation and maintain a healthy weight, which can reduce the risk of calculi formation.
9. Avoid smoking: Smoking can increase the risk of calculi formation by reducing blood flow to the kidneys and increasing the amount of oxalate in the urine.
10. Consider medications: In some cases, medications such as allopurinol or potassium citrate may be prescribed to help prevent calculi formation. These medications can help to reduce the levels of uric acid or calcium oxalate in the urine.
It is important to note that not all kidney stones are the same, and the underlying cause may vary depending on the type of stone. For example, if you have a history of gout, you may be more likely to develop uric acid stones. In this case, medications such as allopurinol or probenecid may be prescribed to help reduce the levels of uric acid in your blood and prevent calculi formation.
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Diverticulosis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the intestine, often causing abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
4. Intestinal obstruction: A blockage that prevents food, fluids, and gas from passing through the intestine, often causing abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Intestinal ischemia: A reduction in blood flow to the intestine, which can cause damage to the tissues and lead to life-threatening complications.
6. Intestinal cancer: Cancer that develops in the small intestine or large intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.
7. Gastrointestinal infections: Infections caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites that affect the gastrointestinal tract, often causing symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Intestinal motility disorders: Disorders that affect the movement of food through the intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.
9. Malabsorption: A condition in which the body is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, often caused by conditions such as celiac disease or pancreatic insufficiency.
10. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A condition in which the intestine becomes narrowed or blocked, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.
These are just a few examples of the many potential complications that can occur when the gastrointestinal system is not functioning properly. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in order to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
Symptoms of gastritis may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and difficulty swallowing. In severe cases, bleeding may occur in the stomach and black tarry stools may be present.
Diagnosis of gastritis is typically made through endoscopy, during which a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth to visualize the inside of the stomach. Biopsies may also be taken during this procedure to examine the stomach tissue under a microscope for signs of inflammation or infection.
Treatment of gastritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-inflammatory medications, and lifestyle modifications such as avoiding alcohol, losing weight, and eating smaller more frequent meals. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair any ulcers that have developed.
The primary symptoms of celiac disease include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and bloating. However, some people may not experience any symptoms at all, but can still develop complications if the disease is left untreated. These complications can include malnutrition, anemia, osteoporosis, and increased risk of other autoimmune disorders.
The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown, but it is believed to be triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The disease is more common in people with a family history of celiac disease or other autoimmune disorders. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of blood tests and intestinal biopsy, and treatment involves a strict gluten-free diet.
Dietary management of celiac disease involves avoiding all sources of gluten, including wheat, barley, rye, and some processed foods that may contain hidden sources of these grains. In some cases, nutritional supplements may be necessary to ensure adequate intake of certain vitamins and minerals.
While there is no known cure for celiac disease, adherence to a strict gluten-free diet can effectively manage the condition and prevent long-term complications. With proper management, people with celiac disease can lead normal, healthy lives.
Some common types of Clostridium infections include:
* Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection: This is a common type of diarrheal disease that can occur after taking antibiotics, especially in people who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities.
* Gas gangrene: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that occurs when Clostridium bacteria infect damaged tissue, causing gas to build up in the affected area.
* Tetanus: This is a serious neurological infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which can enter the body through open wounds or puncture wounds.
* Botulism: This is a potentially fatal illness caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be contracted through contaminated food or wounds.
Clostridium infections can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and swelling or redness in the affected area. Treatment depends on the type of infection and may include antibiotics, surgery, or supportive care to manage symptoms.
Prevention measures for Clostridium infections include proper hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing safe food handling practices to prevent the spread of botulism and other clostridial infections. Vaccines are also available for some types of clostridial infections, such as tetanus and botulism.
In summary, Clostridium infections are a diverse group of bacterial infections that can cause a range of illnesses, from mild to severe and life-threatening. Proper prevention and treatment measures are essential to avoid the potential complications of these infections.
The exocrine pancreas is the part of the pancreas that produces digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase, and trypsin. These enzymes are essential for breaking down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.
EPI can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
2. Cystic fibrosis
3. Chronic pancreatitis
4. Pancreatic surgery or trauma
5. Cancer of the pancreas
6. Autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes
Symptoms of EPI can include:
1. Steatorrhea (fatty stools)
3. Abdominal pain
4. Weight loss
EPI can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests such as fecal fat testing and pancreatic function tests, and endoscopic ultrasound.
Treatment for EPI typically involves replacing the missing digestive enzymes with pancreatic enzyme replacements, which can be taken orally or given intravenously. In some cases, medications such as proton pump inhibitors may also be prescribed to help improve digestion and reduce symptoms.
It is important to note that EPI is different from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), which is a condition where the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. However, people with EPI may be at increased risk for developing IDDM and other health complications.
There are many different types of stomach diseases, some of which include:
1. Gastritis: This is inflammation of the stomach lining, which can be caused by infection, autoimmune disorders, or excessive alcohol consumption.
2. Peptic ulcer: This is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Peptic ulcers are often caused by infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, but they can also be caused by excessive acid production.
3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.
4. Stomach cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the stomach lining, and it can be caused by a variety of factors including age, diet, and family history.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a chronic condition that causes inflammation in the digestive tract, including the stomach. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are examples of IBD.
6. Gastrointestinal motility disorders: These are conditions that affect the muscles and nerves of the digestive system, causing problems with movement and contraction of the stomach and intestines.
7. Stomach polyps: These are growths on the lining of the stomach that can be benign or cancerous.
8. Hiatal hernia: This is a condition in which part of the stomach bulges up into the chest through a hole in the diaphragm, which can cause symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.
9. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a chronic form of acid reflux that can cause symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.
10. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: This is a rare condition that causes the stomach to produce too much acid, leading to symptoms such as heartburn, nausea, and vomiting.
These are just some of the many possible causes of stomach pain. It's important to see a doctor if you experience persistent or severe stomach pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, bleeding, or difficulty swallowing. Your doctor can perform tests and examinations to determine the cause of your stomach pain and recommend appropriate treatment.
Some common types of gastrointestinal neoplasms include:
1. Gastric adenocarcinoma: A type of stomach cancer that starts in the glandular cells of the stomach lining.
2. Colorectal adenocarcinoma: A type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of the colon or rectum.
3. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A type of cancer that starts in the squamous cells of the esophagus.
4. Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors: Tumors that start in the hormone-producing cells of the small intestine.
5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): Tumors that start in the connective tissue of the GI tract.
The symptoms of gastrointestinal neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Changes in bowel habits (such as diarrhea or constipation)
* Weight loss
* Nausea and vomiting
If you have any of these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor for further evaluation and diagnosis. A gastrointestinal neoplasm can be diagnosed through a combination of endoscopy (insertion of a flexible tube into the GI tract to visualize the inside), imaging tests (such as CT or MRI scans), and biopsy (removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope).
Treatment options for gastrointestinal neoplasms depend on the type, location, and stage of the tumor, but they may include:
* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Chemotherapy (use of drugs to kill cancer cells)
* Radiation therapy (use of high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells)
* Targeted therapy (use of drugs that target specific molecules involved in cancer growth and development)
* Supportive care (such as pain management and nutritional support)
The prognosis for gastrointestinal neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor, but in general, early detection and treatment improve outcomes. If you have been diagnosed with a gastrointestinal neoplasm, it is important to work closely with your healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan and follow up regularly for monitoring and adjustments as needed.
Foodborne diseases, also known as food-borne illnesses or gastrointestinal infections, are conditions caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. These diseases can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can be present in food products at any stage of the food supply chain.
Examples of common foodborne diseases include:
1. Salmonella: Caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
2. E. coli: Caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli, this disease can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia.
3. Listeria: Caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this disease can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and stiffness in the neck.
4. Campylobacter: Caused by the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
5. Norovirus: This highly contagious virus can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
6. Botulism: Caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, this disease can cause symptoms such as muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, and difficulty swallowing.
Foodborne diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including stool samples, blood tests, and biopsies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention is key to avoiding foodborne diseases, and this includes proper food handling and preparation practices, as well as ensuring that food products are stored and cooked at safe temperatures.
The main causes of duodenal ulcers are:
1. Infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
2. Overuse of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen
3. Excessive alcohol consumption
5. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare condition that causes the stomach to produce too much acid
Symptoms of duodenal ulcers may include:
1. Abdominal pain, which can be worse when eating or at night
2. Nausea and vomiting
3. Bloating and gas
4. Acid reflux
5. Weight loss
Diagnosis of a duodenal ulcer typically involves a combination of endoscopy, where a flexible tube with a camera is inserted through the mouth to visualize the inside of the digestive tract, and breath tests to detect H. pylori infection.
Treatment for duodenal ulcers usually involves eradication of H. pylori infection, if present, and avoidance of NSAIDs and other irritants. Antacids or acid-suppressing medications may also be prescribed to help reduce symptoms and allow the ulcer to heal. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary.
Prevention of duodenal ulcers includes:
1. Avoiding NSAIDs and other irritants
2. Eradicating H. pylori infection
3. Quitting smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
4. Managing stress
5. Eating a healthy diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
Prognosis for duodenal ulcers is generally good if treated promptly and effectively. However, complications such as bleeding, perforation, and obstruction can be serious and potentially life-threatening. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
In conclusion, duodenal ulcers are a common condition that can cause significant discomfort and disrupt daily life. While they can be caused by a variety of factors, H. pylori infection is the most common underlying cause. Treatment typically involves eradication of H. pylori infection, avoidance of NSAIDs and other irritants, and management of symptoms with antacids or acid-suppressing medications. Prevention includes avoiding risk factors and managing stress. With prompt and effective treatment, the prognosis for duodenal ulcers is generally good. However, complications can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Some common examples of duodenal diseases include:
1. Peptic ulcers: These are open sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum and can be caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
2. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that develops in the lining of the duodenum. It can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a chronic condition that causes inflammation in the digestive tract, including the duodenum. Symptoms of IBD include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
4. Duodenal webs or rings: These are congenital abnormalities that can cause blockages or narrowing in the duodenum.
5. Pancreatitis: This is inflammation of the pancreas, which can spread to the duodenum and cause damage to the lining of the duodenum.
6. Gastrointestinal hormone deficiency: This is a condition where the body does not produce enough gastrointestinal hormones, which can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
7. Duodenal polyps: These are growths that develop in the lining of the duodenum and can be benign or cancerous.
8. Duodenal obstruction: This is a blockage that develops in the duodenum and can be caused by a variety of factors, including tumors, adhesions, and inflammation.
Duodenal diseases can be diagnosed through a range of tests, including:
1. Endoscopy: This is a procedure where a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted into the duodenum to visualize the inside of the duodenum and collect tissue samples.
2. Biopsy: This is a procedure where a small sample of tissue is removed from the duodenum and examined under a microscope for signs of disease.
3. CT scan or MRI: These are imaging tests that use X-rays or magnetic fields to produce detailed images of the duodenum and surrounding tissues.
4. Blood tests: These can be used to check for signs of infection, inflammation, or other conditions affecting the duodenum.
5. Stool tests: These can be used to check for signs of infection or inflammation in the duodenum.
Treatment for duodenal diseases will depend on the specific condition and its cause, but may include:
1. Medications: Such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and acid-suppressing medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation.
2. Lifestyle changes: Such as avoiding trigger foods, eating smaller meals, and managing stress.
3. Endoscopy: To remove any blockages or abnormal growths in the duodenum.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or remove affected tissue.
5. Nutritional support: To ensure that the patient is getting enough nutrients and electrolytes.
It's important to note that a proper diagnosis from a medical professional is essential for effective treatment of duodenal diseases.
UC can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and there is no known cure. However, with proper management, it is possible for people with UC to experience long periods of remission and improve their quality of life. Treatment options include medications such as aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunomodulators, as well as surgery in severe cases.
It's important for individuals with UC to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that takes into account their specific symptoms and needs. With the right treatment and support, many people with UC are able to manage their symptoms and lead active, fulfilling lives.
Stomach ulcers are caused by an imbalance between the acid and mucus in the stomach, which can lead to inflammation and damage to the stomach lining. Factors that can contribute to the development of a stomach ulcer include:
* Infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
* Overuse of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen
* Excessive alcohol consumption
* Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare condition that causes the stomach to produce too much acid.
Symptoms of a stomach ulcer may include:
* Pain in the upper abdomen, often described as a burning or gnawing sensation
* Nausea and vomiting
* Bloating and gas
* Abdominal tenderness
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
Treatment for stomach ulcers typically involves antibiotics to kill H. pylori, if present, and acid-suppressing medications to reduce the amount of acid in the stomach. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary. Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding NSAIDs, alcohol, and smoking, can also help manage symptoms and prevent recurrence.
Preventive measures for stomach ulcers include:
* Avoiding NSAIDs and other irritating substances
* Using acid-suppressing medications as needed
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Managing stress
* Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption
It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as stomach ulcers can lead to complications such as bleeding, perforation, and obstruction. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and improve outcomes.
Exocrine disorders affect the pancreas' ability to produce digestive enzymes, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and malnutrition. The most common exocrine disorder is chronic pancreatitis, which is inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to permanent damage and scarring. Other exocrine disorders include acute pancreatitis, pancreatic insufficiency, and pancreatic cancer.
Endocrine disorders affect the pancreas' ability to produce hormones, leading to symptoms such as diabetes, hypoglycemia, and Cushing's syndrome. The most common endocrine disorder is diabetes mellitus, which is caused by a deficiency of insulin production or insulin resistance. Other endocrine disorders include hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and pancreatic polypeptide-secreting tumors.
Pancreatic diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Treatment options for pancreatic diseases vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical for improving outcomes in patients with pancreatic diseases.
Some of the most common types of pancreatic diseases include:
1. Diabetes mellitus: a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels.
2. Chronic pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to permanent damage and scarring.
3. Acute pancreatitis: sudden and severe inflammation of the pancreas, often caused by gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption.
4. Pancreatic cancer: a malignancy that can arise in the pancreas and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs): tumors that arise in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to a variety of symptoms.
6. Pancreatic polypeptide-secreting tumors: rare tumors that produce excessive amounts of pancreatic polypeptide, leading to hypoglycemia and other symptoms.
7. Glucagonoma: a rare tumor that produces excessive amounts of glucagon, leading to high blood sugar levels and other symptoms.
8. Insulinoma: a rare tumor that produces excessive amounts of insulin, leading to low blood sugar levels and other symptoms.
9. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1: an inherited disorder characterized by multiple endocrine tumors, including those in the pancreas.
10. Familial pancreatico-ductal adenocarcinoma (FPDA): an inherited disorder characterized by a high risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
These are just some of the possible causes of pancreatic disease, and there may be others not listed here. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Giardiasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, which is found in contaminated water, food, or direct contact with infected individuals. The parasite enters the small intestine and feeds on the mucosal lining, causing inflammation, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
Giardiasis is a common disease worldwide, affecting approximately 500 million people annually, with higher prevalence in developing countries. In the United States, it is estimated that over 1.5 million people are infected each year, with the highest incidence rates found among children and travelers to endemic areas.
The symptoms of giardiasis can vary in severity but typically include:
* Diarrhea (sometimes bloody)
* Abdominal cramps
* Weight loss
* Nausea and vomiting
In some cases, the infection can lead to more severe complications such as:
* Malabsorption (deficiency of essential nutrients)
* Inflammation of the intestine
* Rectal prolapse
The diagnosis of giardiasis is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and medical history. The most common diagnostic techniques include:
* Microscopic examination of stool samples for the presence of Giardia eggs or trophozoites
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antigens or antibodies against Giardia in stool or blood samples
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the parasite's DNA in stool samples
The treatment of giardiasis typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as metronidazole or tinidazole. These medications are effective against the parasite and can be administered orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of the infection. The duration of treatment varies depending on the individual case, but it is generally between 5-10 days.
Preventing giardiasis involves avoiding exposure to contaminated water or food sources. Some measures that can be taken to prevent the infection include:
* Avoiding consumption of untreated water, especially when traveling to areas with poor sanitation
* Avoiding contact with people who have diarrhea or are infected with Giardia
* Properly storing and cooking food to kill any parasites that may be present
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game
* Washing hands frequently, especially before eating or preparing food
It is important to note that giardiasis can be a recurring infection, so it is important to take preventive measures consistently.
There are many possible causes of eosinophilia, including:
* Parasitic infections
* Autoimmune disorders
The symptoms of eosinophilia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Swelling of the skin, lips, and eyes
* Hives or itchy skin
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Abdominal pain
Eosinophilia is typically diagnosed through a blood test that measures the number of eosinophils in the blood. Other tests such as imaging studies, skin scrapings, and biopsies may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the underlying cause.
The treatment of eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, and chemotherapy. In some cases, removal of the causative agent or immunomodulatory therapy may be necessary.
Eosinophilia can lead to a number of complications, including:
* Anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction)
* Eosinophilic granulomas (collections of eosinophils that can cause organ damage)
* Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (conditions where eosinophils invade the digestive tract)
The prognosis for eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause, but in general, the condition is not life-threatening. However, if left untreated, complications can arise and the condition can have a significant impact on quality of life.
In conclusion, eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in eosinophils in the body. While it can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, infections, and autoimmune disorders, the underlying cause must be identified and treated in order to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.
GER can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Weakening of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), which allows stomach acid to flow back up into the esophagus.
* Delayed gastric emptying, which can cause food and stomach acid to remain in the stomach for longer periods of time and increase the risk of reflux.
* Obesity, which can put pressure on the stomach and cause the LES to weaken.
Symptoms of GER can include:
* Heartburn: a burning sensation in the chest that can radiate to the throat and neck.
* Regurgitation: the sensation of food coming back up into the mouth.
* Difficulty swallowing.
* Chest pain or tightness.
* Hoarseness or laryngitis.
If left untreated, GER can lead to complications such as esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus), strictures (narrowing of the esophagus), and barrett's esophagus (precancerous changes in the esophageal lining).
Treatment options for GER include:
* Lifestyle modifications, such as losing weight, avoiding trigger foods, and elevating the head of the bed.
* Medications, such as antacids, H2 blockers, and proton pump inhibitors, to reduce acid production and relax the LES.
* Surgical procedures, such as fundoplication (a procedure that strengthens the LES) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (a procedure that reduces the size of the stomach).
It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as GER can have serious complications if left untreated.
Symptoms of campylobacter infections include:
* Diarrhea (often bloody)
* Abdominal pain and cramping
* Nausea and vomiting
* Muscle pain
Transmission of campylobacter infections can occur through the fecal-oral route, contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected animal or person. Risk factors for developing a campylobacter infection include eating undercooked poultry, unpasteurized dairy products, and untreated water.
Diagnosis of campylobacter infections typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory testing, and medical imaging. Laboratory tests may include culture isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or immunological assays to detect the presence of Campylobacter bacteria.
Treatment of campylobacter infections typically involves antibiotics such as macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and ceftriaxone. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, or sepsis.
Prevention of campylobacter infections includes proper handling and cooking of food, especially poultry, good hygiene practices, and safe water consumption. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent campylobacter infections in animals and humans.
Overall, campylobacter infections can cause a wide range of illnesses, from mild to severe, and proper diagnosis, treatment, and prevention measures are essential to reduce the risk of complications and death.
There are several types of stomach neoplasms, including:
1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of stomach cancer, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases. It begins in the glandular cells that line the stomach and can spread to other parts of the body.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer begins in the squamous cells that cover the outer layer of the stomach. It is less common than adenocarcinoma but more likely to be found in the upper part of the stomach.
3. Gastric mixed adenocarcinomasquamous cell carcinoma: This type of cancer is a combination of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
4. Lymphoma: This is a cancer of the immune system that can occur in the stomach. It is less common than other types of stomach cancer but can be more aggressive.
5. Carcinomas of the stomach: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial cells lining the stomach. They can be subdivided into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and others.
6. Gastric brunner's gland adenoma: This is a rare type of benign tumor that arises from the Brunner's glands in the stomach.
7. Gastric polyps: These are growths that occur on the lining of the stomach and can be either benign or malignant.
The symptoms of stomach neoplasms vary depending on the location, size, and type of tumor. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of endoscopy, imaging studies (such as CT or PET scans), and biopsy. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the tumor and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. The prognosis for stomach neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the tumor, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.
1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.
It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.
There are many different types of liver diseases, including:
1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.
Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.
CMV infections are more common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or taking immunosuppressive drugs after an organ transplant. In these individuals, CMV can cause severe and life-threatening complications, such as pneumonia, retinitis (inflammation of the retina), and gastrointestinal disease.
In healthy individuals, CMV infections are usually mild and may not cause any symptoms at all. However, in some cases, CMV can cause a mononucleosis-like illness with fever, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes.
CMV infections are diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI. Treatment is generally not necessary for mild cases, but may include antiviral medications for more severe infections. Prevention strategies include avoiding close contact with individuals who have CMV, practicing good hygiene, and considering immunoprophylaxis (prevention of infection through the use of immune globulin) for high-risk individuals.
Overall, while CMV infections can be serious and life-threatening, they are relatively rare in healthy individuals and can often be treated effectively with supportive care and antiviral medications.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
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- Research on the gut microbiota and pathogenic organisms that reside in the gastrointestinal tract. (nih.gov)
- The Gastrointestinal Microbiology and Infectious Diseases program supports basic, clinical, and translational research on the gut microbiota, pathogenic organisms that reside in the gastrointestinal tract, and the host-microbial interactions that affect host physiology and the pathophysiology of digestive diseases and nutrition. (nih.gov)
- In the agricultural setting, infections occur from exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores on the skin or the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (cdc.gov)
- Confocal laser endomicroscopy enables in vivo microscopy of the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract with subcellular resolution during ongoing endoscopy. (nih.gov)
- When examined, some diseases show nothing wrong with the GI tract, but there are still symptoms. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Other diseases have symptoms, and there are also visible irregularities in the GI tract. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Gastrointestinal diseases affect your gastrointestinal (GI) tract , from mouth to anus. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Functional diseases are those in which the GI tract looks normal when examined, but doesn't move properly. (clevelandclinic.org)
- The raw extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia aids the healing of the gastrointestinal tract after surgery. (greenmedinfo.com)
- A thorough understanding of the cutaneous/gastrointestinal (GI) relationship can alert the astute clinician to occult disease within the GI tract. (medscape.com)
- Glucocorticoids, naturally occurring and synthetic, are adrenocortical steroids that are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. (nih.gov)
- Gastrointestinal ( GI ) tract disease is among the most common reason to require general anesthesia on an urgent basis where time is of the essence for patient survival. (veteriankey.com)
- In preparation for anesthesia of any horse or foal with surgical disease of the GI tract, there are several general considerations that apply that can impact the methods chosen for premedication, induction, anesthesia maintenance, and recovery. (veteriankey.com)
- In layman's terms: the gastrointestinal tract has various discomforts, but no major problems were found in a clinical examination. (ecbasis.org)
- A gastroenterologist is an internal medicine physician who has undergone additional education and training to specialize in gastroenterology, or the treatment of diseases in the gastrointestinal tract and liver. (dhcoftx.com)
- The Gastrointestinal (GI) system/gastric system is also called the digestive system and includes the various organs of the human digestive tract from the mouth to the anal opening, plus the liver, pancreas and gallbladder. (drjasnasayurveda.com)
- Our motility physicians offer advanced treatment for patients with chronic abnormal muscular activity within their gastrointestinal tract that results in pain, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting or abnormal bloating. (sutterhealth.org)
- Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders represent some of the most frequent complaints during pregnancy, possibly due in part to elevated levels of progesterone (eg, nausea/vomiting, gastroesophagel reflux disease [GERD]) and/or prostaglandins (diarrhea). (medscape.com)
- The pathophysiology of this condition is debatable but has been attributed to hormonal fluctuations, gastrointestinal motility disorders, and psychosocial factors. (medscape.com)
- The goal of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to support innovative research with human subjects to elucidate the role of gastrointestinal mucosal immunity during HIV infection, to evaluate pathophysiologic mechanisms of injury to the liver and the biliary system during HIV infection, and to conduct epidemiological studies of liver diseases and disorders in HIV patients. (nih.gov)
- and epidemiological studies of liver diseases and disorders in HIV patients. (nih.gov)
- HSD might get involved in GI diseases through the reshaping of gastroenterological milieu, which could help to better understand the complexity of the pathogenic effects of an HSD in the context of GI disorders. (nih.gov)
- The disease is often mistaken for other disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome or Crohn's disease. (ohsonline.com)
- GERD, diarrhea and colorectal cancer are examples of gastrointestinal diseases. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Among 50 patients 42 patients manifested with upper gastrointestinal lesion among them erosive gastritis 13(26%) was most common upper gastrointestinal lesion followed by gastro esophageal reflux disease with or without duodenitis 8 (16%), duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer 4(8%) each, pangastritis 3(6%), GERD with gastritis, erosive duodenitis, erosive esophagitis, pale gastric mucosa 2(4%) each, angiodysplasia and hiatus hernia 1(2%) each. (who.int)
- Barrett's esophagus is a complication of chronic acid reflux, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). (dhcoftx.com)
- GERD, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease, is when a person experiences chronic acid reflux. (dhcoftx.com)
- Acid Reflux or GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) is caused when the valve between the oesophagus and stomach becomes weak. (drjasnasayurveda.com)
- We have been performing laparoscopic surgery for gastroesophageal disease (GERD) for over twenty years. (sutterhealth.org)
- According to Joseph Murray, M.D., a Mayo Clinic gastroenterologist, frequent gastrointestinal upset can indicate celiac disease, which affects about one in 100 people. (ohsonline.com)
- But only about one-tenth of those cases have been diagnosed, because celiac disease can present in many ways. (ohsonline.com)
- Murray recommends that people who regularly experience gastrointestinal upset consider a test for celiac disease. (ohsonline.com)
- In an interview for the July issue of Mayo Clinic Women's HealthSource , he discusses celiac disease, its symptoms, treatment, and why a diagnosis is important. (ohsonline.com)
- When those who have celiac disease consume gluten, an immune reaction in the small intestine damages the lining of the intestine. (ohsonline.com)
- Nutritional deficiency caused by celiac disease can lead to anemia, premature osteoporosis, nervous system problems, some cancers, and dementia. (ohsonline.com)
- Celiac disease also can manifest as unexplained infertility, or children who fail to grow. (ohsonline.com)
- Usually, a gluten-free diet effectively treats celiac disease. (ohsonline.com)
- Murray emphasizes that a test to confirm celiac disease is important before eliminating gluten from the diet. (ohsonline.com)
- Are you ever concerned about whether you may have a gluten intolerance or celiac disease? (alliedgidoc.com)
- Celiac disease is a genetic, autoimmune disorder in which consuming gluten leads to intestinal damage. (dhcoftx.com)
- and the interactions between the mucosal immune system and the intestinal microbiome to maintain normal homeostasis or imbalance leading to inflammation and disease pathophysiology. (nih.gov)
- GALT) and mucosal immunity as a viral reservoir for HIV or their role in HIV-induced pathogenesis within the organs of the gastrointestinal system. (nih.gov)
- Awareness of gastrointestinal anthrax in a differential diagnosis remains important in anthrax-endemic areas but now also in settings of possible bioterrorism. (cdc.gov)
- Applications of Artificial Intelligence for the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Diseases. (bvsalud.org)
- Early diagnosis and managementof these upper gastrointestinal lesions in CKD can reduce mortality and morbidity and prevent fatal complication like massive upper gastrointestinal bleed. (who.int)
- In the last decades, a great deal of attention has been focused on the development computer assisted systems that could be applied in endoscopy, radiology, and pathology to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of many gastrointestinal diseases. (encyclopedia.pub)
- Among upper gastrointestinal lesions caused by chronic kidney disease- gastritis, esophagitis, gastric ulcer are the most prevalent lesions. (who.int)
Called Crohn's disease1
- More than eight decades later, the precise cause of this disorder, which is now called Crohn's disease, remains a mystery. (nih.gov)
- This study in 4 governorates of Bahrain aimed to establish baseline data on the seasonal prevalence of certain disease groups that are sensitive to climate (respiratory, allergic, dermatological and non-specific gastrointestinal diseases) over a 1-year period and to record local climate and air pollutant data for the same year. (who.int)
- to identify the protective elements of breast milk that work in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases. (bvsalud.org)
- the search was performed on Bireme, Lilacs, Medline and Scielo databases, using keywords breast milk, gastrointestinal disease and respiratory disease, with limits of languages (English, Portuguese and Spanish) and period (1996 to 2009). (bvsalud.org)
- the IgA is the immunoglobulin with more protective capability against both types of disease, to survive the intestinal and respiratory mucosa. (bvsalud.org)
- This article focuses on common GI symptoms during pregnancy and the common GI diseases that can be challenging to manage during pregnancy. (medscape.com)
- IBD and DAIRY by Jeff Nathanson, M.D. One of the biggest challenges for gastroenterologists caring for patients with inflammatory bowel disease is sorting out whether symptoms reflect a true IBD "flare" or are due to some other cause. (compgihealth.com)
- A recent study suggests that one underappreciated mimicker of inflammatory bowel disease symptoms is lactose intolerance. (compgihealth.com)
- Functional gastrointestinal disease, also known as gastrointestinal dysfunction, is a syndrome of abnormal intestinal-brain interaction caused by multiple factors, lack of clinical anatomical abnormalities, and chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms. (ecbasis.org)
- The treatment of functional gastrointestinal diseases focuses on relieving symptoms, preventing recurrence, and improving quality of life. (ecbasis.org)
- Here an attempt is being made to study the upper gastro intestinal changes in chronic kidney disease and evaluate their relationship with the stage of CKD or GFR. (who.int)
- Materials and methods: A cross sectional study on 50 patients of, who were diagnosed to have chronic kidney disease and being presented to OPD and admission in Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences, Suraram over a period of one year. (who.int)
- Conclusion: Majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease have upper gastrointestinal involvement on endoscopic evaluation. (who.int)
- Upper gastrointestinal findings are frequently observed in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis. (who.int)
- People who are at risk for more dangerous infections (such as chronic bowel diseases, kidney disease, cancer, diabetes, or HIV) should talk to their doctor before traveling. (medlineplus.gov)
- This disease affects 20% people with chronic gastritis. (drjasnasayurveda.com)
- Ancillary Studies to Major Ongoing Clinical Studies to extend our knowledge of the diseases being studied by the parent study investigators under a defined protocol or to study diseases and conditions not within the original scope of the parent study but within the mission of the NIDDK. (nih.gov)
- In some community-based studies, cases of gastrointestinal anthrax outnumbered those of cutaneous anthrax. (cdc.gov)
- The term gastrointestinal (GI) refers collectively to the organs of the body that play a part in food digestion. (dhcoftx.com)
- Creative Minds: New Piece in the Crohn's Disease Puzzle? (nih.gov)
- But none of these discoveries alone appears sufficient to trigger the uncontrolled inflammation and pathology of Crohn's disease. (nih.gov)
- Randolph, an immunologist at Washington University, St. Louis, suspects that Crohn's disease and other related conditions, collectively called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), stems from changes in vessels that carry nutrients, immune cells, and possibly microbial components away from the intestinal wall. (nih.gov)
- [ 35 ] Crohn's disease of the small and large intestines can be treated with infliximab (Remicade®), thereby resulting in shorter, less expensive hospital stays. (medscape.com)
- Living with Crohn's Disease can be a difficult journey, but it doesn't have to be. (alliedgidoc.com)
- By Jeffrey Nathanson, M.D. For years, gastroenterologists have told patients that there is little if any role for diet in the treatment of Crohn's Disease, other than avoidance of roughage in the diet during a flare. (compgihealth.com)
- Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (dhcoftx.com)
- What are functional gastrointestinal diseases? (clevelandclinic.org)
- Common functional gastrointestinal diseases include functional dyspepsia with stomach discomfort, irritable bowel syndrome with intestinal discomfort, and functional constipation. (ecbasis.org)
- Functional gastrointestinal diseases repeated repeatedly, seriously affecting the quality of life of patients. (ecbasis.org)
- The onset of a variety of functional gastrointestinal diseases is related to negative mental states such as depression and anxiety. (ecbasis.org)
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the COVID-19 booster vaccination by Allison Lindstrom, NP As of 8/16/2021, the CDC published guidelines regarding booster vaccinations for immunocompromised individuals. (compgihealth.com)
- These two conditions together are called diverticular disease. (dhcoftx.com)
- Regularly performing physical exercise may protect people from a number of digestive diseases, such as colon cancer, symptomatic cholelithiasis, diverticular and inflammatory bowel diseases, and irritable bowel syndrome. (minervamedica.it)
- Due to the above effects, the physical activity extends its favourable impact to the management of most of these gastrointestinal diseases, such as colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. (minervamedica.it)
- Unraveling the complex proteome for biomarker discovery in gastrointestinal and liver diseases. (nih.gov)
- Structural gastrointestinal diseases are those where your bowel looks abnormal upon examination and also doesn't work properly. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Anorectal disease refers to ailments of the anus and/or rectum. (dhcoftx.com)
- Hepatitis is a viral disease which targets the liver and includes several strains, but the most common types of viral hepatitis in the United States are hepatitis B and hepatitis C. (dhcoftx.com)
- Temozolomide is considered experimental because it is not approved by the FDA for the treatment of SDH-Mutant/Deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Treatment will continue for 6 months (with option to continue if benefiting treatment) or until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity (whichever occurs first). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients discontinuing study treatment will be followed every 3-6 months for disease recurrence and survival. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In patients newly diagnosed with left-sided ulcerative colitis, if macroscopic evidence of inflammation stops before 35 cm from the anal verge, it is critical to take biopsies in the proximal left colon in normal-appearing mucosa to determine whether a patient with left-sided disease will require dysplasia surveillance. (healthplexus.net)
- To tide the patient over a critical period of the disease in regional enteritis and ulcerative colitis. (nih.gov)
- Stabilization of the pre‐anesthetic patient with hypovolemia will be critical to success as most horses undergoing surgery for GI disease are positioned in dorsal recumbency, placing them at increased risk for hypotension and hypoxemia, even in the absence of pre‐existing hypovolemia. (veteriankey.com)