Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP): An oxidoreductase involved in pyrimidine base degradation. It catalyzes the catabolism of THYMINE; URACIL and the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-FLUOROURACIL.Appetite Stimulants: Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Rationalization: A defense mechanism operating unconsciously, in which the individual attempts to justify or make consciously tolerable, by plausible means, feelings, behavior, and motives that would otherwise be intolerable.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.IranIntestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Human Development: Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasm Seeding: The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.DeoxycytidineThymidine Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of 2-deoxy-D-ribose from THYMIDINE to orthophosphate, thereby liberating thymidine.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Frameshift Mutation: A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Microsatellite Instability: The occurrence of highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide MICROSATELLITE REPEATS in somatic cells. It is a form of genome instability associated with defects in DNA MISMATCH REPAIR.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome: A hereditary disease caused by autosomal dominant mutations involving CHROMOSOME 19. It is characterized by the presence of INTESTINAL POLYPS, consistently in the JEJUNUM, and mucocutaneous pigmentation with MELANIN spots of the lips, buccal MUCOSA, and digits.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Tegafur: Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Leucovorin: The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Organoplatinum Compounds: Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)United StatesNeoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
1.1 Gastrointestinal disorders. *1.2 In cancer. *2 Duration *2.1 Living with TPN ... In cancer[edit]. The benefit of TPN to cancer patients is largely debated, and studies to date have generally showed minimal ... Gastrointestinal disorders[edit]. TPN may be the only feasible option for providing nutrition to patients who do not have a ... Total parenteral nutrition increases the risk of acute cholecystitis[17] due to complete disuse of gastrointestinal tract, ...
Cancer. Although the overall risk of cancer in DS is not changed,[44] the risk of testicular cancer and certain blood cancers, ... Gastrointestinal. Constipation occurs in nearly half of people with Down syndrome and may result in changes in behavior.[20] ... Non-blood cancers. People with DS have a lower risk of all major solid cancers including those of lung, breast, cervix, with ... People with DS are believed to have an increased risk of developing cancers derived from germ cells whether these cancers are ...
Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 312 (6): G550-G558. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00256.2016. PMID 28360029.. ... International Journal of Cancer. 119 (12): 2958-69. doi:10.1002/ijc.22231. PMID 17019713.. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 311 (2): G334-41. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00406.2015. PMID 27340129.. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 314 (3): G378-G387. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00435.2016. PMID 29351391.. ...
The small intestine or small bowel is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract where most of the end absorption of nutrients and ... See also: Gastrointestinal disease. The small intestine is a complex organ, and as such, there are a very large number of ... "The human gastrointestinal tract-specific transcriptome and proteome as defined by RNA sequencing and antibody-based profiling ... Neoplasms (cancers) *Adenocarcinoma. *Carcinoid. *Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). *Lymphoma. *Sarcoma. *Leiomyoma. * ...
Haslam SZ, Osuch JR (1 January 2006). Hormones and Breast Cancer in Post-Menopausal Women. IOS Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-58603- ... Gastrointestinal tract *Reduce bowel motility. *Increase cholesterol in bile. *Melanin *Increase pheomelanin, reduce eumelanin ... Kleinberg DL (February 1998). "Role of IGF-I in normal mammary development". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 47 (3): 201- ... Estrogens are implicated in various estrogen-dependent conditions, such as ER-positive breast cancer, as well as a number of ...
Napoleon Bonaparte and many members of his family are thought to have died from this type of cancer, although it is believed by ... Diffuse stomach cancer is characterized by the presence of poorly differentiated tumor cells. Microscopic appearance is signet ... Endoscopic image of linitis plastica, where the entire stomach is invaded with stomach cancer, leading to a leather bottle like ... Endoscopic image of linitis plastica, a type of stomach cancer where the entire stomach is invaded, leading to a leather bottle ...
"Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD004183. ... 2003). "Cancer medicine". In Frei Emil, Kufe Donald W, Holland James F. Cancer medicine 6. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker. p. 76 ... Complementary and alternative cancer therapies". Cancer medicine 6. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker. p. 76. ISBN 1-55009-213-8. ... Weitzman S (1998). "Alternative nutritional cancer therapies". Int J Cancer Suppl. 11: 69-72. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(1998) ...
"PDGFR Inhibitor CP-868596 (Code C64639)", National Cancer Institute Thesaurus. "PDGFR and Human Cancer" , AROG Pharmaceuticals ... "Phase II Study of Crenolanib (CP-868,596), for the Treatment of Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors With the ... driven lung cancer cells". Cancer Research. 71 (8 Supplement): 3601. doi:10.1158/1538-7445.am2011-3601. Lewis, N. L.; Lewis, L ... The lung cancer cell line H1703, which is reported to have amplification of both PDGFRA (4q12) and PDGFC (4q32) genes on ...
... and gastrointestinal cancer". Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 239 (11): 1489-504. doi:10.1177/1535370214538743. PMC 4357421. PMID ... Cancer Facts and Figures 2009. *^ O'Keefe SJ, Kidd M, Espitalier-Noel G, Owira P (May 1999). "Rarity of colon cancer in ... DNA damage has frequently been proposed as a major cause of cancer.[27][28][29] DNA damage can give rise to cancer by causing ... Ohtani N, Yoshimoto S, Hara E (2014). "Obesity and cancer: A gut microbial connection". Cancer Research. 74 (7): 1885-89. doi: ...
"Field defects in progression to gastrointestinal tract cancers". review. Cancer Letters. 260 (1-2): 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.canlet. ... Viruses that are known to cause cancer such as HPV (cervical cancer), Hepatitis B (liver cancer), and EBV (a type of lymphoma ... The majority of cancers are called non-hereditary or "sporadic cancers". About 30% of sporadic cancers do have some hereditary ... Cancer. 6 (12): 924-35. doi:10.1038/nrc2013. PMID 17109012.. *^ Hanahan D, Weinberg RA (January 2000). "The hallmarks of cancer ...
"Field defects in progression to gastrointestinal tract cancers". Cancer Lett. 260 (1-2): 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2007.11.027 ... Tumor is also not synonymous with cancer. While cancer is by definition malignant, a tumor can be benign, precancerous, or ... Field defects are important in progression to cancer.[41][42] However, in most cancer research, as pointed out by Rubin[43] " ... Epidemiology of cancer. References[edit]. *^ a b c Birbrair A, Zhang T, Wang ZM, Messi ML, Olson JD, Mintz A, Delbono O (Jul ...
Methods and rationale for the early detection of pancreatic cancer. Highlights from the "2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers ... Cancer Council NSW. 胰腺癌. Cancer Australia. [2017年2月12日].. *^ 美國癌症協會American Cancer Society & WebMD. 胰腺癌 深藏不露的危機. 亞美醫師協會. [2017年 ... American Cancer Society. 2014-06-11 [2014-11-11].. *^ Pancreatic cancer statistics. Cancer Research UK. [2014-12-18].. ; "In ... Pancreatic cancer statistics. Cancer Research UK. [2014-10-28].. *^ 112.0 112.1 Pancreatic cancer:
gastrointestinal stromal tumors". Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. 135 (1): 1-22. doi:10.1016/S0165-4608(02)00546-0. PMID 12072198. ... Lennartsson J, Rönnstrand L (2006). "The stem cell factor receptor/c-Kit as a drug target in cancer". Curr. Cancer Drug Targ. 6 ... "Entrez Gene: KIT v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog". National Cancer Institute Dictionary of Cancer ... Altered forms of this receptor may be associated with some types of cancer. CD117 is a receptor tyrosine kinase type III, which ...
"Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Pseudoachalasia, and Gastric Cancer". Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine. 2015: 685459. doi ... Gastrointestinal[edit]. Found in both children and adults it causes spine, hip, and pelvic deformities leading to occasional ... Lee, JH (September 1995). "Gastrointestinal Problems". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume. 77 (9): 1352-6. ... The acute pain experienced by gastrointestinal problems can be cured with diets, physical exercise, and hydration.[20] ...
The extent to which screening procedures reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer or mortality depends on the rate of ... "Bowel cancer screening". Retrieved July 4, 2013.. *^ "Screening for colorectal cancer". Canadian Cancer Society. Canadian ... such as colorectal cancer or gastric cancer). The test does not directly detect colon cancer but is often used in clinical ... Colorectal cancer screening[edit]. Screening methods for colon cancer depend on detecting either precancerous changes such as ...
Williams, Christina D. (2013). "Antioxidants and prevention of gastrointestinal cancers". Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. ... Collins, Andrew R. (2005). "Antioxidant intervention as a route to cancer prevention". European Journal of Cancer. 41 (13): ... Li, Guowei; Ma, Defu; Zhang, Yumei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Peiyu (2013). "Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta- ... Another compound that protects against the early stages of cancer is naringenin, a citrus flavonoid. Naringenin was shown to ...
... complements the clinical benefits of gemcitabine in first line pancreatic cancer. Borad et al. ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers ... In all other cancer indications, Threshold and Merck KGaA are developing evofosfamide together. From 2012 to 2013, Merck KGaA ... Each cancer indication has a number of established medical therapies with which evofosfamide will compete, for example: If ... Clinical Cancer Research 17, 2997-3004. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-3425 J. Thomas Pento (2011). "TH-302". Drugs of the Future ...
Lefort ÉC, Blay J (2013). "Apigenin and its impact on gastrointestinal cancers". Mol Nutr Food Res. 57 (1): 962-968. doi: ... Lin Y, Shi R, Wang X, Shen HM (2008). "Luteolin, a flavonoid with potential for cancer prevention and therapy" (PDF). Curr ... Commonly reported adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and diarrhea), ... Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 11 (10 Pt 1): 1025-1032. PMID 12376503. Walle T, Walle UK, Halushka PV (2001). "Carbon ...
Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 32. ... National Cancer Institute. Islet cell tumors (pancreatic) treatment PDQ. Updated October 31, 2008.. ... Endocrine tumors of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...
Rynearson AL, Sussman CR (June 2011). "Nuclear structure, organization, and oncogenesis". Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer. ... This fact could be useful to characterize cancer markers and to predict the disease even earlier. These markers have been found ... Miller TE, Beausang LA, Winchell LF, Lidgard GP (January 1992). "Detection of nuclear matrix proteins in serum from cancer ... patients". Cancer Research. 52 (2): 422-7. PMID 1728414. Girod PA, Nguyen DQ, Calabrese D, Puttini S, Grandjean M, Martinet D, ...
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the cancer patient. „Emerg Med Clin North Am". 27 (3), s. 363-79, Aug 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.emc. ... Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Cirrhotic Patients with Portal Hypertension. „Hepatology", 2013. *↑ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o ... An approach to gastrointestinal haemorrhage. „Veterinary Ireland Journa". *↑ a b c d e f g Deborah Silverstein, Kate Hopper: ... a b c d e Anthony J. DiMarino, Stanley B. Benjamin: Gastrointestinal Disease: An Endoscopic Approach. SLACK Incorporated, 2002 ...
... and certain cancers associated with chemical use and prolonged sun exposure. In an average year, 516 workers die doing farm ... gastrointestinal problems; vomiting; convulsions; and even death in cases of acute exposure. Chronic Conditions dermatological ... sensitivity; respiratory disease including lung fibrosis and chronic bronchitis; asthma-like syndromes; cancer; and ...
Pancreatic cancer and pancreatic disease Other gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary malignancies Vascular disease Transplant ... The group focuses on pancreatic cancer, other gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary malignancies, vascular disease, and transplant ... Results from the National Cancer Data Base". Cancer. 113 (3): 461-9. doi:10.1002/cncr.23572. PMID 18553367. Hill JS, McPhee JT ... "Variations in gastric cancer care: a trend beyond racial disparities". Cancer. 116 (2): 465-75. doi:10.1002/cncr.24772. PMID ...
"Field defects in progression to gastrointestinal tract cancers". Cancer Lett. 260 (1-2): 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2007.11.027 ... However, in most cancer research, as pointed out by Rubin "The vast majority of studies in cancer research has been done on ... Rarely there can be a metastatic neoplasm with no known site of the primary cancer and this is classed as a cancer of unknown ... The large field defects surrounding colon cancers (extending to at about 10 cm on each side of a cancer) were shown by Facista ...
2006). "No association of an SDHC gene polymorphism with gastric cancer". Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 7 (4): 525-8. PMID ... McWhinney SR, Pasini B, Stratakis CA (2007). "Familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors and germ-line mutations". N. Engl. J. ... 2008). "Polymorphisms in mitochondrial genes and prostate cancer risk". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 17 (12): 3558-66. ... Cancer. 16 (3): 929-37. doi:10.1677/ERC-09-0084. PMID 19546167. Pasini B, McWhinney SR, Bei T, et al. (2008). "Clinical and ...
Fradet Y (February 2004). "Bicalutamide (Casodex) in the treatment of prostate cancer". Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy. 4 ... appears to have similar efficacy to 100 milligrams daily and has fewer gastrointestinal side effects.[15] However, low-dose ... and nonmelanoma skin cancer". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (Review). 71 (6): 1039.e1-1039.e12. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil (CMF) in advanced gastrointestinal cancer. A. Scanni, M. Tomirotti, A. Margulis ... Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil (CMF) in advanced gastrointestinal cancer. / Scanni, A.; Tomirotti, M.; Margulis ... title = "Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil (CMF) in advanced gastrointestinal cancer",. abstract = "The ... in advanced gastrointestinal cancer. In: Tumori. 1979 ; Vol. 65, No. 1. pp. 111-117. ...
... associated with specific physical characteristics in addition to increased cancer risks. The features associated with Peutz- ... Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome The risk for breast and ovarian cancer is increased with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), a rare early- ... multiple polyps in the gastrointestinal tract. * increased risk of benign (noncancerous) tumors of the ovaries and testes ... For example, if the second mutation is in the breast, then breast cancer may develop. If it is in the colon, then colon cancer ...
... lifetime cancer risk and blue/black freckling or macules that can be seen on the lips, mouth, nostrils, hands, feet and ... The gastrointestinal polyps found in Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome are typical hamartomas which can be large and bulky causing ... This syndrome has a significant risk of digestive and other cancers that is 15 times greater than that of the general ... Long term follow up and surveillance can reduce the cancer risk of this disease. ...
Gastrointestinal (GI) Cancer Resource Centre MUSC Health - Gastrointestinal (GI) Cancer. ... Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs of ... Gastrointestinal stromal tumors represent from 1% to 3% of gastrointestinal malignancies. Cancers of the biliary tree, ... There is significant geographic variation in the rates of different gastrointestinal cancers. Esophageal cancer is the sixth- ...
Gastroenterologist Arnold Markowitz discusses screening and prevention of gastrointestinal cancers in people with Lynch ... Approximately 80 percent of people with the genetic mutations associated with Lynch syndrome develop colon cancer, which tends ... Annual colonoscopy, combined with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy every four years, is the most effective approach to ... Memorial Sloan Kettering gastroenterologist Arnold Markowitz says that understanding a patients family history of colon cancer ...
... cancer treatments, cancer research advances, continuing medical education, cancer prevention, and clinical trials ... the Webs first cancer resource,provides comprehensive information on coping with cancer, ... Colon Cancer Esophageal Cancer Gallbladder Cancer Gastric Cancer Liver Cancer (Hepatoma) Pancreatic Cancer Rectal Cancer Small ... Cancer Types - P. Pancreatic Cancer Parathyroid Cancer Pediatric Cancers Penile Cancer Pheochromocytoma Pituitary Cancer ...
Cancer Chemother Biol Response Modif. 2003;21:259-74. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.; ... Cancer Chemother Biol Response Modif. 2003;21:259-74.. Mucins in gastrointestinal cancers.. Turner MS1, McKolanis JR, ... For example, specific knowledge of cancer-associated changes in the expression and glycosylation of various mucins, which can ... The mucin family has been under study by molecular biologists, biochemists, pathologists and immunologists interested in cancer ...
Gastrointestinal cancer includes cancer of the digestive system - the esophagus, colon, rectum, anus, liver, pancreas, and ... colorectal cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, anal cancer, and palliative therapy. Each of the 20 ... Gastrointestinal Cancer is the third volume in the M.D. Anderson Cancer Care series, featuring the current standard approach to ... Gastrointestinal cancer includes cancer of the digestive system - the esophagus, colon, rectum, anus, liver, pancreas, and ...
This would also be true for epithelial cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. We consider the evidence for actions of apigenin ... Apigenin and its impact on gastrointestinal cancers.. Lefort ÉC1, Blay J. ... that might hinder the ability of gastrointestinal cancers to progress and spread. Apigenin has been shown to inhibit cell ... Present in dietary sources as a glycoside, it is cleaved in the gastrointestinal lumen to be absorbed and distributed as ...
... long-term use of aspirin may be able to prevent the development of different gastrointestinal cancers. ... Gastrointestinal cancers include colorectal cancer, stomach (or gastric) cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal ... liver cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and gastric cancer, as well as non-gastrointestinal ones, which included " ... and prostate cancer, but it had no significant impact on other cancers (such as breast cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, ...
This article will review the developments in adenoviral platforms in the context of specific gastrointestinal cancers. From the ... to the current state of affairs as it pertains to the application of adenoviral oncolytic therapy to gastrointestinal cancers. ... Oncolytic adenoviruses are being developed to address gastrointestinal malignancies. Each platform has evolved to maximize ... Gastrointestinal malignancies are challenging cancers with considerable economic and societal impacts on health care systems ...
The best means to improve gastrointestinal cancer survival is screening and treatment of early lesions. In esophageal ... Biomarkers and molecular imaging in gastrointestinal cancers Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Jan;12(1):126-9. doi: 10.1016/j. ... The best means to improve gastrointestinal cancer survival is screening and treatment of early lesions. In esophageal ...
... cancers, with a focus on minimizing the long-term effects of treatment. Explore our GI cancer clinics and services. ... UCSF Health offers advanced care for gastrointestinal (GI) ... Cancer Support Groups Support groups held by the Ida and Joseph ... UCSF Healths gastrointestinal (GI) cancer team provides advanced, compassionate care for all cancers of the digestive system, ... BAKAR PRECISION CANCER MEDICINE BUILDING Care, Convenience and Support at New Cancer Facility ...
... but a new study suggests alspirin might extend survival for patients battling cancers of the gastrointestinal tract -- ... Aspirin has been shown to lower the risk of colon cancer, ... Tony Philip is a cancer specialist at North Shore-LIJ Cancer ... In the new study, Frouws team looked at outcomes for more than 13,700 patients diagnosed with a gastrointestinal cancer ... Now, a new study suggests the same inexpensive pill might extend survival for patients battling cancers of the gastrointestinal ...
Twenty cell lines derived from human gastrointestinal cancers included colorectal cancer (Caco2, DLD-1, HCT116, HT-29, KM12SM, ... Defined factors induce reprogramming of gastrointestinal cancer cells. Norikatsu Miyoshi, Hideshi Ishii, Ken-ichi Nagai, ... Defined factors induce reprogramming of gastrointestinal cancer cells. Norikatsu Miyoshi, Hideshi Ishii, Ken-ichi Nagai, ... LoVo, and SW480), esophageal cancer (TE-10), gastric cancer (MKN45), pancreatic cancer (BXPC-3, MIAPaCa-2, PANC-1, and PSN-1), ...
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are a soft tissue sarcoma that starts in the walls of the GI tract. Learn about ... To find a cancer organization in your country, visit Union for International Cancer Control or International Cancer Information ... Cancer information / Cancer types / Soft tissue sarcoma / Soft tissue sarcoma / Types of soft tissue sarcoma / GISTs ... Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) start in special cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract called interstitial cells of ...
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are a soft tissue sarcoma that starts in the walls of the GI tract. Learn about ... To find a cancer organization in your country, visit Union for International Cancer Control or International Cancer Information ... How can you stop cancer before it starts?. Discover how 16 factors affect your cancer risk and how you can take action with our ... Cancer information / Cancer types / Soft tissue sarcoma / Soft tissue sarcoma / Types of soft tissue sarcoma / GISTs ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Colorectal cancer, Hepato Pancreato Bilary Cancers HPB, Upper gastrointestinal cancer, Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Service. ... Upper gastrointestinal cancer This service provides surgical treatment for all cancers of the oesophagus and stomach in the ... Home , Services , Service A to Z , Cancer services , Upper gastro-intestinal cancer ... Upper gastrointestinal cancer, General surgery, Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Service. Dr Khurum Khan. ...
... metastatic gastrointestinal cancers responded to sacituzumab govitecan, the Companys first-in-class antibody-drug conjugate, ... in advanced gastrointestinal cancers are promising, especially in patients with metastatic esophageal and colorectal cancers," ... A total of 65 patients with various types of gastrointestinal cancers had been enrolled into this multicenter study to receive ... Immunomedics Reports Promising Results With Sacituzumab Govitecan in Patients With Metastatic Gastrointestinal Cancers. ...
The Department of Pathology at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center offers a one-year fellowship program in gastrointestinal ... The Department of Pathology at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center offers a one-year fellowship program in gastrointestinal ... Jinru Shia, MD, Director of Gastrointestinal Pathology. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Department of Pathology. 1275 ... The gastrointestinal pathology team is fully subspecialized and responsible for all gastrointestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic ...
Results from new clinical trials signal a role for the immunotherapy Opdivo in the treatment of gastric cancer and heavily ... Researchers Explore Opdivo for Two Gastrointestinal Cancers. Results from new clinical trials signal a role for the ... Esophageal Cancer. In another phase 2 study reported at the GI Cancers Symposium, Opdivo demonstrated activity in patients with ... nine had esophageal cancer, and 18 had gastric cancer. Overall, 83 percent of patients had received at least two prior ...
Many varied pain treatment options exist for pain syndromes secondary to gastrointestinal malignancies and its associated ... Does colon cancer ever metastasize to bone first? A temporal analysis of colorectal cancer progression. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:274. ... Gastrointestinal neoplasms Metastasis Cancer pain Pain management Palliative care This is a preview of subscription content, ... Pak D., Hung J.C. (2019) Gastrointestinal Cancer Pain. In: Gulati A., Puttanniah V., Bruel B., Rosenberg W., Hung J. (eds) ...
... we are experts in the most advanced testing and treatment for cancer affecting the gastrointestinal organs. ... Colorectal Cancer. Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the US. A colonoscopy can be performed to detect and remove ... Esophageal Cancer. Early-stage esophageal cancer does not often present with any symptoms, but symptoms of later-stage cancer ... A diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer is life-changing, and figuring out your next step can seem scary, confusing and ...
We evaluated the expression of the EML4-ALK transcript in 104 lung cancer cases and in 645 gastrointestinal and breast cancer ... Our data suggest that the EML4-ALK fusion transcript is not present in gastrointestinal or breast cancers and is specific to ... This study examined the presence of this fusion transcript in gastrointestinal and breast cancers. ... whereas none were detected in 555 gastrointestinal and 90 breast cancer cases. ...
  • Memorial Sloan Kettering gastroenterologist Arnold Markowitz says that understanding a patient's family history of colon cancer is key to diagnosing Lynch syndrome. (mskcc.org)
  • Approximately 80 percent of people with the genetic mutations associated with Lynch syndrome develop colon cancer, which tends to occur at an earlier age and progress more quickly than in people with sporadic colon cancer. (mskcc.org)
  • For many years, gastroenterologists and oncologists have known that aspirin can improve survival in certain types of hereditary colon cancer,' said Dr. Arun Swaminath, director of the inflammatory bowel disease program at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. (newsmax.com)
  • He also noted that earlier this year, the influential U.S. Preventive Services Task Force 'suggested that certain populations at average risk of colon cancer may benefit from taking low-dose aspirin. (newsmax.com)
  • Does colon cancer ever metastasize to bone first? (springer.com)
  • Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the US. (einstein.edu)
  • A colonoscopy can be performed to detect and remove colon polyps, precursors to colon cancer. (einstein.edu)
  • About 145,000 colon cancer cases are diagnosed in the United States each year. (osu.edu)
  • There is no routine colon cancer, nor is there ever a routine way to treat it and so the OSUCCC - James team of subspecialists determine the best treatment for each patient based on his or her specific, individual colon cancer. (osu.edu)
  • Regular screening for colon cancer, a colonoscopy , is widely recommended. (mountsinai.org)
  • Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in America. (medindia.net)
  • People who have a first-degree relative, such as a sibling or a parent, with colon cancer have two to three times the risk of developing the disease. (medindia.net)
  • Across the network, our hospitals have been named top performers by the Integrated Healthcare Association for high colon cancer screening rates that lead to early cancer detection and better patient outcomes. (sutterhealth.org)
  • Diseases, including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome, predispose people to develop colon polyps, which are benign growths and colon cancer. (pennmedicine.org)
  • An early diagnosis combined with appropriate treatment and follow-up can dramatically lower the chances of developing colon cancer. (pennmedicine.org)
  • Adherence to treatment guidelines for stage II or III colon cancer improved from 2001 to 2011 and resulted in improved survival outcomes. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Such compounds have utility for treating or preventing gastrointestinal disorders, including colon cancer, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We offer comprehensive prevention and screening for colon cancer, including colonoscopy, considered the most effective method in colon cancer detection. (vanderbilthealth.com)
  • In addition, the Registry works with individuals and families with known or suspected hereditary colon cancer to identify healthcare providers for surveillance and treatment, and referrals for genetic counseling and testing. (montefiore.org)
  • These features are often associated with high bile acid exposure and may explain the association of dietary-related factors with cancer progression. (nih.gov)
  • At SCCA, you will receive state-of-the-art care from some of the world's leading doctors, including gastroenterologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists and surgeons who focus exclusively on treating GI cancers and nothing else. (seattlecca.org)
  • Our team of gastrointestinal cancer subspecialists spans a broad range of disciplines: from medical, surgical and radiation oncologists to molecular and biological pathologists, genetic scientists and more - all specializing in a particular type of gastrointestinal cancer (and only that gastrointestinal cancer) research, prevention, detection, treatment and cure. (osu.edu)
  • Our team of gastrointestinal oncologists - physicians, surgeons and radiologists - meet weekly to review each new case, so that you receive specialized care tailored to your specific needs. (ucsd.edu)
  • and board-certified oncologists employing the newest technologies and techniques for cancer care. (unm.edu)
  • Radiation oncologists at the UNM Cancer Center offer sterotactic body radiation, stereotactic radio surgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy. (unm.edu)