Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.

Delayed gastric emptying after Billroth I pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy: effect of postoperative time and cisapride. (1/1045)

OBJECTIVE: To study the recovery course of gastric emptying after Billroth I pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) and therapeutic effects of cisapride. METHODS: To examine gastric emptying, acetaminophen was given, admixed in a pasty liquid meal, to 16 patients undergoing PPPD before surgery and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Cisapride was given orally to 10 patients before they received the acetaminophen regimen. Electrogastrography was performed at 2 weeks to 1 month after surgery in eight patients and at 6 to 12 months after surgery in seven patients. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was delayed but returned to the preoperative level by 6 months after surgery. Pretreatment with cisapride accelerated gastric emptying during months 1 to 6 but not during months 6 to 12 after surgery. Electrogastrography frequently showed tachygastria 2 weeks to 1 month after surgery, but seldom 6 to 12 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: After Billroth I PPPD, gastric emptying is delayed but recovers by 6 months after surgery. Tachygastria may play a part in the pathogenesis of delayed gastric emptying, but it can be treated with cisapride.  (+info)

Erythromycin enhances early postoperative contractility of the denervated whole stomach as an esophageal substitute. (2/1045)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether early postoperative administration of erythromycin accelerates the spontaneous motor recovery process after elevation of the denervated whole stomach up to the neck. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Spontaneous motor recovery after gastric denervation is a slow process that progressively takes place over years. METHODS: Erythromycin was administered as follows: continuous intravenous (i.v.) perfusion until postoperative day 10 in ten whole stomach (WS) patients at a dose of either 1 g (n = 5) or 2 g (n = 5) per day; oral intake at a dose of 1 g/day during 1.5 to 8 months after surgery in 11 WS patients, followed in 7 of them by discontinuation of the drug during 2 to 4 weeks. Gastric motility was assessed with intraluminal perfused catheters in these 21 patients, in 23 WS patients not receiving erythromycin, and in 11 healthy volunteers. A motility index was established by dividing the sum of the areas under the curves of >9 mmHg contractions by the time of recording. RESULTS: The motility index after IV or oral administration of erythromycin at and after surgery was significantly higher than that without erythromycin (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.0090; i.v., 2 g: p = 0.0090; oral, 1 g: p = 0.0017). It was similar to that in healthy volunteers (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.2818; oral, 1 g: p = 0.7179) and to that in WS patients with >3 years of follow-up who never received erythromycin (i.v., 1 g: p = 0.2206; oral, 1 g: p = 0.8326). The motility index after discontinuation of the drug was similar or superior to that recorded under medication in four patients who did not experience any modification of their alimentary comfort, whereas it dropped dramatically parallel to deterioration of the alimentary comfort in three patients. CONCLUSIONS: Early postoperative contractility of the denervated whole stomach pulled up to the neck under either i.v. or oral erythromycin is similar to that recovered spontaneously beyond 3 years of follow-up. In some patients, this booster effect persists after discontinuation of the drug.  (+info)

Octreotide acetate long-acting formulation versus open-label subcutaneous octreotide acetate in malignant carcinoid syndrome. (3/1045)

PURPOSE: Subcutaneous (SC) octreotide acetate effectively relieves the diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome but requires long-term multiple injections daily. A microencapsulated long-acting formulation (LAR) of octreotide acetate has been developed for once-monthly intramuscular dosing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized trial compared double-blinded octreotide LAR at 10, 20, and 30 mg every 4 weeks with open-label SC octreotide every 8 hours for the treatment of carcinoid syndrome. Seventy-nine patients controlled with treatment of SC octreotide 0.3 to 0.9 mg/d whose symptoms returned during a washout period and who returned for at least the week 20 evaluation constituted the efficacy-assessable population. RESULTS: Complete or partial treatment success was comparable in each of the four arms of the study (SC, 58.3%; 10 mg, 66.7%; 20 mg, 71.4%; 30 mg, 61.9%; P> or =.72 for all pairwise comparisons). Control of stool frequency was similar in all treatment groups. Flushing episodes were best controlled in the 20-mg LAR and SC groups; the 10-mg LAR treatment was least effective in the control of flushing. Treatment was well tolerated by patients in all four groups. CONCLUSION: Once octreotide steady-state concentrations are achieved, octreotide LAR controls the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome at least as well as SC octreotide. A starting dose of 20 mg of octreotide LAR is recommended. Supplemental SC octreotide is needed for approximately 2 weeks after initiation of octreotide LAR treatment. Occasional rescue SC injections may be required for possibly 2 to 3 months until steady-state octreotide levels from the LAR formulation are achieved.  (+info)

Is maintenance therapy always necessary for patients with ulcerative colitis in remission? (4/1045)

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of sulphasalazine and mesalazine in preventing relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis is well known. It is less clear how long such maintenance should be continued, and if the duration of disease remission is a factor that affects the risk of recurrence. AIM: To determine whether the duration of disease remission affects the relapse rate, by comparing the efficacy of a delayed-release mesalazine (Asacol, Bracco S.p.A., Milan, Italy) against placebo in patients with ulcerative colitis with short- and long-duration of disease remission. METHODS: 112 patients (66 male, 46 female, mean age 35 years), with intermittent chronic ulcerative colitis in clinical, endoscopic and histological remission with sulphasalazine or mesalazine for at least 1 year, were included in the study. Assuming that a lower duration of remission might be associated with a higher relapse rate, the patients were stratified according to the length of their disease remission, prior to randomization into Group A (Asacol 26, placebo 35) in remission from 1 to 2 years, or Group B (Asacol 28, placebo 23) in remission for over 2 years, median 4 years. Patients were treated daily with oral Asacol 1.2 g vs. placebo, for a follow-up period of 1 year. RESULTS: We employed an intention-to-treat analysis. In Group A, whilst no difference was found between the two treatments after 6 months, mesalazine was significantly more effective than placebo in preventing relapse at 12 months [Asacol 6/26 (23%), placebo 17/35 (49%), P = 0.035, 95% Cl: 48-2.3%]. In contrast, in Group B no statistically significant difference was observed between the two treatments, either at 6 or 12 months [Asacol 5/28 (18%), placebo 6/23 (26%), P = 0.35, 95% Cl: 31-14%] of follow-up. Patients in group B were older, and had the disease and remission duration for longer, than those in Group A. CONCLUSIONS: Mesalazine prophylaxis is necessary for the prevention of relapse by patients with ulcerative colitis in remission for less than 2 years, but this study casts doubt over whether continuous maintenance treatment is necessary in patients with prolonged clinical, endoscopic and histological remission, who are at very low risk of relapse.  (+info)

Bile salts: natural detergents for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. (5/1045)

The development of new, safe, topical microbicides for intravaginal use for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases is imperative. Previous studies have suggested that bile salts may inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, their activities against other sexually transmitted pathogens have not been reported. To further explore the potential role of bile salts in preventing sexually transmitted diseases, we examined the in vitro activities and cytotoxicities of select bile salts against Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and human immunodeficiency virus in comparison to those of nonoxynol-9 and benzalkonium chloride using both primary cells and cell lines derived from the human female genital tract. We found that taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate and a combination of glycocholic acid and taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate showed excellent activity against all of the pathogens assayed. Moreover, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate alone or in combination was less cytotoxic than nonoxynol-9 and benzalkonium chloride. Thus, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate alone or in combination warrants further evaluation as a candidate topical microbicidal agent.  (+info)

Clinical considerations in GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) therapy: focus on cisapride. (6/1045)

Heartburn, the major symptom of gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD), is a common condition that is usually self-treated with over-the-counter products. For patients with severe or recurrent symptoms of GERD, pharmacologic therapy includes acid suppression with H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors, and, alternatively, the use of prokinetic agents. While all of these are efficacious, given its high efficacy in nonerosive and mild-to-moderate erosive esophagitis, the prokinetic agent cisapride deserves significant consideration in this patient population.  (+info)

Influence of erythromycin on establishment of feeding in preterm infants: observations from a randomised controlled trial. (7/1045)

AIM: To determine the effect of erythromycin on the establishment of enteral feeding in ventilated infants < 31 weeks gestation. METHODS: Erythromycin was randomly allocated as an antimicrobial treatment for the first 7 days of life in 76 infants: 35 received erythromycin and 41 acted as controls. Feed toleration, time taken to establish full enteral feeding, vomiting, prescription of glycerine suppositories and occurrence of necrotising enterocolitis were recorded. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the outcomes. The infants treated with erythromycin reached full feeding at a median (quartile) age of 8 (5-12) days compared with 9 (6-14) days for controls. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous erythromycin in antimicrobial doses is unlikely to benefit the introduction of feeding in preterm infants.  (+info)

Characterization of a Na+-dependent betaine transporter with Cl- channel properties in squid motor neurons. (8/1045)

Most marine invertebrates, including squids, use transporters to accumulate organic osmolytes such as betaine, to prevent water loss when exposed to elevated salinity. Although a limited number of flux studies have shown the Na+ dependence of betaine transport, nothing is known about the electrogenic properties of osmolyte transporters. We used whole cell and perforated-patch voltage-clamp techniques to characterize the electrical properties of the betaine transporter in giant fiber lobe motor neurons of the squid Lolliguncula brevis. Betaine activated a large, Cl--selective current that was reversibly blocked by 100 microM niflumic acid (97 +/- 2% block after 40 s, SD; n = 7) and partially inhibited by 500 microM SITS (29 +/- 11%; n = 5). The Cl- current was Na+ dependent and was virtually eliminated by isotonic replacement of Na+ with Li+, NMDG+, or Tris+. Concentration-response data revealed an EC50 in a physiologically relevant range for these animals of 5.1 +/- 0.9 mM (n = 11). In vertebrates, the betaine transporter is structurally related to the GABA transporter, and although GABA did not directly activate the betaine-induced current, it reversibly reduced betaine responses by 34 +/- 14% (n = 8). Short-term changes in osmolality alone did not activate the Cl- current, but when combined with betaine, Cl- currents increased in hypertonic solutions and decreased in hypotonic solutions. Activation of the betaine transporter and Cl- current in hypertonic conditions may affect both volume regulation and excitability in L. brevis motor neurons. This study is the first report of a novel betaine transporter in neurons that can act as a Cl- channel.  (+info)

Gastrointestinal agents are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs involved in digestion such as the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. These agents can have various effects on the GI tract, including:

1. Increasing gastric motility (promoting bowel movements) - laxatives, prokinetics
2. Decreasing gastric motility (reducing bowel movements) - antidiarrheal agents
3. Neutralizing gastric acid - antacids
4. Reducing gastric acid secretion - H2-blockers, proton pump inhibitors
5. Protecting the mucosal lining of the GI tract - sucralfate, misoprostol
6. Relieving symptoms associated with GI disorders such as bloating, abdominal pain, and nausea - antispasmodics, antiemetics

Examples of gastrointestinal agents include:

* Laxatives (e.g., psyllium, docusate)
* Prokinetics (e.g., metoclopramide)
* Antacids (e.g., calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide)
* H2-blockers (e.g., ranitidine, famotidine)
* Proton pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole, lansoprazole)
* Sucralfate
* Misoprostol
* Antispasmodics (e.g., hyoscyamine, dicyclomine)
* Antiemetics (e.g., ondansetron, promethazine)

It is important to note that gastrointestinal agents can have both therapeutic and adverse effects, and their use should be based on a careful evaluation of the patient's condition and medical history.

"Bile acids as endogenous etiologic agents in gastrointestinal cancer". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 15 (27): 3329-3340. ... Functional gastrointestinal disorder Gastrointestinal malformations Gastrointestinal bleeding "An overview on oral ... Gastrointestinal diseases (abbrev. GI diseases or GI illnesses) refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely ... "Gastrointestinal cancer" describes the specific malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. In general, a significant ...
It is used as a gastrointestinal agent. Effervescent preparations may enhance absorption and speed up onset of action by ...
Weber FH, Richards RD, McCallum RW (April 1993). "Erythromycin: a motilin agonist and gastrointestinal prokinetic agent". The ... If mitemcinal can be shown to be an effective prokinetic agent, it would represent a significant advance in the ... August 2016). "The efficacy and safety of prokinetic agents in critically ill patients receiving enteral nutrition: a ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 28 (5): 630-3. doi:10.1128/aac.28.5.630. PMC 176346. PMID 4091529. Pal S (2006). "A ...
Contrast agent Lower gastrointestinal series Cittadini, Giorgio (2012). Double contrast barium enema: The Genoa approach. ... A liquid containing barium (that is, a radiocontrast agent) is put into the rectum. Barium (usually as a sulfate) outlines the ... Stringer, David A.; Babyn, Paul S. (2000). Pediatric Gastrointestinal Imaging and Intervention. PMPH-USA. p. 38. ISBN ...
Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents increase the absorption of amphetamine. Urinary alkalinizing agents increase concentration ... Such agents also have important therapeutic uses; cocaine, for example, is used as a local anesthetic (Chapter 2), and ... Duration of effect varies depending on agent and urine pH. Excretion is enhanced in more acidic urine. Half-life is 7 to 34 ... Gastrointestinal side effects may include abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, and nausea. Other potential physical side ...
"Bile acids as endogenous etiologic agents in gastrointestinal cancer". World J. Gastroenterol. 15 (27): 3329-40. doi:10.3748/ ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 318 (3): G554-G573. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00223.2019. PMC 7099488. PMID 31984784. Kim, I; ... which has been developed as a pharmaceutical agent in certain liver diseases. Bile acids also act as steroid hormones, secreted ...
Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Payne CM, Dvorak K (July 2009). "Bile acids as endogenous etiologic agents in gastrointestinal cancer ... Genotoxins include chemical agents like N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) or non-chemical agents such as ultraviolet light and ... Group 3: the agent (mixture or exposure circumstance) is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. Group 4: the ... Group 2A: the agent (mixture) is probably (product more likely to be) carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails ...
Bile acids are likely endogenous etiologic agents in gastrointestinal cancer. Every year, at least 200,000 people die worldwide ... Bernstein, H.; Bernstein, C.; Payne, C. M.; Dvorak, K. (2009). "Bile acids as endogenous etiologic agents in gastrointestinal ... A Western diet is associated with increased exposure of the gastrointestinal tract to bile acids that are produced by the body ...
Somerville KW, Hawkey CJ (January 1986). "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and the gastrointestinal tract". Postgraduate ... Gastrointestinal side effects of benoxaprofen are bleeding, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, anorexia, mouth ulcers, and taste change ... In three of the six species, benoxaprofen was then effectively taken up from the gastrointestinal tract (after oral doses of 1- ... The free radical decarboxylated derivative of the drug is the toxic agent which, in the presence of oxygen, yields singlet ...
Although rarely, the agent can cause gastrointestinal disease which does not show specific vulnerable groups or risk factors. ... "Basidiobolus ranarum as an Etiologic Agent of Gastrointestinal Zygomycosis". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 39 (6): 2360- ... As well, the agent may transmit through traumas or insect bites on skin. Most of the reported cases were from Nigeria and ... Ingestion of B. ranarum is thought to help disperse the agent through the deposition of feces at a distant place where human ...
Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Payne CM, Dvorak K. Bile acids as endogenous etiologic agents in gastrointestinal cancer. World J ... Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs of ... Gastrointestinal stromal tumors represent from 1% to 3% of gastrointestinal malignancies. Cancers of the biliary tree, ... Gastrointestinal (GI) Cancer Resource Centre Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatment (CS1 German-language sources (de), Articles with ...
Mediators and Drugs in Gastrointestinal Motility II: Endogenous and Exogenous Agents. Springer Science & Business Media. 6 ... Schuermans V, Van Lommel R, Dom J, Brugmans J (1974). "Loperamide (R 18 553), a novel type of antidiarrheal agent. Part 6: ... Loperamide is an antidiarrheal agent, which decreases intestinal movement. As such, when combined with other antimotility drugs ... Hanauer SB (Winter 2008). "The role of loperamide in gastrointestinal disorders". Reviews in Gastroenterological Disorders. 8 ( ...
Less commonly gastrointestinal or urinary infection can be the inciting agent. All of these infections have in common the ... Several chemotherapeutic agents, for example Cisplatin, are associated with acute and chronic kidney injuries. Newer agents ... toxicity of chemotherapy agents, and a long-term exposure to lead or its salts. Chronic conditions that can produce nephropathy ... Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (2): 139-146. doi:10.2174/187152306776872442. Grünfeld, JP; Rossier, BC (May 2009 ...
"Patent US4615879 - Particulate NMR contrast agents for gastrointestinal application - Google Patents". Retrieved 2013-10-13. ... Paramagnetic NMR contrast agents: Potential oral and intravenous agents. Work-in-progress, Radiological Society of North ... He remains active in research and development of MRI contrast agents and advanced MRI imaging techniques. In 2019, under his ... Runge was one of the early researchers to investigate the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance ...
"Effectiveness of prokinetic agents against diseases external to the gastrointestinal tract" (PDF). Journal of Gastroenterology ... It is used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and other gastrointestinal disorders. The major product from drug ...
Blood pool agents (intravascular contrast agents) Organ specific agents (gastrointestinal contrast agents and hepatobiliary ... Active targeting/cell labeling agents (tumor-specific agents) Responsive (smart or bioactivated) agents pH-sensitive agents ... has been used as a gastrointestinal MRI contrast agent for pediatric imaging. This contrast agent works by reducing the number ... A wide variety of oral contrast agents can enhance images of the gastrointestinal tract. They include gadolinium and manganese ...
Potassium can bind to a number of agents in the gastrointestinal tract. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate with sorbitol (Kayexalate ... Patiromer is taken by mouth and works by binding free potassium ions in the gastrointestinal tract and releasing calcium ions ... Potassium is eliminated from the body through the gastrointestinal tract, kidney and sweat glands. In the kidneys, elimination ... This leads to the impairment of neuromuscular, cardiac, and gastrointestinal organ systems. Of most concern is the impairment ...
"Systematic review of agents for the management of gastrointestinal mucositis in cancer patients". Support Care Cancer. 21 (1): ... New agents have been identified in animal studies that may have effects on intestinal radiation injury. The research approach ... People who have been treated with radiotherapy for pelvic and other abdominal cancers frequently develop gastrointestinal ... nutritional deficiencies and weight loss abdominal pain and bloating nausea, vomiting and fatigue Gastrointestinal symptoms are ...
Lubiprostone is a gastrointestinal agent used for the treatment of constipation-predominant IBS. The use of antispasmodic drugs ... Sperber AD, Dekel R (April 2010). "Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Co-morbid Gastrointestinal and Extra-gastrointestinal ... It acts as a bulking agent, and for many people with IBS-D, allows for a more consistent stool. For people with IBS-C, it seems ... The increase in gastrointestinal symptoms during menses or early menopause may be related to declining or low estrogen and ...
Antimuscarinic and antinicotinic agents can increase heart rate, inhibit secretions, and gastrointestinal motility. Naturally ... antimuscarinic and antinicotinic agents. Antimuscarinic agents (also known as muscarinic antagonists), including atropine and ... These agents have broad effects due to their actions in nerves located vastly over the body. These nerves include motor nerves ... Antimuscarinc agents, therefore, generally produce effects that are opposite to the stimulation of the parasympathetic system, ...
... a broad-spectrum thiazolide anti-infective agent for the treatment of gastrointestinal infections". Expert Opin Pharmacother. 7 ... A causative agent for eye keratitis infection". Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular Spectroscopy. 153: 714-21. Bibcode: ... Anderson, V. R.; Curran, M. P. (2007). "Nitazoxanide: A review of its use in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections". ... Antiparasitics target the parasitic agents of the infections by destroying them or inhibiting their growth; they are usually ...
It is likely the agent responsible for toxic (gastrointestinal) symptoms that occur in T. floccosus. It was described in 1947 ...
"Effects on gastrointestinal functions and symptoms of serotonergic psychoactive agents used in functional gastrointestinal ... As a result, further development has commenced to bring more selective of anxiolytic agents to the market. An example of this ... Bouwer C, Stein DJ (April 1997). "Buspirone is an effective augmenting agent of serotonin selective re-uptake inhibitors in ... Evidence is not clear for panic disorder and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Tandospirone has also been used to augment ...
Roberts DJ, Banh HL, Hall RI (August 2006). "Use of novel prokinetic agents to facilitate return of gastrointestinal motility ... It inhibits gastrointestinal motility and reduces gastric secretions, and despite older selective CCKA antagonists such as ... Galligan JJ, Vanner S (October 2005). "Basic and clinical pharmacology of new motility promoting agents". Neurogastroenterology ... dexloxiglumide is being investigated as a potential treatment for a variety of gastrointestinal problems including irritable ...
Orally administered açaí has been tested as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the gastrointestinal ... April 2004). "Euterpe olerácea (Açaí) as an alternative oral contrast agent in MRI of the gastrointestinal system: preliminary ... Its anthocyanins have also been characterized for stability as a natural food coloring agent. A grove of açaí palms in Brazil ... Pulp as an Oral Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography:". Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 33 ( ...
"Obesity Medication: Gastrointestinal Agents, Other, CNS Stimulants, Anorexiants, Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Agonists, ... Catecholamine releasing agents such as amphetamine, phentermine, and related substituted amphetamines (e.g., bupropion) act as ... Anti-obesity medication or weight loss medications are pharmacological agents that reduce or control excess body fat. These ... 2021). "Effects of Berberine on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota". Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 10: 588517 ...
The rejection was based on concerns over the efficacy of the agent, as well as gastrointestinal side effects. Before issuing ... the clinical benefits of these agents have never been shown to outweigh the risks of their numerous adverse effects. Four ...
The most common toxicities caused by the chemotherapeutic agents were gastrointestinal symptoms, chemical hepatitis, and bone ... This occurs more commonly with FUDR than any other chemotherapeutic agent. Patients undergoing HAI therapy therefore have ... Multiple trials have compared HAI (with various chemotherapeutic agents) to systemic chemotherapy. Compared to systemic ... Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology. 3 (2): 130-8. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2011.025. PMC 3397645. PMID 22811880. Allen PJ ...
... highly absorptive mineral agent which is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding. Applied during endoscopy to ... "Role of hemostatic powders in the management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding: A review: Hemostatic agents lower intestinal ... Hemostatic Powder Spray TC-325 was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2018 for gastrointestinal ... TC-325 is recommended for temporary control of gastrointestinal bleeding when other treatments are ineffective or not available ...
In a purer form it is used as X-ray radiocontrast agents for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract. Water-soluble barium ... 4.5 g/cm3 (and thus opacity to X-rays). For this reason it is used as a radiocontrast agent in X-ray imaging of the digestive ... It is also a green flare in tracer ammunition and a bleaching agent. Barium titanate is a promising electroceramic. Barium ... 2 BaO2 Barium sulfate was first applied as a radiocontrast agent in X-ray imaging of the digestive system in 1908. The ...
Gastrointestinal Agents, Other. Class Summary. The components of bismuth-containing therapies have demonstrated in vitro ... American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, New York Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, International Society for ... Cytomegalovirus infection in the gastrointestinal tract. J Clin Pathol. 1994 Nov. 47(11):968-72. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full ... David Greenwald, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, New York Society for Gastrointestinal ...
Gastrointestinal, Herbals. Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii, Florastor, Florastor Kids). *View full drug information ... The effect of adrenaline and of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking agents on ATP concentration and on incorporation of 32Pi ...
Gastrointestinal Agents / metabolism * Gastrointestinal Agents / pharmacology* * Humans * Intestine, Large / metabolism * ... Gastrointestinal effects of prebiotics Br J Nutr. 2002 May;87 Suppl 2:S145-51. doi: 10.1079/BJNBJN/2002530. ...
Antithrombotic Agents (Speakers: James Douketis & Roy M. Soetikno) Released: September 2013. Viewing Time: 30 minutes ... Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2021: New Frontiers in ERCP & EUS (On-Demand) , March 2021 ...
"Bile acids as endogenous etiologic agents in gastrointestinal cancer". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 15 (27): 3329-3340. ... Functional gastrointestinal disorder Gastrointestinal malformations Gastrointestinal bleeding "An overview on oral ... Gastrointestinal diseases (abbrev. GI diseases or GI illnesses) refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely ... "Gastrointestinal cancer" describes the specific malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. In general, a significant ...
Adverse effect of other agents primarily affecting gastrointestinal system NON-BILLABLE Non-Billable Code Non-Billable means ... Parent Code: T47.8 - Poisoning by, adverse effect of and underdosing of other agents primarily affecting gastrointestinal ... ICD-10-CM Drugs Index References for T47.8X5 - Adverse effect of other agents primarily affecting gastrointestinal system The ... To code a diagnosis of this type, you must use specify a 7th character that describes the diagnosis adverse effect of agents ...
Other agents primarily affecting the gastrointestinal system. Y539*. Agent primarily affecting the gastrointestinal system, ... Poisoning by other agents primarily affecting the gastrointestinal system. T479*. Poisoning by agent primarily affecting the ... Poison agents primarily affecting the gastrointestinal system. T478*. ... Agents primarily affecting the gastrointestinal system. Y538*. ...
Study of Melatonin as Preventive Agent of Gastrointestinal Damage Induced by Sodium Diclofenac. Authors: Sánchez, A.B.; Clares ... Metal-based nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents: an overview.. Authors: Sánchez-López, E.; Gomes, D.; Esteruelas, G.; Bonilla ...
Gastrointestinal Agents Supplementary concepts * Pediatric Crohns disease Grants and funding * CIHR/Canada ... group was unable to clearly define the role of concomitant immunosuppressants during initiation therapy with a biologic agent, ...
... a preliminary clinical study of gastrointestinal bleeding from neoplasms.. ... Imipenem/cilastatin sodium (IPM/CS) as an embolic agent for transcatheter arterial embolisation: ...
Gastrointestinal agents. Omeprazole. 40 mg once daily for 5 days. Trilipix 135 mg as a. single dose fasting ↑6%. ↑17%. ... Lipid-lowering agents. Trilipix 135 mg once daily for 10 days. Rosuvastatin, 40 mg once daily for 10 days. Rosuvastatin. ↑6%. ↑ ... The benefits and risks of using Trilipix with immunosuppressants and other potentially nephrotoxic agents should be carefully ... Trilipix (fenofibric acid) is a lipid regulating agent available as delayed release capsules for oral administration. Each ...
Blueberry juice: preliminary evaluation as an oral contrast agent in gastrointestinal MR imaging. Radiology 1995;194:119-23.. ... Xu N, Meng H, Liu T, Feng Y, Qi Y, Zhang D, Wang H. Blueberry phenolics reduce gastrointestinal infection in patients with ...
Categories: Gastrointestinal Agents Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Respiratory (fexofenadine) and gastrointestinal (omeprazole) agents;. -. Anti-migraine drugs (eletriptan);. -. Muscle relaxant ... chemotherapy agents (erythromycin, levofloxacin, imatinib, methotrexate), antivirals (saquinavir) and other agents (i.e., ... Some antineoplastic agents (i.e., cisplatin) and birth control pills cause an increased renal excretion of magnesium. Finally, ... Stohs, S.J.; Badmaev, V. A Review of Natural Stimulant and Non-Stimulant Thermogenic Agents. Phytother. Res. 2016, 30, 732-740 ...
Pharmacological Actions : Gastrointestinal Agents, Hypoglycemic Agents, Hypolipidemic, Insulin Sensitizers. Additional Keywords ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Chemoprotective Agents, Interleukin-1 beta downregulation, Interleukin-6 ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-6 Downregulation, MicroRNA modulator, NF-kappaB Inhibitor ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-1 beta downregulation, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha ...
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antihypertensive Agents, Gastrointestinal Agents, Interferon Gamma Reducer ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antihypertensive Agents, Gastrointestinal Agents, Interleukin-6 ... Diseases : Gastrointestinal Inflammation. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Chemopreventive, Gastrointestinal ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Gastrointestinal Agents, Hepatoprotective, Interleukin-6 Downregulation. ...
This agent is absorbed rapidly from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and bound to plasma proteins. Although it has high ... Agents that retard or inhibit the process belong under the general heading of anticoagulants. Agents that prevent the growth or ... Several anticoagulant agents exist today, and each of them incorporates some of these characteristics, but no single agent ... This agent has a rapid onset of action, its half-life is brief in comparison to warfarin, and it binds to platelets, ...
Gastrointestinal Agents *Hormones *Vitamins/Minerals *Miscellaneous *Respiratory Agents *Skin *Vaccines/Serums. Indexes. *Drug ...
Aungst B. and Shen D.D. (1986). Gastrointestinal absorption of toxic agents. In Rozman K.K. and Hanninen O. Gastrointestinal ... absorbed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract it has to be considered that fatty acid esters will undergo to a high extent ... gastrointestinal (GI) tract, it has to be considered that fatty acid esters will undergo to a high extent hydrolysis by ... bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. 33 hepatic and 2 dermal metabolites were predicted for the test substance, respectively ...
Misoprostol may augment the effects oxytocic agents, especially when given less than 4 hours before initiating oxytocin. . ... Diseases & Conditions Gastrointestinal Disease and Pregnancy Need a Curbside Consult? Share cases and questions with Physicians ... Misoprostol may augment the effects oxytocic agents, especially when given less than 4 hours before initiating oxytocin. . ...
... gastrointestinal agents (domperidone); central nervous system agents (buspirone, dextromethorphan, oral ketamine, lurasidone, ... antihypertensive agents, antiarrhythmic agents, chemotherapeutic (anticancer) agents, antifungal agents, HIV protease ... Exploring quercetin and luteolin derivatives as antiangiogenic agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2015;97:259-274. (PubMed) ... Some carbohydrate-rich foods may increase the deglycosylation and absorption of flavonoids by stimulating gastrointestinal ...
Gastrointestinal Drugs, Anti-inflammatory Agents Gastrointestinal Drugs, Anti-Inflammatory Agents Gastrointestinal Drugs, ... Cardiovascular Drugs / Antilipemic Agents / HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (i.e. Statins) Cardiovascular Drugs, a-Adrenergic ... Analgesics and Antipyretics plus Gastrointestinal drugs - Combination Product Analgesics and Antipyretics, Nonsteroidal Anti- ... Gastrointestinal Drugs, Prokinetic Agents Gastrointestinal Drugs: Anti-inflammatory Agents Gastrointestinal Drugs: Antiulcer ...
Gastrointestinal agents. *Lactobacillus and estriol. *Sodium picosulfate. *Typhoid vaccine. Tell your doctor and pharmacist ...
It is an anti-muscarinic agent that relaxes the bladders smooth muscle. ...
Acidifying agents. Gastrointestinal acidifying agents (guanethidine, reserpine, glutamic acid HCl, ascorbic acid, fruit juices ... Alkalinizing agents. Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (sodium bicarbonate, etc.) increase absorption of amphetamines. ... Gastrointestinal Dryness of the mouth, unpleasant taste, diarrhea, constipation, intestinal ischemia and other gastrointestinal ... Urinary acidifying agents (ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, etc.) increase concentration of the ionized species of the ...
  • Inflammation of the stomach by infection from any cause is called gastritis, and when including other parts of the gastrointestinal tract called gastroenteritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease is a condition of unknown aetiology, classified as either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, that can affect the intestines and other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids C18-C22 (even numbered), tetraesters with pentaerythritol will be probably hydrolysed to di- or triesters, followed by a complete hydrolysis to the alcohol pentaerythritol and the corresponding fatty acids C18-C22 in the gastrointestinal tract and mucus membranes, which facilitates the absorption. (europa.eu)
  • Prednisolone is rapidly and well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract following oral administration. (drugs.com)
  • Research into the prokinetic effects of probiotics on the gastrointestinal tract has also been conducted in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are multiple infectious agents of the gastrointestinal tract that can be shared between cats and humans. (vin.com)
  • Dyspepsia refers to symptoms originating in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and includes upper abdominal pain or discomfort, early satiety, postprandial abdominal bloating, and nausea ( 2 , 3 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • Those located in the gastrointestinal tract are common and often mild, but they can be serious or life-threatening and determine the continuation of treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • A prokinetic agent (also gastroprokinetic agent , gastrokinetic agent or propulsive ) is a type of drug which enhances gastrointestinal motility by increasing the frequency or strength of contractions , but without disrupting their rhythm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of a wide range of serotonin receptors by serotonin itself or by certain prokinetic drugs results in enhanced gastrointestinal motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher acetylcholine levels increase gastrointestinal peristalsis and further increase pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter, thereby stimulating gastrointestinal motility, accelerating gastric emptying, and improving gastro-duodenal coordination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agents stimulating gastro-intestinal motility are classified here, e.g. substituted benzamides. (whocc.no)
  • Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion. (bvsalud.org)
  • For example, inhalation of a nerve agent or an OP pesticide leads to a quicker onset of poisoning with more severe symptoms when compared to with dermal exposure s, given the same amount of agent. (cdc.gov)
  • The following is a more comprehensive list of signs and symptoms that may be encountered in a person exposed to a nerve agent or OP pesticide. (cdc.gov)
  • Results: Depending on different assumptions, the cost of gastrointestinal symptoms attributable to water recreation are estimated to be $1,220 for incidental-contact recreation (range $338-$1,681) and $1,676 for swimming/wading (range $425-2,743) per 1,000 recreators. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1991, the FDA banned many over-the-counter diet aids, with fiber-containing substances, because they did not show any evidence of being safe and effective weight loss agents. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Humans are infected with zoonotic agents from direct contact with the infected animals, contact via contaminated food or water, from shared vectors, and from the shared environment. (vin.com)
  • Cardiovascular Drugs / Antilipemic Agents / HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (i.e. (tevausa.com)
  • Prevalence rates for most infectious agents were generally greater in cats with diarrhea. (vin.com)
  • These bacteria were identified ted the selection of antibiotics for the by their characteristic appearance on the treatment of enteric bacterial pathogens, media and further confirmed by the pattern particularly to commonly used antimicrob- of biochemical reactions using a standard ial agents such as ampicillin, tetracycline bacterial identification system (API 20E, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [ 2 ]. (who.int)
  • Risk of gastrointestinal bleeding increases with combinations of antithrombotic agents and patient age. (ahrq.gov)
  • Abraham NS , Noseworthy PA , Inselman J . Risk of gastrointestinal bleeding increases with combinations of antithrombotic agents and patient age. (ahrq.gov)
  • and certain gastrointestinal disorders , including irritable bowel syndrome , gastritis , [1] gastroparesis , and functional dyspepsia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Anorectal tests should be used to evaluate for defecatory disorders if over-the-counter agents do not relieve the constipation. (medscape.com)
  • Gastrointestinal diseases (abbrev. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oral cavity is part of the gastrointestinal system and as such the presence of alterations in this district can be the first sign of both systemic and gastrointestinal diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used in combination with other antimicrobial agents. (medscape.com)
  • This agent exerts antisecretory and antimicrobial effects. (medscape.com)
  • Metal-based nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents: an overview. (ub.edu)
  • These methods differ in their relevance and practicality, and the Committee encouraged the development of better in vitro and in vivo methods that are relevant for determining the effects of low concentrations of antimicrobial agents on the human gastrointestinal microflora. (who.int)
  • To code a diagnosis of this type, you must use specify a 7th character that describes the diagnosis 'adverse effect of agents primarily affecting gi sys' in more detail. (icd.codes)
  • Most prokinetic agents are grouped under the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (a World Health Organization drug classification system), as ATC code A03F . (wikipedia.org)
  • along with certain salts and esters, which function primarily as skin-conditioning agents, specifically as a moisturizer. (momjunction.com)
  • The key to treating most patients with constipation is correction of dietary deficiencies, which generally involves increasing intake of fiber and fluid and decreasing the use of constipating agents (eg, milk products, coffee, tea, alcohol). (medscape.com)
  • The amount and route of exposure to the nerve agent or OP pesticide, the type of nerve agent or pesticide, and the premorbid condition of the person exposed person will contribute to the time of onset and the severity of illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Estimated costs of sporadic gastrointestinal illness associated with surface water recreation: a combined analysis of data from NEEAR and CHEERS studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods: Data from the NEEAR study, which evaluated swimming and wading in marine and freshwater beaches in six U.S. states, and CHEERS, which evaluated illness after incidental-contact recreation (boating, canoeing, fishing, kayaking, and rowing) on waterways in the Chicago area, were used to estimate the cost per case of gastrointestinal illness and costs attributable to water recreation. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: Our estimates suggest gastrointestinal illness attributed to surface water recreation at urban waterways, lakes, and coastal marine beaches is responsible for costs that should be accounted for when considering the monetary impact of efforts to improve water quality. (cdc.gov)
  • For use of antiretroviral agents for post-exposure prophylaxis the most recent official guidelines, e.g. those by WHO should be consulted. (who.int)
  • Imipenem/cilastatin sodium (IPM/CS) as an embolic agent for transcatheter arterial embolisation: a preliminary clinical study of gastrointestinal bleeding from neoplasms. (patientbloodmanagement.org)
  • Misoprostol may augment the effects oxytocic agents, especially when given less than 4 hours before initiating oxytocin. (medscape.com)
  • Side effects of injected iodinated contrast agents occur in a few people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This study investigated whether age of patient and time frame increased the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in elderly patients being treated with anticoagulants, antiplatelets, or a combination of both therapies. (ahrq.gov)
  • In another study, a review of 11 trials (1463 adult patients total) comparing metronidazole with vancomycin or another agent, combined agents, or placebo, neither vancomycin nor fidaxomicin were clearly superior for the initial treatment of CDI. (medscape.com)
  • The genus Basidiobolus contains large groups of terrestrial fungi including the etiological agents of human gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB). (academicjournals.org)
  • To raise awareness of potential and increasingly lethal danger on the dining-room table, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services published a report in 2003, " Risk Assessment for Food Terrorism and Other Food Safety Concerns ," that listed a broad range of "possible agents for food terrorism. (domesticpreparedness.com)
  • Guidelines issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) list emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as preferred agents for use as part of a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen in appropriate patients who have never taken anti-HIV medicines before. (gilead.com)
  • This study evaluated the risk of thromboembolic and pulmonary toxicities associated with hematopoietic growth factor (HGF) use (i.e., erythropoietin-stimulating agent [ESA] and/or colony-stimulating factor [CSF]) in a community-dwelling cohort of elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer. (ahrq.gov)
  • In a phase 2 study of 91 patients with HER2 mutation-positive NSCLC that had progressed on standard treatment, the agent was associated with a median progression-free survival of 8.2 months, overall survival of 17.8 months, and response rate of 55 percent [5]. (nursingcenter.com)
  • In recent years, it has become clear that the selectivity profile is a major determinant of the risk-benefit profile of this class of agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • For patients taking dabigatran, the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is reduced with use of gastroprotective agents. (empr.com)
  • Dabigatran is associated with higher risks of major bleeding and gastrointestinal bleeding compared with warfarin, but patients taking dabigatran also have a reduced risk of intracranial bleeding compared with those taking warfarin, according to new research. (empr.com)
  • It acts as an anti-inflammatory agent and can be helpful for both gastrointestinal and upper respiratory infections. (rootwholebody.com)
  • If people have had several severe reactions to iodinated contrast agents, an imaging test that does not require this contrast agent should be done instead. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Generally, radiopaque contrast agents are very safe, particularly when given by mouth or into the rectum. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The following is a brief discussion of some of the most common zoonotic agents of cats. (vin.com)
  • Tomar B. lactis por vía oral podría ayudar a prevenir infecciones de las vías respiratorias, como el resfriado común, en personas sanas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tomar B. lactis por vía oral no parece prevenir las caries en los niños pequeños. (medlineplus.gov)
  • En adultos, B. lactis se ha ingerido con mayor frecuencia por vía oral sola o junto con otros probióticos en dosis de hasta 12 500 millones de unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC) al día, durante un máximo de 6 semanas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), novel agents are being evaluated in the treatment-refractory setting. (nursingcenter.com)
  • In a phase III trial of almost 500 patients with unresectable or metastatic treatment-refractory GIST, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) avapritinib resulted in similar progression-free survival (PFS) compared with the antiangiogenesis agent, regorafenib [4]. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Limited occupational data show the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems were not susceptible to thallium. (cdc.gov)
  • This retrospective analysis used nationwide claims data from privately insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees who received anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet agents from October 1, 2010, through May 31, 2017. (ahrq.gov)
  • At the first sign of a reaction, the contrast agent is stopped. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Nerve agents are chemical warfare agents that have the same mechanism of action as OP organophosphate pesticides insecticides. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasma or RBC cholinesterase may be disproportionately inhibited depending on the particular nerve agent, amount of exposure and time interval since exposure. (cdc.gov)