Transmissible gastroenteritis virus
Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine
Adenovirus Infections, Human
Salmonella Food Poisoning
Molecular Sequence Data
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Detection of campylobacter in gastroenteritis: comparison of direct PCR assay of faecal samples with selective culture. (1/2074)The prevalence of campylobacter gastroenteritis has been estimated by bacterial isolation using selective culture. However, there is evidence that certain species and strains are not recovered on selective agars. We have therefore compared direct PCR assays of faecal samples with campylobacter culture, and explored the potential of PCR for simultaneous detection and identification to the species level. Two hundred unselected faecal samples from cases of acute gastroenteritis were cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar and subjected to DNA extraction and PCR assay. Culture on CCDA indicated that 16 of the 200 samples contained 'Campylobacter spp.'. By contrast, PCR assays detected campylobacters in 19 of the 200 samples, including 15 of the culture-positive samples, and further identified them as: C. jejuni (16), C. coli (2) and C. hyointestinalis (1). These results show that PCR offers a different perspective on the incidence and identity of campylobacters in human gastroenteritis. (+info)
An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with consumption of sandwiches: implications for the control of transmission by food handlers. (2/2074)Although food handlers are often implicated as the source of infection in outbreaks of food-borne viral gastroenteritis, little is known about the timing of infectivity in relation to illness. We investigated a gastroenteritis outbreak among employees of a manufacturing company and found an association (RR = 14.1, 95% CI = 2.0-97.3) between disease and eating sandwiches prepared by 6 food handlers, 1 of whom reported gastroenteritis which had subsided 4 days earlier. Norwalk-like viruses were detected by electron microscopy or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool specimens from several company employees, the sick food handler whose specimen was obtained 10 days after resolution of illness, and an asymptomatic food handler. All RT-PCR product sequences were identical, suggesting a common source of infection. These data support observations from recent volunteer studies that current recommendations to exclude food handlers from work for 48-72 h after recovery from illness may not always prevent transmission of Norwalk-like viruses because virus can be shed up to 10 days after illness or while exhibiting no symptoms. (+info)
Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin forms anion-selective channels in planar lipid bilayers: possible implications for the mechanism of cellular vacuolation. (3/2074)The Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin plays a major role in the gastric pathologies associated with this bacterium. When added to cultured cells, VacA induces vacuolation, an effect potentiated by preexposure of the toxin to low pH. Its mechanism of action is unknown. We report here that VacA forms anion-selective, voltage-dependent pores in artificial membranes. Channel formation was greatly potentiated by acidic conditions or by pretreatment of VacA at low pH. No requirement for particular lipid(s) was identified. Selectivity studies showed that anion selectivity was maintained over the pH range 4.8-12, with the following permeability sequence: Cl- approximately HCO3- > pyruvate > gluconate > K+ approximately Li+ approximately Ba2+ > NH4+. Membrane permeabilization was due to the incorporation of channels with a voltage-dependent conductance in the 10-30 pS range (2 M KCl), displaying a voltage-independent high open probability. Deletion of the NH2 terminus domain (p37) or chemical modification of VacA by diethylpyrocarbonate inhibited both channel activity and vacuolation of HeLa cells without affecting toxin internalization by the cells. Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that VacA channel formation is needed to induce cellular vacuolation, possibly by inducing an osmotic imbalance of intracellular acidic compartments. (+info)
Campylobacter jejuni--an emerging foodborne pathogen. (4/2074)Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of foodborne infection in the United States. Adding to the human and economic costs are chronic sequelae associated with C. jejuni infection--Guillian-Barre syndrome and reactive arthritis. In addition, an increasing proportion of human infections caused by C. jejuni are resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Efforts to prevent human illness are needed throughout each link in the food chain. (+info)
Adenovirus infection after pediatric bone marrow transplantation. (5/2074)Retrospective analysis of 206 patients undergoing 215 consecutive bone marrow transplants (BMT) at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between November 1990 and December 1994 identified 6% (seven male, six female) with adenovirus infection. The affected patients had a median age of 7.9 years (range 3-24 years) at time of transplantation. Although transplants were performed for hematologic malignancies, solid tumors or nonmalignant conditions, only patients with hematologic malignancies had adenoviral infections. Adenovirus was first detected at a median of 54 days (range -4 to +333) after BMT. Adenovirus developed in eight of 69 (11.6%) patients receiving grafts from matched unrelated or mismatched related donors, in four of 52 (7.7%) receiving grafts from HLA-matched siblings, and in one of 93 (1.1%) receiving autografts. The most common manifestation of adenovirus infection was hemorrhagic cystitis, followed by gastroenteritis, pneumonitis and liver failure. The incidence of adenovirus infection in pediatric BMT patients at our institution is similar to that reported in adult patients. Using univariate analysis, use of total body irradiation and type of bone marrow graft were significant risk factors for adenovirus infection. Only use of total body irradiation remained as a factor on multiple logistic regression analysis. (+info)
Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches. (6/2074)The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches. (+info)
A community outbreak of food-borne small round-structured virus gastroenteritis caused by a contaminated water supply. (7/2074)In August 1994, 30 of 135 (23%) bakery plant employees and over 100 people from South Wales and Bristol in the United Kingdom, were affected by an outbreak of gastroenteritis. Epidemiological studies of employees and three community clusters found illness in employees to be associated with drinking cold water at the bakery (relative risk 3.3, 95%, CI 1.6-7.0), and in community cases with eating custard slices (relative risk 19.8, 95%, CI 2.9-135.1) from a variety of stores supplied by one particular bakery. Small round-structured viruses (SRSV) were identified in stool specimens from 4 employees and 7 community cases. Analysis of the polymerase and capsid regions of the SRSV genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated viruses of both genogroups (1 and 2) each with several different nucleotide sequences. The heterogeneity of the viruses identified in the outbreak suggests that dried custard mix may have been inadvertently reconstituted with contaminated water. The incident shows how secondary food contamination can cause wide-scale community gastroenteritis outbreaks, and demonstrates the ability of molecular techniques to support classical epidemiological methods in outbreak investigations. (+info)
Characterization of intestinal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and response to antiretroviral therapy. (8/2074)Combination antiretroviral therapies suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in peripheral blood, but the effect in gastrointestinal mucosa is uncertain. The occurrence of pathogen-negative diarrhea led to speculation that local HIV infection is etiologic. Mucosal cellular reservoirs for HIV were documented by use of several techniques. Correlations were found among gastrointestinal symptoms, histopathologic findings, cytokine expression, lymphoid apoptosis, and HIV RNA and protein expression in rectal mucosa. Disproportionate depletion of mucosal CD4+ lymphocytes also was found. The short-term effects of antiretroviral therapies were examined to test the hypothesis that these changes are directly related to mucosal HIV infection. Therapy was associated with decreased symptoms, with comparable drops in peripheral blood and mucosal HIV RNA contents, and by increases in blood and mucosal CD4+ lymphocyte contents. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells also declined during therapy. These results suggest that HIV plays a direct role in producing intestinal dysfunction. (+info)
Gastroenteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines. It is commonly referred to as "stomach flu" or "gastritis." The inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, food poisoning, or certain medications. Symptoms of gastroenteritis can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, cramping, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, dehydration can occur, which can be life-threatening, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment for gastroenteritis typically involves managing symptoms and preventing dehydration. This may include drinking plenty of fluids, getting plenty of rest, and avoiding solid foods until symptoms improve. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed if the cause of the inflammation is bacterial. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen, or if there are signs of dehydration.
Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine, also known as Porcine Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE), is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages. The virus primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract of pigs, causing severe diarrhea, dehydration, and weight loss. The disease is caused by the Porcine Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV), which is a member of the Coronaviridae family. TGEV is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, and pigs can become infected by ingesting contaminated feed, water, or soil. The virus can also be transmitted from infected pigs to healthy pigs through direct contact or indirect contact with contaminated surfaces. The clinical signs of TGEV infection include severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and weight loss. The disease is usually self-limiting, and pigs that survive the acute phase of the infection may recover fully. However, the high mortality rate in young piglets can result in significant economic losses for pig farmers. TGEV is not a zoonotic disease, meaning it does not pose a risk to humans. However, it is important to control the spread of the virus in pig populations to prevent economic losses and to prevent the potential spread of the virus to other animal species.
Caliciviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. These viruses are highly contagious and can cause a range of illnesses in humans and animals, including norovirus infections, which are a common cause of gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines) and hepatitis E virus infections, which can cause liver inflammation and damage. Other members of the Caliciviridae family include the feline calicivirus, which can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in cats, and the rabbit calicivirus, which can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in rabbits. Symptoms of Caliciviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus causing the infection, but may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and fatigue. Treatment for Caliciviridae infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent dehydration, and may also include antiviral medications in some cases. Prevention of Caliciviridae infections involves good hygiene practices, such as frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals or animals.
Rotavirus infections are a common cause of diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. They are caused by a group of viruses called rotaviruses, which are highly contagious and can be transmitted through contaminated food, water, or surfaces. Symptoms of rotavirus infections typically include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, and dehydration. The illness usually lasts for several days to a week, and can be particularly severe in young children who are not fully vaccinated or who have weakened immune systems. Rotavirus infections are preventable through vaccination, which is recommended for all infants and young children. Treatment typically involves rehydration therapy to replace fluids lost due to diarrhea and vomiting, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Coronaviridae is a family of viruses that are known to cause a wide range of respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses in humans and animals. The name "corona" comes from the Latin word for "crown," which refers to the distinctive spike-like projections on the surface of the virus that give it a crown-like appearance under a microscope. The most well-known member of the Coronaviridae family is SARS-CoV-2, which is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Other members of the family include the viruses that cause the common cold, as well as more serious illnesses such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Coronaviruses are typically spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes. They can also be transmitted through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. Symptoms of infection can range from mild to severe and may include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue. In severe cases, infection can lead to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death.
Rotavirus vaccines are a type of vaccine used to prevent rotavirus infection, which is a highly contagious viral illness that can cause severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration, particularly in young children. There are currently two types of rotavirus vaccines available: RotaTeq and Rotarix. These vaccines contain live, weakened strains of the rotavirus that are designed to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. By doing so, the vaccines can help protect against rotavirus infection and its associated symptoms. Rotavirus vaccines are typically given to infants and young children, usually at two, four, and six months of age, with a booster dose at 15-18 months of age.
Foodborne diseases, also known as foodborne illnesses or food poisoning, are caused by consuming contaminated food or beverages. These diseases can be caused by a variety of microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as chemical substances and toxins. Foodborne diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and headache. In severe cases, they can lead to hospitalization, disability, and even death. Preventing foodborne diseases involves proper food handling, storage, and preparation techniques, as well as ensuring that food is cooked to the appropriate temperature and consumed before it spoils. It is also important to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands and surfaces frequently, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods. In the medical field, foodborne diseases are typically diagnosed through a combination of symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment may involve supportive care, such as rehydration therapy, as well as antibiotics or antiviral medications if the disease is caused by a bacterial or viral infection.
Astroviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Astroviridae. These viruses are highly contagious and can affect people of all ages, although they are most commonly seen in young children. The most common symptoms of astrovirus infections include diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, fever, and headache. In some cases, the infection can also cause more severe symptoms such as dehydration, especially in young children and older adults. Astroviruses are transmitted through the fecal-oral route, meaning that they can be spread through contaminated food or water, or by close contact with an infected person. They can also be transmitted through contaminated surfaces or objects. Treatment for astrovirus infections typically involves managing symptoms such as dehydration and providing supportive care. There is no specific antiviral medication available to treat astrovirus infections, and most people recover on their own within a few days to a week. However, in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Caliciviridae is a family of viruses that includes noroviruses, sapoviruses, and other related viruses. These viruses are highly contagious and can cause a range of illnesses, including gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines) and respiratory infections. They are transmitted through contaminated food and water, as well as person-to-person contact. Symptoms of calicivirus infections can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and rest, and may include antidiarrheal medications in some cases. Vaccines are not currently available for calicivirus infections.
Diarrhea is a medical condition characterized by the passage of loose, watery stools more than three times a day. It can be acute, meaning it lasts for a short period of time, or chronic, meaning it persists for more than four weeks. Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, food poisoning, medications, underlying medical conditions, and stress. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Diarrhea can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and malnutrition if it persists for an extended period of time. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, and fluid replacement therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Diarrhea, infantile, is a common condition in young children characterized by frequent, loose stools. It is typically defined as having at least three loose or watery stools in a 24-hour period in infants less than 12 months of age. Infantile diarrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, food allergies or intolerances, and malnutrition. It can also be a symptom of more serious underlying conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease or cystic fibrosis. Diarrhea in infants can lead to dehydration, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Treatment typically involves rehydration therapy, which involves giving the child fluids to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. In some cases, antibiotics may be necessary to treat bacterial infections. It is important to seek medical attention if an infant has diarrhea that lasts more than a few days or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or blood in the stool.
Campylobacter infections are a type of bacterial infection caused by the Campylobacter bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found in the feces of birds and other animals, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water, or through contact with infected animals or their feces. Symptoms of Campylobacter infections can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headache. In some cases, the infection can also cause more serious complications, such as sepsis or meningitis. Treatment for Campylobacter infections typically involves the use of antibiotics to kill the bacteria. In most cases, the infection can be successfully treated and the symptoms will resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, in some cases, the infection can be more severe and may require hospitalization. Prevention of Campylobacter infections involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands thoroughly after using the bathroom or handling raw meat, and cooking food thoroughly to kill any bacteria that may be present. It is also important to avoid drinking untreated water and to avoid close contact with animals or their feces.
Dehydration is a medical condition that occurs when the body loses more fluids than it takes in. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of water and electrolytes in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms and complications. Dehydration can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and not drinking enough fluids. It can also occur in people who are sick or have an underlying medical condition that affects their ability to retain fluids. Symptoms of dehydration can include thirst, dry mouth, dark urine, fatigue, dizziness, headache, and confusion. In severe cases, dehydration can lead to more serious complications, such as seizures, coma, and even death. Treatment for dehydration typically involves replacing lost fluids and electrolytes through oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluids, depending on the severity of the dehydration and the underlying cause. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may be dehydrated, as prompt treatment can prevent complications and improve outcomes.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
Vibrio infections are a group of illnesses caused by bacteria of the genus Vibrio. These bacteria are commonly found in warm seawater and can cause a variety of infections in humans, including gastrointestinal illnesses, wound infections, and respiratory infections. The most common Vibrio infection is Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera, a severe diarrheal disease that can be fatal if left untreated. Other Vibrio species that can cause infections in humans include Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio mimicus. Symptoms of Vibrio infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness. Common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and chills. In severe cases, Vibrio infections can lead to dehydration, shock, and even death. Treatment for Vibrio infections typically involves antibiotics, although the specific antibiotic used may depend on the type of infection and the severity of the illness. In some cases, supportive care such as intravenous fluids may also be necessary to treat dehydration. Prevention of Vibrio infections involves avoiding exposure to contaminated water and seafood, practicing good hygiene, and cooking seafood thoroughly.
Salmonella infections are a type of foodborne illness caused by bacteria of the Salmonella genus. These bacteria are commonly found in the intestines of animals, including birds, reptiles, and mammals, and can be transmitted to humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or through contact with infected animals or their feces. Symptoms of Salmonella infections can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the age and overall health of the individual. Common symptoms include fever, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, Salmonella infections can lead to more serious complications, such as dehydration, blood infections, and even death, particularly in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment for Salmonella infections typically involves supportive care, such as drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration, and may also include antibiotics in some cases. Prevention measures include proper food handling and preparation, avoiding cross-contamination, and practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom or handling animals.
In the medical field, a virus disease is a condition caused by a virus, which is a tiny infectious agent that can only replicate inside living cells. Viruses can infect a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and even bacteria. When a virus enters the body, it attaches to and invades host cells, taking over the cell's machinery to produce more copies of itself. This can cause damage to the host cells and trigger an immune response, which can lead to symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and fatigue. Some common examples of virus diseases in humans include the common cold, influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can be treated with antiviral medications, vaccines, or supportive care.
Adenovirus infections, human refer to illnesses caused by adenoviruses, which are a group of viruses that can infect humans and other animals. These viruses can cause a range of illnesses, from mild respiratory infections to more serious diseases such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and conjunctivitis (pink eye). In some cases, adenoviruses can also cause more severe illnesses, such as hemorrhagic cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) and hepatitis (inflammation of the liver). Adenovirus infections are usually spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. They can also be spread through sexual contact. Treatment for adenovirus infections typically involves supportive care to help the body fight off the virus, such as rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers. In some cases, antiviral medications may also be used to help treat the infection.
Campylobacter jejuni is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of birds and mammals, including humans. It is one of the most common causes of bacterial food poisoning worldwide, and is often transmitted through contaminated food or water. In humans, Campylobacter jejuni can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as reactive arthritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and meningitis. Diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni typically involves stool culture and identification using specialized laboratory techniques. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as rehydration and electrolyte replacement, and may also include antibiotics in severe cases. Prevention measures include proper food handling and cooking, as well as avoiding cross-contamination in the kitchen.
Eosinophilia is a medical condition characterized by an increase in the number of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the blood. Eosinophils are a type of granulocyte, which are immune cells that play a role in fighting off infections and parasites. Eosinophilia can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as corticosteroids and some chemotherapy drugs. Eosinophilia can be classified as either absolute eosinophilia, which is an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood regardless of the total number of white blood cells, or relative eosinophilia, which is an increase in the proportion of eosinophils to other types of white blood cells. Eosinophilia can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, and it is important to identify and treat the underlying cause in order to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may involve medications to reduce inflammation or to target the underlying cause of the eosinophilia, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms.
Campylobacter is a genus of bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil, water, and the feces of animals. In humans, Campylobacter can cause a type of food poisoning called campylobacteriosis, which is typically caused by consuming contaminated food or water. Campylobacteriosis is a common bacterial infection that affects the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of campylobacteriosis can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headache. In severe cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as sepsis or Guillain-Barré syndrome. Campylobacter bacteria are typically spread through contaminated food or water, or through contact with infected animals or their feces. The bacteria can survive in the environment for long periods of time, and can be difficult to eliminate from surfaces or objects. Prevention of campylobacteriosis involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom or handling raw meat, and cooking food to a safe temperature. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
Salmonella food poisoning is a type of foodborne illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica. It occurs when a person consumes contaminated food or water that has been contaminated with the bacteria. The bacteria can be found in raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and vegetables, as well as in contaminated water. Symptoms of salmonella food poisoning typically include fever, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, the illness can lead to dehydration, blood in the stool, and even death, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Diagnosis of salmonella food poisoning is typically made through stool culture, which involves collecting a sample of the patient's stool and testing it for the presence of the bacteria. Treatment typically involves rehydration therapy to replace fluids lost due to diarrhea and vomiting, as well as antibiotics to help clear the infection. Prevention of salmonella food poisoning involves proper food handling and preparation, including washing hands and surfaces, cooking food to the appropriate temperature, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.
Adenoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by members of the Adenoviridae family. These viruses are common and can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. In humans, adenoviruses can cause a variety of illnesses, ranging from mild respiratory infections to more severe diseases such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, and hemorrhagic cystitis. Adenoviruses are characterized by their icosahedral capsid, which is composed of protein subunits arranged in a double-layered structure. The viral genome is a linear double-stranded DNA molecule that is enclosed within the capsid. There are currently more than 100 different serotypes of adenoviruses, each of which is associated with a specific disease. Adenovirus infections are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets, direct contact with infected individuals or surfaces, or through the fecal-oral route. Symptoms of adenovirus infections can vary depending on the specific serotype and the infected individual's immune status. Common symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, and red eyes. In more severe cases, adenovirus infections can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory complications. Treatment for adenovirus infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection. Vaccines are currently available for some serotypes of adenoviruses, but they are not effective against all strains. Prevention of adenovirus infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with infected individuals.
Vomiting is a medical condition characterized by the involuntary and forceful expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. It is also known as emesis or retching. Vomiting can be a symptom of a variety of medical conditions, including infections, digestive disorders, pregnancy, and certain medications. It can also be a response to toxins, such as those found in certain foods or chemicals. In severe cases, vomiting can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications. Treatment for vomiting depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, changes in diet and fluid intake, or other interventions.
Picornaviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Picornaviridae. This family includes a number of important human and animal pathogens, such as poliovirus, rhinovirus, and enterovirus. Picornaviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with a single-stranded RNA genome. They are known for their ability to cause a wide range of illnesses, including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal illnesses, and neurological disorders. Some of the most well-known picornaviral infections include: * Poliovirus: This virus causes poliomyelitis, a disease that can lead to paralysis and even death. * Rhinovirus: This virus is the most common cause of the common cold. * Enterovirus: This virus can cause a range of illnesses, including hand, foot, and mouth disease, and aseptic meningitis. Treatment for picornaviral infections typically involves supportive care, such as rest, fluids, and pain relief. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection. Vaccines are available for some picornaviral infections, such as polio, but not for all. Prevention is often the best way to avoid picornaviral infections, and this can be achieved through good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with sick individuals.
Dimenhydrinate is a medication that is used to prevent and treat motion sickness. It works by blocking certain chemicals in the brain that are responsible for the symptoms of motion sickness, such as nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Dimenhydrinate is available over-the-counter in the form of tablets, capsules, and liquids, and it is also available by prescription in higher doses. It is usually taken 30 to 60 minutes before exposure to motion that is likely to cause motion sickness. Dimenhydrinate may cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, and dry mouth. It is not recommended for use in children under the age of 6 or in people with certain medical conditions, such as glaucoma or kidney disease.
In the medical field, capsid proteins refer to the proteins that make up the outer shell of a virus. The capsid is the protective layer that surrounds the viral genome and is responsible for protecting the virus from the host's immune system and other environmental factors. There are two main types of capsid proteins: structural and non-structural. Structural capsid proteins are the proteins that make up the visible part of the virus, while non-structural capsid proteins are involved in the assembly and maturation of the virus. The specific function of capsid proteins can vary depending on the type of virus. For example, some capsid proteins are involved in attaching the virus to host cells, while others are involved in protecting the viral genome from degradation. Understanding the structure and function of capsid proteins is important for the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines, as well as for understanding the pathogenesis of viral infections.
Enteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the small intestine. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections, as well as certain medications, toxins, or autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of enteritis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, and loss of appetite. Treatment for enteritis depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, or other medications to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
RNA, Viral refers to the genetic material of viruses that are composed of RNA instead of DNA. Viral RNA is typically single-stranded and can be either positive-sense or negative-sense. Positive-sense RNA viruses can be directly translated into proteins by the host cell's ribosomes, while negative-sense RNA viruses require a complementary positive-sense RNA intermediate before protein synthesis can occur. Viral RNA is often encapsidated within a viral capsid and can be further protected by an envelope made of lipids and proteins derived from the host cell. RNA viruses include a wide range of pathogens that can cause diseases in humans and other organisms, such as influenza, hepatitis C, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19).
Coronavirus is a family of viruses that can cause a range of respiratory illnesses in humans and animals. The most well-known member of this family is SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, a global pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide since its emergence in late 2019. Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface, which are made of glycoproteins. They are typically spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes. The virus can also be transmitted through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. Symptoms of COVID-19 can range from mild to severe and may include fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, body aches, and loss of taste or smell. In severe cases, the virus can cause pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death. Treatment for COVID-19 typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, hospitalization and mechanical ventilation may be necessary. Vaccines have been developed to prevent COVID-19, and they have been shown to be highly effective in reducing the risk of severe illness and death.
In the medical field, antigens are substances that can trigger an immune response in the body. Antigens can be found in various forms, including proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, and they can be produced by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. Viral antigens are specific proteins or other molecules that are produced by viruses and can be recognized by the immune system as foreign. When a virus enters the body, it produces viral antigens, which are then recognized by the immune system as a threat and trigger an immune response. The immune response to viral antigens involves the production of antibodies, which are proteins that can bind to and neutralize the virus. The immune system also produces immune cells, such as T cells and B cells, which can recognize and destroy infected cells. Understanding the properties and behavior of viral antigens is important in the development of vaccines and other treatments for viral infections. By stimulating the immune system to recognize and respond to viral antigens, vaccines can help protect against viral infections and prevent the spread of disease.
Antibodies, viral, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a viral infection. They are also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies. Viral antibodies are specific to a particular virus and can help to neutralize and eliminate the virus from the body. They are typically detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. The presence of viral antibodies can be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm a viral infection or to determine the immune status of an individual.
Astroviridae is a family of non-enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. In the medical field, astroviruses are primarily associated with gastrointestinal illness, particularly in young children and immunocompromised individuals. There are several different types of astroviruses, including human astrovirus (HAstV), porcine astrovirus (PAstV), and feline astrovirus (FAstV). HAstV is the most common cause of viral diarrhea in children worldwide, and can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe, including vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and dehydration. PAstV and FAstV are less common, but can also cause gastrointestinal illness in animals. Diagnosis of astrovirus infection typically involves detection of viral RNA in stool samples using molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Treatment is generally supportive, focusing on rehydration and management of symptoms. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices and vaccination against rotavirus, which can also be caused by a similar mechanism.
In the medical field, "Vaccines, Attenuated" refers to vaccines that are made by weakening or attenuating a pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria, so that it can no longer cause disease in a healthy individual. This weakened pathogen is then introduced into the body to stimulate an immune response, which helps the body to recognize and fight off the pathogen if it is encountered again in the future. Attenuated vaccines are often used to prevent infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and yellow fever. They are typically made by growing the pathogen in a laboratory and then exposing it to conditions that weaken it, such as low temperatures or the absence of certain nutrients. The weakened pathogen is then injected into the body, where it triggers an immune response without causing the disease. Attenuated vaccines are generally considered to be safe and effective, and they are one of the most common types of vaccines used in the world. However, like all vaccines, they can cause side effects, such as fever, soreness at the injection site, and rare allergic reactions.
Dysentery, bacillary is a type of infectious diarrhea caused by bacteria called Shigella. It is characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and blood or mucus in the stool. The bacteria are transmitted through contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with an infected person. Symptoms typically begin within 1-3 days of exposure and can last for several days to a week. Treatment typically involves rehydration therapy and antibiotics to kill the bacteria. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Bocavirus is a genus of viruses that belongs to the family Parvoviridae. There are four species of bocavirus that have been identified, including human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), human bocavirus 2 (HBoV2), human bocavirus 3 (HBoV3), and human bocavirus 4 (HBoV4). Bocaviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses that contain a single-stranded DNA genome. They are primarily associated with respiratory tract infections in humans, particularly in children. Symptoms of bocavirus infection can include fever, cough, runny nose, and difficulty breathing. In some cases, bocavirus infection can lead to more serious complications, such as pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Bocavirus is spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be transmitted through contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. Bocavirus is difficult to culture in the laboratory, which makes it challenging to study and diagnose. However, diagnostic tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to detect bocavirus DNA in respiratory samples.
Reoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Reoviridae. These viruses are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses that can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. Reoviridae infections can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, depending on the specific virus and the host infected. In humans, reovirus infections can cause mild to severe respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Other clinical manifestations of reovirus infections in humans include diarrhea, encephalitis, meningitis, and myocarditis. Reovirus infections can also cause disease in animals, including cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry. In animals, reovirus infections can cause respiratory tract infections, enteritis, and abortion. Diagnosis of reovirus infections is typically made through laboratory testing, such as viral culture, serology, and molecular testing. Treatment of reovirus infections is generally supportive, with management of symptoms and complications as needed. Prevention of reovirus infections involves measures such as vaccination, hygiene, and good sanitation practices. Vaccines are available for some animal species, but there are currently no vaccines for humans.
Shellfish poisoning is a type of food poisoning that occurs when people consume shellfish that have been contaminated with toxins produced by certain types of microscopic algae called phytoplankton. These toxins can accumulate in the shellfish and cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and in severe cases, respiratory distress, paralysis, and even death. There are several types of shellfish poisoning, including paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Each type of poisoning is caused by a different type of toxin and can have different symptoms. Shellfish poisoning is a serious medical condition that requires prompt medical attention. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluid replacement and symptom management, and may include the use of medications to help alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. To prevent shellfish poisoning, it is important to avoid consuming shellfish that may be contaminated, such as those harvested during periods of high algal blooms.
Child Day Care Centers are facilities that provide care and supervision for children during the day, typically for working parents or those who need temporary childcare. These centers are designed to meet the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual needs of children in a safe and nurturing environment. They may offer a range of activities and programs, including educational and recreational activities, to promote the development and well-being of children. In the medical field, Child Day Care Centers may be used as a setting for research studies or as a place for children to receive medical care or therapy.
Intussusception is a medical condition in which one part of the intestine slides into the part of the intestine next to it, like a telescoping effect. This can cause a blockage in the digestive system, leading to abdominal pain, vomiting, and sometimes blood in the stool. Intussusception is most common in young children, but it can occur at any age. It is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment to prevent complications such as bowel obstruction, infection, and perforation. Treatment typically involves surgery to reduce the intussusception and remove any damaged tissue.
Antidiarrheals are medications that are used to treat diarrhea, which is characterized by loose, watery stools. They work by slowing down the movement of food through the digestive tract, reducing the number of bowel movements, and thickening the stool. Antidiarrheals are often used to treat acute diarrhea, which is typically caused by an infection or food poisoning, as well as chronic diarrhea, which can be caused by a variety of underlying medical conditions. Some common examples of antidiarrheal medications include loperamide (Imodium), atorvastatin (Lomotil), and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol). It is important to note that antidiarrheals should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may not be appropriate for everyone.
In the medical field, "bathing beaches" typically refer to public beaches that are designated for swimming and other water-based activities. These beaches are often monitored for water quality and safety, and may have regulations in place to ensure that they are clean and safe for swimming. The medical significance of bathing beaches is related to the potential health risks associated with swimming in contaminated water. Waterborne illnesses such as gastrointestinal infections, skin infections, and respiratory infections can be transmitted through contaminated water. Therefore, it is important for individuals to be aware of water quality at bathing beaches and to take appropriate precautions to avoid infection. Medical professionals may also be involved in monitoring water quality at bathing beaches and providing advice to the public on how to stay safe while swimming. This may include recommending that individuals avoid swimming during times of high water pollution, or advising them to shower with soap and water after swimming to reduce the risk of infection.
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Gastroenteritis | Stomach flu | MedlinePlus
Emergent Treatment of Gastroenteritis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Viral Gastroenteritis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
CDC Online Newsroom - Deaths from gastroenteritis double, March 14, 2012
gastroenteritis | Blogs | CDC
Specimens Associated with Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis
WHO EMRO | Rotavirus gastroenteritis | Health topics
Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Bacterial gastroenteritis: Causes, treatment, and prevention
Gastroenteritis - MSD Manual Consumer Version
A to Z: Gastroenteritis | Rady Children's Hospital
Gastroenteritis Plagues Ludhiana's Poor
Stomach Infection (gastroenteritis) - Health Library | NewYork-Presbyterian
Gastroenteritis resident survival guide - wikidoc
A case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis | HKMJ
CHP investigates outbreak of acute gastroenteritis at kindergarten-cum-child care centre in Kwun Tong
What should I feed my child having gastroenteritis?
Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis: Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for Treating Acute...
Monica Martelli was hospitalized with gastroenteritis. See symptoms and treatment - 06/20/2020
Institutional risk factors for outbreaks of nosocomial gastroenteritis: survival analysis of a cohort of hospital units in...
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Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Differential Diagnoses
Incubation Periods of Viral Gastroenteritis
Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
openarchives.gr | Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: Current aspects on etiology,pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment
Details for: Gastroenteritis in the Mid-Western region [Nepal] / › WHO HQ Library catalog
- Gastroenteritis is a major cause of death worldwide," said lead author Aron Hall, D.V.M., M.S.P.H., of the CDC's Division of Viral Diseases. (cdc.gov)
- Viral gastroenteritis is the most common type. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some people call viral gastroenteritis the "stomach flu. (medlineplus.gov)
- An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis linked to municipal water supply, Lombardy, Italy, June 2009. (medscape.com)
- Viral gastroenteritis is an infection of your intestines that typically causes watery diarrhea, pain or cramping in your abdomen, nausea or vomiting, and sometimes fever. (nih.gov)
- People commonly call viral gastroenteritis "stomach flu," but the term is not medically correct. (nih.gov)
- Flu viruses do not cause viral gastroenteritis. (nih.gov)
- The symptoms of viral gastroenteritis include watery diarrhea, pain or cramping in your abdomen, nausea or vomiting, and sometimes fever. (nih.gov)
- Many different viruses can cause viral gastroenteritis. (nih.gov)
- Viral gastroenteritis spreads through contact with small particles of an infected person's stool or vomit. (nih.gov)
- Doctors often diagnose viral gastroenteritis based on your symptoms. (nih.gov)
- In some cases, a medical history, a physical exam, and stool tests can help diagnose viral gastroenteritis. (nih.gov)
- In most cases, you can treat viral gastroenteritis by replacing lost fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration. (nih.gov)
- You can take steps to help prevent viral gastroenteritis, such as washing your hands and disinfecting contaminated surfaces. (nih.gov)
- When you have viral gastroenteritis, you may vomit after you eat or lose your appetite for a short time. (nih.gov)
- New diagnostic laboratory techniques as well as modifications of standard ones have been used by investigators to identify viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. (cdc.gov)
- Abstract: The purpose of this supplement request is to support a complementary and newly developed improved approach to the ongoing studies in our original R01 AI099451 (Title: Gut microflora: Impact on neonatal immunity, viral gastroenteritis and vaccines) by testing a novel probiotic delivery system to prolong the persistence of probiotics in the gut and to enhance their beneficial effects. (nih.gov)
- Viral gastroenteritis is also called 'stomach flu. (medbroadcast.com)
- The symptoms are the telltale signs of viral gastroenteritis in adults and older children. (medbroadcast.com)
- Viral gastroenteritis is spread through contamination of hands, objects or food with infected faeces or vomit. (sa.gov.au)
- Viral gastroenteritis may also be spread through coughing and sneezing. (sa.gov.au)
- No specific antiviral drugs are useful for treating viral gastroenteritis. (sa.gov.au)
- Exclude people with viral gastroenteritis from childcare, preschool, school and work until there has been no diarrhoea or vomiting for at least 24 hours. (sa.gov.au)
- Infants, children and adults with viral gastroenteritis should not swim until there has been no diarrhoea for 24 hours. (sa.gov.au)
- Partly cooked meals, especially poultry, raw egg dishes and shellfish are the most common causes of bacterial and viral gastroenteritis. (freshclub.co.in)
- Viral gastroenteritis (also called the stomach flu) refers to inflammation of the intestines or stomach and typically causes diarrhea or vomiting. (drcayla.com)
- Viral gastroenteritis is one of the most common human diseases, second in incidence only to respiratory infections. (tabletsmanual.com)
- Viral gastroenteritis can be caused by several different viruses and affects people of all ages, gender, ethnicity and economic status. (tabletsmanual.com)
- It is estimated that viral gastroenteritis is responsible for over 5 billion episodes of diarrhea each year. (tabletsmanual.com)
- While the number of cases of bacterial and parasitic gastroenteritis is falling due to gradual improvement of public health and infrastructure, such as sewage system, sanitation, increased availability of drinking water and higher education of population, cases of viral gastroenteritis remains more or less stable with a much slower reduction rate. (tabletsmanual.com)
- Viral gastroenteritis is any gastroenteritis caused by a virus. (tabletsmanual.com)
- Norovirus is the leading cause of acute diarrhea for adults, being responsible for the majority of outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis. (tabletsmanual.com)
- The viral gastroenteritis is called the "stomach flu" in English. (tabletsmanual.com)
- Norovirus is the most widespread cause of viral gastroenteritis. (navi.com)
- Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis transmitted by person-to-person contact, environmental contamination, and unknown modes of transmission--United States, 2009-2013. (medscape.com)
- Background: In Morocco, acute gastroenteritis in children is a public health issue. (who.int)
- Take for example the Epidemic Diseases Hospital, which is seeing five in-patient admissions each day of acute gastroenteritis cases. (deccanherald.com)
- S. enteritidis and S.typhimurium cause acute gastroenteritis.They have a worldwide distribution and they withstand freezing and dry conditions for prolonged periods. (expats.cz)
- Officials at MIT Medical are reporting an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis on campus and reminding everyone in the community to be vigilant about hygiene practices, particularly hand-washing. (mit.edu)
- Norovirus , which causes a severe and acute form of gastroenteritis, can spread quickly, especially in dense, semi-closed communities. (mit.edu)
- Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines, often accompanied by acute diarrhoea and vomiting, stomach cramps and mild fever. (freshclub.co.in)
- A double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial published just last year in kids aged 1 to 10, evaluated the effects of ginger as a treatment for VOMITING, associated with acute gastroenteritis. (drcayla.com)
- Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, a major global health problem for which there are no specific treatments or vaccines. (sciencemission.com)
- 4 viruses were accountable for 54% of the acute gastroenteritis (AGE) instances in children hospitalised in Pune, Maharashtra, from May 2017 through December 2019 [ 2 ]. (navi.com)
- The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health (DH) is today (June 5) investigating an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) at a kindergarten in Sha Tin, and hence reminded the public and management of institutions to maintain personal and environmental hygiene against AGE. (government-world.com)
- Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is an uncommon inflammatory gastrointestinal (GI) disease affecting both children and adults. (medscape.com)
- The underlying molecular mechanism predisposing to the clinical manifestation of eosinophilic gastroenteritis is unknown. (medscape.com)
- Although these diseases are idiopathic, recent investigations support the role of eosinophils, T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines (interleukin [IL]-3, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and eotaxin as the critical factors in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. (medscape.com)
- Patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis have elevated IgE and eosinophilia of tissue and blood. (medscape.com)
- The number of people who died from gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines that causes vomiting and diarrhea) more than doubled from 1999 to 2007, according to a study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
- Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines. (medlineplus.gov)
- Gastroenteritis literally means inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. (medbroadcast.com)
- Gastroenteritis is a term that means inflammation of the stomach and intestines. (tabletsmanual.com)
- When inflammation of the stomach is predominantly gastroenteritis, nausea and vomiting are prominent symptoms. (tabletsmanual.com)
- Stomach flu or gastroenteritis is the inflammation of the intestinal system's lining caused by bacteria, virus or toxins that lead to dehydration, vomiting or nausea, abdominal cramps and pain, watery diarrhoea and fever [ 1 ]. (navi.com)
- Providers may also give other medicines for certain types of gastroenteritis, such as antibiotics for some bacterial types and antiparasitic medicines for some parasitic types. (medlineplus.gov)
- Bacterial gastroenteritis is also known as 'food poisoning' and is caused by food that has been prepared or stored improperly. (medbroadcast.com)
Stomach and intestines1
- Lengthy bouts of vomiting and diarrhea can be a sign that your pet has gastroenteritis, a common condition that occurs when the lining of the stomach and intestines becomes irritated. (happytailsleesburg.com)
Form of gastroenteritis1
- Norovirus is the typical form of gastroenteritis in adults and older children. (medbroadcast.com)
Cases of gastroenteritis3
- Cases of gastroenteritis cases are increasing in Bengaluru following a steady rise in temperature. (deccanherald.com)
- Severe untreated cases of gastroenteritis terminate fatally in 2 to 7 days. (iastate.edu)
- We focused our study in the human norovirus pandemic strain GII.4, the one responsible for causing most cases of gastroenteritis around the world," said the first author. (sciencemission.com)
Outbreak of gastroenteritis1
- If an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurs and CDC's assistance is needed, early contact with appropriate persons at CDC for information about specimen collection is strongly encouraged. (cdc.gov)
Outbreaks of gastroenteritis3
- Recent discoveries have implicated a number of 'new' (i.e., previously unrecognized) infectious agents as important causes of outbreaks of gastroenteritis. (cdc.gov)
- The information in this report is especially intended for public health agencies that collaborate with CDC in investigating outbreaks of gastroenteritis. (cdc.gov)
- The guidelines and the general information provided on causes of outbreaks of gastroenteritis can be also used by public health workers for investigations when specific testing is available and appropriate. (cdc.gov)
- Because the cause of gastroenteritis isn't always immediately apparent, any information you can provide will help the veterinarian make a diagnosis. (happytailsleesburg.com)
- Read on to get a detailed overview of stomach flu or gastroenteritis and its symptoms, types, diagnosis, treatment and complications. (navi.com)
- The norovirus gastroenteritis usually causes symptoms 1-3 days after contamination. (tabletsmanual.com)
Caused by norovirus2
- If the gastroenteritis is known or suspected to be caused by norovirus, the exclusion period is 48 hours. (sa.gov.au)
- Gastroenteritis caused by norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus may result from a mild illness with fever and mild diarrhea, to a very serious picture, with high fever and dozens of episodes of vomiting and diarrhea throughout the day. (tabletsmanual.com)
- When gastroenteritis is caused by consuming foods or drinks contaminated with viruses, bacteria, parasites, or chemicals, this is called food poisoning . (medlineplus.gov)
- The viruses, bacteria, and parasites that cause gastroenteritis can also spread from person to person. (medlineplus.gov)
- Use of direct electron microscopy (EM), coupled with immunologic techniques (e.g., immune EM and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs)) and serologic studies, has enhanced understanding of viruses as a major cause of gastroenteritis. (cdc.gov)
- Viruses such as the norovirus (formerly known as Norwalk virus ) cause gastroenteritis. (medbroadcast.com)
- Besides the norovirus, three other viruses are also common causes of gastroenteritis in North America: the rotavirus , the astrovirus , and the adenovirus , which tend to cause disease in infants and young children. (medbroadcast.com)
- The actual rate of infection with these viruses is far higher than the rate of gastroenteritis. (medbroadcast.com)
- Despite the flu virus does not cause gastroenteritis, the analogy is made due to the similarities between the modes of transmission and ease of contagion of these viruses. (tabletsmanual.com)
- What are the symptoms of gastroenteritis? (medlineplus.gov)
- If you or a family member are at higher risk and have symptoms of gastroenteritis, contact a health care provider right away. (medlineplus.gov)
- Stomach Flu or Gastroenteritis - What are the Causes, Symptoms, and How is It Diagnosed and Treated? (navi.com)
- Here's a quick glance at the symptoms, causes, prevention and treatment of gastroenteritis. (navi.com)
- Gastroenteritis symptoms usually emerge 1 or 2 days after infection and can last for 1 week or 2 in some instances. (navi.com)
- Bottle-fed babies are more likely to contract gastroenteritis than those who are breast-fed because they are not receiving the 'natural' immunity from their mothers' milk and because they are exposed to many more areas of potential contamination - the bottle, the teat, the formula and the milk or water used to prepare it. (freshclub.co.in)
- Since frequent diarrhea and vomiting can lead to dehydration, a visit to the veterinarian is a good idea if you notice any of the signs of gastroenteritis. (happytailsleesburg.com)
- While gastroenteritis is often associated with DIARRHOEA and 'traveller's tummy, it occurs most often at home - usually as a result of poor HYGIENE or carelessness. (freshclub.co.in)
- Food poisoning results when a person eats food that has grown bacteria that can cause gastroenteritis. (medbroadcast.com)
- Gastroenteritis can be caused by several factors, such as infection by parasites and bacteria, drugs, alcohol , or diseases such as lactose intolerance , Crohn's disease or celiac disease . (tabletsmanual.com)
- Rotavirus gastroenteritis is common in infants and young children. (who.int)
- The forms of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis fell over 95% in the vaccinated population. (tabletsmanual.com)
- The primary subtypes, which have also been called idiopathic or allergic gastroenteritis, include the atopic, nonatopic, and familial subtypes. (medscape.com)
- Rotavirus gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus that infects the stomach and bowel. (who.int)
- The clinical and molecular epidemiology of community- and healthcare-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis. (medscape.com)
- Usually, people with gastroenteritis get better on their own, with rest and plenty of fluids and electrolytes . (medlineplus.gov)
- The goal of this activity is that learners will be better able to improve clinicians' understanding of how syndromic testing and cycle threshold (Ct) values can be used in the management of patients with gastroenteritis. (medscape.com)
- CDC scientists used data from the National Center for Health Statistics to identify gastroenteritis-associated deaths from 1999 to 2007 among all age groups in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- Whether you are concerned that your pet may have gastroenteritis or another illness, or it's time for your pet's annual examination, we're committed to helping you maintain your furry friend's health. (happytailsleesburg.com)