The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
A histamine H2 agonist used clinically to test gastric secretory function.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
Retrograde flow of duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the STOMACH.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and can inhibit the growth of experimental tumors.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.
A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.
Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The consumption of edible substances.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Glucose in blood.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Schubert, Mitchell L. (2014-11-01). "Gastric secretion". Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 30 (6): 578-582. doi:10.1097/MOG. ... Helicobacter also exhibits a tropism for gastric epithelial lining and the gastric mucosal layer about it. Gastric colonization ... The duodenum contains Brunner's glands which produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate. These secretions, ... and gastric ATPase ATP4A and gastric intrinsic factor GIF, expressed in parietal cells of the stomach mucosa. Specific proteins ...
... can cause increased gastric acid secretion, diminished bicarbonate secretion, diminished mucus secretion and diminished trophic ... Schubert, ML (November 2014). "Gastric secretion". Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 30 (6): 578-82. doi:10.1097/MOG.0000000000000125. ... The secretion of various molecules into the lumen reinforces the barrier function on the extra-epithelial side, while a variety ... The gastric acid produced by the stomach can also kill microorganisms. Both contribute to intestinal barrier function although ...
... stimulates gastric-acid secretion. Cortisol's only direct effect on the hydrogen-ion excretion of the kidneys is to ... High-potassium media (which stimulates aldosterone secretion in vitro) also stimulate cortisol secretion from the fasciculata ... The secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone by the hypothalamus triggers cells in the neighboring anterior pituitary to ... The elevated level of estrogen stimulates prostaglandin secretion and oxytocin receptor development.) Exposure of fetuses to ...
Feng studied human gastric secretion. In 1929, Feng won the Boxer Rebellion Indemnity Scholarship Program at Tsinghua ... Feng did research on thyroid secretion, with Zhang Xijun (张锡钧, who later elected Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences). ...
It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used to induce pancreatitis in ...
It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as ... is a ten amino acid oligopeptide that stimulates smooth muscle and increases digestive secretions. Ceruletide is similar in ...
The encoded protein inhibits gastric acid secretion. This gene and two other related trefoil family member genes are found in a ... 2003). "Expression of TFF2 and Helicobacter pylori infection in carcinogenesis of gastric mucosa". World J. Gastroenterol. 9 (5 ...
A quantitative study of the effect of vagotomy on gastric secretion in the dog. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 67:350-51. With E. ... Effect of resection of antrum of stomach on gastric secretion in Pavlov pouch dogs. Am. J. Physiol., 162:99-109. 1951 With H. A ... Quantitative study of effect of antrum resection on gastric secretion in Pavlov pouch dogs. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 68:473- ... Effects of total pancreatectomy on gastric secretion. Surg. Forum, 7:380-82. 1962 Section of the vagus nerves to the stomach in ...
Medicine: C. edulis can regulate gastric secretion. A study showed that the consumption of the plant enhances the production of ...
... is a proton pump inhibitor that decreases gastric acid secretion. It works by inactivating (H+/K+)-ATPase function ... In the gastric parietal cell of the stomach, pantoprazole covalently binds to the H+/K+ ATP pump to inhibit gastric acid and ... Sachs G, Shin JM, Hunt R (December 2010). "Novel approaches to inhibition of gastric acid secretion". Current Gastroenterology ... It may be used to prevent gastric ulcers in those taking NSAIDs. Pantoprazole is only indicated for the short-term treatment of ...
"Inhibition of food-stimulated gastric acid secretion by cimetidine". Gut. 17 (3): 161-8. doi:10.1136/gut.17.3.161. PMC 1411161 ... "Inhibition of nocturnal acid secretion in duodenal ulcer by one oral dose of metiamide". Lancet. 1 (7860): 693-4. doi:10.1016/ ... refining new techniques to assess acid secretion, and demonstrating efficacy in duodenal ulcer disease, a common cause of ...
It has been used as a gastric stimulant to test for maximal production of gastric secretion activity. The test can be used in ... Wruble LD Cummins AJ Goldenberg J Schapiro H (1967). "The effect of intravenous histalog on gastric secretion in man". ... Stoller JL Holubitsky IB Harrison RC Munro AI (1970). "Complications of the histalog test of gastric acid secretion". Digestive ... Hammond JB, Offen WW (1988). "Effect of nizatidine and cimetidine on betazole-stimulated gastric secretion of normal subjects: ...
Gastric secretion at this phase rises to 40% of maximum rate. Acidity in the stomach is not buffered by food at this point and ... Inhibition of gastrin and gastric acid secretion is lifted. This triggers G cells to release gastrin, which in turn stimulates ... Secretion of gastrin is stimulated by food arriving in stomach. The secretion is inhibited by low pH. Secretin - is in the ... Gastric juice mainly contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin. In infants and toddlers gastric juice also contains rennin. As the ...
In the stomach, TGF-α is manufactured within the normal gastric mucosa. TGF-α has been shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion ... This protein shows potential use as a prognostic biomarker in various tumors, like gastric carcinoma. or melanoma has been ... Nasim MM, Thomas DM, Alison MR, Filipe MI (1992). "Transforming growth factor alpha expression in normal gastric mucosa, ... MMP-9 and CXCR4 proteins involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition on overall survival of patients with gastric cancer". ...
It has been used diagnostically as a gastric secretion indicator. Histamine agonists Durant G, Duncan W, Ganellin C, Parsons M ...
It has been found that elfazepam suppresses gastric acid secretion. Benzophenone derivative 1 is reacted with a glycine ... Van Den Broek GW, Robertson J, Keim DA, Baile CA (July 1979). "Feeding and depression of abomasal secretion in sheep elicited ...
"The mechanism of histamine secretion from gastric enterochromaffin-like cells". The American Journal of Physiology. 277 (5 Pt 1 ... "Neurohormonal modulation of rat enterochromaffin-like cell histamine secretion". Gastroenterology. 110 (4): 1084-92. doi: ...
"Effects of cinitapride on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats". Inflammation Research. 47 (3): 131-6. doi:10.1007/ ... non-ulcer dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. It may be also used in the management of nausea and vomiting. Benzamide ... "Cinitapride protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats: role of 5-hydroxytryptamine, prostaglandins and ...
Duodenal ulcer patients tend to have higher than normal basal and maximal rate of gastric acid secretion, while gastric ulcer ... G-34 promotes the secretion of gastric acid in dogs. In dogs, the half life of this peptide is between 14.7 and 16.8 minutes. ... Binding of gastrin to the receptors in stomach can cause the secretion of hydrochloric acids (HCl), the gastric acid. ... After a meal, the concentration of G34 was increased in both duodenal ulcer patients and gastric ulcer patients, which ...
It does so without affecting the secretion of gastric acid. It has a potential to stimulate Hsp70 expression, with ... It is an approved drug requiring a medical prescription in Japan and South Korea where it is clinically used to treat gastric ... Zinc L-carnosine (ZnC), which is clinically used as gastric ulcer treatment in Japan, has been suggested to have the potential ... It has been shown to stimulate mucus production and to maintain the integrity of the gastric mucosal barrier. It maintains ...
The presence of ECL cells is critical in regulation of endocrine-induced gastric acid secretion. ECL cells histologically ... "The mechanism of histamine secretion from gastric enterochromaffin-like cells". The American Journal of Physiology. 277 (5 Pt 1 ... Thompson, M; Fleming, K. A.; Evans, D. J.; Fundele, R; Surani, M. A.; Wright, N. A. (1990). "Gastric endocrine cells share a ... "Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells" are a population of cells that are found in the gastric pits of the stomach luminal ...
Josefssson, M.; Ekblad, E. (2009). "Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in Gastric Mucosa: Gastric Iodide Secretion". In Preedy, ... Gastric cancer. Some researchers have found an epidemiologic correlation between iodine deficiency, iodine-deficient goitre, ... In the proposed mechanism, the iodide ion functions in gastric mucosa as an antioxidant reducing species that detoxifies ... gastric mucosa, cervix, cerebrospinal fluid, arterial walls, ovary and salivary glands. In the cells of these tissues the ...
Vasovagal episode Vagus influence on gastric secretions. Herman MA, Cruz MT, Sahibzada N, Verbalis J, Gillis RA (January 2009 ... The vagal afferents are activated during the gastric phase of digestion when the corpus and fundus of the stomach are distended ... If vagal innervation is interrupted then intra-gastric pressure increases. This is a potential cause of vomiting due to the ... The stimulation of the mechanical receptors located in the gastric mucosa stimulates the vagus afferents. The completion of the ...
As vagotomy decreases gastric secretion, intrinsic factor production can be impaired. Intrinsic factor is needed to absorb ... PUD was thought to be due to excess secretion of the acid environment in the stomach, or at least that PUD was made worse by ... Siu WT, Tang CN, Law BK, Chau CH, Yau KK, Yang GP, Li MK (October 2004). "Vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy for benign gastric ... Boey J, Branicki FJ, Alagaratnam TT, Fok PJ, Choi S, Poon A, Wong J (August 1988). "Proximal gastric vagotomy. The preferred ...
He studied the secretion of gastric acid, thought at that time to be the most important factor in the development of duodenal ... His paper describing this test, Effect of Large Doses of Histamine on Gastric Secretion of HCl, became the single most cited ... Kay, A. W. (11 July 1953). "Effect of Large Doses of Histamine on Gastric Secretion of HCl". British Medical Journal. 2 (4827 ... was given an antihistamine which blocked all of the effects of histamine apart from its effect on gastric acid secretion. This ...
... irreversibly blocks the enzyme system on parietal cells that is needed for the secretion of gastric acid. It is a ... This is the enzyme needed for the final step in the secretion of gastric acid. Omeprazole is a selective and irreversible ... No association is seen between PPI use and cancer, but use of PPIs may mask gastric cancers or other serious gastric problems ... "Substituted benzimidazoles inhibit gastric acid secretion by blocking (H+ + K+) ATPase". Nature. 290 (5802): 159-61. Bibcode: ...
Stomach enteroendocrine cells, which release gastrin, and stimulate gastric acid secretion. Enterochromaffin cells are ... Secrete motilin Gastric enteroendocrine cells are found in the gastric glands, mostly at their base. The G cells secrete ... They modulate bile secretion, exocrine pancreas secretion, and satiety. ... "Impaired gastric acid secretion in gastrin-deficient mice". The American Journal of Physiology. 274 (3 Pt 1): G561-8. doi: ...
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) block the gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) and inhibit gastric acid secretion. ... These new agents can in a reversible and competitive fashion inhibit the final step in the gastric acid secretion with respect ... It is thus hypothesized that a longer half-life results in a more prolonged inhibition of gastric acid secretion, especially ... Even though consumption of food stimulates acid secretion and acid secretion activates PPIs, PPIs cannot inhibit all pumps. ...
Kay, A. W. (1953). "Effect of Large Doses of Histamine on Gastric Secretion of HCl". British Medical Journal. 2 (4827): 77-80. ...
Boss Jr EG, Buchanan GC (November 1957). "Effect of isopropamide iodide on basal gastric secretion in the human". ...
... only a minor defect in insulin secretion and others with slight insulin resistance and primarily a lack of insulin secretion.[ ... not all people with insulin resistance develop diabetes since an impairment of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells is ...
... secretion mey occur in mony tishies. Endocrine glands are the cardinal example, but speicialised cells in various ither ... the amoonts o gastric juice an pancreatic juice) acome the input o the smaw thairm, the smaw thairm secretes hormones tae ... Hormone secretion occurs in response tae speceefic biochemical seegnals frae a wide range o regulatory systems. For instance, ... Upon secretion, certaint hormones, includin protein hormones an catecholamines, are watter-soluble an are sicweys readily ...
Initial secretion of bradykinin post-natally causes constriction and eventual atrophy of the ductus arteriosus, forming the ... and Tumor Growth of Gastric Cancer Through ERK Signaling Pathway". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 118 (12): 4444-4453. doi: ... Bradykinins have been implicated in cell proliferation and migration in gastric cancers,[18] and bradykinin antagonists have ...
When treating liver malignancies and metastases, it is possible for collateral radiation to cause gastric, stomach or duodenal ... Changes in prolactin-secretion is usually mild, and vasopressin deficiency appears to be very rare as a consequence of ...
hormone secretion. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • response to peptide. • cellular response to hormone stimulus. ... "Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer". Mamm. Genome. 16 (12): 942-54. doi:10.1007/s00335-005-0075-2. PMID 16341674.. ... negative regulation of cytokine secretion. • positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade. • regulation of glucose transport. • ... "Free fatty acids regulate gut incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion through GPR120". Nat. Med. 11 (1): 90-4. doi:10.1038/ ...
The first stage is the cephalic phase of digestion which begins with gastric secretions in response to the sight and smell of ... Gastric lipase secreted by the chief cells in the fundic glands in the gastric mucosa of the stomach, is an acidic lipase, in ... Within its mucosa are millions of embedded gastric glands. Their secretions are vital to the functioning of the organ. ... Gastric acid (informally gastric juice), produced in the stomach plays a vital role in the digestive process, and mainly ...
Xiao M, Qiu X, Yue D, Cai Y, Mo Q (2013). "Influence of hippophae rhamnoides on two appetite factors, gastric emptying and ... Due to D2 receptor blockade, domperidone causes hyperprolactinemia.[35] Hyperprolactinemia can suppress the secretion of ... Along with prolactin, domperidone has, to a lesser extent, been found to increase the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone ... Gastroparesis is a medical condition characterised by delayed emptying of the stomach when there is no mechanical gastric ...
"Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer". Mammalian Genome. 16 (12): 942-54. doi:10.1007/s00335-005-0075-2. PMID ... "Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins ...
... opposes the actions of ghrelin which are growth hormone secretion and increased appetite.[3] The purpose of producing ... "Ghrelin and obestatin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without delayed gastric emptying". Dig. Dis. Sci. 54 (10): ... "The ghrelin/obestatin balance in the physiological and pathological control of growth hormone secretion, body composition and ... "Obestatin partially affects ghrelin stimulation of food intake and growth hormone secretion in rodents". Endocrinology. 148 (4 ...
Thus it is reasonable either to neutralize acid or to inhibit its secretion in patients at high risk. In case of severe ... Ordinary peptic ulcers are found commonly in the gastric antrum and the duodenum whereas stress ulcers are found commonly in ... Patients who develop stress ulcers typically do not secrete large quantities of gastric acid; however, acid does appear to be ... In selected patients, either endoscopic therapy or selective infusion of vasopressin into the left gastric artery may help ...
... inhibition of gastric acid secretion, stimulation of DNA synthesis as well as mucosal protection from intraluminal injurious ... protein secretion. If norepinephrine binds β-adrenergic receptors, it will result in more protein or enzyme secretion vs. fluid ... Salivary secretion is also associated with nausea. Saliva is usually formed in the mouth through an act called gleeking, which ... of secretion, while the parotid gland secretes about 20-25% and small amounts are secreted from the other salivary glands.[7] ...
"MicroRNA-9 reduces cell invasion and E-cadherin secretion in SK-Hep-1 cell". Med Oncol. 27 (3): 654-60. doi:10.1007/s12032-009- ... "Down-regulated miR-9 and miR-433 in human gastric carcinoma". J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 28 (1): 82. doi:10.1186/1756-9966-28-82. ... "Regulation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB1 by microRNA-9 in human gastric adenocarcinoma". Mol Cancer. 9 (1): 16. doi: ...
This results in constitutive cAMP production, which in turn leads to the secretion of water, sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate ... is less in those with lowered gastric acidity (for instance those using proton pump inhibitors).[14] Children are also more ...
The first secretes no gastric juices and has very thick muscular walls to crush the food (since whales cannot chew) and resist ... The irritation of the intestines caused by squid beaks stimulates the secretion of this lubricant-like substance. Sperm whales ...
The secretion is often sticky and distasteful or toxic.[129] Snakes have been observed yawning and gaping when trying to ... The female gastric-brooding frog (Rheobatrachus spp.) reared larvae in her stomach after swallowing either the eggs or ... This stimulates the secretion of fluids rich in lipids and mucoproteins on which they feed along with scrapings from the ... The secretions produced by these help keep the skin moist. In addition, most species of amphibian have granular glands that ...
Tissues in humans that produce secretions include the gastrointestinal tract which secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid ... Type I secretion system (T1SS or TOSS)[edit]. Type I secretion is a chaperone dependent secretion system employing the Hly and ... Secretion in gram-positive bacteria[edit]. Main article: Bacterial secretion system. In some Staphylococcus and Streptococcus ... Type V secretion system (T5SS)[edit]. See also: Trimeric autotransporter adhesin § Type V secretion system (T5SS) ...
If the time of the overdose is known and presentation is within two hours of ingestion, activated charcoal, gastric lavage, and ... and cardiac muscle and for regulating aldosterone and cortisol secretion in endocrine cells of the adrenal cortex.[5] In the ...
Pheochromocytoma[35] (most often located in the adrenal medulla) increases secretion of catecholamines such as epinephrine and ... Neurogenic hypertension - excessive secretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine which promotes vasoconstriction resulting from ... Pheochromocytoma - a tumor which results in an excessive secretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine which promotes ... More commonly, however, tumors cause inessential hypertension by ectopic secretion of hormones involved in normal physiological ...
Cultures from other sites such as respiratory secretions, urine, wounds, cerebrospinal fluid, and catheter insertion sites (in- ... Medication to prevent deep vein thrombosis and gastric ulcers also may be used.[10] ... or respiratory secretions, also should be obtained, as long as this does not delay the use of antibiotics.[10] ...
negative regulation of gastric acid secretion. • phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ...
"Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-β1 from prostate cancer cells". ... "Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curative resections of gastric cancer", Cancer ...
This results in decreased gastric acid secretion and gastric volume, and reduced hydrogen ion concentration. ... The drug increases gastric pH, but generally has no effect on gastric volume. In a 2009 meta-analysis comparing the net benefit ... With gastric malignancies, relief of symptoms due to the use of ranitidine does not exclude the presence of a gastric ... ranitidine was found to be more effective than proton pump inhibitors in reducing the volume of gastric secretions.[10] ...
Blockade of COX-1 by aspirin apparently results in the upregulation of COX-2 as part of a gastric defense[96] and that taking ... and it is known to compete with penicillin G for renal tubular secretion.[120] Aspirin may also inhibit the absorption of ... Konturek PC, Kania J, Hahn EG, Konturek JW (November 2006). "Ascorbic acid attenuates aspirin-induced gastric damage: role of ... Wallace JL (October 2008). "Prostaglandins, NSAIDs, and gastric mucosal protection: why doesn't the stomach digest itself?". ...
... bronchial secretions, bronchoconstriction, bradycardia, abdominal cramping, increased gastric acid secretion, diarrhea and ... Gastric and small bowel colic leads to diarrhea, and there is a painful urge for urination. Bronchoconstriction leads to ...
Other secretions from the pancreas, gallbladder, liver, and glands in the intestinal wall help in digestion. ... This fluid neutralizes the gastric juices, which can damage the lining of the intestine and result in duodenal ulcer. ... Chyme is part liquid and part solid: a thick semifluid mass of partially digested food and digestive secretions that is formed ... The duodenum also produces the hormone secretin to stimulate the pancreatic secretion of large amounts of sodium bicarbonate, ...
... such as gastric secretion, gastric emptying, and intestinal motility. ... CB1 is shown to co-localize with the food intake ... orexin-A acts centrally to regulate gastrointestinal functions such as gastric and pancreatic secretion, and gastrointestinal ... including gastric emptying, gastric interdigestive motility (Naslund et al., 2002; Ehrstrom et al., 2005a,b2005b; Bulbul et al ... increases duodenal secretion in normal fed but not in fasted animals, by an effect that is independent of cholinergic pathways ...
Reducing gastric reflux[edit]. The stomach produces gastric acid, a strongly acidic mixture consisting of hydrochloric acid ( ... These are separated by the myenteric plexus, a tangled network of nerve fibers involved in the secretion of mucus and in ... Reflux of gastric acids from the stomach, infection, substances ingested (for example, corrosives), some medications (such as ... All these veins drain into the superior vena cava, with the exception of the left gastric vein, which is a branch of the portal ...
Grandison L (1982). "Suppression of prolactin secretion by benzodiazepines in vivo". Neuroendocrinology. 34 (5): 369-73. doi: ... Bateman DN (1986). "The action of cisapride on gastric emptying and the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of oral diazepam ...
During fasting-state the increased free fatty acid secretion by adipocyte cells was attributed to the hormone epinephrine, ...
High-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide can cause the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and a ... but the phosphate bond would be cleaved in gastric cancers and other tumors which had a high phosphamidase content. However, in ...
The gastric mucosa secretes 1.2 to 1.5 litres of gastric juice per day. Gastric juice renders food particles soluble, initiates ... Gastric juice is a variable mixture of water, hydrochloric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, sulfate, ... digestion (particularly of proteins), and converts the gastric contents to a semiliquid mass called chyme, thus preparing it ... Gastric secretion. The gastric mucosa secretes 1.2 to 1.5 litres of gastric juice per day. Gastric juice renders food particles ...
1. The gastric and intestinal phases of gastric secretion were selectively evoked by meals of 5% liver extract or saline in ... Inhibition of gastric secretion by fat and hypertonic glucose in the dog: role of gastric inhibitory peptide.. *Creutzfeldt W ... 1. The gastric and intestinal phases of gastric secretion were selectively evoked by meals of 5% liver extract or saline in ... Gastric secretion in response to 5% liver extract in the stomach was significantly inhibited at the highest dose (10 or 20%) ...
Effect of large doses of histamine on gastric secretion of HCl (1953) BMJ 2009; 338 :b1270 ... In the routine histamine test of gastric secretion the dose of histamine advised has been determined arbitrarily as being ... Effect of large doses of histamine on gastric secretion of HCl (1953) ... Effect of large doses of histamine on gastric secretion of HCl (1953) ...
Modulation of gastric acid secretion, in particular the role of cAMP and the proton pump, is described. Peptic ulcer is a major ... Histamine, histamine H2-receptor antagonists, gastric acid secretion and ulcers: an overview.. Pattichis K1, Louca LL. ...
Gastric inhibitory peptide. Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) decreases both gastric acid release and motility.. ... Gastric rugae · gastric pits · cardia/gland · fundus/gland · pylorus/gland · pyloric antrum · pyloric canal · greater curvature ... Blood supply to the stomach: left and right gastric artery, left and right gastro-omental artery and short gastric artery.[5] ... The lesser curvature of the stomach is supplied by the right gastric artery inferiorly, and the left gastric artery superiorly ...
Pentagastrin was used i.p. for stimulation of gastric acid secretion. The gastric contents were collected by the wash-out ... The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of traffic noise on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion. 48 healthy ... Traffic noise exposure increases gastric acid secretion in rat.. [Azam Moslehi, Fatemeh Nabavizadeh-Rafsanjani, Mansoor ... In the 1, 7, 14 and 21 days traffic noise exposure, basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion increased compared ...
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
Gastric acid secretion - Callithrix jacchus (white-tufted-ear marmoset) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , ... Gastric acid is a key factor in normal upper gastrointestinal functions, including protein digestion and calcium and iron ... The principal stimulants of acid secretion at the level of the parietal cell are histamine (paracrine), gastrin (hormonal), and ... from cytoplasmic tubulovesicles to the apical plasma membrane and thereby H+ secretion into the stomach lumen. ...
The mechanism(s) by which surgeries such as Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) leads to favorable effects on glucose metabolism ... RYGB is associated with altered secretion of enteroendocrine hormones, leading to the belief that these hormones contribute to ... 24958127 - Ghrelin augments the expressions and secretions of proinflammatory adipokines, vegf120 .... 23017717 - Adiponectin ... the improvement in insulin secretion and action as well as satiation after this procedure. However, it is important to consider ...
We show here that such strains translocate the bacterial protein CagA into gastric epithelial cells by a type IV secretion ... Translocation of Helicobacter pylori CagA into Gastric Epithelial Cells by Type IV Secretion ... Translocation of Helicobacter pylori CagA into Gastric Epithelial Cells by Type IV Secretion ... Translocation of Helicobacter pylori CagA into Gastric Epithelial Cells by Type IV Secretion ...
Inhibition of Stimulated Gastric Secretion by an Orally Administered Prostaglandin Capsule: A Study in Normal Men Annals of ... Gastric Secretion in Ulcerogenic Tumors of the Pancreas Annals of Internal Medicine; 67 (4): 808-815 ... Gastric Secretion in Chronic Pancreatitis Annals of Internal Medicine; 63 (5): 776-782 ... Effect of Hepatocellular Injury on Gastric Secretion. Annals of Internal Medicine; 58 (4): 725 ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Inhibition of Stimulated Gastric Secretion by an Orally Administered Prostaglandin Capsule: A Study in Normal Men Annals of ... GASTRIC SECRETION IN CASES OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA* HENDRIK M. ROZENDAAL, M.D.; RICHARD N. WASHBURN, M.D. ... GASTRIC SECRETION IN CASES OF PERNICIOUS ANEMIA*. Ann Intern Med. 1938;11:1834-1837. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-11- ... a number of reported cases of pernicious anemia in which free hydrochloric acid was present in the gastric contents. Alsted was ...
Gastric Bypass Surgery Enhances Glucagon-Like Peptide 1-Stimulated Postprandial Insulin Secretion in Humans. ... Gastric Bypass Surgery Enhances Glucagon-Like Peptide 1-Stimulated Postprandial Insulin Secretion in Humans ... Gastric Bypass Surgery Enhances Glucagon-Like Peptide 1-Stimulated Postprandial Insulin Secretion in Humans ... Gastric Bypass Surgery Enhances Glucagon-Like Peptide 1-Stimulated Postprandial Insulin Secretion in Humans ...
The Effects of Omeprazole on Gastric Secretion in Man C.W. Howden; C.W. Howden ... C.W. Howden, J.A.H. Forrest, J.L. Reid; The Effects of Omeprazole on Gastric Secretion in Man. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 February 1983 ...
OEC and LIM do not interfere with gastric H(+) secretion, serum gastrin or glutathione (GSH) level in gastric mucosa. But the ... Effects of limonene and essential oil from Citrus aurantium on gastric mucosa: role of prostaglandins and gastric mucus ... Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX- ... This specie is also used medicinally throughout the world to treat gastritis and gastric disorders. Therefore, biological ...
Hormonal and Neural Control of Insulin Secretion Following Gastric Bypass Surgery Brief Summary RYGB (roux-en-y gastric bypass ... Role of Neural and Hormonal Regulation Factors on Insulin Secretion After Gastric Bypass Surgery. The safety and scientific ... Role of Neural and Hormonal Regulation Factors on Insulin Secretion After Gastric Bypass Surgery ... RYGB (roux-en-y gastric bypass) has been reported to reverse type 2 diabetes (T2DM) immediately after surgery before any ...
Gastric secretion was stimulated by constant intravenous infusion of pentagastrin, 1 µg/kg per hour. Exogenous secretin ... Results support the conclusion that the regulatory effect of secretin on gastrin-stimulated gastric secretion is impaired ... In contrast, duodenal stimulation with HCl did not inhibit acid and pepsin secretion in dogs tested during the 1st week ... Pentagastrin-stimulated acid and pepsin secretion, and the influence of secretin on these processes, were measured in dogs ...
Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to influence gastric secretion in various animal models. The present study was ... has previously been detected in the glandular part of the human gastric mucosa. ... Gastric Acid / secretion*. Gastric Acidity Determination. Gastric Mucosa / drug effects, enzymology, metabolism*. Histamine / ... 25] have reported that both histamine and db-cAMP stimulated gastric acid secretion from isolated human gastric glands, and ...
... in inhibition of gastric acid secretion induced by intraduodenal administration of oleic acid in rats. Intraduodenal ad ... Chey WY, Hitanant S, Hendricks J, Lorber SH: Effect of secretin and cholecystokinin on gastric emptying and gastric secretion ... Ghosh MN, Schild HO: Continuous recording of acid gastric secretion in the rat. Brt J Pharmacol 13:54-61, 1958Google Scholar ... gastric acid secretion oleic acid secretin cholecystokinin anti-secretin serum cholecystokinin-receptor antagonist ...
The role of gastric urease in acid secretion. R. E. Davies, H. L. Kornberg ...
Influence of gamma-oryzanol on circadian rhythms of serum gastrin, 11-OHCS and gastric secretion in rats (authors transl)] ... Suppresive patterns of serum gastrin and gastric secretion following the pretreatment with gamma-oryzanol corresponded to the ... for 5 days tended to decrease serum gastrin levels and gastric secretion, and to increase serum 11-OHCS. ...
Impact of Combined of Lantus(Insulin Glargine) and Lyxumia (Lixisenatide) on Insulin Secretion and Gastric Emptying. The safety ... Impact of combined Lantus (insulin glargine) and Lyxumia(lixisenatide) on insulin secretion and gastric emptying ... Impact of combined Lantus (insulin glargine) and Lyxumia(lixisenatide) on insulin secretion and gastric emptying ... on Insulin Secretion and Gastric Emptying in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Not Adequately Controlled on Diet and Oral ...
GASTRIC ANATOMY. GASTRIC MOTILITY. Receptive Relaxation Stomach is empty and contracted initially Slideshow 2120123 by sybil ... Secretions. Mel & Dave (plus Poppy helped). Any errors found in this presentation are Mels fault, anything good thank Dave. ... Gastric hormones are also secreted by the gastric glands - these are responsible for controlling the secretion of gastric juice ... Hormonal control in the Digestive system: Gastric hormones -. gastrin: secretion: by enteroendocrine (g) cells in gastric pits ...
Which of the following does not occur during the gastric phase of gastric secretion?. A). Gastrin begins to be secreted by the ... Three Phases of Gastric Secretion. View the animation below, then complete the quiz to test your knowledge of the concept. ... Which of the following inhibits the secretion of the gastric glands?. A). duodenum pH of less than two. ... Which of the following hormones does not inhibit gastric gland secretions?. A). secretin. ...
... Chen, D ; Zhao, CM ; Håkanson, Rolf LU ... Background & Aims: Three pathways control gastric acid secretion: the gastrin-enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell axis, the vagus- ... Background & Aims: Three pathways control gastric acid secretion: the gastrin-enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell axis, the vagus- ... article{f5e2779a-b97e-48fb-822c-da4723aa1ec7, abstract = {Background & Aims: Three pathways control gastric acid secretion: the ...
Stimulation of Insulin Secretion by Intravenous Bolus Injection and Continuous Infusion of Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide in ... The effects of GIP on gastric acid secretion will be reported in a separate communication. A hyperglycemic clamp aiming at a ... Stimulation of Insulin Secretion by Intravenous Bolus Injection and Continuous Infusion of Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide in ... Stimulation of Insulin Secretion by Intravenous Bolus Injection and Continuous Infusion of Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide in ...
Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association ... Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association ... TSPAN8, identified by Escherichia coli ampicillin secretion trap, is associated with cell growth and invasion in gastric cancer ...
Indeed, gastric acid secreted by parietal cells and the gastric pepsin activity, but not the intestinal alkaline content, are ... In this chapter, we describe the pathophysiology and important pathways, especially acid gastric contents and reactive oxygen ... disease is a chronic disease characterized by the recurrent ascension of some of the gastric contents in the esophagus. ... 2. Mechanism of acidic gastric secretion. Gastric secretion is essentially characterized by its high concentration of ...
THE EFFECT OF SOME COMPOUNDS RELATED TO HISTAMINE ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION. M. I. Grossman, Charlotte Robertson and C. E. ... THE EFFECT OF SOME COMPOUNDS RELATED TO HISTAMINE ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION. M. I. Grossman, Charlotte Robertson and C. E. ... THE EFFECT OF SOME COMPOUNDS RELATED TO HISTAMINE ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION. M. I. Grossman, Charlotte Robertson and C. E. ... THE EFFECT OF SOME COMPOUNDS RELATED TO HISTAMINE ON GASTRIC ACID SECRETION ...
  • The gastric mucosa secretes 1.2 to 1.5 litres of gastric juice per day. (britannica.com)
  • The process of gastric secretion can be divided into three phases (cephalic, gastric, and intestinal) that depend upon the primary mechanisms that cause the gastric mucosa to secrete gastric juice. (britannica.com)
  • Water moves freely from the gastric contents across the gastric mucosa into the blood. (britannica.com)
  • The net absorption of water from the stomach is small, however, because water moves just as easily from the blood across the gastric mucosa to the lumen of the stomach. (britannica.com)
  • Effects of limonene and essential oil from Citrus aurantium on gastric mucosa: role of prostaglandins and gastric mucus secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, biological assays were performed in vivo on essential oil of C. aurantium (OEC) and its majority compound limonene (LIM) to evaluate their effect on gastric mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • OEC and LIM do not interfere with gastric H(+) secretion, serum gastrin or glutathione (GSH) level in gastric mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • But the gastroprotective action of OEC and LIM occurs due to an increase in the gastric mucus production induced by conserving the basal PGE(2) levels after challenge by agents harmful to the gastric mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Defense mechanisms of the gastric mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • Results support the conclusion that the regulatory effect of secretin on gastrin-stimulated gastric secretion is impaired during the early phase of infection, and is due to depressed synthesis or release of secretion from duodenal mucosa. (ajtmh.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has previously been detected in the glandular part of the human gastric mucosa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also referred to as "glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide," is secreted from K-cells in the gut mucosa in response to nutrient ingestion ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The intermittent ascent of the gastric contents, particularly the acid in the esophagus, is the main determinant of the esophageal mucosa lesions [ 2 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • 1. The effects of epidermal growth factor on the synthesis and secretion by human gastric mucosa of radiolabelled mucus glycoprotein have been studied in organ culture. (portlandpress.com)
  • In the acid-secreting parietal cells of the gastric mucosa, the use of various radioligands for adenosine receptors suggested the presence of the A 2 adenosine receptor subtype(s) on the cell surface. (physiology.org)
  • the parietal cell of the gastric mucosa is a highly specialized cell that is responsible for the production and secretion of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) into the gastric lumen and, in humans, also of the Castle's intrinsic factor. (physiology.org)
  • Globally, a collection of neural stimuli, efferent and afferent, endocrine and paracrine agents, acting directly at apical and basolateral membrane receptors/transporters of the parietal cell or acting indirectly through the other cells of the gastric mucosa, as well as mechanical and chemical stimuli participate in acid secretion physiology (e.g., see recent reviews in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • 1. A phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was purified from rat gastric mucosa and its NH-2-terminal amino acid sequence, peptide maps obtained on lysylendopeptidase digestion, and immunochemical properties were identical to those of rat pancreatic PLA2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 3. RNA blot analysis showed that group II PLA2 transcript existed in rat gastric mucosa. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 7. These results suggested that pancreatic PLA2 in gastric mucosa may play a role in digestion of phospholipids in foods and in the apical membrane turnover of parietal cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Sakata,T.: 'Presence of pancreatic type phospholipase A2 mRNA in rat gastric mucosa and lung' Biochim.Biophys.Acta. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It is concluded that M. paradisiaca significantly attenuated the damaging effects of aspirin on the gastric mucosa, probably via a mechanism involving increase in mucin secretion. (fupress.net)
  • The membrane rearrangement was followed by immunocytochemistry both at the light and electron microscopic level on semithin and thin frozen sections from resting and stimulated rat gastric mucosa. (rupress.org)
  • cells of gastric mucosa secrete gastric juice. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • The presence of food in the upperportion of the small intestine, particularly in the duo-denum, will continue to cause stomach secretion of small amounts of gastric juice, probably partly because of small amounts of gastrin released by the duodenal mucosa. (brainkart.com)
  • The gastric mucosa or epithelium consists of numerous glands, many of which open into a common outlet (gastric pits) on the surface of the mucosa. (tnmgc.com)
  • In the stomach, stimulated acid secretion was significantly impaired in isolated gastric mucosa and in the intact organ. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to mucus from goblet cells, bicarbonate ions are secreted from the stomach to protect the gastric mucosa from gastric acid . (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Background: Ghrelin, a recently discovered peptide hormone, has been shown to be produced mainly by the A-like cells of the gastric mucosa. (elsevier.com)
  • The pH capsule was attached endoscopically to the gastric mucosa and the data were transmitted to a portable receiver. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the presence of H. pylori increases the risk for development of duodenal ulcer disease, gastric ulcer disease, noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma, and B cell malignancies such as gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tumor lymphomas and high-grade lymphomas (reviewed in Refs. (jimmunol.org)
  • This suggests that gastric mucosa is more vulnerable to carcinogens after antrectomy and Billroth II, and the effects of hypergastrinemia (or acid secretion and mucosal growth) reduce this vulnerability. (elsevier.com)
  • In an empty stomach, the mucosa and submucosa are organized into numerous folds called gastric rugae (ru-je). (earthslab.com)
  • The mucosa is dotted with numerous pores called gastric pits. (earthslab.com)
  • Gastric pits receive secretions from gastric glands that extend deep into the mucosa. (earthslab.com)
  • Mucous neck cells, located near the opening to the gastric pit, secrete mucus to coat and protect the mucosa from the action of digestive secretions. (earthslab.com)
  • When chyme passes from the stomach into the small intestine, it stimulates the intestinal mucosa to release two hormones: cholecystokinin (ko-le-sis-to-kin'-in) (CCK) and secretin (se '-kre '-tin), which reduce both the motility of the stomach and the secretion of gastric juice. (earthslab.com)
  • The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of traffic noise on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of exogenously and endogenously derived NO on histamine- and cAMP-stimulated gastric acid secretion in isolated human oxyntic glands. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intravenous infusion of secretin (0.05 CU/kg/hr) inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion, but CCK-8 (0.03 μ/kg/hr) failed, although intravenous infusion of secretin, and CCK in those doses produced plasma levels comparable to the levels achieved in response to oleic acid administration. (springer.com)
  • In humans, both interdigestive and endogenously stimulated gastric acid output are inhibited in response to intraileal carbohydrate or lipids, but not protein. (nih.gov)
  • The role of personality, mood state (affect) and coping ability (ego strength) on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion were assessed in 56 duodenal ulcer patients using the Minnesota, Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Bombesin-induced inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion was not altered by cervical cord transection. (elsevier.com)
  • Intrathecal injections of rat calcitonin gene-related peptide, neuromedin B, neuromedin U, and the stable substance P analogue (pGlu 5 , MePhe 8 , MeGly 9 )-substance P(5-11) did not alter pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. (elsevier.com)
  • Postoperatively, meal-stimulated gastric acid secretion was measured. (nyu.edu)
  • The gastric phase is mediated by the vagus nerve and by the release of gastrin . (britannica.com)
  • The secretion of gastric acid is an important inhibitor of gastrin release. (britannica.com)
  • There was also a significant rise in the concentration of gastrin but not of gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) in the serum. (mendeley.com)
  • 3. The addition of fat (2 or 4% corn oil) or glucose (20%) to this liver extract meal inhibited secretion of gastric acid by 50 and 30%, respectively, without affecting the concentration of gastrin or GIP in the serum. (mendeley.com)
  • Additional fat (0.5-4.0%) or glucose (10-20%) reduced acid secretion under these conditions by between 50 and 80% without affecting serum gastrin concentrations. (mendeley.com)
  • Gastric secretion in response to 5% liver extract in the stomach was significantly inhibited at the highest dose (10 or 20%) although gastrin release was unaffected. (mendeley.com)
  • Pretreatment of rats with gamma-oryzanol 100 mg/kg, s.c., for 5 days tended to decrease serum gastrin levels and gastric secretion, and to increase serum 11-OHCS. (nih.gov)
  • Suppresive patterns of serum gastrin and gastric secretion following the pretreatment with gamma-oryzanol corresponded to the circadian rhythms in antiulcerogenic action of gamma-oryzanol. (nih.gov)
  • The hormones that cause contraction of the pyloric sphincter are cholecystokinin (CCK), gastrin, gastric inhibiting polypeptide (GIP) and secretin (this is why they regulate emptying, see previous slide! (slideserve.com)
  • Background & Aims: Three pathways control gastric acid secretion: the gastrin-enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell axis, the vagus-parietal cell axis, and the cholecystokinin (CCK)-D cell axis. (lu.se)
  • CCK infusion in gastrin-CCK double-KO mice raised the somatostatin mRNA level and inhibited acid secretion to the level seen in gastrin KO mice. (lu.se)
  • In the gastrin-CCK double-KO mice, acid secretion is only controlled by cholinergic vagal stimulation, which normalizes the acid output. (lu.se)
  • Gastric acid secretion is permanently modulated by the endocrine (gastrin), paracrine (histamine and somatostatin), as well as nerve (acetylcholine) pathways ( Figure 1 ). (intechopen.com)
  • 1.Effect of intraduodenal fat (fat, lipase-digested fat, and fatty acid) on gastric acid secretion and gastrin release was studied. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Although lipase-digested fat and fatty acid inhibited acid secretion and gastrin release, fat failed the inhibitory effect under diversion of pancreatic juice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 4.Intraduodenal administration of amino acids as well as fat, inhibited gastric acid secretion and gastrin release. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Ikeda M,Shiratori K: 'Intraduodenal amino acids inhibit gastric acid secretion and gastrin release mediated by secretin in rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Shiratori K: 'The physiological role of gastrin,CCK,and acetylcholine in gastric acid secretion in the gastric phase in rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The role of gastrin, STH, insulin and glucose in the formation, and long-term adaptation of gastric secretion in athletes--wrestlers in the sportive and post sportive ontogeny Revealed an undulation in the age dynamics of the basal secretion of hormones and glucose in the blood. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The secretion of gastrin by the antrum was finally acknowledged to be an important source of gastric acid stimulation. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Gastrin stimulates and somatostatin suppresses gastric acid production through their association with CCK-B and SST2 receptors on parietal cells, respectively, suggesting that H. suis infection may indeed affect gastric acid secretion through different mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Does luminal gastrin stimulate gastric acid secretion? (meta.org)
  • Gastrin stimulates acid secretion by stimulating histamine release from ECL cells. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • or taste of food effects vagal stimulation of the gastrin-secreting G. Because gastric prostaglandin production. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • Once food enters the stomach, it excites (1) long vagovagal reflexes from the stomach to the brain and back to the stomach, (2) local enteric reflexes, and (3) the gastrin mechanism, all of which in turn cause secretion of gastric juice during several hours while food remains in the stomach. (brainkart.com)
  • The vagus nerve releases acetylcholine (ACh), which directly stimulates parietal cells in the fundus of the stomach Additionally, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) released by the vagus nerve stimulates secretion of gastrin from G cells in the antrum of the stomach. (tnmgc.com)
  • The gastric fundic glands contain H cells (enterochromaffin cells), which are also stimulated by gastrin, ACh, and β2-adrenergic substances. (tnmgc.com)
  • Ach, HA, and gastrin stimulate acid secretion by activating specific receptors on the ba-solateral membrane of the parietal cell. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Histamine tin, and prostaglandin E reduce acid secretion either indirectly, by inhibiting the release of gastrin, or directly, by an action at the parietal cell (12). (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Actually, vagotomy is a lot less effective than H2 receptor inhibitors or proton pump inhibitors with regards to the inhibition of acidity secretion as well as the supplementary elevation of circulating gastrin amounts. (onetownmanyvoices.com)
  • Gastrin is absorbed into the blood and is carried to gastric glands, increasing their secretions. (earthslab.com)
  • The absorption of water and alcohol can be slowed if the stomach contains foodstuffs and especially fats, probably because gastric emptying is delayed by fats, and most water in any situation is absorbed from the small intestine. (britannica.com)
  • 1. The gastric and intestinal phases of gastric secretion were selectively evoked by 'meals' of 5% liver extract or saline in five dogs provided with a special cannula that allowed complete separation of the stomach from the duodenum. (mendeley.com)
  • 2. The gastric phase in response to liver extract administered into the stomach amounted to an increase in acid output equivalent to about 70% of the maximum output in response to histamine. (mendeley.com)
  • The stomach is surrounded by parasympathetic (stimulant) and orthosympathetic (inhibitor) plexuses (networks of blood vessels and nerves in the anterior gastric, posterior , superior and inferior , celiac and myenteric), which regulate both the secretions activity and the motor (motion) activity of its muscles. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The lesser curvature of the stomach is supplied by the right gastric artery inferiorly, and the left gastric artery superiorly, which also supplies the cardiac region. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The fundus of the stomach, and also the upper portion of the greater curvature, are supplied by the short gastric artery . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Stimulation of acid secretion typically involves an initial elevation of intracellular calcium and cAMP, followed by activation of protein kinase cascades, which trigger the translocation of the proton pump, H+,K+-ATPase, from cytoplasmic tubulovesicles to the apical plasma membrane and thereby H+ secretion into the stomach lumen. (genome.jp)
  • After approximately fifty years of stomach pumping and busy filling of archives with countless papers on gastric analysis, it would seem as if everything worth doing must have been done over and over again. (annals.org)
  • It is important to regulate gastric motility because the duodenum cannot is not as adapted as the stomach is to food storage. (slideserve.com)
  • Hydrochloric acid and pepsin secretion is stimulated in the upper and middle parts of the stomach. (mhhe.com)
  • Distention of the stomach activates has a direct stimulatory effect on the gastric glands. (mhhe.com)
  • Gastric emptying and gastric secretion are major physiological functions of the stomach. (uzh.ch)
  • CCK inhibited gastric emptying for 20 min leading to the accumulation of gastric juice in the stomach. (uzh.ch)
  • Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: predominance of multiple foci of signet ring cell carcinoma in distal stomach and transitional zone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effects of met-enkephalin and morphine on gastric acid and pepsin secretion and gastric mucosal and total blood flow were studied in anaesthetized dogs with an in vivo chambered secretion stomach preparation. (mysciencework.com)
  • A gastric analysis is performed to evaluate gastric function by measuring the contents of a fasting patient's stomach the for acidity, appearance, and volume. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Achlorhydria -An abnormal condition in which hydrochloric acid is absent from the secretions of the gastric glands in the stomach. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As is the case with the basal gastric secretion test, the patient can have no liquids during this test, and their saliva must be ejected to avoid diluting the stomach contents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This phase is initiated by entry of food into the stomach and contributes about 70 % of total acid secretion. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • During the gastric phase a vagal reflex initiated by distension of the stomach further increases vagus nerve stimulation. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • When the pH of the stomach gets too low, somatostatin secretion is. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • it occurs in response to two types of signals: (1) stimulation of the peptic cells by acetylcholine released from the vagus nerves or fromthe gastric enteric nervous plexus , and (2) stimulation of peptic cell secretion in response to acid in the stomach. (brainkart.com)
  • Therefore, the rate of secretion of pepsinogen, the precursor of the enzyme pepsin that causes protein digestion, is strongly influenced by the amount of acid in the stomach. (brainkart.com)
  • The cephalic phase of gastric secretionoccurs even before food enters the stomach, especially while it is being eaten. (brainkart.com)
  • It does this with help from the strong muscles in the walls of the stomach and gastric say: GAS-trik juices that also come from the stomach's walls. (go-in-travel.us)
  • Also the effect of bilharzial hepatic fibrosis on the pathophysiology of the stomach has shown great controversy, in particular when the gastric acidity was considered. (who.int)
  • Although intestinal chyme slightly stimulates gastric secretion during the early intestinal phase of stomach secretion, it paradoxically inhibits gastric secretion at other times. (brainkart.com)
  • 1. The presence of food in the small intestine initiates a reverse enterogastric reflex , transmitted through the myenteric nervous system as well as through extrinsic sympathetic and vagus nerves, that inhibits stomach secretion. (brainkart.com)
  • However, secretin opposes stomach secretion. (brainkart.com)
  • The functional purpose of inhibitory gastric secretion by intestinal factors is presumably to slow passage of chyme from the stomach when the small intestine is already filled or already overactive. (brainkart.com)
  • In fact, the entero-gastric inhibitory reflexes plus inhibitory hormones usually also reduce stomach motility at the same time that they reduce gastric secretion. (brainkart.com)
  • Peptide YY, CCK, and 5-HT are thought to influence acid secretion by modulating neural tone to the stomach. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of IL-17 signaling in chronic gastric inflammation induced by Helicobacter pylori , a Gram-negative bacterium that persistently colonizes the human stomach. (jimmunol.org)
  • The basic functions of the stomach are temporary storage of food, mixing food with gastric juice, and starting the chemical digestion of proteins. (earthslab.com)
  • The muscular layer contains a third layer of oblique muscle cells, which allows the stomach to better mix food with gastric secretions. (earthslab.com)
  • Gastric juice is produced continuously, but its secretion is greatly increased whenever food is on the way to, or already in, the stomach. (earthslab.com)
  • The sight, smell, or thought of appetizing food, food in the mouth, or food in the stomach stimulates the transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses that increase the secretion of gastric juice. (earthslab.com)
  • As stomach contents are gradually emptied into the small intestine, there is a decrease in the frequency of parasympathetic nerve impulses and an increase in the frequency of sympathetic nerve impulses to the stomach, which reduces the secretion of gastric juice. (earthslab.com)
  • Food entering the stomach is thoroughly mixed with gastric juice by ripplelike, mixing contractions of the stomach wall. (earthslab.com)
  • Once it is released into the stomach, pepsin is activated by the strong acidity of gastric juice. (earthslab.com)
  • The gastric acid produced by the stomach can also kill microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated a possible role of endogenous secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK) in inhibition of gastric acid secretion induced by intraduodenal administration of oleic acid in rats. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the results of this study indicate that endogenous secretin rather than CCK is involved in the hormonal mechanism regulating the inhibition of gastric acid secretion by intestinal fat in rats. (springer.com)
  • Here, we report the establishment and validation of a quantitative non-invasive high-throughput computed tomography based method to measure simultaneously liquid gastric emptying and secretion in rats in vivo. (uzh.ch)
  • The effect of chronic consumption of fresh, thermoxidized and irradiated palm oil on gastric acid secretion and cytoprotection in rats was studied. (ajol.info)
  • We investigated the regulation of gastric and pancreatic secretion in response to intestinal nutrients (protein and fat) mediated by gastrointestinal hormones in rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Shimizu K,Shiratori K: 'Effect of protein derivatives on pancreatic secretion and release of secretin and CCK in rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Shiratori K: 'Effect of a novel and potent CCK-B receptor antagonist,YM022,ongastric and pancreatic secretion in vivo in rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The study investigated the healing effects of flavonoid-rich fraction of Musa paradisiaca fruit on the gastric corpus of Wistar rats following aspirin induced-gastric lesion. (fupress.net)
  • Gastric lesion was induced in groups B, C, D, E and F rats by administration of 400 mg/kg aspirin. (fupress.net)
  • 3 Intravenous carbachol stimulated acid secretion in conscious gastric fistula rats and increased H+K+. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • and 4) both naloxone (5 + 5 and 10 + 10 mg/kg ip) and morphine (10 + 10 mg/kg ip) significantly decreased gastric acid secretion in l-h pylorus ligated rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Bombesin (100-500 ng) injected intrathecally (T9-10) inhibited gastric acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin and the GABA B agonist baclofen in urethane-anesthetized rats and basal gastric acid secretion in conscious, pylorus-ligated rats. (elsevier.com)
  • These results demonstrate that bombesin injected into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord inhibits vagally stimulated and pentagastrinstimulated gastric secretion in rats. (elsevier.com)
  • While the effect of ghrelin on the gastric acid secretion in rats has been reported, no such reports appeared to date from studies in humans. (elsevier.com)
  • Salim M. Abdul Razzaq , Effect of histamine on gastric acid secretion in chronic fistula rats, Emirates Med. (who.int)
  • To determine the relative contributions of neural reflexes and intestinal hormones to the inhibition of gastric acid secretion by intestinal acidification, rats with an extrinsically denervated, transplanted segment of jejunum, and those with an innervated segment of jejunum, were studied. (nyu.edu)
  • Gastric acid secretion was inhibited by intrajejunal acid (pH 2.5) by 79% in the innervated rats and by 64% in the transplanted group. (nyu.edu)
  • To examine the hormonal mediators, the effects of a somatostatin monoclonal antibody and a CCK-A receptor antagonist (L 364718) on acid-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion were studied in transplanted rats. (nyu.edu)
  • The present experiments examined in rats the influence of chronic hypergastrinemia and the resulting gastric hyperacidity on induction of gastric adenocarcinoma by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). (elsevier.com)
  • The incidence of tumors in the proximal gastric remnant of the Billroth II antrectomy rats was 88 percent, significantly greater than the incidence in the proximal gastric remnant (excluding the implanted antrum) of Billroth II antral implant rats (50 percent) or in control rats (50 percent). (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest that in rats (1) antrectomy Billroth II predisposes to carcinogenically induced gastric cancer, (2) hypergastrinemia directly or indirectly decreases this predisposition, and (3) in the presence of hypergastrinemia and after removal from the acid stream, the antrum is highly vulnerable to the carcinogenic effects of MNNG. (elsevier.com)
  • 7. We conclude that GIP is unlikely to mediate fat-induced inhibition of gastric secretion, but it is still possible that it might be involved in the inhibition that occurs during intestinal perfusion with hypertonic glucose solutions. (mendeley.com)
  • Indeed, gastric acid secreted by parietal cells and the gastric pepsin activity, but not the intestinal alkaline content, are the most important pathogenic factors of GER. (intechopen.com)
  • Twelve normal subjects were intubated with an oroileal multilumen tube assembly for gastric, duodenal, and ileal perfusion of marker and test solutions, aspiration, and intestinal manometry. (nih.gov)
  • It has been well known that pancreatic enzymes have a most important role in the intestinal digestion, and gastric and pancreatic secretion is regulated by digestive products. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There exists a considerable controversy in the literature with regard to the effect of either opiate receptor blockade or that of morphine in different gastric and intestinal ulcer models in the rat. (elsevier.com)
  • Acid introduced into the smal intestine of Pavlovpouch dogs inhibits gastric secretion in response to a meal, providing an adequate degree of intestinal acidity is attained. (naver.com)
  • Marked inhibition of secretion occurs if the pH of the intestinal contents is about 2.5 and almost complete depression when the pH is 2.0 or lower. (naver.com)
  • This regulatory effect of intestinal acidity on gastric secretion is not present when the secretion is provoked by histamine. (naver.com)
  • The phases of gastric secretion overlap, and there is an interrelat ion and some interdependence between the neural and humoral pathways. (britannica.com)
  • This consists of an epithelium , the lamina propria composed of loose connective tissue and which has gastric glands in it underneath, and a thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosae . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Nitric oxide-an endogenous inhibitor of gastric acid secretion in isolated human gastric glands. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Oxyntic glands were isolated from human gastric biopsies and were subsequently pre-treated with NO donors and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and then exposed to histamine or dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP). (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Our results show that NO inhibits gastric acid secretion in isolated human gastric glands, and that there is endogenous formation of NO within the glandular epithelium in the vicinity of the parietal cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gastric hormones are also secreted by the gastric glands - these are responsible for controlling the secretion of gastric juice. (slideserve.com)
  • Which of the following inhibits the secretion of the gastric glands? (mhhe.com)
  • What we do know is that, in contrast to other animal species, in pigs gastric ulcers develop almost exclusively in the Pars œsophagea , a small area around the opening of the œsophagus which does not contain glands. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chloride ion thus accumulates within the cell and then diffuses into the lumen of the gastric glands. (tnmgc.com)
  • Chief , cells (pepsinogen-secretingcells), mucus cells, s and D-cells (somatostatin-secreting cells) are also found within gastric glands. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Our study identified two gap junctional proteins, connexin26 and connexin32, in rat gastric glands by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence. (elsevier.com)
  • Our studies demonstrate that functional gap junction channels in gastric glands provide an effective means for rapid cell-to-cell communication and allow for the rapid onset of acid secretion. (elsevier.com)
  • The secretion of the gastric glands is known as gastric juice. (earthslab.com)
  • Chief cells, located in the deepest portions of the gastric glands, secrete the digestive enzymes pepsinogen (inactive form of pepsin), gastric lipase, and rennin. (earthslab.com)
  • Parietal cells, located in the midportion of the gastric glands, secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor. (earthslab.com)
  • Gastric secretion was stimulated by constant intravenous infusion of pentagastrin, 1 µg/kg per hour. (ajtmh.org)
  • Furthermore, the oleic acid-induced suppression of gastic acid secretion was blocked significantly by intravenous injection of rabbit anti-secretin serum (0.1 ml), but not by intravenous infusion of a CCK-receptor antagonist, CR 1409 (5 mg/kg/hr). (springer.com)
  • It was the aim of this study to determine the response of insulin secretion to different GIP doses administered by intravenous bolus injection and via continuous infusion in both healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Comparison of intravenous ranitidine & cimetidine on gastric acid secretion & pH. (who.int)
  • Intravenous infusion of the monoclonal bombesin antibody 2A11 abolished intravenous bombesin (10 μg/kg · h)-induced 33% inhibition of gastric response to pentagastrin but did not alter intrathecal bombesin (200 ng)-induced 38% inhibition of gastric response to pentagastrin. (elsevier.com)
  • RYGB is associated with altered secretion of enteroendocrine hormones, leading to the belief that these hormones contribute to the improvement in insulin secretion and action as well as satiation after this procedure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Blood glucose ( C ), insulin ( B ), and insulin secretion rate ( A ) in response to liquid meal ingestion at screening visit of Asym-GB ( n = 12, solid line, closed symbols) vs. Hypo-GB ( n = 11, dashed line, open symbols). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Blood glucose ( A ), insulin ( B ), and insulin secretion rates ( C ) are shown. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Gut hormones and neural signaling contribution to insulin secretion rate and glucose tolerance [ Time Frame: Each study of the protocol is conducted up to seven hours with data collected at intervals specific to the individual study procedure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • While the mechanisms by which RYGB improves glucose metabolism or alters islet cell function in patients after RYGB are not understood, recent studies suggest that increased secretion of GI hormones, primarily glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), as well as alteration in neural activity may contribute to enhanced insulin secretion in general, and to a greater extent in patients with hypoglycemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The proposed research is designed to address the role of RYGB on insulin secretion by evaluating the contribution of stimulatory factors (neural and GI hormone) on islet cell function and the islet cell responsiveness to the physiologic stimulatory factors, in RYGB patients with and without hypoglycemia and non-operated controls. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In contrast, the continuous GIP infusion led to a weak increase in insulin secretion in both healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The dose-response relationship for the increase in insulin secretion after GIP bolus administration was similar in both groups, although at different degrees of β-cell function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The stimulation of insulin secretion by GIP is stronger after its bolus administration than during continuous infusion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Even though the insulin secretory capacity is generally impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes, the relative sensitivity of insulin secretion to a bolus administration of GIP is almost preserved. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Based on its ability to augment glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, the peptide has been proposed to act as an incretin hormone ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In healthy humans, the contribution of incretin hormones, such as GIP, to the overall postprandial insulin secretion ranges from 20 to 60%, depending on meal size ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, the relative response of insulin secretion is different after acute and during constant GIP administration ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The acidity of the gastric contents after a meal is buffered by proteins so that overall it remains around pH3 (acidic) for approximately 90 minutes. (britannica.com)
  • High gastric acidity also acts as a barrier against infection by killing many bacteria. (blogspot.com)
  • Scobe and Summerskill [1954] observed hypocidity in cirrhotic patients while Tahaqchalli and Dawson [1964] have found a normal gastric acidity in patients with hepatic fibrosis. (who.int)
  • It increases the acidity and amount of gastric secretions. (livestrong.com)
  • However, it is known that decreased gastric acidity leads to accelerated solids emptying, and since hypochlorhydria is commonly seen in elderly people, it is logic to say that gastric emptying of solids is accelerated, nevertheless, it remains sort of unchanged. (angelfire.com)
  • Vagotomy reduces gastric acidity secretion and was therefore introduced being a medical procedures for peptic ulcers in the 1970s. (onetownmanyvoices.com)
  • Threat of Gastric Rabbit polyclonal to ACAP3 Tumorigenesis after Inhibition of Gastric Acid solution Secretion in Sufferers with Peptic Ulcers Vagotomy have been used like a medical procedures for peptic ulcers since it decreases gastric acidity secretion. (onetownmanyvoices.com)
  • PPIs have grown to be probably one of the most commonly used medicines worldwide, because they are currently the greatest treatment of preference for a number of gastric acid-related gastrointestinal disorders because they're effective in reducing the acidity secretion and also have no long-term undesireable effects [14, 15]. (onetownmanyvoices.com)
  • The alteration of gastric or esophageal motility, the aggressiveness of the refluxing fluid, and the alteration of esophageal mucosal resistance are also important factors in the genesis of esophagitis lesions [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • We studied gastric motility in diabetes in relation to PCA status, autonomic nerve function, HbA 1c , thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Helicobacter pylori (HP), acid production, and gastric histology. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Gastric motility did not correlate with symptoms. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thyroid function ( 19 ), gastric acid secretion ( 20 , 21 ), or Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection ( 22 ) may also modulate gastrointestinal motility. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, the role of gastric autoimmunity in diabetic gastroparesis has never been investigated, although 15-20% of type 1 diabetic patients exhibit parietal cell antibodies (PCAs) ( 23 ), which, by impairing acid secretion ( 24 , 25 ), may modify gastric motility. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ghrelin not only stimulates growth hormone (GH) release but also promotes gastric motility. (elsevier.com)
  • 10. The Physiology of Gastric Motility and Gastric Emptying. (wiley.com)
  • The decreased G-cell mass and upregulated expression of somatostatin indicated decreased acid secretion in H. suis -infected 6-8 months old pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three other hormones- gastric inhibitory peptide , vasoactiveintestinal polypeptide , and somatostatin -also haveslight to moderate effects in inhibiting gastricsecretion. (brainkart.com)
  • Somatostatin, released from fundic D-cells, inhibits the release of acid secretion from the parietal cell. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Treatment with a somatostatin monoclonal antibody or with L 364718 reduced the acid-induced (pH 2.5) inhibition of gastric acid secretion by 93 and 27%, respectively. (nyu.edu)
  • Pentagastrin was used i.p. for stimulation of gastric acid secretion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Impromidine produced the same maximum stimulation of gastric HCI output, increase of HR and fall in systolic blood pressure as histamine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Membrane-cytoskeleton dynamics in rat parietal cells: mobilization of actin and spectrin upon stimulation of gastric acid secretion. (rupress.org)
  • The role of the vagus nerve in the stimulation of gastric acid secretion was investigated by comparing the acid output in response to gastric distension during augmented secretion mediated by electrical vagal stimulation and pentagastrin. (mysciencework.com)
  • Since no work has been done previously utilizing direct vagal stimulation of gastric secretion in the. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • The vagus nerves play a dominant role in the stimulation of gastric secretion. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • The hormonal mechanism for the stimulation of gastric secre. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • Prostaglandins and Vagal Stimulation of Gastric Secretion in Duodenal Ulcer. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • Inhibition of gastric secretion by fat an. (mendeley.com)
  • Inhibition of gastric secretion by fat and hypertonic glucose in the dog: role of gastric inhibitory peptide. (mendeley.com)
  • 6. These results show that intraduodenal fat and glucose both exhibit potent inhibitory effects on post-prandial gastric acid secretion but that there is no correlation between the changes in serum GIP concentration and the inhibition of gastric secretion under these conditions. (mendeley.com)
  • Kosaka T, Lim RKS: Demonstration of the humoral agent in fat inhibition of gastric secretion. (springer.com)
  • Kosaka T, Lim RKS: On the mechanism of the inhibition of gastric secretion by fat: The role of bile and cystokinin. (springer.com)
  • There are, however, a number of reported cases of pernicious anemia in which free hydrochloric acid was present in the gastric contents. (annals.org)
  • Gastric secretion is essentially characterized by its high concentration of hydrochloric acid. (intechopen.com)
  • Patients with duodenal ulcer secrete excessive quantities of acid, both by day and by night, and the gastric and duodenal pH is significantly lower than that of the nonulcer patient. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The variation in basal acid secretion was also investigated in 20 duodenal ulcer patients after proximal gastric vagotomy. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • Bleeding in these cases may be due to ruptured varices or originating from sites other than varices as oesophagitis, gastric erosions or duodenal ulcer. (who.int)
  • Gastric acid secretion in relation to personality, affect and coping ability in duodenal ulcer patients. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • H-2receptor antagonist (cimetidine) in the treatment of chronic duodenal ulcer and its effect on gastric secretions. (bvsalud.org)
  • It ought to be pointed out that SIR of gastric malignancy individuals identified as having duodenal ulcer which underwent vagotomy was 1.3 both following the 1st and the next. (onetownmanyvoices.com)
  • Some of the hormones that are released from the small intestine by products of digestion (especially fat), in particular glucagon and secretin, also suppress acid secretion. (britannica.com)
  • Pentagastrin-stimulated acid and pepsin secretion, and the influence of secretin on these processes, were measured in dogs prepared with gastric fistulas and Heidenhain pouches. (ajtmh.org)
  • Shaffalitzky de Muckadell OB, Olsen O, Canto P, Magid E: Concentrations of secretin and CCK in plasma and pancreaticobiliary secretion in response to intraduodenal acid and fat. (springer.com)
  • Shiratori K, Jo YH, Lee KY, Chang TM, Chey WY: Effect of pancreatic juice and trypsin on oleic acid-stimulated pancreatic secretion and plasma secretin in dogs. (springer.com)
  • Chey WY, Hitanant S, Hendricks J, Lorber SH: Effect of secretin and cholecystokinin on gastric emptying and gastric secretion in man. (springer.com)
  • Shiratori K, Watanabe S, Takeuchi T: Physiological significance of secretin on gastric secretion. (springer.com)
  • 3.Effect of intraduodenal protein (casein) and amino acids on pancreatic secretion and release of secretin and CCK was studied. (nii.ac.jp)
  • On the other hand, amino acids stimulated secretin release and bicarbonate secretion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • One of these is secretin , which is especially important for control of pancreatic secretion. (brainkart.com)
  • 4. The 5% liver extract in the duodenum stimulated an increase in gastric acid output amounting to about 40% of the maximum response to histamine. (mendeley.com)
  • Pancreatic secretion and CCK release was stimulated by LCT under pancreatic juice existed in the duodenum, but not affected by MCT.Under pancreatic juice diversion, LCT failed to stimulate pancreatic secretion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus comminuted it is known as "chyme," and passes through the pylorus into the small intestine, in the first loop of which, the "duodenum," it is mixed with the bile and pancreatic juice, these two fluids being the secretions of the liver and the pancreas. (go-in-travel.us)
  • abstract = "SLC26A7 (human)/Slc26a7 (mouse) is a recently identified chloride-base exchanger and/or chloride transporter that is expressed on the basolateral membrane of acid-secreting cells in the renal outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD) and in gastric parietal cells. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "We have developed a noninvasive test of gastric acid secretion for use in infants and young children. (elsevier.com)
  • 3. As glycoproteins are the main constituent of the mucus defence barrier, epidermal growth factor-stimulated mucus production may contribute to gastric cytoprotection. (portlandpress.com)
  • Pentagastrin, or a similar drug that stimulates gastric acid output, is injected subcutaneously. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, there are mechanical, chemical, and hormonal factors contributing to the gastric secretory response to eating. (britannica.com)
  • There is evidence that the distal intestine participates in the regulation of gastric motor and secretory function. (nih.gov)
  • Upon stimulation by secretagogues in particular, the acid-secreting pump (H + -K + -ATPase) transits from the intracellular tubulovesicles, where it is stored, towards the apical surface of the cell, and remains there throughout the active acid secretory phase, allowing for the secretion of a proton in exchange for a potassium cation consuming the energy equivalent to one ATP molecule breakdown ( 53 ). (physiology.org)
  • We conclude that the vagus nerves potentiate the gastric acid secretory response to distension not by facilitating enteric reflexes but by an action at the level of the parietal cell. (mysciencework.com)
  • It was found that both agents infused intraarterially caused an increase in histamine-induced acid and pepsin secretion and mucosal and total blood flow. (mysciencework.com)
  • We performed experiments to evaluate the effects of naloxone and morphine on gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal damage in different experimental models of gastric mucosal injury, namely in indomcthacin-, HCl (0.6N)- and ethanol (96%)-models. (elsevier.com)
  • Debreceni, A , Debreceni, B & Mózsik, G 1997, ' A study of the actions of naloxone and morphine on gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal damage in the rat ', Journal of Physiology Paris , vol. 91, no. 3-5, pp. 189-197. (elsevier.com)
  • The antiulcerogenic effect could be due to their inhibitory effect on offensive acid-pepsin secretion and augmentation of mucosal defensive factors in terms of enhanced mucin secretion and decreased cell shedding. (who.int)
  • A hallmark of H. pylori infection is a gastric mucosal inflammatory response, termed superficial gastritis ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Gastric juice renders food particles soluble, initiates digestion (particularly of proteins), and converts the gastric contents to a semiliquid mass called chyme , thus preparing it for further digestion in the small intestine. (britannica.com)
  • Gastric juice contains a substance known as intrinsic factor that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 by the small intestine. (earthslab.com)
  • 14. Electrolyte Secretion and Absorption: Small Intestine and Colon. (wiley.com)
  • In contrast, duodenal stimulation with HCl did not inhibit acid and pepsin secretion in dogs tested during the 1st week following infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • 1:1000) impromidine on gastric acid, chloride and pepsin secretion and on heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure were compared to those of histamine in five conscious gastric fistula dogs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The effects of impromidine on pepsin secretion were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of histamine and other H-2 agonists with weak stimulation at low doses and progressive inhibition with increasing doses of impromidine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The cephalic phase of gastric secretion occurs in response to stimuli received by the senses-that is, taste, smell, sight, and sound. (britannica.com)
  • Neurogenic signals that cause the cephalic phase of gastric secretion origi-nate in the cerebral cortex and in the appetite centers of the amygdala and hypothalamus. (brainkart.com)
  • Acid continues to be secreted during the gastric phase in response to distension and to the peptides and amino acids that are liberated from protein as digestion proceeds. (britannica.com)
  • Gastric acid is a key factor in normal upper gastrointestinal functions, including protein digestion and calcium and iron absorption, as well as providing some protection against bacterial infections. (genome.jp)
  • It means that fat digestion by lipase is necessary for the inhibitory action of intraduodenal fat on gastric acid secretion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus, LCT digestion by pancreatic juice is necessary for stimulating pancreatic secretion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus, protein digestion affects hormone release and pancreatic secretion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thestomach secretes a few milliliters of gastric juice each hour during the "interdigestive period," when little or no digestion is occurring anywhere in the gut. (brainkart.com)
  • As food is mixed with gastric juice and as chemical digestion occurs, it is converted into an acidic, semiliquid substance called chyme (k - m). (earthslab.com)
  • Pepsin is the most important digestive enzyme in gastric juice, and it is secreted in an inactive form that prevents digestion of the cells secreting it. (earthslab.com)
  • The gastric juice of infants contains two unique enzymes that help to improve the digestion of milk proteins and lipids. (earthslab.com)
  • Gastric mRNA expression of markers for acid secretion and inflammation and presence of gastric ulceration was studied in naturally Helicobacter suis -infected and non-infected 2-3 months old, 6-8 months old and adult pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fried GM, Ogden WD, Swierczek J, Greeley GH, Rayford PL, Thompson JC: Release of cholecystokinin in conscious dogs: Correlation with simultaneous measurements of gallbladder pressure and pancreatic protein secretion. (springer.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of gastric PLA2 cDNA was completely identical to that of pancreatic PLA2 cDNA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 6. Pancreatic PLA2 was Secreted from Gastric Chief Cells on Stimulation by Carbachol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 15. Pancreatic Secretion. (wiley.com)
  • The gastric juice of some mammals (e.g., calves) contains the enzyme rennin , which clumps milk proteins and thus takes them out of solution and makes them more susceptible to the action of a proteolytic enzyme . (britannica.com)
  • This study shows how HSF1 regulates a stromal transcriptional program associated with aggressive gastric cancer and identifies multiple proteins within this program as candidates for therapeutic intervention. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Growth modulation is achieved through the secretion of regulatory factors as well as by proteins within the extracellular matrix. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We conclude that rabbit gastric parietal cells possess functional A2BR proteins that are coupled to G s and stimulate HCl production upon activation. (physiology.org)
  • In the resting state, actin and spectrin were mostly localized beneath the membranes of all cells of the gastric gland, whereas the bulk of acid-secreting membranes appeared diffusely distributed in the cytoplasmic space of parietal cells without any apparent connection with cytoskeletal proteins. (rupress.org)
  • The observed redistribution of actin and spectrin argues for a direct control by gastric acid secretagogues of the dynamic equilibrium existing between nonassembled (or preassembled) and assembled forms of cytoskeletal proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Known contributing factors are autonomic neuropathy and acute hyperglycemia, but the role of gastric autoimmunity has never been investigated, although 15-20% of type 1 diabetic patients exhibit parietal cell antibodies (PCAs). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Stimulation of acid secretion from the parietal cell. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • Chey WY, Sivasomboon B, Hendricks J: Actions and interactions of gut hormones and histamine on gastric secretion of acid in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Which of the following hormones does not inhibit gastric gland secretions? (mhhe.com)
  • Pentagastrin infusion augmented basal acid secretion and the response to distension in a similar manner to vagal stimulation. (mysciencework.com)
  • The gastric acid output test is also not recommended in patients who are sensitive to pentagastrin (the drug used to stimulate gastric acid output). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms, autonomic nerve function (Ewing tests), PCA status (indirect immunofluorescence), gastric histology, and acid secretion (pentagastrin) were assessed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The inhibitory effect of bombesin (200 ng) on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion was reversed by bilateral adrenalectomy or removal of celiac and mesenteric ganglia. (elsevier.com)
  • The gold-standard to measure the acid output is the collection of gastric after in basal condition (Basal Acid Output, B.A.O.) and after an i.m. injection of pentagastrin (Maximal Acid Output, M.A.O.). However, direct measurement of gastric acid production is out of order in clinical practice, but many GI symptoms are claimed to be related with acid disorders and empirically cured. (mattioli1885journals.com)
  • These findings suggest that capsaicin-sensitive fibers are involved in the afferent branch of the reflex response activated by 2-DG to stimulate gastric acid secretion. (springer.com)
  • Met-enkephalin but not morphine fails to stimulate acid secretion if given into the portal vein. (mysciencework.com)
  • Acetylcholine and histamine directly stimulate parietal cells to increase acid secretion. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • In conclusion, (i) rapid volume acquisition and respiratory triggered T₁ mapping removed the requirement to image during prolonged breath-holds (ii) semi-automatic analysis greatly reduced the time required to derive measurements and (iii) correction for secretion volumes provided accurate assessment of gastric meal volumes and emptying. (uzh.ch)
  • Gastric juice is secreted in response to vagal stimulation, either directly by electrical impulses or indirectly by stimuli received through the senses. (britannica.com)
  • You are currently browsing the category archive for the 'Gastric Juice Secretion' category. (wordpress.com)
  • The basal or continuous secretion of gastric juice in normal man and animals is almost entirely caused by tonic impulses in the vagus nerves. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • Gastric juice is very acidic (pH 2) due to an abundance of HCl. (earthslab.com)
  • Bilateral cervical vagotomy significantly reduced both basal acid secretion and the response to distension although the increase during distension was still significant. (mysciencework.com)
  • and if acid secretion is significantly reduced, the treatment is effective. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Results: The average minimum gastric pH in four cases (1.2 ± 0.10) was significantly decreased after injection of ghrelin, as compared with the basal pH value (1.8 ± 0.06). (elsevier.com)
  • Gastric IL-17a and IL-21 transcript levels were significantly higher in infected IL-17RA −/− mice than in infected wild-type mice or uninfected mice, which suggested that a negative feedback loop was impaired in the IL-17RA −/− mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • We identified that the CpG-SNP rs11810577 in GNAI3 was significantly increased gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.07-1.32, P = 1.12 × 10 -3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The CpG-SNP rs11810577 in GNAI3 in the gastric acid secretion pathway was significantly associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Two other apical mechanisms are also needed to secrete HCl into the gastric lumen: secretion of Cl − , the other atomic component of HCl and K + recycling, which is necessary for maintaining constant luminal potassium concentrations for proper H + -K + -ATPase functioning ( 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • In people who have lost the ability to secrete normal amounts of acid, secretion of pepsinogen is also decreased, even though the peptic cells may otherwise appear to be normal. (brainkart.com)
  • Grossman MI: Regulation of gastric acid secretion. (springer.com)
  • Participation of growth hormone and insulin in the regulation of gastric secretion in athletes wrestler in sportive and post sportive ontogenesis]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vagal Regulation of Gastric Function. (franciscocespedes.org)
  • Regulation of gastric acid secretion- many factors ( chemical, neural, hormonal). (franciscocespedes.org)
  • This specie is also used medicinally throughout the world to treat gastritis and gastric disorders. (nih.gov)
  • A potential research, including 1495 individuals, utilized a pathological gastritis index to evaluatethe threat of developing gastric tumor after peptic ulcer medical procedures. (onetownmanyvoices.com)
  • A. El Fiky , Gastric secretion in bilharzial hepatic fibrosis, New Egypt. (who.int)
  • A reduced insulinotropic effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a characteristic of patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In the isolated perfused pancreas, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been shown to enhance glucagon secretion at basal glucose concentrations, but in healthy humans no glucagonotropic effect of GIP has yet been reported. (ku.dk)
  • RESULTS: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide dose-dependently stimulated glucagon secretion ( p=0.019) with a maximal increment after 10 min. (ku.dk)
  • These combined advantages were applied to reevaluate the impact of cholecystokinin (CCK), histamine and oral glucose on gastric function with high temporal resolution. (uzh.ch)
  • We propose that SLC26A7 dysfunction should be investigated as a potential cause of unexplained distal renal tubular acidosis or decreased gastric acid secretion in humans. (elsevier.com)
  • This phase of gastric secretion is entirely reflex in origin and is mediated by the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. (britannica.com)
  • Administration of histamine followed a similar trend as found in basal secretion among groups. (ajol.info)
  • The gastric acid stimulation test is indicated when abnormalities are found during the basal secretion test. (encyclopedia.com)