Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A congenital abnormality characterized by the outpouching or sac formation in the ILEUM. It is a remnant of the embryonic YOLK SAC in which the VITELLINE DUCT failed to close.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Reconstitution of eroded or injured EPITHELIUM by proliferation and migration of EPITHELIAL CELLS from below or adjacent to the damaged site.
An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes the healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and growth of experimental tumors.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.
A species of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria found in the gastric mucosa that is associated with chronic antral gastritis. This bacterium was first discovered in samples removed at endoscopy from patients investigated for HELICOBACTER PYLORI colonization.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.
A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
A plant genus of the family DENNSTAEDTIACEAE. Members contain ptaquiloside, braxin A1, and braxin B. The name is similar to brake fern (PTERIS).
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A water insoluble terpene fatty acid used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers; it facilitates the healing and function of mucosal tissue.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.
Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
GASTRITIS with HYPERTROPHY of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. It is characterized by giant gastric folds, diminished acid secretion, excessive MUCUS secretion, and HYPOPROTEINEMIA. Symptoms include VOMITING; DIARRHEA; and WEIGHT LOSS.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
Retrograde flow of duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the STOMACH.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The burning of a small, thimble sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves on the SKIN at an ACUPUNCTURE point. Usually the plugs contain leaves of MUGWORT or moxa.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
An antagonist of histamine that appears to block both H2 and H3 histamine receptors. It has been used in the treatment of ulcers.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of histidine to histamine and carbon dioxide. It requires pyridoxal phosphate in animal tissues, but not in microorganisms. EC
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
This is one of the 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans. It is found in prostate and seminal fluid whereas PEPSINOGEN A is not.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
That portion of the stomach remaining after gastric surgery, usually gastrectomy or gastroenterostomy for cancer of the stomach or peptic ulcer. It is a common site of cancer referred to as stump cancer or carcinoma of the gastric stump.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
Endocrine cells which secrete GASTRIN, a peptide that induces GASTRIC ACID secretion. They are found predominantly in the GASTRIC GLANDS of PYLORIC ANTRUM in the STOMACH, but can also be found in the DUODENUM, nervous and other tissues.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
A pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of AGRANULOCYTOSIS. A breath test with 13C-labeled aminopyrine has been used as a non-invasive measure of CYTOCHROME P-450 metabolic activity in LIVER FUNCTION TESTS.
N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.

Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on gastric ionic fluxes and potential difference in man. (1/4985)

Paracetamol has replaced aspirin as the analgesic of choice in many situations. The major reason is the damaging effect of aspirin on gastric mucosa. Alterations in gastric ionic fluxes and potential difference provide measures of aspirin-induced structural damage. We studied the effect of large doses of paracetamol (acetaminophen 2-0 g) on gastric ionic fluxes in man. In addition, the effect of 2-0 g paracetamol on gastric potential difference was compared with that of 600 mg aspirin. In contrast with salicylates, paracetamol caused no significant alteration in movement of H+ and Na+ ions over control periods. Aspirin causes a significant fall in transmucosal potential difference (PD) across gastric mucosa of 15 mv, while paracetamol cuased no significant change. Paracetamol in a dose four times that recommended does not alter gastric ionic fluxes or potential difference. These studies support choice of paracetamol as analgesic over aspirin where damage to gastric mucosa may be critical.  (+info)

Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (2/4985)

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

Precancerous lesions in two counties of China with contrasting gastric cancer risk. (3/4985)

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and shows remarkable geographical variation even within countries such as China. Linqu County in Shandong Province of northeast China has a GC rate that is 15 times higher than that of Cangshan County in Shandong, even though these counties are within 200 miles of each other. METHOD: In order to evaluate the frequency of precancerous gastric lesions in Linqu and Cangshan Counties we examined 3400 adults in Linqu County and 224 adults in Cangshan County. An endoscopic examination with four biopsies was performed in each individual of the two populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) was 30% and 15.1%, respectively, in Linqu compared to 7.9% and 5.6% in Cangshan (P < 0.01). Within these histological categories, advanced grades were found more often in Linqu than in Cangshan. The prevalences of IM and DYS were more common at each biopsy site in Linqu, where the lesions also tended to affect multiple sites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support the concept that IM and DYS are closely correlated with risks of GC and represent late stages in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional characterisation of myofibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes migrating out of the human gastric lamina propria following the loss of epithelial cells. (4/4985)

BACKGROUND: The basement membrane of human colonic mucosa contains numerous discrete pores. We have recently shown that following loss of the surface epithelium, many cells migrate out of the colonic lamina propria via basement membrane pores. AIMS: To characterise cells migrating out via basement membrane pores of the human gastric lamina propria, following loss of the surface epithelium. METHODS: Fresh human gastric mucosal samples were completely denuded of epithelial cells and placed in culture. Tissue samples were studied by electron microscopy (EM) and cells by EM, FACS analysis, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: EM showed numerous discrete pores (0. 65-8.29 microm in diameter) in the subepithelial basement membrane. During culture of mucosal samples denuded of epithelial cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and myofibroblasts migrated out of the lamina propria via the basement membrane pores. The lymphocytes were predominantly CD45RO+ and CD69+ T cells. Macrophages were shown to express cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 enzymes. Myofibroblasts were established in culture and, despite prolonged culture and passage, retained their phenotype. They expressed mRNA and protein for COX 1 and 2 enzymes and their release of prostaglandin E2 was inhibited by selective COX 1 and 2 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Lamina propria cells migrating out of cultured denuded gastric mucosal samples have been characterised phenotypically and functionally. Such cells would be suitable for studies of their interactions with epithelial cells and also with Helicobacter pylori and its products.  (+info)

Influence of a new antiulcer agent, ammonium 7-oxobicyclo (2, 2, 1) hept-5-ene-3-carbamoyl-2-carboxylate (KF-392) on gastric lesions and gastric mucosal barrier in rats. (5/4985)

Antiulcer effects of KF-392 were studied in several experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. It was found that KF-392 given orally at 1.0 to 5.0 mg/kg had a marked suppression on the developments of Shay ulcer as well as the aspirin-, stress-, and reserpine-induced gastric lesions. The influence of KF-392 on gastric mucosal barrier was also studied. A back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa and a fall of transmucosal potential difference were induced with KF-392 given orally at the above mentioned doses. KF-392 given s.c. at 5.0 mg/kg showed no inhibition of Shay ulcer and no induction of back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa.  (+info)

Isosmotic modulation of Ca2+-regulated exocytosis in guinea-pig antral mucous cells: role of cell volume. (6/4985)

1. Exocytotic events and changes of cell volume in mucous cells from guinea-pig antrum were examined by video-enhanced optical microscopy. 2. Acetylcholine (ACh) evoked exocytotic events following cell shrinkage, the frequency and extent of which depended on the ACh concentration. ACh actions were mimicked by ionomycin and thapsigargin, and inhibited by Ca2+-free solution and Ca2+ channel blockers (Ni2+, Cd2+ and nifedipine). Application of 100 microM W-7, a calmodulin inhibitor, also inhibited the ACh-induced exocytotic events. These results indicate that ACh actions are mediated by intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in antral mucous cells. 3. The effects of ion channel blockers on exocytotic events and cell shrinkage evoked by ACh were examined. Inhibition of KCl release (quinine, Ba2+, NPPB or KCl solution) suppressed both the exocytotic events and cell shrinkage evoked by ACh. 4. Bumetanide (inhibition of NaCl entry) or Cl--free solution (increasing Cl- release and inhibition of NaCl entry) evoked exocytotic events following cell shrinkage in unstimulated antral mucous cells and caused further cell shrinkage and increases in the frequency of exocytotic events in ACh-stimulated cells. However, Cl--free solution did not evoke exocytotic events in unstimulated cells in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, although cell shrinkage occurred. 5. To examine the effects of cell volume on ACh-evoked exocytosis, the cell volume was altered by increasing the extracellular K+ concentration. The results showed that cell shrinkage increases the frequency of ACh-evoked exocytotic events and cell swelling decreases them. 6. Osmotic shrinkage or swelling caused the frequency of ACh-evoked exocytotic events to increase. This suggests that the effects of cell volume on ACh-evoked exocytosis under anisosmotic conditions may not be the same as those under isosmotic conditions. 7. In antral mucous cells, Ca2+-regulated exocytosis is modulated by cell shrinkage under isosmotic conditions.  (+info)

KRAS mutations predict progression of preneoplastic gastric lesions. (7/4985)

Eight hundred sixty-three subjects with atrophic gastritis were recruited to participate in an ongoing chemoprevention trial in Narino, Colombia. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention therapies, which included treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection followed by daily dietary supplementation with antioxidant micronutrients in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design. A series of biopsies of gastric mucosa were obtained according to a specified protocol from designated locations in the stomach for each participant at baseline (before intervention therapy) and at year three. A systematic sample of 160 participants was selected from each of the eight treatment combinations. DNA was isolated from each of these biopsies (n = 320), and the first exon of KRAS was amplified using PCR. Mutations in the KRAS gene were detected using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by sequence analysis. Of all baseline biopsies, 14.4% (23 of 160) contained KRAS mutations. Among those participants with atrophic gastritis without metaplasia, 19.4% (6 of 25) contained KRAS mutations, indicating that mutation of this important gene is likely an early event in the etiology of gastric carcinoma. An important association was found between the presence of KRAS mutations in baseline biopsies and the progression of preneoplastic lesions. Only 14.6% (20 of 137) of participants without baseline KRAS mutations progressed from atrophic gastritis to intestinal metaplasia or from small intestinal metaplasia to colonic metaplasia; however, 39.1% (9 of 23) with baseline KRAS mutations progressed to a more advanced lesion after 3 years [univariate odds ratio (OR), 3.76 (P = 0.05); multivariate OR adjusted for treatment, 3.74 (P = 0.04)]. In addition, the specificity of the KRAS mutation predicted progression. For those participants with G-->T transversions at position 1 of codon 12 (GGT-->TGT), 19.4% (5 of 17) progressed (univariate OR, 2.4); however, 60.0% (3 of 5) of participants with G-->A transitions at position 1 of codon 12 (GGT-->AGT) progressed (univariate OR, 8.7; P = 0.004 using chi2 test).  (+info)

Quantitative assessment of gastric atrophy using the syntactic structure analysis. (8/4985)

AIM: To assess the topographical relation between gastric glands, using the minimum spanning tree (MST), to derive both a model of neighbourhood and quantitative representation of the tissue's architecture, to assess the characteristic features of gastric atrophy, and to assess the grades of gastric atrophy. METHODS: Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections from corporal and antral biopsy specimens (n = 139) from normal patients and from patients with nonatrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis of grades 1, 2, and 3 (Sydney system) were assessed by image analysis system (Prodit 5.2) and 11 syntactic structure features were derived. These included both line and connectivity features. RESULTS: Syntactic structure analysis was correlated with the semiquantitative grading system of gastric atrophy. The study showed significant reductions in the number of points and the length of MST in both body and antrum. The standard deviation of the length of MST was significantly increased in all grades of atrophy. The connectivity to two glands was the highest and most affected by the increased grade of atrophy. The reciprocal values of the Wiener, Randic, and Balaban indices showed significant changes in the volume of gland, abnormality in the shape of glands, and changes in irregularity and branching of the glands in both types of gastric mucosa. There was a complete separation in the MST, connectivity, and index values between low grade and high grade gastric atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Gastric atrophy was characterised by loss of the gland, variation in the volume, reduction in the neighbourhood, irregularity in spacing, and abnormality in the shape of the glands. (2) Syntactic structure analysis significantly differentiated minor changes in gastric gland (low grade atrophy) from high grade atrophy of clinical significance. (3) Syntactic structure analysis is a simple, fast, and highly reproducible technique and appears a promising method for quantitative assessment of atrophy.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Gastric mucosal barrier, drug induced acute erosive gastritis and stress ulcer. AU - Mann, Nirmal S. AU - Mann, Surinder K. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. N2 - Gastric mucin probably plays an insignificant role in the protection of gastric mucosa. The metabolic integrity of the mucosal cells is important in the maintenance of the gastric mucosal barrier. Various drugs and stress break the gastric mucosal barrier, allowing increased back diffusion of hydrogen ions and causing gastric erosions, stress ulcers, and gastric bleeding. Presence of acid seems to be necessary for the occurrence of these lesions. Acute gastric mucosal lesions as a cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are best diagnosed by fiberoptic endoscopy. Antacids may be effective in preventing these lesions.. AB - Gastric mucin probably plays an insignificant role in the protection of gastric mucosa. The metabolic integrity of the mucosal cells is important in the maintenance of the gastric mucosal barrier. Various ...
Effects of zerumbone on chronic gastritis remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of zerumbone on the treatment of chronic gastritis in rats. The animal models of chronic gastritis in rats were established, and the surface damage of gastric mucosa was observed by gross anatomy; the changes of gastric mucosal tissue and surface morphology were observed by pathological sections of gastric mucosal tissues; the expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) proteins of gastric mucosal tissues in each group were detected by western blot analysis; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in gastric mucosal tissues were detected by kits. The results indicated that zerumbone could significantly relieve red and swelling as well as erosion of the gastric mucosal tissues in rats with chronic gastritis; ...
GGA may induce transcriptional activation of HSP genes, and this novel action may increase gastric mucosal defense at conditions of stress.
Several studies indicate that naturally occurring antioxidants exert protective biochemical effects in a number of biological experimental systems. In particular, phenolic antioxidants, which are widely distributed in vegetable foods, are considered to play an important role in the prevention of oxidative damage in living systems.32 Because generation of ROS in the stomach greatly contributes to the damaging effect exerted by a number of ulcerogens,2-4 we sought to investigate whether APE prevented oxidative stress induced injury to cultured gastric mucous cells in vitro, under conditions independent of acid secretion or systemic factors, including blood flow.. Our data indicate that APE counteract the damaging effect of X-XO generated ROS in gastric epithelial cells and that this protective effect seems to be mainly attributable to the major components of APE (that is, CAT and CA). This effect is associated with permeation of gastric cells by apple phenolic compounds and seems to be due to ...
The human stomach normally contains high levels of bioactive nitric oxide (NO). This NO derives from salivary nitrate (NO3-) that is converted to nitrite (NO2-) by oral bacteria and thereafter non-enzymatically reduced in the acidic gastric lumen to NO. Nitrate is a common component in vegetables, and after ingestion it is absorbed in the small intestine. Interestingly, circulating nitrate is then concentrated by the salivary glands. Hence, intake of nitrate-rich vegetables results in high levels of NO in the stomach. The physiological effects of the high concentration of NO gas normally present in the gastric lumen have been hitherto unknown, and the present investigations were therefore conducted to address this issue.. NO produced in the gastric lumen after nitrate ingestion increased gastric mucosal blood flow and the thickness of the firmly adherent mucus layer in the stomach. The blood flow and mucus layer are essential defense mechanisms that protect the mucosa from luminal acid and ...
The purpose of this investigation was to study cell proliferation kinetics in human gastric mucosa. Biopsies were taken from the antral and fundic part of the stomach through a fibre-gastroscope and incubated in culture medium containing a DNA-precursor (3-H-thymidine). Autoradiographs were prepared by the dipping technique. The number of labelled cells and the total number of cells in all cross sections of foveolae containing one or more labelled cells were counted. The labelling index (LI), which is defined as the percentage of labelled cells in the progenitor cell region, was estimated. When only cross sections with labelled cells are taken into consideration, the labelling index will be a little overestimated. In order to reduce this error a formula for correction was worked out. Thirty-six patients with different gastric diseases were studied. The observer error was minimal, and the results were highly reproducible. It was not possible to demonstrate any correlation between the labelling ...
The gastric mucosa is constantly exposed to conditions that would normally be damaging to living cells. A complex defensive system has evolved that involves multiple mechanisms arranged in a laminar fashion, that as a whole constitute the gastric mucosal barrier to acid. As antisecretory therapy becomes perfected, more attention has been focused on these defensive components of the gastric mucosal barrier in disease. Recently, our laboratory has developed a means of measuring intracellular pH (pH,sub,i,/sub,), mucosal blood flow, acid secretion, surface cell acidification rate, and acid secretion simultaneously ,i,in vivo,/i,. This system has enabled our laboratory to explore how the different components of the gastric mucosal barrier interact so as to protect the pH,sub,i,/sub, of the surface cells under a variety of conditions. Analysis of these studies has revealed a significant inverse correlation between the initial fall in pH; of surface cells during luminal acid exposure and the thickness ...
Guarda Foto stock di Crosssection Of The Gastric Or Stomach Epithelium Showing The Numerous Gastric Pits On The Surface Of The Mucosa Sem. Cerca foto premium ad alta risoluzione su Getty Images.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cholecystokinin secretagogue-induced gastroprotection. T2 - Role of nitric oxide and blood flow. AU - West, Sonlee D.. AU - Helmer, Kenneth S.. AU - Chang, Lily K.. AU - Cui, Yan. AU - Greeley, George H.. AU - Mercer, David W.. PY - 2003/3/1. Y1 - 2003/3/1. N2 - This study was done to examine the role of CCK in gastric mucosal defense and to assess the gastroprotective roles of nitric oxide and blood flow. In rats, the CCK secretagogues oleate and soybean trypsin inhibitor augmented gastric mucosal blood flow and prevented gastric injury from luminal irritants. Type A CCK receptor blockade negated CCK secretagogue-induced gastroprotection and exacerbated gastric injury from bile and ethanol but did not block adaptive cytoprotection. CCK secretagogue-induced gastroprotection and hyperemia were negated by nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition (nG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) but not by selective inducible NOS inhibition (aminoguanidine). Gastric mucosal ...
Stomach mucosa. Light micrograph (bottom left) and computer illustration (top right) of the lining of the stomach, known as the mucosa. The stomach is a muscular sac involved in storage and digestion of food. The surface of the mucosa consists of simple columnar cells (dark purple in micrograph) that secrete mucus. The mucus protects the stomach lining from digestive acids and enzymes that act on food in the stomach. Beneath the columnar cells are gastric pits, the glands that make the acids and enzymes needed to digest food. - Stock Image F016/8749
The balance of protective and aggressive factors in the gastric mucosal barrier is an important consideration in gastrointestinal diseases (4). Gastric acid, pepsin, and external stimuli are known aggravating factors of gastric mucosal cells, while microcirculatory system, HCO3−, prostaglandins, epidermal growth factor synthesis, and epithelial cell reconstitution are gastro-protective factors that maintain integrity of the gastric mucosal layer. Obviously, there are several viewpoints in association with the effect of ethanol on gastric mucosal cells. However, the main pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastritis is vascular damage followed by mucosal cell-hypoxia, -degeneration, and -necrosis, respectively. The decline of anti-oxidant level and over production of oxygen free radicals especially super-oxide and hydrogen peroxide, are also link to ethanol-induced gastric injury and play a crucial role to further induce gastric inflammatory response. In addition, ethanol itself destroys gastric ...
14-3-3ơ is an intracellular, phosphoserine binding protein and proposed to be involved in tumorigenesis. However, the expression dynamics of 14-3-3ơ and its clinicopathological/prognostic significance in human tumors are still controversial. The method of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot were utilized to examine the protein expression of 14-3-3ơ in gastric cancer and paired normal adjacent gastric mucosal tissues. Receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to determine a cutoff score for 14-3-3ơ expression in a training set (n = 66). For validation, the ROC-derived cutoff score was subjected to analysis of the association of 14-3-3ơ expression with patient outcome and clinical characteristics in a testing set (n = 86) and overall patients (n = 152). The expression frequency and expression levels of 14-3-3ơ were significantly higher in gastric cancer than in normal gastric mucosal tissues. Correlation analysis demonstrated that high expression of 14-3-3ơ in
Using a novel optical technique, polarization-gated spectroscopy, our group detected an early increase in blood supply (EIBS) prior to any morphological manifes...
Gastric mucosa of BALB/c mouse infected with H. pylori for 1 week. Significant infiltration of inflammatory cells is not seen. H & E stain. Original magnifi
The cytology of gastric mucosa: Smears and sections were obtained from various labelled points on the mucosal surface of 25 freshly-excised stomachs, and the ap
The involvement of cAMP as a second messenger for histamine-induced H+ secretion was studied in a physiologically active, in vitro preparation of piglet gastric mucosa. During the first 5--10 min of stimulation with either histamine or the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1,4-methylxanthi …
Gastrointestinal diseases often do not cause much discomfort, and felt a slight indigestion after eating. Any irregularities in the digestive organs indicate changes in the frequency and character of stool.. The presence of any of these symptoms may indicate pathological conditions, to identify which will help timely survey. Sometimes these symptoms to report breaches of the mucosa of the body, so doctors do not recommend ignore them.. ...
Isolation and characterization of a gene expressed mainly in the gastric epithelium, a novel member of the ep37 family that belongs to the βγ-crystallin superfamily (1998 ...
In this study, Albis (containing ranitidine, sucralfate, and bismuth) prevented the gastric mucosal injury provoked by long-term use of ASA. There was no development of peptic ulcer in either of the groups during the study period. This might be due to the study period being too short to allow peptic ulcer to develop by the use of low-dose ASA. However, gastric mucosal injury measured by the MLS developed, but was reduced by concomitant use of Albis. Although several studies have reported the efficacy of PPIs or H2RAs in the prevention of peptic ulcer and gastric mucosal injury caused by ASA, there is no report of the efficacy of fixed-dose combination of H2RA, sucralfate, and bismuth [3,7,11,14-17]. This is the first prospective trial to evaluate the efficacy of combination of H2RA, sucralfate, and bismuth for the prevention of peptic ulcer or gastric mucosal injury due to long-term use of lowdose ASA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ii-CS on gastric epithelial cells interacts with CD44 on T cells and induces their proliferation. AU - Barrera, C. A.. AU - Chan, T.. AU - Crowe, S. E.. AU - Ernst, P. B.. AU - Reyes, Victor. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. KW - CD44. KW - Gastric epithelial cell. KW - H. pylori. UR - UR - M3 - Article. VL - 987. SP - 285. EP - 287. JO - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. JF - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. SN - 0077-8923. ER - ...
We have shown that contact with H. pylori rapidly activates ERK1, ERK2, p38, JNK p46, and JNK p54 MAP kinases in AGS gastric epithelial cells. We also find that H. pylori cag+ strains are more potent than cag− strains in inducing MAP kinase activation. Differential MAP kinase activation by cag+ and cag−H. pylori strains is particularly evident for JNK phosphorylation and appears to be dependent upon genes within the cag pathogenicity island. Inhibitors of p38 and MEK1 MAP kinases prevent H. pylori-induced IL-8 production. However, p38 and MEK1 MAP kinase activity do not appear to be essential for H. pylori-induced NF-κB activation.. H. pylori has adapted to interact specifically with gastric-type epithelial cells. H. pylori infection is limited to areas of the gastrointestinal tract that are lined by gastric epithelium, and the bacterium is known to activate several gastric epithelial cell signaling events. Previous studies have shown that adherence of H. pylori to AGS gastric epithelial ...
The isolation of Helicobacter pylori from the human gastric mucosa in 1982 and the demonstration of its involvement in gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinomas have radically changed our perception of these diseases. H. pylori is a small, spiral, gram-negative bacillus that appears to inhabit the mucous layer overlying the gastric epithelial cells in humans. It produces a potent urease, which, by producing ammonia, may help to neutralize gastric acid, but the mechanism by which the bacteria produces gastric inflammation is not clear as it does not invade the mucosa. Development of atrophy and metaplasia of the gastric mucosa are strongly associated with H. pylori infection. Oxidative and nitrosative stress in combination with inflammation plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. More. Last updated: 25 Janury 2008. ...
Ethanol, after intragastric administration, penetrates deeply into the gastric mucosa because of high lipid solubility and, at concentrations of 50-100%, causes microvascular damage and hemorrhagic lesions (23, 34, 37, 38, 41). Ethanol-induced injury to the gastric mucosa is a time-related process in which disruption or exfoliation of the gastric surface epithelium is followed by necrosis of deeper mucosal layers, including the mucosal proliferative zone and the microvasculature (23,37, 38, 41). Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the healing of ethanol-induced deep gastric mucosal damage. Our previous study has shown that ethanol-induced injury to gastric mucosa triggers an angiogenic response as well as an increase in bFGF, a known angiogenic factor, in the mucosa bordering necrosis (36, 39).. The present study demonstrates for the first time that ethanol-induced injury to the gastric mucosa activates VEGF gene expression as reflected by increases in VEGF at both the transcriptional and ...
Visualizing the mucosal surface may require using forceps to hold the specimen open (Fig. 19), unlike the specimens pictured in the other gross photographs. Histology shows marked thickening and fibrosis of the lamina propria, submucosa, and muscularis propria (Fig. 20). (Compare the normal histology in Fig. ) Fig. 19 Stricture of the esophagus, fresh specimen 44 Fig. 20 Histology of stricture (H & E, ×20) B. Gorman 2 Histologic Anatomy 45 Inlet Patch The inlet patch is characterized by ectopic gastric mucosa that is surrounded by normal squamous mucosa (Fig. A b Fig. 21 (a) Inlet patch (H & E, ×40). The mucosa on the left side of this photomicrograph shows essentially normal gastric mucosa with foveolar and glandular epithelium. The mucosa on the right shows normal esophageal squamous epithelium. (b) Inlet patch (H & E, ×200). On higher power, the gastric mucosa of the inlet patch is identical to that seen in the stomach, with foveolar epithelium overlying gastric glands composed of mucus ...
Bullfrog tadpole stomachs of various metamorphic stages were examined to determine the fine-structural development of oxyntic cells and to correlate observed morphological development with the capacity to secrete HCl. It was found that in vitro tadpole stomachs can consistently be stimulated to secrete acid by stage XXIV of metamorphosis, when tail reabsorption is nearly complete. Concomitant with the appearance of HCl secretion, identifiable oxyntic cells were found in the gastric glands.. Prior to stage XXIV (stages XXI and XXII) the majority of cells present in the developing gastric glands exhibit features of cytological organization characteristic of undifferentiated cells: large nuclei, relatively scantry cytoplasm, and numerous ribosomal particles within the cytoplasmic matrix. The newly differentiated oxyntic cells of stage XXIV tadpole stomachs are recognizable by the accumulation of tubular members of the smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in the apical portion of the cells. These ...
Lawson R. Thoracoabdominal duplication cyst containing heterotopic gastric mucosa: report of a case. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1968;67(11):1292. doi: .. Download citation file:. ...
Chem Biol Interact. 2009 Aug 14;180(3):499-505. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2009.04.006. Epub 2009 May 3. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is implicated in human gastric mucosa. Fork head box M1 (FoxM1), the key positive regulator of cell proliferation is overexpressed in gastric cancer. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In this study, we explored the effect of H. pylori infection on FoxM1 expression and possible mechanisms. The expression of FoxM1 was gradually increased in human gastric specimens from inflammation to cancer. FoxM1 was time- and concentration-dependently upregulated in gastric epithelial-derived cell lines infected with H. pylori. CagA, the key virulence factor of H. pylori, was associated with increasing FoxM1 expression. H. pylori and CagA inhibited the expression of P27Kip1 (cylcin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B, CDKN1B) and promoted cell proliferation by upregulating FoxM1. The expression of hsa-miR-370 was decreased in human gastritis and gastric cancer. FoxM1 was directly downregulated by hsa-miR-370 in gastric cell lines. H. pylori and ...
Indomethacin (IND) is an extensively used drug. However, it provokes aggressive ulcerogenic potential. Chamomile is a widely used as natural herb with a powerful antioxidant activity. This study aims to assess the effects of chamomile flowers extract (CFE) in IND induced peptic ulcer (PU). Fifty rats classified to five groups; control, ulcer, and pretreated groups with CFE (200 mg/kg), pretreated with ranitidine RAN (50 mg/kg), and pretreated with CFE+RAN for 14 days pre-ulcer induction. Pretreatment with CFE and/or RAN significantly decreased ulcer index, gastric acidity, pepsin activity, gastric oxidative stress biomarkers, serum anti-inflammatory cytokines, and histopathological changes induced by IND. The pretreated groups significantly elevated gastric enzyme antioxidant activity, mucin content and gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 with comparison to IND group. Pretreatment with CFE+RAN displayed the most gastroprotective effects compared with pretreated with either CFE or RAN alone. ...
Investigations on gastric mucosal protective mechanisms are focused mainly on the local mucosal processes. Much less is known about how the central nervous system may influence the gastric mucosal defense. However, gastric mucosal protection induced by a central mechanism was described recently (Tache et al., 1994; Gyires, 1997;Guidobono et al., 1998; Kaneko et al., 1998; Yang et al., 1999). In our present study, the role of central opioid receptors was analyzed by means of selective δ- and μ-opioid receptor agonists. It was found that both the selective δ- and μ-opioid receptor agonists injected either i.c.v. or i.c. exerted protective effect against acidified ethanol-induced lesions; the rank order of potency was β-endorphin , DAGO , DADLE , deltorphin II , DPDPE following i.c.v. injection and deltorphin II , β endorphin , DPDPE , DAGO , DADLE following i.c. administration. The results suggest that activation of supraspinal δ- and μ-opioid receptors may induce gastric mucosal ...
Dr. Donald Colantino answered: Gastritis: This should resolve with the taking of prolosec type medication. However I feel that its...
Academic Journals Database is a universal index of periodical literature covering basic research from all fields of knowledge, and is particularly strong in medical research, humanities and social sciences. Full-text from most of the articles is available. Academic Journals Database contains complete bibliographic citations, precise indexing, and informative abstracts for papers from a wide range of periodicals.
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has previously been detected in the glandular part of the human gastric mucosa. Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to influence gastric secretion in various animal models. The present study was cond
Hydrogen has been reported to relieve damage in many disease models, and is a potential additive in drinking water to provide protective effects for patients as several clinical studies revealed. However, the absence of a dose-response relationship in the application of hydrogen is puzzling. We attempted to identify the dose-response relationship of hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water through the aspirin induced gastric injury model. In this study, hydrogen-rich alkaline water was obtained by adding H2 to electrolyzed water at one atmosphere pressure. After 2 weeks of drinking, we detected the gastric mucosal damage together with MPO, MDA and 8-OHdG in rat aspirin induced gastric injury model. Hydrogen-dose dependent inhibition was observed in stomach mucosal. Under pH 8.5, 0.07, 0.22 and 0.84 ppm hydrogen exhibited a high correlation with inhibitory effects showed by erosion area, MPO activity and MDA content in the stomach. Gastric histology also demonstrated the inhibition of damage by
Mucosal prostaglandin E2 levels in patients with the gastric ulcer before and after their ulcers were healed. Both the antral and duodenal PG E2 are significant
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The duodenal surface epithelium shown here consists of absorptive cells with scattered goblet cells, in contrast to that of stomach which consists uniformly of surface mucous cells.. Note that Brunners glands lie beneath the muscularis mucosae, in the submucosa. Click on the rectangle for a magnified image of the intestinal epithelium, or.... ...
Dystrophic lesions of the gastric mucosa were observed to be formed and the pepsinogen content was reduced by 57% in the gastric mucosa of rats exposed to various experimental stressors...
The stomach mucosas epithelial lining consists only of surface mucus cells, which secrete a protective coat of alkaline mucus. A vast number of gastric pits dot the surface of the epithelium, giving it the appearance of a well-used pincushion, and mark the entry to each gastric gland, which secretes a complex digestive fluid referred to as gastric juice ...
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can result in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) which is a common condition worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiulcer properties of (1-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-3-m-tolyl-propenone) (HPTP) chalcone in rats using indomethacin as ulcerogenic agent. None of the rats showed symptoms of kidney and liver toxicity during the term of the study. Administration of HPTP had decreased the acidity, increased gastric wall mucus and flattening of gastric mucosa and reducing erosive gastric damage area. HPTP also showed dose dependent increase in SOD, GPx activity and PGE2 level and decrease MDA. H & E stain showed decreased infiltration of leucocytes with edema of submucosal layer. PAS staining showed intense uptake of magenta color of gastric wall mucus in rats fed with HPTP, and immunohistochemical staining of gastric mucosa revealed over-expression of HSP70 protein, down-expression of Bax protein and over expression of TGF-β in rats administered with HPTP. This
Gastric gland: false-colour scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the mucous membrane lining the stomach, showing the shadowy entrances to a number of gastric glands. The glands secrete gastric juice (hydrochloric acid & the enzyme pepsin) and a protective mucous, derived from the simple, columnar cells (moss-like) that comprise the mucosa. Gastric glands are formed by simple invagination or tubular ingrowth of this mucosa into the underlying layer of tissue, the lamina propria. Magnification: x300 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image P510/0042
Definition of Ulcer Index in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Ulcer Index? Meaning of Ulcer Index as a finance term. What does Ulcer Index mean in finance?
Positive cells in gastric mucosa of ctsz2/2 (p = 0.009) and wt mice (p = 0.001). Compared to wt animals with no further increase in F4/80 positivity, ctsz2/2
BACKGROUND Antenatal exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been associated with renal dysgenesis in humans. METHODS These studies characterized cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) versus COX-1-selective inhibition on nephrogenesis in the rodent using histomorphometry, immunohistology, and in situ hybridization. RESULTS Administration of a COX-2-selective inhibitor (SC58236), started during pregnancy until weaning, significantly impaired development of the renal cortex and reduced glomerular diameter in both mice and rats. An identical phenotype was demonstrated in COX-2 -/- mice. In contrast to its effects on the developing kidney, a COX-2 inhibitor had no effect on glomerular volume in adult mice. This effect was specific for COX-2 because maternal administration of a COX-1-selective inhibitor (SC58560) did not affect renal development despite significantly inhibiting gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in pups. The expression of COX-2 immunoreactivity peaked in the first
Background Feeding alfalfa hay is often recommended for its buffering components, like protein and calcium, to prevent lesions of the gastric mucosa in horses. Until now, there has been no information...
Anti-oxidative Herbs and Indomethacin-Induced Rat Gastric Mucosal Lesions: Protection by GamiHyangsa-Yukgunja Heung Mook Shin (Acce...
We previously reported that gastrin induced PAI-2 in gastric epithelial cells via activation of PKC and RhoA, which in part triggered release of an unidentified paracrine mediator (11) . The present findings therefore extend these studies both by identification of H. pylori as a regulator of PAI-2 in gastric epithelial cells and by demonstration of the role of NFκB and of IL-8 and COX-2 as mediators of the response. It is well recognized that NFκB is activated by H. pylori and in turn leads to induction of IL-8 and COX-2 (28 , 33 , 34) . Less clear, however, are putative targets within the gastric epithelium that might mediate the progression to cancer and the integrative mechanisms that might account for differential cell signaling in tissues as complex as the gastric mucosa. The present observations indicate that PAI-2 should now be considered a putative target of NFκB activation by H. pylori. It seems, however, that the role of NFκB is limited to cells exposed directly to H. pylori and ...
The mucus-secreting columnar cells lining the luminal surface and the pits are joined near their free surfaces to each other by tight junctions (Ham l974). It is surmized that this arrangement forms one of the mechanisms by which the underlying layers are protected against luminal acid. The supranuclear portions of the cells just below their free surfaces contain dense, homogeneous, spherical or ovoid granules consisting of a type of mucigen (Bloom and Fawcett l975). Upon release into the lumen, the granules give rise to the layer of mucus that covers the luminal surface of the mucosa. In the cells of the gastric pits, the granules become progressively less abundant at deeper levels, and in the bottom of the pits they from only a thin layer immediately beneath the cell surface. Cells of this kind continue into the necks of the gastric glands. Under physiological conditions, the surface mucus cells are continuously desquamated into the lumen and are completely replaced every 3 days (Ham l974; ...
Adenosine is the endogenous agonist at all adenosine receptors. Under resting physiological conditions, adenosine levels in the interstitial fluid are between 30 and 300 nM (7). This is sufficient to activate A1, A2A, and A3 adenosine receptors whenever these proteins are abundantly expressed on the cell surface. The local adenosine level increases 10-fold during hypoxia and 100- to 1,000-fold in ischemia (7, 18, 34, 72), allowing cell responses mediated via A2BR in these settings. The pharmacological and functional studies presented here have been conducted using parietal cells obtained from normal rabbit gastric mucosa, which are representative populations of native, nontransformed primary cells at rest. They provide evidence that A2B is the adenosine receptor that is preferentially, if not exclusively, expressed on the parietal cell membrane and mediates acid production via Gs activation. Moreover, activation kinetics indicate that the A2BR might act at full power to activate acid production ...
In the GC cell lines, the level ofmiR-200a/b methylation decreased and the level of expression increased after demethylation. In the human gastric mucosa, the miR-200a/b methylation levels increased in the following group order: H. pylori-negative control group, H. pylori-positive control group, and H. pylori-positive GC group. Conversely, the miR-200a/b expression levels decreased in the same order. In the H. pylori-persistence group, no significant changes were observed in the methylation and expression levels of miR-200a/b after 6 months, whereas the level of methyla-tion decreased and the level of expression of miR-200a/b increased significantly 6 months in the H. pylori-eradication group ...
It must be assumed that some cause is operative in certain cases preventing the healing of defects in the gastric mucosa and is inoperative in others. Even though anhemolytic streptococci are present in practically all gastric ulcers, we cannot convince ourselves that these organisms have been proven as yet to be the factor which either initiates the ulceration or prevents healing. Nevertheless, the constant presence of streptococci in this type of lesion is a suggestive fact and further experiments to determine their significance are being undertaken. ...
The most common finding in this study is an inflammatory process of the gastric mucosa - gastritis.In fact, after 20 years it is present in almost everyone.More serious is the discovery of the plague.Its danger lies in the fact that it can bleed and even to break through the wall of the stomach completely.In the event of signs of complications held emergency EGD.Gastric ulcer, among other things, is able to regenerate a more serious disease.. Much more disturbing is the discovery in the stomach cavity of a tumor process.Unpleasant discovery is also a gastric polyp.If you find something similar or just inflamed mucous area with signs of changing the structure of the doctor, most likely, with the consent of the patient will take a biopsy.Later removal of tissue samples are sent to patotsitologicheskoe research.The result will allow to say exactly what is is one or the other a modified portion of the gastric mucosa.. ...
TYPE OF STAINING:Sialomucin that have acid and neutral mucopolysaccharides stain purple. Normal gastric mucosa will stain only with PAS(red), but intestinal metaplasia will stain purple ...
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History & Aims Gastric carcinoma is usually related mostly to infection, which disrupts the gastric mucosa turnover and elicits an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and preneoplastic transdifferentiation. pattern, characterized by an early transient YAP1 nuclear accumulation and stimulated YAP1/TEAD transcription, followed by nuclear LATS2 up-regulation leading to YAP1 phosphorylation and targeting for degradation. LATS2 and YAP1 reciprocally positively regulate each others expression. Loss-of-function experiments showed that LATS2 restricts contamination engages a number of signaling cascades that alienate mucosa homeostasis, including the Hippo LATS2/YAP1/TEAD pathway. In the hostCpathogen conflict, which generates an inflammatory environment and perturbations Pterostilbene of the epithelial turnover and differentiation, Hippo signaling appears as a protective pathway, restricting the?lack of gastric epithelial cell identification that precedes gastric?carcinoma advancement. infections; ...
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What are the causes of gastritis?, Gastritis is a kind of inflammation of the stomach mucosa (inflammation). This means that the white blood cells accumulate i
During the past decade, Helicobacter pylori has become recognized as one of the most common human pathogens, colonizing the gastric mucosa of almost all persons exposed to poor hygienic conditions from childhood. It also is often found, albeit with a ...
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Scientists have developed a new kind of tiny motor that can propel itself through acidic environments, such as the human stomach, without any external energy source, opening the way to a variety of medical and industrial applications.
The first complete mucosal support supplement of its kindMegaMucosa is the first complete mucosal support supplement of its kind, formulated to REBUILD a healthy mucosal barrier. MegaMucosa also contains dairy-free immunoglobulins clinically shown to support a healthy immune response in the mucosa and a state-of-the-art flavobiotic clinically shown to support microbial diversity and alleviate barr
MissD wrote:Hi all - I had my band out in 2009 - put on 30kgs. So had the sleeve done in nov 2013. Obviously there was quite a lot of time to heal in that 4 yrs
When did you all stop sleeping on your stomachs? I am 10 weeks and still do, but recently it had started to be periodically uncomfortable. I am curious when people started making the switch to a new position.
The gastric mucosa is the mucous membrane layer of the stomach, which contains the glands and the gastric pits. In humans, it ... Gastric glands are simple or branched tubular glands that emerge on the deeper part of the gastric foveola, inside the gastric ... Several types of endocrine cells are found in throughout the gastric mucosa. The pyloric glands contain gastrin-producing cells ... These are the ducts of the gastric glands, and at the bottom of each may be seen one or more minute orifices, the openings of ...
Secretion of gastric acid or alkaline pancreatic juice from the ectopic mucosa leads to ulceration in the adjacent ileal mucosa ... Jejunal, duodenal mucosa or Brunner's tissue were each found in 2% of ectopic cases. Heterotopic rests of gastric mucosa and ... This scan detects gastric mucosa; since approximately 50% of symptomatic Meckel's diverticula have ectopic gastric or ... Bleeding may be caused by: Ectopic gastric or pancreatic mucosa: Where diverticulum contains embryonic remnants of mucosa of ...
... are mostly exocrine glands and are all located beneath the gastric pits within the gastric mucosa-the mucous ... The gastric mucosa is pitted with innumerable gastric pits which each house 3-5 gastric glands. The cells of the exocrine ... There are millions of gastric pits in the gastric mucosa and their necessary narrowness determines the tubular form of the ... These cells line the gastric mucosa. Mucous neck cell - Mucous neck cells are located within gastric glands, interspersed ...
Intrinsic factor is produced by parietal cells of the gastric mucosa (stomach lining) and the intrinsic factor-B12-complex is ... Antibodies to intrinsic factor and parietal cells cause the destruction of the oxyntic gastric mucosa, in which the parietal ... Miederer, S.E. (1977). The Histotopography of the Gastric Mucosa. Thieme, ISBN 3-13-508601-1 Butler CC, Vidal-Alaball J, ... Impaired B12 absorption can also occur following gastric removal (gastrectomy) or gastric bypass surgery. In these surgeries, ...
Prabhu SR, Ranganathan S, Amarapurkar DN (November 1994). "Helicobacter pylori in normal gastric mucosa". J Assoc Physicians ... Since 1% to 3% of infected individuals are likely to develop gastric cancer, H. pylori-induced gastric cancer is the third ... Because of the usual lack of symptoms, when gastric cancer is finally diagnosed it is often fairly advanced. More than half of ... As evaluated in 2002, it is present in the gastric tissues of 74% of middle-aged adults in developing countries and 58% in ...
Silen, W.; Machen, T. E.; Forte, J. G. (September 1975). "Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa". The American Journal ...
Silen, W.; Machen, T. E.; Forte, J. G. (September 1975). "Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa". The American Journal ...
Silen, W.; Machen, T. E.; Forte, J. G. (September 1975). "Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa". The American Journal ...
August 2005). "Prognostic value of translocation t(11;18) in tumoral response of low-grade gastric lymphoma of mucosa- ... Park, Jeong Bae (2014). "infection in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma". World Journal of Gastroenterology. ... positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy". Lancet. 357 (9249): 39 ... "Regression of primary low-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after eradication of ...
Machen TE, Rutten MJ, Ekblad EB (February 1982). "Histamine, cAMP, and activation of piglet gastric mucosa". The American ... Increased mast cell activation is a common finding in the mucosa of patients with functional GI disorders. ... ▸ Treatment with ... mucosa of the lungs, and digestive tract, as well as the mouth, conjunctiva, and nose. Mast cells play a key role in the ...
In contrast, ID4 is highly expressed in normal gastric mucosa. There is an undefined but significant association seen in ID4 ... ID4 is closely associated with gastric cancer. The ID4 promoter region is hypermethylated and infrequently expressed in gastric ... "Downregulation of ID4 by promoter hypermethylation in gastric adenocarcinoma". Oncogene. 22 (44): 6946-53. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... "Downregulation of ID4 by promoter hypermethylation in gastric adenocarcinoma". Oncogene. 22 (44): 6946-6953. doi:10.1038/sj.onc ...
Pepsin Lee D, Ryle AP (September 1967). "Pepsinogen D. A fourth proteolytic zymogen from pig gastric mucosa". The Biochemical ... Foltmann B (1981). "Gastric proteinases--structure, function, evolution and mechanism of action". Essays in Biochemistry. 17: ... Phe24-Phe and Phe25-Tyr bonds in the B chain of insulin The enzyme is a predominant endopeptidase in the gastric juice of ...
Findings on gastroscopy may include edematous gastric mucosa, and hyperperistalsis. Finding on colonoscopy may include: fragile ... mucosa, segmental erythema, longitudinal ulcer, and loss of haustrations Plain X-rays are often normal or show non-specific ...
Josefssson, M.; Ekblad, E. (2009). "Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in Gastric Mucosa: Gastric Iodide Secretion". In Preedy, ... gastric mucosa, salivary glands, oral mucosa, arterial walls, thymus, epidermis, choroid plexus and cerebrospinal fluid, among ... In the proposed mechanism, the iodide ion functions in gastric mucosa as an antioxidant reducing species that detoxifies ... gastric mucosa, cervix, cerebrospinal fluid, arterial walls, ovary and salivary glands. In the cells of these tissues the ...
Zverkov IV, Vinogradov VA, Smagin VG (October 1983). "[Endorphin-containing cells in the gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ... Secrete motilin Gastric enteroendocrine cells are found in the gastric glands, mostly at their base. The G cells secrete ... K cells secrete gastric inhibitory peptide, an incretin, which also promotes triglyceride storage. L cells secrete glucagon- ... Goswami C, Shimada Y, Yoshimura M, Mondal A, Oda S, Tanaka T, Sakai T, Sakata I (2015-06-26). "Motilin Stimulates Gastric Acid ...
"Identification of mucus glycoprotein fatty acyltransferase activity in human gastric mucosa". Digestion. 32 (1): 57-62. doi: ...
2000). "Expression and activity of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase in human gastric mucosa". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ...
Vitamin B12 requires intrinsic factor from the gastric mucosa to be absorbed. In patients with a small gastric pouch, it may ... Leakage of an anastomosis can occur in about 2% of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and less than 1% in mini gastric bypass. Leaks ... while the pouch of the gastric bypass may be 15 mL in size. The gastric bypass pouch is usually formed from the part of the ... in Poland gastric bypass costs around £4,000, whereas in Turkey it costs £3200. Gastric bypass surgery has an emotional and ...
In the stomach, TGF-α is manufactured within the normal gastric mucosa. TGF-α has been shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion ... "Transforming growth factor alpha expression in normal gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric carcinoma-- ... This protein shows potential use as a prognostic biomarker in various tumors, like gastric carcinoma. or melanoma has been ... MMP-9 and CXCR4 proteins involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition on overall survival of patients with gastric cancer". ...
"Gene expression changes in patient-matched gastric normal mucosa, adenomas, and carcinomas". Experimental and Molecular ... C11orf86 is down-regulated from non-neoplastic mucosa to adenomas and carcinomas, down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma, and ...
"Biosynthesis in vitro of a sulfated triglucosyl monoalkylmonoacylglycerol by rat gastric mucosa". J. Biol. Chem. 257 (20): ...
"Conversion of gastric mucosa to intestinal metaplasia in Cdx2-expressing transgenic mice". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Liu Q, Teh M, Ito K, Shah N, Ito Y, Yeoh KG (Dec 2007). "CDX2 expression is progressively decreased in human gastric intestinal ... Heterozygous CDX2 knock-outs have intestinal lesions caused by the differentiation of intestinal cells into gastric epithelium ... Gastric Cancer. 4 (4): 185-91. doi:10.1007/PL00011741. PMID 11846061. Eda A, Osawa H, Yanaka I, Satoh K, Mutoh H, Kihira K, ...
Takafuji VA, Evans A, Lynch KR, Roche JK (January 2002). "PGE(2) receptors and synthesis in human gastric mucosa: perturbation ... "Activation of prostaglandin E2-receptor EP2 and EP4 pathways induces growth inhibition in human gastric carcinoma cell lines". ...
Imidazopyridine Parisio, C; Clementi, F (November 1976). "Surface Alterations Induced by Stress in Gastric Mucosa: Protective ...
Clausen, C.; Machen, T. E.; Diamond, J. M. (1982). "Changes in the Cell Membranes of the Bullfrog Gastric Mucosa with Acid ... Trophic control of the intestinal mucosa". Nature. 304 (5921): 18. Bibcode:1983Natur.304...18D. doi:10.1038/304018a0. PMID ...
"Mutagenic activation of environmental carcinogens by microsomes of gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia". Cancer Research ... "Characterisation of xenobiotic-metabolising enzyme expression in human bronchial mucosa and peripheral lung tissues". European ...
2003). "Expression of TFF2 and Helicobacter pylori infection in carcinogenesis of gastric mucosa". World J. Gastroenterol. 9 (5 ... Their functions are not defined, but they may protect the mucosa from insults, stabilize the mucus layer and affect healing of ... The encoded protein inhibits gastric acid secretion. This gene and two other related trefoil family member genes are found in a ... They are stable secretory proteins expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa. ...
Brandi G (Aug 2006). "Urease-positive bacteria other than Helicobacter pylori in human gastric juice and mucosa". Am J ... Gastric bypass procedures such as a duodenal switch and RNY, where the largest acid producing parts of the stomach are either ... For practical purposes, gastric pH and endoscopy should be done in someone with suspected achlorhydria. Older testing methods ... Little is known on the prognosis of achlorhydria, although there have been reports of an increased risk of gastric cancer. A ...
The cancer eventually metastasized to her gastric mucosa, evolving to a terminal stage; thus, whatever treatment proved to be ...
Kawabata A (July 2002). "PAR-2: structure, function and relevance to human diseases of the gastric mucosa". Expert Reviews in ...
PTGS1 (COX-1) is constitutively expressed in many tissues and is the predominant form in gastric mucosa and in the kidneys. ... The mutant allele PTGS2 5939C carriers among the Han Chinese population have been shown to have a higher risk of gastric cancer ... "A new cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene variant in the Han Chinese population is associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma". ... "Cyclooxygenase-2 and gastric carcinogenesis". APMIS. 111 (10): 915-25. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0463.2003.1111001.x. PMID 14616542. ...
2009). "DNA methylation of microRNA genes in gastric mucosae of gastric cancer patients: its possible involvement in the ... gastric, breast and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. miR-137 is epigenetically silenced in colorectal adenomatous ...
... is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in ... Gregory RA, Tracy HJ (1964). "The constitution and properties of two gastrins extracted from hog antral mucosa: Part I the ... The presence of gastrin stimulates parietal cells of the stomach to secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl)/gastric acid. This is done ... i.e. during the gastric phase) Inhibitory factor: acidity (pH below 3) - a negative feedback mechanism, exerted via the release ...
... and gastric cancer. Another common condition is gastric ulceration, peptic ulcers. Ulceration erodes the gastric mucosa, which ... Peutz-Jeghers syndrome can cause dark spots on the oral mucosa or on the lips or the skin around the mouth. Several GI diseases ... Epstein-Barr virus infection is another factor to induce gastric cancer. As well as peptic ulcers, vomiting blood may result ... 863-867 Gastric diseases refer to diseases affecting the stomach. Inflammation of the stomach by infection from any cause is ...
... "c-myc gene mutation in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma". Oncol. Rep ...
... was found to stimulate secretion of gastric mucosa, and was in development by Pfizer as a drug candidate to treat gastric ...
April 2008). "Chromosomal instability in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: a fluorescent in situ ...
... is an acidic lipase secreted by the gastric chief cells in the fundic mucosa in the stomach. It has a pH optimum ... Gastric lipase is a polypeptide of 371 residues in length. The structure of gastric lipase was determined using X-ray ... Gastric lipase is not the primary lipase needed for the majority of triglyceride hydrolysis. Outside of the stomach, gastric ... Low levels of LIPF are typically seen in the tumors of gastric cancer patients. Gastric lipase can partially compensate for the ...
"Global expression analysis of ECL cells in Mastomys natalensis gastric mucosa identifies alterations in the AP-1 pathway ...
In gastric mucosa tissues, the expression of TERF2 proteins was significantly higher than normal, and this over-expression of ... and BRCA1 proteins is associated with telomere shortening and may contribute to multistage carcinogenesis of gastric cancer". ... further contributing to multistage carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000132604 - Ensembl, May ...
The most frequent adverse effect of NSAIDs is irritation of the gastric mucosa as prostaglandins normally have a protective ... should be exercised in combining low dose aspirin with COX-2 inhibitors due to potential increased damage to the gastric mucosa ... Because COX-2 is usually specific to inflamed tissue, there is much less gastric irritation associated with COX-2 inhibitors, ... Wallace JL (October 2008). "Prostaglandins, NSAIDs, and gastric mucosal protection: why doesn't the stomach digest itself?". ...
A. muciniphila is culturable under anaerobic conditions on medium containing porcine gastric mucin or synthetic medium ... a conserved intestinal symbiont that acts as the gatekeeper of our mucosa". Microbiology. 1635 (5): 646-648. doi:10.1099/mic. ...
This is usually evident after physical examination as yellow pigment deposits on the skin, in the oral mucosa, or conjunctiva. ... For patients whom complete removal of the biliary obstruction is not possible, a combination of a gastric bypass and ...
Depending on the area being treated, this may include the skin, oral mucosa, pharyngeal, bowel mucosa and ureter. The rates of ... When treating liver malignancies and metastases, it is possible for collateral radiation to cause gastric, stomach or duodenal ... Similarly, sweat glands in treated skin (such as the armpit) tend to stop working, and the naturally moist vaginal mucosa is ...
... the strong smell of gastric acid and the discoloration of the gastric mucosa present in alcoholics. Papp, who had gotten ...
Hengels KJ, Strohmeyer G (1990). "Pepsinogens A and C: purification from human gastric mucosa and determination in serum by ... 1987). "Gastric proteases in Barrett's esophagus". Gastroenterology. 93 (4): 774-8. doi:10.1016/0016-5085(87)90439-2. PMID ...
Mallory-Weiss syndrome: bleeding tears in the esophagal mucosa, usually caused by prolonged and vigorous retching. Vomiting of ... Vascular malfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as bleeding gastric varices or intestinal varices. ...
Sakamoto, C (2004). "The role of mucoprotective drugs in gastric ulcer treatment: with specific reference to their effects on ... gastritis mucosa". Nippon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine. 62 (3): 566-70. PMID 15038105. DRUG PROFILE OF NOVAL ...
... of the tumor-associated antigen L6 gene and transmembrane 4 superfamily member 5 gene in gastric cancers and gastric mucosa". ...
In the allergic subtype of disease, it is thought that food allergens cross the intestinal mucosa and trigger an inflammatory ... Muscular EG (13-70%) present with obstruction of gastric outlet or small intestine; sometimes as an obstructing caecal mass or ... As a part of host defense mechanism, eosinophils are normally present in gastrointestinal mucosa, though the finding in deeper ... Katz A, Goldman H, Grand R (1977). "Gastric mucosal biopsy in eosinophilic (allergic) gastroenteritis". Gastroenterology. 73 (4 ...
It is actively accumulated and secreted by the mucoid cells of the gastric mucosa, and therefore, technetate(VII) radiolabeled ... with technetium-99m is injected into the body when looking for ectopic gastric tissue as is found in a Meckel's diverticulum ...
Ammonium salts are an irritant to the gastric mucosa and may induce nausea and vomiting. Ammonium chloride is used as a ... Its expectorant action is caused by irritative action on the bronchial mucosa, which causes the production of excess ...
Because this enzyme system is regarded as the acid (proton, or H+) pump within the gastric mucosa, omeprazole inhibits the ... No association is seen between PPI use and cancer, but use of PPIs may mask gastric cancers or other serious gastric problems ... Omeprazole irreversibly blocks the enzyme system on parietal cells that is needed for the secretion of gastric acid. It is a ... This is the enzyme needed for the final step in the secretion of gastric acid. Omeprazole is a selective and irreversible ...
... of histamine H2 receptor antagonists and tricyclic antidepressants with adenylate cyclase from guinea pig gastric mucosa". ...
Usually they are not well absorbed over the intestinal mucosa and a high variability is expected. The drugs are classified in ... 0.1 M HCl or simulated gastric fluid or pH 4.5 buffer and pH 6.8 buffer or simulated intestinal fluid. ADME Partition ...
If the bumper has eroded deep into the gastric mucosa, it may not be visualized during endoscopic evaluation (complete buried ...
... gastric fundus MeSH A03.556.875.875.440 - gastric mucosa MeSH A03.556.875.875.440.150 - gastric chief cells MeSH A03.556. ... gastric parietal cells MeSH A03.556.875.875.440.854 - somatostatin-secreting cells MeSH A03.556.875.875.578 - gastric stump ... intestinal mucosa MeSH A03.556.124.369.290 - enterocytes MeSH A03.556.124.369.320 - goblet cells MeSH A03.556.124.369.700 - ... esophageal mucosa MeSH A03.556.875.500.360 - upper esophageal sphincter MeSH A03.556.875.500.414 - esophagogastric junction ...
Heterotopic gastric mucosa is defined as mature gastric tissue found outside the stomach where it is not normally found ... Characterized by gastric foveolar epithelium and absence of specialized antral glands seen in heterotopic gastric mucosa ... 33 year old man with heterotopic gastric mucosa in ileum (Case Rep Gastroenterol 2020;14:609) * 38 year old woman with gastric ... Which organism can colonize heterotopic gastric mucosa? *Crytosporidium *Helicobacter pylori *Tropheryma whipplei *Trypansosoma ...
We evaluated the effects of aspirin on genetic/epigenetic alterations in precancerous conditions, i.e., atrophic mucosa (AM) ... The risk of gastric cancer (GC) remains even after H. pylori eradication; thus, other combination treatments, such as ... Effects of long-term aspirin use on molecular alterations in precancerous gastric mucosa in patients with and without gastric ... Effects of long-term aspirin use on molecular alterations in precancerous gastric mucosa in patients with and without gastric ...
Gastric Mucosa, Endothelial Cells, Animals, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Gastritis, Stomach Ulcer, Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage, ... We examined the gastric function of CD36, a protein linked to disease and homeostasis. We used the tamoxifen model of gastric ... 2021). CD36 maintains the gastric mucosa and associates with gastric disease.. Commun Biol, 4 (1) ... The gastric epithelium is often exposed to injurious elements and failure of appropriate healing predisposes to ulcers, ...
In vitro primate gastric mucosa: electrical characteristics Academic Article * Inhibition of fundic strips from guinea-pig ... Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder: A cause of chronic abdominal pain in a child Academic Article ... Effect of Ag+ on isolated bullfrog gastric mucosa Academic Article * Effect of Aspirin and ibuprofen either alone or in ... Acid secretion by isolated primate gastric mucosa. Academic Article * Adenosine A1 receptors are not involved in contraction of ...
Our in vitro results show that omeprazole-induced inhibition of purified CA I and CA II and gastric mucosa CA IV is dose- and ... Omeprazole Has a Dual Mechanism of Action: It Inhibits Both H+K+ATPase and Gastric Mucosa Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme in Humans ( ... Omeprazole Has a Dual Mechanism of Action: It Inhibits Both H+K+ATPase and Gastric Mucosa Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme in Humans ( ... Omeprazole Has a Dual Mechanism of Action: It Inhibits Both H+K+ATPase and Gastric Mucosa Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme in Humans ( ...
Endoscopic screening for malignancy in the gastric remnant: The clinical significance of dysplasia in gastric mucosa. Journal ... Endoscopic screening for malignancy in the gastric remnant : The clinical significance of dysplasia in gastric mucosa. In: ... Endoscopic screening for malignancy in the gastric remnant : The clinical significance of dysplasia in gastric mucosa. / ... T1 - Endoscopic screening for malignancy in the gastric remnant. T2 - The clinical significance of dysplasia in gastric mucosa ...
... pylori survival in the human gastric mucosa; 2, to evaluate the effects of L. brevis (CD2) on polyamine biosynthesis in gastric ... pylori survival in the human gastric mucosa; 2, to evaluate the effects of L. brevis (CD2) on polyamine biosynthesis in gastric ... pylori survival in the human gastric mucosa; 2, to evaluate the effects of L. brevis (CD2) on polyamine biosynthesis in gastric ... pylori survival in the human gastric mucosa; 2, to evaluate the effects of L. brevis (CD2) on polyamine biosynthesis in gastric ...
Pathophysiological role of human beta-defensins 2 in gastric mucosa. In: International journal of molecular medicine. 2004 ; ... Dive into the research topics of Pathophysiological role of human beta-defensins 2 in gastric mucosa.. Together they form a ... Pathophysiological role of human beta-defensins 2 in gastric mucosa.. Tadashi Ohara, Tetsuo Morishita, Hidekazu Suzuki, ... Pathophysiological role of human beta-defensins 2 in gastric mucosa. / Ohara, Tadashi; Morishita, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Hidekazu et ...
Oxidative stress in gastric mucosa in Helicobacter pylori infection.. 作者: Santra, A. Chowdhury, A. Chaudhuri, S. Das Gupta, J. ... Oxidative stress in gastric mucosa in Helicobacter pylori infection. Indian Journal of Gastroenterology. 2000 Jan-Mar; 19(1): ... AIM: To look for evidence of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa in H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer ... CONCLUSION: Depletion of gastric mucosal glutathione in H. pylori-infected DU patients may be due to failure of the antioxidant ...
This is the first report of the epigenome-wide analysis of normal gastric mucosa taken from cases and controls representing ... Genome-wide profiling of normal gastric mucosa identifies Helicobacter pylori- and cancer-associated DNA methylome changes. Int ... Epigenome-wide profiling of normal gastric mucosa identifies Helicobacter pylori- and cancer-associated DNA methylome changes. ... changes might serve as potential biomarkers for early cancer progression in tumour-free gastric mucosa in nationwide gastric ...
Submucosal layer of gastric wall. 2 d. Epigastric pain, edema of oral mucosa. Whole, 99% ethanol, very well conserved. CTAB. ... Gastric mucosa. 24 h. Epigastric pain, urticaria, generalized edema. Whole, 99% ethanol, well conserved. CTAB. 2,180, ,100. ... Fumarola L, Monno R, Ierardi E, Rizzo G, Giannelli G, Lalle M, Anisakis pegreffii etiological agent of gastric infections in ... Gastric anisakiasis in Italy: case report. Med J Sur Med. 1996;4:13-6. ...
Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the upper esophagus following repair of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula. In: ... Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the upper esophagus following repair of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula. / Tran ... Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the upper esophagus following repair of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula. ... Tran, S., Misra, S., Bittner IV, J. G., Pipkin, W., Hatley, R., & Howell, C. G. (2011). Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the upper ...
Heterotopic gastric mucosa involving the gallbladder and biliary tree. Heterotopic gastric mucosa involving the gallbladder and ... A case of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the common bile duct, cystic duct and gallbladder is reported in a 3-year-old girl with ... A firm diagnosis of gastric heterotopia is based on the presence of fundal mucosa replete with parietal and chief cells. To our ... Coleções: Bases de dados internacionais Base de dados: MEDLINE Assunto principal: Doenças Biliares / Coristoma / Mucosa ...
Hyperplasia of the gastric mucosa of unknown origin. And not only Romashule ... Hyperplasia of the gastric mucosa of unknown origin. And not only Romashule ...
Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Helicobacter pylori / Telomere / Gastric Mucosa Language: English Journal: Afro-Egypt. j. ... Index: AIM (Africa) Main subject: Helicobacter pylori / Telomere / Gastric Mucosa Language: English Journal: Afro-Egypt. j. ... Absolute TLs was measured in base pairs (bp) in gastric mucosa and analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in ... Prior to eradication therapy, there was highly significant shortening (P,0.001) in TLs (bp) in gastric mucosa of H. pylori ...
... ▼ Animal Care, ... Cytoprotective effect of copper(II) complexes against ethanol-induced damage to rat gastric mucosa. Filter those results▼ ... Cytoprotective effect of copper(II) complexes against ethanol-induced damage to rat gastric mucosa (421 views). Alberghina M, ... Stomach Mucosa, Amino Acid Sequence, Dipeptides, Ethanol, Gastric Mucosa, Microscopy, Electron, Scanning, Microsomes, Molecular ...
Gastric and upper intestine ulcers *Stomach cancer. *Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma ... Helicobacter pylori and other gastric Helicobacter species. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and ...
The cyst may contain intestinal or gastric mucosa. (F) Umbilical sinus ending in a fibrous cord attaching to the ileum. (G, H) ... Intestinal mucosa extends to skin surface. (E) Omphalomesenteric cyst arising in a fibrous cord. ...
Helicobacter pylori is a pathogen that confers the highest known risk for gastric cancer. Research directed at understanding ... Helicobacter pylori is a pathogen that confers the highest known risk for gastric cancer. Research directed at understanding ... Gastric Mucosa * Helicobacter pylori* Substances * Antigens, Bacterial * Bacterial Proteins Grant support * R01 CA077955/CA/NCI ...
Duplication of the rectum containing gastric mucosa. JAMA. 1960 Jul 16. 173:1223-5. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... abrupt hemorrhage with hemodynamic instability can be encountered in the case of a cyst lined with gastric mucosa [15] that ... Gastric duplication cyst: two case reports and review of the literature. Case Rep Surg. 2013. 2013:605059. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ... They may also present as gastric outlet obstruction and therefore must be differentiated from hypertorophic pyloric stenosis ...
gastric mucosa injury. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG. 2008;14(38):5857. ... pylorus ligation induced gastric, ethanol induced gastric, stress induced gastric, and indomethacin induced gastric ulcers. Gum ... Ulcer index, ulcer inhibition percentage, gastric pH and volume, total acidity, gastric protein, gastric wall mucus and ... It also produced a significant protection in the development of the gastric ulcers in other gastric ulcer models and also ...
Alendronate is associated with injury and ulceration of the gastric mucosa. Nov 01, 2000. ... Diseases : Drug-Induced Toxicity: Gastrointestinal, Gastric Ulcer. Problem Substances : Alendronate (trade name Fosamax) , ... Diseases : Drug-Induced Toxicity: Gastrointestinal, Gastric Ulcer, Osteoporosis. Problem Substances : Alendronate (trade name ... Panax notoginseng saponin attenuates gastric mucosal epithelial cell injury induced by dual antiplatelet drugs.Jan 14, 2021. ...
Multiple ulcerations and hemorrhages of gastric and small-intestinal mucosa on endoscopy ...
For one thing the images shown were taken with the lens of the endoscope oddly close to the gastric mucosa, and the two white ... Just looking at the gastric mucosa isnt enough. First off, a wider view is necessary to judge how much of the stomach is ... Take a look at ulcers over at the Gastrolab site and youll see that they are much more obviously holes in the mucosa than ... Krigsman didnt take any gastric biopsies, which would be really bizarre and not consistent with his prior practice as far as I ...
Chemical Gradients Along the Mucosa. Resistance of the Intestinal Mucosa to Gastric Juice. Gradient of pH in the Intestinal ... The Muscularis Mucosae. Summary. XXIII. The Ileocecal Sphincter. The Gastro-Ileac Reflex. An Ileo-Gastric Reflex. Receptive ... Literature on Gastric Movements. Conduction in the Stomach. Changes in Tonus. A Humoral Influence on Gastric Activity. Mode of ... The Gastric Canal or Furrow ("Magenstrasse"). The Blood Vessels of the "Magenstrasse" and Duodenal Cap. The Position of the ...
The following were assessed: gastric inflammatory activity, gastric COX protein expression by Western blotting; gastric ... The following were assessed: gastric inflammatory activity, gastric COX protein expression by Western blotting; gastric ... The following were assessed: gastric inflammatory activity, gastric COX protein expression by Western blotting; gastric ... The following were assessed: gastric inflammatory activity, gastric COX protein expression by Western blotting; gastric ...
TNF-alpha expression in gastric mucosa of individuals infected with different virulent Helicobacter pylori strains Marzena ... TNF-alpha expression in gastric mucosa of individuals infected with different virulent Helicobacter pylori strains Marzena ...
  • Chauhan A, Amin K. Heterotopic gastric mucosa. (
  • At 6 years of age, surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed mild stenosis and heterotopic gastric mucosa of the upper esophagus at the level of the anastomosis. (
  • This is the second report of heterotopic gastric mucosa of the upper esophagus at the level of the anastomosis following repair of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula. (
  • Heterotopic gastric mucosa involving the gallbladder and biliary tree. (
  • A case of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the common bile duct , cystic duct and gallbladder is reported in a 3-year-old girl with abdominal pain and jaundice . (
  • To our knowledge , this is the fifth reported case of heterotopic gastric tissue within the common bile duct , and the first to describe the US and CT findings. (
  • Rarely does the histologic evaluation of a colorectal polypectomy specimen reveal heterotopic gastric mucosa. (
  • Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum has only been described in 40 published reports, usually presenting as small sessile polyps. (
  • Vieth et al reported that peptic lesions or repeated mechanical manipulation may "displace" heterotopic gastric glands into the submucosa in a pseudoinvasive manner ( 2 ). (
  • Biopsy of the mass showed heterotopic gastric mucosa. (
  • 1,3,4 The finding of gastric heterotopic tissue in this child is unique. (
  • Heterotopic gastric mucosa has been associated with other esophageal lesions in adults. (
  • 5,6 Also referred to as a cervical inlet patch, heterotopic gastric mucosa of the cervical esophagus usually appears as a flat or slightly raised, well-circumscribed, salmoncolored patch. (
  • Schmulewitz N, Tobias J, Singh P. Hyperplastic polyp arising from heterotopic gastric epithelium in the esophagus. (
  • Prevalence of endoscopically identified heterotopic gastric mucosa in the proximal esophagus: endoscopist dependent? (
  • The gastric epithelium is often exposed to injurious elements and failure of appropriate healing predisposes to ulcers, hemorrhage, and ultimately cancer. (
  • HBD-2 is an antimicrobial peptide that is involved in host defences against bacterial infections, such as Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) in infection of the gastric mucosal epithelium. (
  • In consecutive immunohisto-chemical staining, while expression of HBD-2 was observed in the gastric mucosal epithelium, FDCs were found to be localized in the lamina propria mucosae under the epithelial cell layer. (
  • Hamzaoui N, Pringault E. Interaction of microorganisms, epithelium, and lymphoid cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. (
  • Histological examination revealed focal areas of squamous epithelium and predominantly gastric mucosa (both cardiac and antral mucosa) with congestion in the lamina propria ( D ). Submucosa revealed muscularis mucosa ( E ) and an area of muscularis propria. (
  • Lining of the STOMACH , consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM , a middle LAMINA PROPRIA , and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE . (
  • Prostate Stem Cell Antigen Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with H. pylori-related Promoter DNA Methylation in Nonneoplastic Gastric Epithelium. (
  • primary cultures of human gastric glands and myofibroblasts were used to study the role of MMP-7 in regulating proliferation and migration of the latter, and MMP-7 substrates were identified by proteomic methods. (
  • Media from H pylori-infected gastric epithelial cultures stimulated proliferation and migration of primary human gastric myofibroblasts and antisense oligonucleotide treatment indicated a role for MMP-7. (
  • Interleukin-12 drives the Th1 signaling pathway in Helicobacter pylori- infected human gastric mucosa. (
  • For advanced stages, the treatment options are ISRT, observation in select cases or first-line therapy regimens as listed above for gastric MALT lymphoma. (
  • In addition, the presence of this bacterium is now recognized as a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. (
  • In addition, HP also plays an oncogenic role in the development of mucosa‑associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, that accounts for approximately 3% of all gastric tumors. (
  • The most common histopathological features of gastric malignancies are adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of mucosa- associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). (
  • Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection plays an important cancerogenic role in both gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma. (
  • It has been calculated that the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma in HP-infected individuals is 3- to 6-fold higher than in those who are uninfected ( 2 ). (
  • Experimental data have extended the knowledge of the mere association of gastric MALT lymphoma and infection with Helicobacter pylori. (
  • If we summarise the reports to date on the results of treatment of gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma in an early clinical stage (EI) by H. pylori eradication we find a complete remission figure of 77% in more than 200 patients. (
  • Approximately 20% of patients with antigen-positive, primary gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma in stage I will not respond to eradication therapy. (
  • HLA-DQA1*0103-DQB1*0601 haplotype and Helicobacter pylori-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. (
  • Amongst infected persons, there is a 15% risk of developing peptic ulcer disease, 0.01% of developing gastric carcinoma and 0.001% for gastric lymphoma (12). (
  • We evaluated the effects of aspirin on genetic/epigenetic alterations in precancerous conditions, i.e., atrophic mucosa (AM) and intestinal metaplasia (IM), in patients with chronic gastritis who had taken aspirin for more than 3 years. (
  • In this study, we examined the effects of aspirin on genetic and epigenetic alterations, as well as mAb Das-1 reactivity in precancerous conditions, i.e., atrophic mucosa (AM) and IM, in patients with chronic gastritis who regularly took aspirin for more than 3 years. (
  • Relevance to humans is explored in the Vanderbilt BioVu using PrediXcan that links genetically-determined gene expression to clinical phenotypes, which associates low CD36 mRNA with gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastro-intestinal hemorrhage. (
  • The materials used for the study consisted of gastric mucosal tissue specimens collected endoscopically from patients with conditions such as chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori infection, and gastric ulcers and gastritis due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with or without H. pylori infection. (
  • H. pylori causes chronic active gastritis and is a major factor in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcers and, to a lesser extent, gastric ulcers. (
  • In addition, gastroenterologists and surgeons noted but could not explain the almost universal presence of antral gastritis in patients with duodenal ulcers and the frequent presence of atrophic gastritis in patients with gastric ulcer and cancer. (
  • A similar reaction followed the subsequent demonstration that these Campylobacter -like bacteria were present in almost all patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers, and were generally associated with antral gastritis (9) . (
  • Gastritis can be defined as inflammation, irritation or erosion of the stomach lining (gastric mucosa). (
  • These two photomicrographs off a side-by-side comparison of the cytoarchitectural changes seen in a patient with atrophic gastritis, and accompanying pernicious anemia on the left, with the appearance of a normal section of gastric mucosa on the right. (
  • Peptides normalize functions of the gastrointestinal tract in chronic gastritis with low acidity and restore, heal cells of gastric tissues. (
  • Thiamine is used for stomach ulcers, chronic gastritis, enterocolitis, in complex therapy for liver cirrhosis and hepatitis due to its ability to normalize gastric juice acidity, motor functions of the stomach and intestines. (
  • Peptide bioregulator LowacidTIDE PLUS forte for prevention of gastritis with low gastric acid is recommended as a supporting prophylactic product in combination with the main course of therapy prescribed by the attending physician. (
  • Objective -To evaluate the effects of carprofen and meloxicam on conductance and permeability to mannitol and on the histologic appearance of sections of canine gastric mucosa. (
  • The stomach mucosa gets infected by the Helicobacter pylori bacteria. (
  • Distribution of gastric ulcers by double contrast barium meal with endoscopic correlation. (
  • Since the traditional fruit contains anti-bacterial properties and ability to inhibit both peptic and gastric stomach ulcers. (
  • H. pylori infection was diagnosed by histology and rapid urease test on endoscopic biopsies from the gastric body and antrum. (
  • Adding to the traditional management approaches of observation and surgical resection, numerous new and emerging endoscopic therapies are now being used to resect these gastric tumours. (
  • This American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for the endoscopic management of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). (
  • The findings support role of CD36 in gastric tissue repair, and its deletion associated with chronic diseases that can predispose to malignancy. (
  • The association of HP infection with gastric carcinoma mainly involves intestinal-type and distal forms of the malignancy. (
  • Gastric Malignancy:In adults, symptomatic response does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. (
  • Note the reduction in height of the glandular mucosa, and numbers of mucosal gastric glands. (
  • and PYLORUS ), different tubular gastric glands are formed. (
  • Ethanol is rapidly absorbed across both the gastric mucosa and the small intestine, reaching a peak concentration 20-60 minutes after ingestion. (
  • 5. History of irritable bowel disease or other inflammatory digestive or gastrointestinal condition that could affect the distribution/safety evaluation of an orally administered vaccine targeting the mucosa of the small intestine. (
  • A thorough review of the literature reveals that only 40 cases of gastric heterotopia have been reported in the rectum, and most of these were identified as single, sessile polyps. (
  • Review of the literature through 2006 contains 40 cases of gastric heterotopia of the rectum. (
  • They may also present as gastric outlet obstruction and therefore must be differentiated from hypertorophic pyloric stenosis and other causes of gastric outlet obstruction. (
  • The fifth stage, which occurs 4 to 6 weeks after ingestion, reflects the corrosive affects of iron on the pyloric mucosa and may cause gastric outlet obstruction. (
  • EMR of a hyperplastic polyp arising in ectopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus: case report. (
  • AIM: To look for evidence of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosa in H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer. (
  • While H. pylori increases apoptosis and the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and is an important factor in peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, NSAIDs induce cell apoptosis and have antineoplastic effects. (
  • Beginning at the turn of the 20th century, similar spiral bacteria were found in gastrectomy specimens from patients with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Nevertheless, the possibility that peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer might be caused by an infectious agent was generally discounted. (
  • The observation made in 1975 that gram-negative bacteria were present in 80% of patients with gastric ulcer (5) was largely ignored by the scientific community which, at the time, was busily developing potent antiulcer agents (6) . (
  • Association between polymorphisms in HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and DQ genes from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients and cagL among cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains: The first study in a Turkish population. (
  • Gastric Mucosa-Associated Microbial Signatures of Early Gastric Cancer. (
  • H. pylori infection of the gastric mucosa leads to sequence of events that trigger inflammatory response, with production of cytokines and the activation of neutrophils [ 3 ]. (
  • Although gastric heterotopy has been described throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract , it is a very uncommon finding in the gallbladder and extremely rare in the biliary tree . (
  • lt;p>If we do not eat breakfast in the morning, through the rest of the night, hunger, this time will cause the stomach metabolism a lot of gastric juice, leaching gastric mucosa caused by gastrointestinal disorders, and do not eat in the morning, to 10:00 up and down will feel especially hungry, unable to focus on work and study training. (
  • Arcoxia has no effect on platelet function and gastrointestinal mucosa. (
  • It can cause gastric atrophy, a destruction of the cells in the protective stomach lining. (
  • Environmental factors, seven GWAS-identified susceptibility loci, and risk of gastric cancer and its precursors in a Chinese population. (
  • Approximately 90% of gastric tumors are adenocarcinomas, whereas gastric MALT lymphomas are considerably less common (approximately 3% of all gastric tumors). (
  • Four pinch biopsy specimens were taken, two each from the antral and body mucosa of the stomach. (
  • Pathologic examination of the biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of gastric heterotopia. (
  • We describe a case of gastric heterotopia in the rectum and review the potential manifestations, likely etiologies, and diagnostic pitfalls for this unusual biopsy finding. (
  • Acid secretion by isolated primate gastric mucosa. (
  • Regulation of mucus secretion by cells isolated from the rat gastric mucosa. (
  • RSV infection usually occurs after viral inoculation of the conjunctivae or nasal mucosa by contaminated hands. (
  • CETAL SINUS Caplets are indicated for the symptomatic relief of conditions where congestion of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, especially nasal mucosa and sinuses, is accompanied by mild to moderate pain or pyrexia, e.g: the common cold and influenza, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis, allergic rhinitis and vasomotor rhinitis. (
  • Objective -To measure effects of carprofen on conductance and permeability to mannitol and histologic appearance in canine colonic mucosa. (
  • Sample Population -Colonic mucosa from 13 mature mixed-breed dogs. (
  • Colonoscopic examination at the current presentation revealed the colonic mucosa to be normal. (
  • No colonic mucosa was identified. (
  • A firm diagnosis of gastric heterotopia is based on the presence of fundal mucosa replete with parietal and chief cells . (
  • We report a case of gastric heterotopia found in the rectum during colonoscopic examination of a 34-year-old female. (
  • Nevertheless, gastric heterotopia of the rectum is a rare finding, with only 40 cases reported in the literature to date. (
  • The first case of gastric heterotopia of the rectum was reported by Ewell and Jackson in 1939 ( 3 ). (
  • Procedures -Sections of gastric mucosa were mounted in Ussing chambers, and carprofen (40 or 400μg/mL [CAR40 and CAR400, respectively]), meloxicam (8 or 80μg/mL [MEL8 and MEL80, respectively]), or no drug (controls) was added to the bathing solution. (
  • D'Amelio S , Mathiopoulos KD , Brandonisio O , Lucarelli G , Doronzo F , Paggi L . Diagnosis of a case of gastric anisakidosis by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. (
  • History of diagnosis or treatment in past 5 years of: i. esophageal or gastric motility disorder ii. (
  • For the diagnosis of pulmonary TB culture and microscopic examination of conventional sputum, IS, gastric washings, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy are used. (
  • 2 Histological features include attachment of the lesion to the GI tract, presence of a muscular layer, and a digestive mucosa. (
  • Histological typing of gastric and oesophageal tumours / H. Watanabe, J. R. Jass and L. H. Sobin, in collaboration with pathologists in 8 countries. (
  • abstract = "Helicobacter pylori and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are two well-known important causative factors of gastric damage. (
  • There are 2 main sites of gastric adenocarcinoma: proximal (cardia) and distal (non-cardia), with different epidemiological and clinical features. (
  • Procedures -Sections of mucosa from the transverse colon and proximal and distal portions of the descending colon were obtained immediately after dogs were euthanized. (
  • It soothes the gastric mucosa, and linings of the oesophagus, and esophageal sphincter, which helps to reduce their irritation and ultimately cures these problems. (
  • These differences have necessitated the creation of the genus Helicobacter, which, to date, includes eight gastric, three intestinal, and two hepatic species (14) . (
  • the IgA is the immunoglobulin with more protective capability against both types of disease, to survive the intestinal and respiratory mucosa. (
  • A IgA é imunoglobulina com maior capacidade protetora contra ambos os tipos de doenças, por sobreviver às mucosas intestinal e respiratória. (
  • Patient underwent oesophageal bypass with gastric conduit through retrosternal route with cervical esophagogastric anastomosis with remanant Roux-En-Y oesophagojejunostomy with feeding jejunostomy. (
  • Gastric submucosal lesions are common. (
  • Gastric mucosal lesions are common in individuals with portal hypertension and can be an important cause of blood loss, which is generally slow and insidious but can be massive and occasionally fatal [3]. (
  • 0.001) in TLs (bp) in gastric mucosa of H. pylori positive patients compared to H. pylori negative controls. (
  • A new study led by scientists from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and from the National Cancer Center Seoul (Republic of Korea) investigated the impact of both current and past (eradicated) Helicobacter pylori infection on epigenome-wide changes in normal gastric mucosa collected from study participants in the Republic of Korea. (
  • This is the first report of the epigenome-wide analysis of normal gastric mucosa taken from cases and controls representing both H. pylori and gastric cancer status, and the comprehensively characterized epigenome changes might serve as potential biomarkers for early cancer progression in tumour-free gastric mucosa in nationwide gastric cancer screening programmes. (
  • Helicobacter pylori is a pathogen that confers the highest known risk for gastric cancer. (
  • gastric cancer. (
  • Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading types of cancer worldwide, particularly in East Asian populations. (
  • Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with an estimated 989,600 new cases (male-to-female ratio 2:1) and 738,000 GC-related deaths in 2010, accounting for 8% of the total cancer cases and 10% of total deaths from cancer. (
  • Helicobacter pylori persistently colonizes the human stomach, and is associated with inflammation-induced gastric cancer. (
  • Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is implicated in gastric cancer development and certain gene polymorphisms play a role in this scenario. (
  • Stomach cancer , also known as gastric cancer , is a cancer that develops from the lining of the stomach . (
  • [2] [4] About 10% of cases run in families, and between 1% and 3% of cases are due to genetic syndromes inherited from a person's parents such as hereditary diffuse gastric cancer . (
  • [1] [14] For certain subtypes of gastric cancer, cancer immunotherapy is an option as well. (
  • Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer worldwide, characterized by multifactorial patho- genesis and a heterogeneous geographic distribution. (
  • Despite the Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer large differences in the environment and lifestyle of these worldwide ( 1,2 ). (
  • terms "stomach neoplasm" and keywords "gastric" and The epidemiological features of GC have been "cancer" were used in combination with MeSH terms and widely studied in Western countries, making them well keywords related to the Arab World: "Lebanon", "Tunisia", understood ( 12,13 ). (
  • The relationship between the polymorphism of MUC1 and susceptibility to gastric cancer in Liaoning region]. (
  • Genetic variation in MUC1, MUC2 and MUC6 genes and evolution of gastric cancer precursor lesions in a long-term follow-up in a high-risk area in Spain. (
  • Genetic factors related to gastric cancer susceptibility identified using a genome-wide association study. (
  • Lack of association of common polymorphisms in MUC1 gene with H. pylori infection and non-cardia gastric cancer risk in a Chinese population. (
  • Genetic variation and gastric cancer risk: a field synopsis and meta-analysis. (
  • Identification and epidemiological evaluation of gastric cancer risk factors: based on a field synopsis and meta-analysis in Chinese population. (
  • The overarching aim of the Epigenetics common cause of gastric cancer, Pan-cancer genoMe and Group (EGE) is to advance the which is the third most common cause tranScriPtoMe analySiS and understanding of the role of epigenetic of cancer-related deaths worldwide. (
  • Very hot and very cold foods irritate the digestive mucosa and may be a factor in cancer. (
  • Conclusions and Clinical Relevance -In the gastric mucosa of dogs, carprofen and meloxicam increased in vitro conductance and permeability to mannitol. (
  • This study proposed to assess the relation between absolute telomere lengths (TLs) in gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and study the impact of (H. pylori) eradication therapy on TLs. (
  • Absolute TLs was measured in base pairs (bp) in gastric mucosa and analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in all groups and reevaluated in H. pylori positive patients 4 weeks after eradication therapy . (
  • gastric prostaglandin E 2 levels by enzyme immunoassay, apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, and cell proliferation by Ki67 immunostaining. (
  • Gastric prostaglandin E 2 levels, apoptotic index, cell proliferation index, neutrophil activity, and the degree of chronic inflammation were all increased by H. pylori infection, and these effects were significantly decreased by indomethacin treatment. (
  • These results show that NSAIDs can reverse the increased apoptosis and proliferation of epithelial cells and inflammatory activity in the stomachs of H. pylori-infected mice and that, like COX-2 activation, COX-1 induction contributes to the change of gastric mucosal cell turnover and inflammation induced by H. pylori infection. (
  • Proliferation of gastric epithelial cells also was stimulated by MMP-7-treated myofibroblasts via IGF-II. (
  • Hanson, Peter J. / Apoptosis induction in gastric mucous cells in vitro : lesser potency of Helicobacter pylori than Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, but positive interaction with ibuprofen . (
  • Therefore, the effects of LPS from H. pylori NCTC 11637 and Escherichia coli 0111:B4 on apoptosis in a primary culture of guinea-pig gastric mucous cells were investigated in the presence and absence of the NSAID, ibuprofen. (
  • This condition is an irreversible autoimmune disease that affects the mucous membrane of the stomach, called the gastric mucosa. (
  • These data suggested that in addition to being antimicrobial peptides, HBD-2 may also have a pathophysiological role as proinflammatory mediators, and that the HBD may act as proinflammatory mediators in concert with the dendritic cells (DC) by transmitting a signal from the mucosal surface to the lamina propria mucosae, which seems to be the original site of gastric mucosal damage. (
  • Benign fundic-type gastric mucosa was present on microscopic examination (Figure 2). (
  • However, a recent study from Japan showed that even after H. pylori infection was cured and gastric inflammation was eliminated, there was still a risk of GC in the long-term 8 . (
  • Aspirin-induced GI toxicity is mediated by three mechanisms including: (a) impaired hemostatic function via antiplatelet effects (b) inhibition of COX-derived prostaglandin (PG) production (locally and through systemic exposure), which is key in epithelial mucus production, microvascular mucosal perfusion and wound healing in the GI tract, and (c) physical disruption of the protective gastric phospholipid barrier thereby allowing direct acid injury [ 9 ]. (
  • A Warthin-Starry stain highlighted Helicobacter-like organisms located on the surface of the gastric-type mucus cells (Figure 3). (
  • Free acidity, total acidity, basal acid output, serum pepsinogen I, gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and gastrin were significantly lower in group II, whereas serum gastrin and somatostatin staining were significantly higher. (
  • These things are responsible for increasing acid production in the stomach and increasing the sensitivity of the gastric mucosa. (