Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A congenital abnormality characterized by the outpouching or sac formation in the ILEUM. It is a remnant of the embryonic YOLK SAC in which the VITELLINE DUCT failed to close.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Reconstitution of eroded or injured EPITHELIUM by proliferation and migration of EPITHELIAL CELLS from below or adjacent to the damaged site.
An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes the healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and growth of experimental tumors.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.
L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.
A species of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria found in the gastric mucosa that is associated with chronic antral gastritis. This bacterium was first discovered in samples removed at endoscopy from patients investigated for HELICOBACTER PYLORI colonization.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.
A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
A plant genus of the family DENNSTAEDTIACEAE. Members contain ptaquiloside, braxin A1, and braxin B. The name is similar to brake fern (PTERIS).
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A water insoluble terpene fatty acid used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers; it facilitates the healing and function of mucosal tissue.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.
Disorders stemming from the misuse and abuse of alcohol.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
GASTRITIS with HYPERTROPHY of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. It is characterized by giant gastric folds, diminished acid secretion, excessive MUCUS secretion, and HYPOPROTEINEMIA. Symptoms include VOMITING; DIARRHEA; and WEIGHT LOSS.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
Retrograde flow of duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the STOMACH.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The burning of a small, thimble sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves on the SKIN at an ACUPUNCTURE point. Usually the plugs contain leaves of MUGWORT or moxa.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
An antagonist of histamine that appears to block both H2 and H3 histamine receptors. It has been used in the treatment of ulcers.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of histidine to histamine and carbon dioxide. It requires pyridoxal phosphate in animal tissues, but not in microorganisms. EC 4.1.1.22.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
This is one of the 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans. It is found in prostate and seminal fluid whereas PEPSINOGEN A is not.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
That portion of the stomach remaining after gastric surgery, usually gastrectomy or gastroenterostomy for cancer of the stomach or peptic ulcer. It is a common site of cancer referred to as stump cancer or carcinoma of the gastric stump.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
Endocrine cells which secrete GASTRIN, a peptide that induces GASTRIC ACID secretion. They are found predominantly in the GASTRIC GLANDS of PYLORIC ANTRUM in the STOMACH, but can also be found in the DUODENUM, nervous and other tissues.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
A pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of AGRANULOCYTOSIS. A breath test with 13C-labeled aminopyrine has been used as a non-invasive measure of CYTOCHROME P-450 metabolic activity in LIVER FUNCTION TESTS.
Bethanechol compounds are parasympathomimetic agents that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors, primarily used to treat urinary retention and nonobstructive bladder dysfunction by increasing bladder contractility and decreasing post-void residual volume.
N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.

Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on gastric ionic fluxes and potential difference in man. (1/4985)

Paracetamol has replaced aspirin as the analgesic of choice in many situations. The major reason is the damaging effect of aspirin on gastric mucosa. Alterations in gastric ionic fluxes and potential difference provide measures of aspirin-induced structural damage. We studied the effect of large doses of paracetamol (acetaminophen 2-0 g) on gastric ionic fluxes in man. In addition, the effect of 2-0 g paracetamol on gastric potential difference was compared with that of 600 mg aspirin. In contrast with salicylates, paracetamol caused no significant alteration in movement of H+ and Na+ ions over control periods. Aspirin causes a significant fall in transmucosal potential difference (PD) across gastric mucosa of 15 mv, while paracetamol cuased no significant change. Paracetamol in a dose four times that recommended does not alter gastric ionic fluxes or potential difference. These studies support choice of paracetamol as analgesic over aspirin where damage to gastric mucosa may be critical.  (+info)

Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (2/4985)

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

Precancerous lesions in two counties of China with contrasting gastric cancer risk. (3/4985)

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and shows remarkable geographical variation even within countries such as China. Linqu County in Shandong Province of northeast China has a GC rate that is 15 times higher than that of Cangshan County in Shandong, even though these counties are within 200 miles of each other. METHOD: In order to evaluate the frequency of precancerous gastric lesions in Linqu and Cangshan Counties we examined 3400 adults in Linqu County and 224 adults in Cangshan County. An endoscopic examination with four biopsies was performed in each individual of the two populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) was 30% and 15.1%, respectively, in Linqu compared to 7.9% and 5.6% in Cangshan (P < 0.01). Within these histological categories, advanced grades were found more often in Linqu than in Cangshan. The prevalences of IM and DYS were more common at each biopsy site in Linqu, where the lesions also tended to affect multiple sites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support the concept that IM and DYS are closely correlated with risks of GC and represent late stages in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional characterisation of myofibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes migrating out of the human gastric lamina propria following the loss of epithelial cells. (4/4985)

BACKGROUND: The basement membrane of human colonic mucosa contains numerous discrete pores. We have recently shown that following loss of the surface epithelium, many cells migrate out of the colonic lamina propria via basement membrane pores. AIMS: To characterise cells migrating out via basement membrane pores of the human gastric lamina propria, following loss of the surface epithelium. METHODS: Fresh human gastric mucosal samples were completely denuded of epithelial cells and placed in culture. Tissue samples were studied by electron microscopy (EM) and cells by EM, FACS analysis, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: EM showed numerous discrete pores (0. 65-8.29 microm in diameter) in the subepithelial basement membrane. During culture of mucosal samples denuded of epithelial cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and myofibroblasts migrated out of the lamina propria via the basement membrane pores. The lymphocytes were predominantly CD45RO+ and CD69+ T cells. Macrophages were shown to express cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 enzymes. Myofibroblasts were established in culture and, despite prolonged culture and passage, retained their phenotype. They expressed mRNA and protein for COX 1 and 2 enzymes and their release of prostaglandin E2 was inhibited by selective COX 1 and 2 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Lamina propria cells migrating out of cultured denuded gastric mucosal samples have been characterised phenotypically and functionally. Such cells would be suitable for studies of their interactions with epithelial cells and also with Helicobacter pylori and its products.  (+info)

Influence of a new antiulcer agent, ammonium 7-oxobicyclo (2, 2, 1) hept-5-ene-3-carbamoyl-2-carboxylate (KF-392) on gastric lesions and gastric mucosal barrier in rats. (5/4985)

Antiulcer effects of KF-392 were studied in several experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. It was found that KF-392 given orally at 1.0 to 5.0 mg/kg had a marked suppression on the developments of Shay ulcer as well as the aspirin-, stress-, and reserpine-induced gastric lesions. The influence of KF-392 on gastric mucosal barrier was also studied. A back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa and a fall of transmucosal potential difference were induced with KF-392 given orally at the above mentioned doses. KF-392 given s.c. at 5.0 mg/kg showed no inhibition of Shay ulcer and no induction of back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa.  (+info)

Isosmotic modulation of Ca2+-regulated exocytosis in guinea-pig antral mucous cells: role of cell volume. (6/4985)

1. Exocytotic events and changes of cell volume in mucous cells from guinea-pig antrum were examined by video-enhanced optical microscopy. 2. Acetylcholine (ACh) evoked exocytotic events following cell shrinkage, the frequency and extent of which depended on the ACh concentration. ACh actions were mimicked by ionomycin and thapsigargin, and inhibited by Ca2+-free solution and Ca2+ channel blockers (Ni2+, Cd2+ and nifedipine). Application of 100 microM W-7, a calmodulin inhibitor, also inhibited the ACh-induced exocytotic events. These results indicate that ACh actions are mediated by intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in antral mucous cells. 3. The effects of ion channel blockers on exocytotic events and cell shrinkage evoked by ACh were examined. Inhibition of KCl release (quinine, Ba2+, NPPB or KCl solution) suppressed both the exocytotic events and cell shrinkage evoked by ACh. 4. Bumetanide (inhibition of NaCl entry) or Cl--free solution (increasing Cl- release and inhibition of NaCl entry) evoked exocytotic events following cell shrinkage in unstimulated antral mucous cells and caused further cell shrinkage and increases in the frequency of exocytotic events in ACh-stimulated cells. However, Cl--free solution did not evoke exocytotic events in unstimulated cells in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, although cell shrinkage occurred. 5. To examine the effects of cell volume on ACh-evoked exocytosis, the cell volume was altered by increasing the extracellular K+ concentration. The results showed that cell shrinkage increases the frequency of ACh-evoked exocytotic events and cell swelling decreases them. 6. Osmotic shrinkage or swelling caused the frequency of ACh-evoked exocytotic events to increase. This suggests that the effects of cell volume on ACh-evoked exocytosis under anisosmotic conditions may not be the same as those under isosmotic conditions. 7. In antral mucous cells, Ca2+-regulated exocytosis is modulated by cell shrinkage under isosmotic conditions.  (+info)

KRAS mutations predict progression of preneoplastic gastric lesions. (7/4985)

Eight hundred sixty-three subjects with atrophic gastritis were recruited to participate in an ongoing chemoprevention trial in Narino, Colombia. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention therapies, which included treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection followed by daily dietary supplementation with antioxidant micronutrients in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design. A series of biopsies of gastric mucosa were obtained according to a specified protocol from designated locations in the stomach for each participant at baseline (before intervention therapy) and at year three. A systematic sample of 160 participants was selected from each of the eight treatment combinations. DNA was isolated from each of these biopsies (n = 320), and the first exon of KRAS was amplified using PCR. Mutations in the KRAS gene were detected using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by sequence analysis. Of all baseline biopsies, 14.4% (23 of 160) contained KRAS mutations. Among those participants with atrophic gastritis without metaplasia, 19.4% (6 of 25) contained KRAS mutations, indicating that mutation of this important gene is likely an early event in the etiology of gastric carcinoma. An important association was found between the presence of KRAS mutations in baseline biopsies and the progression of preneoplastic lesions. Only 14.6% (20 of 137) of participants without baseline KRAS mutations progressed from atrophic gastritis to intestinal metaplasia or from small intestinal metaplasia to colonic metaplasia; however, 39.1% (9 of 23) with baseline KRAS mutations progressed to a more advanced lesion after 3 years [univariate odds ratio (OR), 3.76 (P = 0.05); multivariate OR adjusted for treatment, 3.74 (P = 0.04)]. In addition, the specificity of the KRAS mutation predicted progression. For those participants with G-->T transversions at position 1 of codon 12 (GGT-->TGT), 19.4% (5 of 17) progressed (univariate OR, 2.4); however, 60.0% (3 of 5) of participants with G-->A transitions at position 1 of codon 12 (GGT-->AGT) progressed (univariate OR, 8.7; P = 0.004 using chi2 test).  (+info)

Quantitative assessment of gastric atrophy using the syntactic structure analysis. (8/4985)

AIM: To assess the topographical relation between gastric glands, using the minimum spanning tree (MST), to derive both a model of neighbourhood and quantitative representation of the tissue's architecture, to assess the characteristic features of gastric atrophy, and to assess the grades of gastric atrophy. METHODS: Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections from corporal and antral biopsy specimens (n = 139) from normal patients and from patients with nonatrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis of grades 1, 2, and 3 (Sydney system) were assessed by image analysis system (Prodit 5.2) and 11 syntactic structure features were derived. These included both line and connectivity features. RESULTS: Syntactic structure analysis was correlated with the semiquantitative grading system of gastric atrophy. The study showed significant reductions in the number of points and the length of MST in both body and antrum. The standard deviation of the length of MST was significantly increased in all grades of atrophy. The connectivity to two glands was the highest and most affected by the increased grade of atrophy. The reciprocal values of the Wiener, Randic, and Balaban indices showed significant changes in the volume of gland, abnormality in the shape of glands, and changes in irregularity and branching of the glands in both types of gastric mucosa. There was a complete separation in the MST, connectivity, and index values between low grade and high grade gastric atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Gastric atrophy was characterised by loss of the gland, variation in the volume, reduction in the neighbourhood, irregularity in spacing, and abnormality in the shape of the glands. (2) Syntactic structure analysis significantly differentiated minor changes in gastric gland (low grade atrophy) from high grade atrophy of clinical significance. (3) Syntactic structure analysis is a simple, fast, and highly reproducible technique and appears a promising method for quantitative assessment of atrophy.  (+info)

Gastric mucosa refers to the innermost lining of the stomach, which is in contact with the gastric lumen. It is a specialized mucous membrane that consists of epithelial cells, lamina propria, and a thin layer of smooth muscle. The surface epithelium is primarily made up of mucus-secreting cells (goblet cells) and parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, and chief cells, which produce pepsinogen.

The gastric mucosa has several important functions, including protection against self-digestion by the stomach's own digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The mucus layer secreted by the epithelial cells forms a physical barrier that prevents the acidic contents of the stomach from damaging the underlying tissues. Additionally, the bicarbonate ions secreted by the surface epithelial cells help neutralize the acidity in the immediate vicinity of the mucosa.

The gastric mucosa is also responsible for the initial digestion of food through the action of hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. The intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells plays a crucial role in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

The gastric mucosa is constantly exposed to potential damage from various factors, including acid, pepsin, and other digestive enzymes, as well as mechanical stress due to muscle contractions during digestion. To maintain its integrity, the gastric mucosa has a remarkable capacity for self-repair and regeneration. However, chronic exposure to noxious stimuli or certain medical conditions can lead to inflammation, erosions, ulcers, or even cancer of the gastric mucosa.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Gastritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and stress.

Gastritis can present with a range of symptoms, such as abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and bloating. In some cases, gastritis may not cause any noticeable symptoms. Depending on the severity and duration of inflammation, gastritis can lead to complications like stomach ulcers or even stomach cancer if left untreated.

There are two main types of gastritis: acute and chronic. Acute gastritis develops suddenly and may last for a short period, while chronic gastritis persists over time, often leading to atrophy of the stomach lining. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy and tissue biopsy to assess the extent of inflammation and rule out other potential causes of symptoms. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, or lifestyle modifications.

A stomach ulcer, also known as a gastric ulcer, is a sore that forms in the lining of the stomach. It's caused by a breakdown in the mucous layer that protects the stomach from digestive juices, allowing acid to come into contact with the stomach lining and cause an ulcer. The most common causes are bacterial infection (usually by Helicobacter pylori) and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stomach ulcers may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, and nausea. If left untreated, they can lead to more serious complications like internal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately 50% of the global population. It is closely associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood and can persist for life if not treated. The bacterium's spiral shape and flagella allow it to penetrate the mucus layer and adhere to the gastric epithelium, where it releases virulence factors that cause inflammation and tissue damage. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection can be made through various tests, including urea breath test, stool antigen test, or histological examination of a gastric biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and promote healing of the stomach lining.

The mouth mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the mouth, also known as the oral mucosa. It covers the tongue, gums, inner cheeks, palate, and floor of the mouth. This moist tissue is made up of epithelial cells, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve endings. Its functions include protecting the underlying tissues from physical trauma, chemical irritation, and microbial infections; aiding in food digestion by producing enzymes; and providing sensory information about taste, temperature, and texture.

Helicobacter infections are caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which colonizes the stomach lining and is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases. The infection can lead to chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer.

The spiral-shaped H. pylori bacteria are able to survive in the harsh acidic environment of the stomach by producing urease, an enzyme that neutralizes gastric acid in their immediate vicinity. This allows them to adhere to and colonize the epithelial lining of the stomach, where they can cause inflammation (gastritis) and disrupt the normal functioning of the stomach.

Transmission of H. pylori typically occurs through oral-oral or fecal-oral routes, and infection is more common in developing countries and in populations with lower socioeconomic status. The diagnosis of Helicobacter infections can be confirmed through various tests, including urea breath tests, stool antigen tests, or gastric biopsy with histology and culture. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and reduce stomach acidity.

Stomach diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the stomach, a muscular sac located in the upper part of the abdomen and is responsible for storing and digesting food. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, indigestion, loss of appetite, and bloating. Some common stomach diseases include:

1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining that can cause pain, irritation, and ulcers.
2. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and damage to the esophageal lining.
3. Peptic ulcers: Open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infections or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. Stomach cancer: Abnormal growth of cancerous cells in the stomach, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
5. Gastroparesis: A condition where the stomach muscles are weakened or paralyzed, leading to difficulty digesting food and emptying the stomach.
6. Functional dyspepsia: A chronic disorder characterized by symptoms such as pain, bloating, and fullness in the upper abdomen, without any identifiable cause.
7. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A condition where eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, accumulate in the esophagus, causing inflammation and difficulty swallowing.
8. Stomal stenosis: Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and small intestine, often caused by scar tissue or surgical complications.
9. Hiatal hernia: A condition where a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity, causing symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.

These are just a few examples of stomach diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the stomach. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing these conditions and preventing complications.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

Gastric juice is a digestive fluid that is produced in the stomach. It is composed of several enzymes, including pepsin, which helps to break down proteins, and gastric amylase, which begins the digestion of carbohydrates. Gastric juice also contains hydrochloric acid, which creates a low pH environment in the stomach that is necessary for the activation of pepsin and the digestion of food. Additionally, gastric juice contains mucus, which helps to protect the lining of the stomach from the damaging effects of the hydrochloric acid. The production of gastric juice is controlled by hormones and the autonomic nervous system.

Parietal cells, also known as oxyntic cells, are a type of cell found in the gastric glands of the stomach lining. They play a crucial role in digestion by releasing hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor into the stomach lumen. Hydrochloric acid is essential for breaking down food particles and creating an acidic environment that kills most bacteria, while intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. Parietal cells are stimulated by histamine, acetylcholine, and gastrin to release their secretory products.

Metaplasia is a term used in pathology to describe the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another differentiated cell type within a tissue or organ. It is an adaptive response of epithelial cells to chronic irritation, inflammation, or injury and can be reversible if the damaging stimulus is removed. Metaplastic changes are often associated with an increased risk of cancer development in the affected area.

For example, in the case of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), chronic exposure to stomach acid can lead to metaplasia of the esophageal squamous epithelium into columnar epithelium, a condition known as Barrett's esophagus. This metaplastic change is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Nasal mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity. It is a delicate, moist, and specialized tissue that contains various types of cells including epithelial cells, goblet cells, and glands. The primary function of the nasal mucosa is to warm, humidify, and filter incoming air before it reaches the lungs.

The nasal mucosa produces mucus, which traps dust, allergens, and microorganisms, preventing them from entering the respiratory system. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures on the surface of the epithelial cells, help move the mucus towards the back of the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled.

The nasal mucosa also contains a rich supply of blood vessels and immune cells that help protect against infections and inflammation. It plays an essential role in the body's defense system by producing antibodies, secreting antimicrobial substances, and initiating local immune responses.

Gastric acid, also known as stomach acid, is a digestive fluid produced in the stomach. It's primarily composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl). The pH of gastric acid is typically between 1.5 and 3.5, making it a strong acid that helps to break down food by denaturing proteins and activating digestive enzymes.

The production of gastric acid is regulated by the enteric nervous system and several hormones. The primary function of gastric acid is to initiate protein digestion, activate pepsinogen into the active enzyme pepsin, and kill most ingested microorganisms. However, an excess or deficiency in gastric acid secretion can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders such as gastritis, ulcers, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

The pyloric antrum is the distal part of the stomach, which is the last portion that precedes the pylorus and the beginning of the duodenum. It is a thickened, muscular area responsible for grinding and mixing food with gastric juices during digestion. The pyloric antrum also helps regulate the passage of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter, which controls the opening and closing of the pylorus. This region is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract's motor functions and overall digestive process.

A choristoma is a type of growth that occurs when normally functioning tissue is found in an abnormal location within the body. It is not cancerous or harmful, but it can cause problems if it presses on surrounding structures or causes symptoms. Choristomas are typically congenital, meaning they are present at birth, and are thought to occur due to developmental errors during embryonic growth. They can be found in various organs and tissues throughout the body, including the brain, eye, skin, and gastrointestinal tract.

Atrophic gastritis is a condition characterized by the inflammation and atrophy (wasting away) of the stomach lining, specifically the mucous membrane called the gastric mucosa. This process involves the loss of glandular cells in the stomach, which can result in decreased acid production and potential vitamin B12 deficiency due to reduced intrinsic factor production. Atrophic gastritis can be caused by various factors, including autoimmune disorders, chronic bacterial infection (usually with Helicobacter pylori), and the use of certain medications such as proton pump inhibitors. It can increase the risk of developing stomach cancer, so regular monitoring is often recommended.

Gastrins are a group of hormones that are produced by G cells in the stomach lining. These hormones play an essential role in regulating gastric acid secretion and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most well-known gastrin is known as "gastrin-17," which is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.

Gastrins are stored in secretory granules within G cells, and their release is triggered by several factors, including the presence of food in the stomach, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and vagus nerve stimulation. Once released, gastrins bind to specific receptors on parietal cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of enzymes that promote hydrochloric acid secretion.

Abnormalities in gastrin production can lead to several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastrinomas (tumors that produce excessive amounts of gastrin), which can cause severe gastric acid hypersecretion and ulcers. Conversely, a deficiency in gastrin production can result in hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid levels) and impaired digestion.

Gastric mucins refer to the mucin proteins that are produced and secreted by the mucus-secreting cells in the stomach lining, also known as gastric mucosa. These mucins are part of the gastric mucus layer that coats and protects the stomach from damage caused by digestive acids and enzymes, as well as from physical and chemical injuries.

Gastric mucins have a complex structure and are composed of large glycoprotein molecules that contain both protein and carbohydrate components. They form a gel-like substance that provides a physical barrier between the stomach lining and the gastric juices, preventing acid and enzymes from damaging the underlying tissues.

There are several types of gastric mucins, including MUC5AC and MUC6, which have different structures and functions. MUC5AC is the predominant mucin in the stomach and is produced by surface mucous cells, while MUC6 is produced by deeper glandular cells.

Abnormalities in gastric mucin production or composition can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, including gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer.

Pepsinogens are inactive precursor forms of the enzyme pepsin, which is produced in the stomach. They are composed of two types: Pepsinogen I (or gastric intrinsic factor) and Pepsinogen II. When exposed to acid in the stomach, these pepsinogens get converted into their active form, pepsin, which helps digest proteins in food. Measurement of pepsinogens in blood can be used as a diagnostic marker for certain stomach conditions, such as atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer.

Anti-ulcer agents are a class of medications that are used to treat and prevent ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. These medications work by reducing the production of stomach acid, neutralizing stomach acid, or protecting the lining of the stomach and duodenum from damage caused by stomach acid.

There are several types of anti-ulcer agents, including:

1. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): These medications block the action of proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. PPIs include drugs such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole.
2. H-2 receptor antagonists: These medications block the action of histamine on the H-2 receptors in the stomach, reducing the production of stomach acid. Examples include ranitidine, famotidine, and cimetidine.
3. Antacids: These medications neutralize stomach acid and provide quick relief from symptoms such as heartburn and indigestion. Common antacids include calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide.
4. Protective agents: These medications form a barrier between the stomach lining and stomach acid, protecting the lining from damage. Examples include sucralfate and misoprostol.

Anti-ulcer agents are used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is important to take these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as they can have side effects and interactions with other medications.

Gastroscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a gastroscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end, through the mouth and into the digestive tract. The gastroscope allows the doctor to visually examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors.

The procedure is usually performed under sedation to minimize discomfort, and it typically takes only a few minutes to complete. Gastroscopy can help diagnose various conditions, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, stomach ulcers, and Barrett's esophagus. It can also be used to take tissue samples for biopsy or to treat certain conditions, such as bleeding or the removal of polyps.

"Helicobacter" is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the stomach. The most well-known species is "Helicobacter pylori," which is known to cause various gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. These bacteria are able to survive in the harsh acidic environment of the stomach by producing urease, an enzyme that neutralizes stomach acid. Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" is usually acquired in childhood and can persist for life if not treated.

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is not a substance that is typically found within the human body. It is a strong mineral acid with the chemical formula HCl. In a medical context, it might be mentioned in relation to gastric acid, which helps digest food in the stomach. Gastric acid is composed of hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and sodium chloride dissolved in water. The pH of hydrochloric acid is very low (1-2) due to its high concentration of H+ ions, making it a strong acid. However, it's important to note that the term 'hydrochloric acid' does not directly refer to a component of human bodily fluids or tissues.

A mucous membrane is a type of moist, protective lining that covers various body surfaces inside the body, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal cavity. These membranes are composed of epithelial cells that produce mucus, a slippery secretion that helps trap particles, microorganisms, and other foreign substances, preventing them from entering the body or causing damage to tissues. The mucous membrane functions as a barrier against infection and irritation while also facilitating the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the body and its environment.

The gastric fundus is the upper, rounded portion of the stomach that lies above the level of the cardiac orifice and extends up to the left dome-shaped part of the diaphragm. It is the part of the stomach where food and liquids are first stored after entering through the esophagus. The gastric fundus contains parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid, and chief cells, which produce pepsinogen, a precursor to the digestive enzyme pepsin. It is also the site where the hormone ghrelin is produced, which stimulates appetite.

Pentagastrin is a synthetic polypeptide hormone that stimulates the release of gastrin and hydrochloric acid from the stomach. It is used diagnostically to test for conditions such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare disorder in which tumors in the pancreas or duodenum produce excessive amounts of gastrin, leading to severe ulcers and other digestive problems.

Pentagastrin is typically administered intravenously, and its effects are monitored through blood tests that measure gastric acid secretion. It is a potent stimulant of gastric acid production, and its use is limited to diagnostic purposes due to the risk of adverse effects such as nausea, flushing, and increased heart rate.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

Meckel's diverticulum is a congenital condition in which a small pouch-like structure protrudes from the wall of the intestine, typically located on the lower portion of the small intestine, near the junction with the large intestine. It is a remnant of the omphalomesenteric duct, which is a vestigial structure that connects the fetal gut to the yolk sac during embryonic development.

Meckel's diverticulum is usually asymptomatic and goes unnoticed. However, in some cases, it can become inflamed or infected, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and blood in the stool. This condition is more common in males than females and is typically diagnosed in children under the age of 2. If left untreated, Meckel's diverticulum can lead to complications such as intestinal obstruction, perforation, or bleeding, which may require surgical intervention.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Re-epithelialization is a medical term that refers to the process of healing and restoration of the epithelium, which is the tissue that lines the outer surface of the body and the inner surfaces of organs and cavities. This tissue is made up of cells called epithelial cells, which form a protective barrier against the external environment.

Re-epithelialization occurs when the epithelium is damaged or injured, such as during wound healing. During this process, specialized epithelial cells called keratinocytes migrate to the site of injury and proliferate, eventually covering the wounded area and forming a new layer of epithelium. This helps to restore the protective barrier and prevent infection and other complications.

Re-epithelialization is an important part of the healing process and is necessary for the proper functioning of many organs and systems in the body. It is a complex process that involves the coordinated interaction of various cells, signaling molecules, and other factors.

Cathepsin E is a type of proteolytic enzyme, which belongs to the family of papain-like cysteine proteases. It is primarily located in the lysosomes of cells and plays a role in intracellular protein degradation. Cathepsin E is unique among the cathepsins because it is predominantly expressed in immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, where it functions as a protease involved in antigen presentation.

The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 42 kDa and is synthesized as an inactive precursor that undergoes proteolytic processing to generate the mature, active enzyme. Cathepsin E can cleave various substrates, including peptides and proteins, and has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, such as inflammation, immune response, and cancer.

In summary, Cathepsin E is a lysosomal cysteine protease that plays a crucial role in antigen presentation and protein degradation, primarily expressed in immune cells.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Urease is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In medicine, urease is often associated with certain bacterial infections, such as those caused by Helicobacter pylori, which can produce large amounts of this enzyme. The presence of urease in these infections can lead to increased ammonia production, contributing to the development of gastritis and peptic ulcers.

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, including cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays a role in producing prostaglandins, chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.

Indomethacin is available in various forms, such as capsules, suppositories, and injectable solutions, and is used to treat a wide range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and bursitis. It may also be used to relieve pain and reduce fever in other conditions, such as dental procedures or after surgery.

Like all NSAIDs, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Mucus is a viscous, slippery secretion produced by the mucous membranes that line various body cavities such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It serves to lubricate and protect these surfaces from damage, infection, and foreign particles. Mucus contains water, proteins, salts, and other substances, including antibodies, enzymes, and glycoproteins called mucins that give it its characteristic gel-like consistency.

In the respiratory system, mucus traps inhaled particles such as dust, allergens, and pathogens, preventing them from reaching the lungs. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures lining the airways, move the mucus upward toward the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled through coughing or sneezing. In the gastrointestinal tract, mucus helps protect the lining of the stomach and intestines from digestive enzymes and other harmful substances.

Excessive production of mucus can occur in various medical conditions such as allergies, respiratory infections, chronic lung diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, nasal congestion, and diarrhea.

Cimetidine is a histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonist, which is a type of medication that reduces the production of stomach acid. It works by blocking the action of histamine on the H2 receptors in the stomach, which are responsible for stimulating the release of stomach acid. By blocking these receptors, cimetidine reduces the amount of stomach acid produced and can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ulcers.

Cimetidine is available by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid. It is typically taken two or three times a day, depending on the specific condition being treated. Common side effects of cimetidine may include headache, dizziness, diarrhea, and constipation.

In addition to its use in treating stomach acid-related conditions, cimetidine has also been studied for its potential anti-cancer properties. Some research suggests that it may help to enhance the immune system's response to cancer cells and reduce the growth of certain types of tumors. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine the optimal dosage and duration of treatment.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

A peptic ulcer is a sore or erosion in the lining of your stomach and the first part of your small intestine (duodenum). The most common causes of peptic ulcers are bacterial infection and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen.

The symptoms of a peptic ulcer include abdominal pain, often in the upper middle part of your abdomen, which can be dull, sharp, or burning and may come and go for several days or weeks. Other symptoms can include bloating, burping, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Severe ulcers can cause bleeding in the digestive tract, which can lead to anemia, black stools, or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

If left untreated, peptic ulcers can result in serious complications such as perforation (a hole through the wall of the stomach or duodenum), obstruction (blockage of the digestive tract), and bleeding. Treatment for peptic ulcers typically involves medications to reduce acid production, neutralize stomach acid, and kill the bacteria causing the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be required.

16,16-Dimethylprostaglandin E2 is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E2, which is a naturally occurring hormone-like compound that plays various roles in the body, including regulation of inflammation, immune response, and female reproductive system.

Prostaglandin E2 exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of cells, leading to changes in cellular function. 16,16-Dimethylprostaglandin E2 is used in medical treatments because it has a longer half-life and is more stable than natural prostaglandin E2.

It is primarily used as a treatment for ocular conditions such as glaucoma and ocular hypertension, as it helps to reduce the pressure inside the eye by increasing the outflow of fluid from the eye. It may also have potential uses in other medical conditions, such as bronchial asthma and cancer, but further research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy for these indications.

Pepsin A is defined as a digestive enzyme that is primarily secreted by the chief cells in the stomach's fundic glands. It plays a crucial role in protein catabolism, helping to break down food proteins into smaller peptides during the digestive process. Pepsin A has an optimal pH range of 1.5-2.5 for its enzymatic activity and is activated from its inactive precursor, pepsinogen, upon exposure to acidic conditions in the stomach.

Bile reflux is a condition in which bile flows backward from the small intestine into the stomach and sometimes into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, nausea, vomiting a greenish-yellow fluid (bile), and abdominal pain. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps to break down fats in the small intestine. Normally, a muscle called the sphincter of Oddi prevents bile from flowing backward into the stomach. However, if this muscle becomes weak or damaged, bile reflux can occur.

Bile reflux is different from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which occurs when stomach acid flows backward into the esophagus. Although both conditions can cause similar symptoms, such as heartburn and regurgitation, they require different treatments. Bile reflux can increase the risk of complications such as inflammation of the stomach lining (gastritis), ulcers, and cancer of the esophagus. If left untreated, bile reflux can lead to serious health problems, so it is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

A duodenal ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that develops in the lining of the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. It is characterized by a break in the mucosal layer of the duodinal wall, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Duodenal ulcers are often caused by an imbalance between digestive acid and mucus production, which can be exacerbated by factors such as bacterial infection (commonly with Helicobacter pylori), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, and stress. Symptoms may include gnawing or burning abdominal pain, often occurring a few hours after meals or during the night, bloating, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Complications can be severe, including bleeding, perforation, and obstruction of the duodenum. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy, and treatment may include antibiotics (if H. pylori infection is present), acid-suppressing medications, lifestyle modifications, and potentially surgery in severe cases.

Tetragastrin is not a medical condition but a synthetic peptide hormone that is used in medical research and diagnostic tests. It is composed of four amino acids (glutamic acid, proline, tryptophan, and methionine) and is similar to the natural hormone gastrin, which is produced by the stomach and helps regulate digestion.

Tetragastrin is used in medical research to study the function of the stomach and intestines, and it is also used in diagnostic tests to stimulate the release of gastric acid from the stomach. This can help diagnose conditions such as pernicious anemia, a condition in which the body cannot absorb vitamin B12 due to a lack of intrinsic factor, a protein produced by the stomach.

In summary, Tetragastrin is a synthetic hormone that mimics the function of natural gastrin and is used for research and diagnostic purposes related to the digestive system.

Metiamide is not generally considered a medical term, but it is a medication that has been used in the past. Medically, metiamide is defined as a synthetic histamine H2-receptor antagonist, which means it blocks the action of histamine at the H2 receptors in the stomach. This effect reduces gastric acid secretion and can be useful in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and other conditions associated with excessive stomach acid production.

However, metiamide has largely been replaced by other H2 blockers like cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine due to its association with a rare but serious side effect called agranulocytosis, which is a severe decrease in white blood cell count that can increase the risk of infections.

Mucins are high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins that are the major components of mucus. They are produced and secreted by specialized epithelial cells in various organs, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the eyes and ears.

Mucins have a characteristic structure consisting of a protein backbone with numerous attached oligosaccharide side chains, which give them their gel-forming properties and provide a protective barrier against pathogens, environmental insults, and digestive enzymes. They also play important roles in lubrication, hydration, and cell signaling.

Mucins can be classified into two main groups based on their structure and function: secreted mucins and membrane-bound mucins. Secreted mucins are released from cells and form a physical barrier on the surface of mucosal tissues, while membrane-bound mucins are integrated into the cell membrane and participate in cell adhesion and signaling processes.

Abnormalities in mucin production or function have been implicated in various diseases, including chronic inflammation, cancer, and cystic fibrosis.

The olfactory mucosa is a specialized mucous membrane that is located in the upper part of the nasal cavity, near the septum and the superior turbinate. It contains the olfactory receptor neurons, which are responsible for the sense of smell. These neurons have hair-like projections called cilia that are covered in a mucus layer, which helps to trap and identify odor molecules present in the air we breathe. The olfactory mucosa also contains supporting cells, blood vessels, and nerve fibers that help to maintain the health and function of the olfactory receptor neurons. Damage to the olfactory mucosa can result in a loss of smell or anosmia.

Dinoprostone is a prostaglandin E2 analog used in medical practice for the induction of labor and ripening of the cervix in pregnant women. It is available in various forms, including vaginal suppositories, gel, and tablets. Dinoprostone works by stimulating the contraction of uterine muscles and promoting cervical dilation, which helps in facilitating a successful delivery.

It's important to note that dinoprostone should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as its use is associated with certain risks and side effects, including uterine hyperstimulation, fetal distress, and maternal infection. The dosage and duration of treatment are carefully monitored to minimize these risks and ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

Prostaglandins E, Synthetic are a class of medications that mimic the effects of natural prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances involved in various bodily functions, including inflammation, pain perception, and regulation of the female reproductive system. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is one of the most commonly synthesized prostaglandins used in medical treatments.

Synthetic prostaglandins E are often used for their vasodilatory effects, which help to improve blood flow and reduce blood pressure. They may also be used to prevent or treat blood clots, as well as to manage certain conditions related to the female reproductive system, such as inducing labor or causing an abortion.

Some examples of synthetic prostaglandins E include misoprostol (Cytotec), dinoprostone (Cervidil, Prepidil), and alprostadil (Edex, Caverject). These medications are available in various forms, such as tablets, suppositories, or injectable solutions, and their use depends on the specific medical condition being treated.

It is important to note that synthetic prostaglandins E can have significant side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms (such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting), abdominal pain, and uterine contractions. Therefore, they should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Helicobacter heilmannii (previously known as Gastrospirillum hominis) is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that can be found in the stomach and is associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. It is one of several species of Helicobacter that can infect the stomach, along with H. pylori, which is a more common cause of these conditions. The infection by H. heilmannii is less common and its transmission routes are not well understood, but it is believed to be associated with close contact with animals, particularly dogs and cats. Its identification and diagnosis can be challenging due to difficulties in culturing the bacterium and detecting it in gastric biopsies.

The pylorus is the lower, narrow part of the stomach that connects to the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). It consists of the pyloric canal, which is a short muscular tube, and the pyloric sphincter, a circular muscle that controls the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum. The pylorus regulates the entry of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine by adjusting the size and frequency of the muscular contractions that push the chyme through the pyloric sphincter. This process helps in further digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

Chief cells, also known as zymogenic cells or peptic cells, are a type of cell located in the gastric glands of the stomach. They are responsible for producing and secreting pepsinogen, a precursor to the enzyme pepsin, which plays a crucial role in digesting proteins in the stomach.

The gastric glands are tubular structures that extend deep into the lamina propria of the stomach mucosa. They consist of several types of cells, including chief cells, parietal cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. Chief cells are located in the base of the gastric glands, and they are characterized by their large, basophilic cytoplasm and apical secretory granules.

When stimulated by gastrin, a hormone produced by the G cells in the antrum of the stomach, chief cells release pepsinogen into the stomach lumen. Once in the acidic environment of the stomach, pepsinogen is converted to pepsin, which begins the process of protein digestion.

It's worth noting that chronic inflammation or damage to the stomach lining, such as that caused by gastritis or Helicobacter pylori infection, can lead to decreased numbers of chief cells and reduced production of pepsinogen, which can impair protein digestion and contribute to malnutrition.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

The laryngeal mucosa is the mucous membrane that lines the interior surface of the larynx, also known as the voice box. This mucous membrane is composed of epithelial cells and underlying connective tissue, and it plays a crucial role in protecting the underlying tissues of the larynx from damage, infection, and other environmental insults.

The laryngeal mucosa is continuous with the respiratory mucosa that lines the trachea and bronchi, and it contains numerous mucus-secreting glands and cilia that help to trap and remove inhaled particles and microorganisms. Additionally, the laryngeal mucosa is richly innervated with sensory nerve endings that detect changes in temperature, pressure, and other stimuli, allowing for the regulation of breathing, swallowing, and voice production.

Damage to the laryngeal mucosa can occur as a result of various factors, including irritants, infection, inflammation, and trauma, and may lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, difficulty swallowing, and changes in voice quality.

Omeprazole is defined as a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastric ulcers, and other conditions where reducing stomach acid is desired. It works by blocking the action of the proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. By inhibiting these pumps, omeprazole reduces the amount of acid produced in the stomach, providing relief from symptoms such as heartburn and pain caused by excess stomach acid.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and oral suspension, and is typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated. As with any medication, omeprazole should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and its potential side effects and interactions with other medications should be carefully considered before use.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Pepsinogen A is the inactive precursor form of the enzyme pepsin, which is produced in the stomach chief cells. Once exposed to acidic environment in the stomach, pepsinogen A is converted into its active form, pepsin. Pepsin plays a crucial role in digestion by breaking down proteins into smaller peptides. An elevated level of pepsinogen A in the blood may indicate damage to the stomach lining, such as that seen in gastritis or gastric cancer.

Sucralfate is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called aluminum complexes. It's often used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers, including duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in the prevention of stress-induced mucosal damage in critically ill patients.

Sucralfate works by forming a protective barrier over the ulcer site, which helps to prevent further damage from acid and digestive enzymes. It's not absorbed into the bloodstream, so it acts locally in the gastrointestinal tract. The medical definition of Sucralfate is:

A synthetic basic aluminum salt of sucrose octasulfate, which is used in the treatment of gastro duodenal ulcers and as a protectant against stress-induced mucosal damage in critically ill patients. It exerts its therapeutic effect by forming a complex, adhesive protective coating over ulcerated areas, thereby preventing further erosion from gastric acid and pepsin.

"Helicobacter felis" is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes the stomachs of cats and other animals. It is closely related to "Helicobacter pylori," which is a well-known cause of gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer in humans. "Helicobacter felis" has been associated with similar gastrointestinal diseases in cats and has been occasionally found in human stomachs, although its role in human pathogenesis is not as clearly established as that of "Helicobacter pylori."

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

The esophagus is the muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the stomach. It is located in the midline of the neck and chest, passing through the diaphragm to enter the abdomen and join the stomach. The main function of the esophagus is to transport food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach for digestion.

The esophagus has a few distinct parts: the upper esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the throat), the middle esophagus, and the lower esophageal sphincter (another ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the stomach). The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow food and liquids to enter the stomach and then contracts to prevent stomach contents from flowing back into the esophagus.

The walls of the esophagus are made up of several layers, including mucosa (a moist tissue that lines the inside of the tube), submucosa (a layer of connective tissue), muscle (both voluntary and involuntary types), and adventitia (an outer layer of connective tissue).

Common conditions affecting the esophagus include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, esophageal strictures, and eosinophilic esophagitis.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The bleeding can range from mild to severe and can produce symptoms such as vomiting blood, passing black or tarry stools, or having low blood pressure.

GI hemorrhage can be classified as either upper or lower, depending on the location of the bleed. Upper GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs above the ligament of Treitz, which is a point in the small intestine where it becomes narrower and turns a corner. Common causes of upper GI hemorrhage include gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, and Mallory-Weiss tears.

Lower GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs below the ligament of Treitz. Common causes of lower GI hemorrhage include diverticulosis, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia.

The diagnosis of GI hemorrhage is often made based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, CT scan, or radionuclide scanning. Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the bleeding and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Aspirin is the common name for acetylsalicylic acid, which is a medication used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX), which is involved in the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that cause inflammation and pain. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect, which means it can help prevent blood clots from forming. This makes it useful for preventing heart attacks and strokes.

Aspirin is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and chewable tablets. It is also available in prescription strengths for certain medical conditions. As with any medication, aspirin should be taken as directed by a healthcare provider, and its use should be avoided in children and teenagers with viral infections due to the risk of Reye's syndrome, a rare but serious condition that can affect the liver and brain.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Barrett esophagus is a condition in which the tissue lining of the lower esophagus changes, becoming more like the tissue that lines the intestines (intestinal metaplasia). This change can increase the risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma, a type of cancer. The exact cause of Barrett esophagus is not known, but it is often associated with long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as chronic acid reflux.

In Barrett esophagus, the normal squamous cells that line the lower esophagus are replaced by columnar epithelial cells. This change is usually detected during an upper endoscopy and biopsy. The diagnosis of Barrett esophagus is confirmed when the biopsy shows intestinal metaplasia in the lower esophagus.

It's important to note that not everyone with GERD will develop Barrett esophagus, and not everyone with Barrett esophagus will develop esophageal cancer. However, if you have been diagnosed with Barrett esophagus, your healthcare provider may recommend regular endoscopies and biopsies to monitor the condition and reduce the risk of cancer. Treatment options for Barrett esophagus include medications to control acid reflux, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Histamine H2 antagonists, also known as H2 blockers, are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of histamine on the H2 receptors in the stomach. Histamine is a chemical that is released by the body during an allergic reaction and can also be released by certain cells in the stomach in response to food or other stimuli. When histamine binds to the H2 receptors in the stomach, it triggers the release of acid. By blocking the action of histamine on these receptors, H2 antagonists reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ulcers. Examples of H2 antagonists include ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), and cimetidine (Tagamet).

The Lewis blood-group system is one of the human blood group systems, which is based on the presence or absence of two antigens: Lea and Leb. These antigens are carbohydrate structures that can be found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) as well as other cells and in various body fluids.

The Lewis system is unique because its antigens are not normally present at birth, but instead develop during early childhood or later in life due to the action of certain enzymes in the digestive tract. The production of Lea and Leb antigens depends on the activity of two genes, FUT3 (also known as Lewis gene) and FUT2 (also known as Secretor gene).

There are four main phenotypes or blood types in the Lewis system:

1. Le(a+b-): This is the most common phenotype, where individuals have both Lea and Leb antigens on their RBCs.
2. Le(a-b+): In this phenotype, individuals lack the Lea antigen but have the Leb antigen on their RBCs.
3. Le(a-b-): This is a rare phenotype where neither Lea nor Leb antigens are present on the RBCs.
4. Le(a+b+): In this phenotype, individuals have both Lea and Leb antigens on their RBCs due to the simultaneous expression of FUT3 and FUT2 genes.

The Lewis blood-group system is not typically associated with transfusion reactions or hemolytic diseases, unlike other blood group systems such as ABO and Rh. However, the presence or absence of Lewis antigens can still have implications for certain medical conditions and tests, including:

* Infectious diseases: Some bacteria and viruses can use the Lewis antigens as receptors to attach to and infect host cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, which causes gastritis and peptic ulcers, binds to Lea antigens in the stomach.
* Autoimmune disorders: In some cases, autoantibodies against Lewis antigens have been found in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
* Pregnancy: The Lewis antigens can be expressed on the surface of placental cells, and changes in their expression have been linked to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.
* Blood typing: Although not a primary factor in blood transfusion compatibility, the Lewis blood-group system is still considered when determining the best match for patients who require frequent transfusions or organ transplants.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a medical procedure that allows direct visualization of the inner lining of the digestive tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and sometimes the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum). This procedure is performed using an endoscope, a long, thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip. The endoscope is inserted through the mouth for upper endoscopy or through the rectum for lower endoscopy (colonoscopy), and the images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor for the physician to view.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy can help diagnose various conditions, such as inflammation, ulcers, tumors, polyps, or bleeding in the digestive tract. It can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps, taking tissue samples (biopsies), treating bleeding, and performing other interventions to manage certain digestive diseases.

There are different types of gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures, including:

1. Upper Endoscopy (Esophagogastroduodenoscopy or EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure examines the colon and rectum.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: A limited examination of the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) using a shorter endoscope.
4. Enteroscopy: An examination of the small intestine, which can be performed using various techniques, such as push enteroscopy, single-balloon enteroscopy, or double-balloon enteroscopy.
5. Capsule Endoscopy: A procedure that involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera, which captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is generally considered safe when performed by experienced medical professionals. However, like any medical procedure, there are potential risks and complications, such as bleeding, infection, perforation, or adverse reactions to sedatives used during the procedure. Patients should discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy.

"Pteridium" is the genus name for a group of ferns commonly known as bracken ferns. These ferns are found worldwide and are known for their hardy nature and ability to grow in a variety of environments. While "Pteridium" itself is not a medical term, extracts from some species of this fern have been used in traditional medicine in various cultures. However, it's important to note that these uses are not supported by modern scientific evidence and some parts of the plant contain carcinogens and can be toxic if ingested. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment or medication.

In medical terms, "immersion" is not a term with a specific clinical definition. However, in general terms, immersion refers to the act of placing something or someone into a liquid or environment completely. In some contexts, it may be used to describe a type of wound care where the wound is covered completely with a medicated dressing or solution. It can also be used to describe certain medical procedures or therapies that involve submerging a part of the body in a liquid, such as hydrotherapy.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

Enterochromaffin cells, also known as Kulchitsky cells or enteroendocrine cells, are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. These cells are responsible for producing and secreting a variety of hormones and neuropeptides that play important roles in regulating gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and sensation.

Enterochromaffin cells are named for their ability to take up chromaffin stains, which contain silver salts and oxidizing agents that react with the catecholamines stored within the cells. These cells can be further classified based on their morphology, location within the gastrointestinal tract, and the types of hormones they produce.

Some examples of hormones produced by enterochromaffin cells include serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), histamine, gastrin, somatostatin, and cholecystokinin. Serotonin is one of the most well-known hormones produced by these cells, and it plays a critical role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and secretion, as well as mood and cognition.

Abnormalities in enterochromaffin cell function have been implicated in a number of gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, and gastroparesis. Additionally, mutations in genes associated with enterochromaffin cells have been linked to several inherited cancer syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).

Dyspepsia is a medical term that refers to discomfort or pain in the upper abdomen, often accompanied by symptoms such as bloating, nausea, belching, and early satiety (feeling full quickly after starting to eat). It is also commonly known as indigestion. Dyspepsia can have many possible causes, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, gastritis, and functional dyspepsia (a condition in which there is no obvious structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms). Treatment for dyspepsia depends on the underlying cause.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gefarnate" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It may be that you have misspelled or are unfamiliar with the name of a particular medication or chemical compound. If you meant "Gefinitib," it is a type of cancer medication used to treat certain types of lung cancer. Always consult reliable medical sources or healthcare professionals for accurate and safe information.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

Esophageal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Here are some common esophageal diseases with their brief definitions:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A chronic condition in which stomach acid or bile flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophageal lining, often caused by GERD, infection, or medication.
3. Esophageal stricture: Narrowing of the esophagus due to scarring or inflammation, which can make swallowing difficult.
4. Esophageal cancer: Cancer that forms in the tissues of the esophagus, often as a result of long-term GERD or smoking.
5. Esophageal motility disorders: Disorders that affect the normal movement and function of the esophagus, such as achalasia, diffuse spasm, and nutcracker esophagus.
6. Barrett's esophagus: A condition in which the lining of the lower esophagus changes, increasing the risk of esophageal cancer.
7. Esophageal diverticula: Small pouches that form in the esophageal wall, often causing difficulty swallowing or regurgitation.
8. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE): A chronic immune-mediated disorder characterized by inflammation of the esophagus due to an allergic reaction.

These are some of the common esophageal diseases, and their diagnosis and treatment may vary depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-induced disorders are a category of mental disorders that are directly caused by substance/medication use. Specifically, alcohol-induced disorders refer to conditions where the primary cause is the use of alcohol or its withdrawal.

There are several types of alcohol-induced disorders, including:

1. Alcohol intoxication delirium: A state of confusion and disorientation that occurs due to excessive alcohol consumption.
2. Alcohol withdrawal delirium: A serious condition characterized by confusion, hallucinations, and tremors that can occur after a person stops drinking heavily and suddenly.
3. Alcohol-induced bipolar and related disorders: Mood disturbances that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
4. Alcohol-induced depressive disorder: Depressive symptoms that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
5. Alcohol-induced anxiety disorder: Anxiety symptoms that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
6. Alcohol-induced sleep disorder: Sleep disturbances that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
7. Alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction: Sexual problems that are directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.
8. Alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder: A severe decline in cognitive abilities, such as memory and decision-making skills, that is directly caused by alcohol use or withdrawal.

It's important to note that these disorders are distinct from alcohol use disorder (AUD), which refers to a pattern of problematic alcohol use that can lead to clinically significant impairment or distress. However, AUD can increase the risk of developing alcohol-induced disorders.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the stomach lining. They are located in the mucosa of the gastric glands and are responsible for producing and secreting hormones, such as histamine, that regulate gastric acid secretion. ECL cells are stimulated by the hormone gastrin, which is released by G cells in response to food intake or other stimuli. The histamine produced by ECL cells then acts on H2 receptors located on parietal cells, leading to the release of hydrochloric acid into the stomach.

ECL cells are named for their ability to take up and decarboxylate certain amines, such as serotonin and dopamine, which results in the formation of chromaffin granules that can be stained with chromium salts. These cells play an important role in regulating gastric acid secretion and are also involved in the development of some stomach disorders, such as gastrinomas and atrophic gastritis.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

The ABO blood group system is a classification system for human blood based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). The system also includes the Rh factor, which is a separate protein found on the surface of some RBCs.

In the ABO system, there are four main blood groups: A, B, AB, and O. These groups are determined by the type of antigens present on the surface of the RBCs. Group A individuals have A antigens on their RBCs, group B individuals have B antigens, group AB individuals have both A and B antigens, and group O individuals have neither A nor B antigens on their RBCs.

In addition to the antigens on the surface of RBCs, the ABO system also involves the presence of antibodies in the plasma. Individuals with type A blood have anti-B antibodies in their plasma, those with type B blood have anti-A antibodies, those with type AB blood have neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies, and those with type O blood have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies.

The ABO blood group system is important in blood transfusions and organ transplantation because of the potential for an immune response if there is a mismatch between the antigens on the donor's RBCs and the recipient's plasma antibodies. For example, if a type A individual receives a transfusion of type B blood, their anti-B antibodies will attack and destroy the donated RBCs, potentially causing a serious or life-threatening reaction.

It is important to note that there are many other blood group systems in addition to the ABO system, but the ABO system is one of the most well-known and clinically significant.

'Campylobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including birds and mammals. These bacteria are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni being the most frequently identified species associated with human infection.

Campylobacter infection, also known as campylobacteriosis, typically causes symptoms such as diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The infection is usually acquired through the consumption of contaminated food or water, particularly undercooked poultry, raw milk, and contaminated produce. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces.

While most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting and resolve within a week without specific treatment, severe or prolonged infections may require antibiotic therapy. In rare cases, Campylobacter infection can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Preventive measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, thorough handwashing, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is a type of enzyme belonging to the cyclooxygenase family, which is responsible for the production of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclins. These are important signaling molecules that play a role in various physiological processes such as inflammation, pain perception, blood clotting, and gastric acid secretion.

COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues, including the stomach, kidneys, and platelets, where it performs housekeeping functions. For example, in the stomach, COX-1 produces prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining from acid and digestive enzymes. In the kidneys, COX-1 helps regulate blood flow and sodium balance. In platelets, COX-1 produces thromboxane A2, which promotes blood clotting.

COX-1 is a target of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen. These medications work by inhibiting the activity of COX enzymes, reducing the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes, and thereby alleviating pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of NSAIDs can lead to side effects such as stomach ulcers and bleeding due to the inhibition of COX-1 in the stomach lining.

Hypertrophic gastritis is a relatively uncommon condition characterized by thickened folds in the stomach lining (gastric mucosa) due to an increase in the number of cells and/or the size of the cells. This chronic inflammatory condition can lead to atrophy of the glands, intestinal metaplasia, and an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. It is often associated with autoimmune disorders, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, pernicious anemia, or type A atrophic gastritis.

The condition can be asymptomatic or may present with symptoms like abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and loss of appetite. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy with biopsy to assess the extent of inflammation and cellular changes in the stomach lining. Treatment usually includes proton pump inhibitors to reduce acid secretion, as well as addressing any underlying conditions that may be contributing to the development or progression of hypertrophic gastritis.

Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m is a radioactive pharmaceutical preparation used in medical diagnostic imaging. It is a technetium-99m radiopharmaceutical, where technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, which emits gamma rays and has a half-life of 6 hours. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m is used as a contrast agent in various diagnostic procedures, such as imaging of the thyroid, salivary glands, or the brain, to evaluate conditions like inflammation, tumors, or abnormalities in blood flow. It is typically administered intravenously, and its short half-life ensures that the radiation exposure is limited.

Duodenogastric reflux (DGR) is a medical condition in which the contents of the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, flow backward into the stomach. This occurs when the pyloric sphincter, a muscle that separates the stomach and duodenum, fails to function properly, allowing the reflux of duodenal juice into the stomach.

Duodenogastric refluxate typically contains bile acids, digestive enzymes, and other stomach-irritating substances. Chronic DGR can lead to gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), ulcers, and other gastrointestinal complications. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and indigestion. Treatment usually involves medications that reduce acid production or neutralize stomach acid, as well as lifestyle modifications to minimize reflux triggers.

A gastric fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the stomach and another organ or the skin surface. This condition can occur as a result of complications from surgery, injury, infection, or certain diseases such as cancer. Symptoms may include persistent drainage from the site of the fistula, pain, malnutrition, and infection. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the fistula and management of any underlying conditions.

Prostaglandin E (PGE) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandins are not actually hormones, but are similar to them in that they act as chemical messengers that have specific effects on certain cells.

Prostaglandin E is one of the most abundant prostaglandins in the body and has a variety of physiological functions. It is involved in the regulation of inflammation, pain perception, fever, and smooth muscle contraction. Prostaglandin E also plays a role in the regulation of blood flow, platelet aggregation, and gastric acid secretion.

Prostaglandin E is synthesized from arachidonic acid, which is released from cell membranes by the action of enzymes called phospholipases. Once formed, prostaglandin E binds to specific receptors on the surface of cells, leading to a variety of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in changes in cell behavior.

Prostaglandin E is used medically in the treatment of several conditions, including dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), postpartum hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus (a congenital heart defect). It is also used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of kidney function.

The Intrinsic Factor is a glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells in the stomach lining. It plays an essential role in the absorption of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) in the small intestine. After binding with vitamin B12, the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex moves through the digestive tract and gets absorbed in the ileum region of the small intestine. Deficiency in Intrinsic Factor can lead to Vitamin B12 deficiency disorders like pernicious anemia.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

Gerbillinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes gerbils, jirds, and sand rats. These small mammals are primarily found in arid regions of Africa and Asia. They are characterized by their long hind legs, which they use for hopping, and their long, thin tails. Some species have adapted to desert environments by developing specialized kidneys that allow them to survive on minimal water intake.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practice involving the burning of a mugwort-based herb called "moxa" close to or on specific points on the body, with the intention of stimulating chi (vital energy), encouraging healing, and preventing/treating diseases. The heat generated by moxa sticks or cones is believed to warm the meridians, dispel cold and dampness, and improve circulation. Practitioners may apply moxibustion directly on the skin, through an insulating material, or indirectly above the skin. It's often used in conjunction with acupuncture for various health issues, such as arthritis, digestive disorders, and gynecological conditions.

Prostaglandins are naturally occurring, lipid-derived hormones that play various important roles in the human body. They are produced in nearly every tissue in response to injury or infection, and they have diverse effects depending on the site of release and the type of prostaglandin. Some of their functions include:

1. Regulation of inflammation: Prostaglandins contribute to the inflammatory response by increasing vasodilation, promoting fluid accumulation, and sensitizing pain receptors, which can lead to symptoms such as redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
2. Modulation of gastrointestinal functions: Prostaglandins protect the stomach lining from acid secretion and promote mucus production, maintaining the integrity of the gastric mucosa. They also regulate intestinal motility and secretion.
3. Control of renal function: Prostaglandins help regulate blood flow to the kidneys, maintain sodium balance, and control renin release, which affects blood pressure and fluid balance.
4. Regulation of smooth muscle contraction: Prostaglandins can cause both relaxation and contraction of smooth muscles in various tissues, such as the uterus, bronchioles, and vascular system.
5. Modulation of platelet aggregation: Some prostaglandins inhibit platelet aggregation, preventing blood clots from forming too quickly or becoming too large.
6. Reproductive system regulation: Prostaglandins are involved in the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and labor induction by promoting uterine contractions.
7. Neurotransmission: Prostaglandins can modulate neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability, affecting pain perception, mood, and cognition.

Prostaglandins exert their effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) found on the surface of target cells. There are several distinct types of prostaglandins (PGs), including PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2 (prostacyclin), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Each type has unique functions and acts through specific receptors. Prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid derived from membrane phospholipids, by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen, inhibit COX activity, reducing prostaglandin synthesis and providing analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects.

Achlorhydria is a medical condition characterized by the absence or near-absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid is a digestive fluid that helps to break down food, particularly proteins, and also creates an acidic environment that prevents harmful bacteria from growing in the stomach.

Achlorhydria can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, autoimmune disorders, aging, or surgical removal of the stomach. Symptoms of achlorhydria may include indigestion, bloating, abdominal pain, and malabsorption of nutrients. If left untreated, it can lead to complications such as anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, and increased risk of gastrointestinal infections.

It is important to note that achlorhydria can be diagnosed through various tests, including a gastric acid analysis or a pH test. Treatment for achlorhydria may involve supplementing with hydrochloric acid or other digestive enzymes, modifying the diet, and addressing any underlying conditions.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Gastric acidity determination is a medical test used to measure the amount of acid in the stomach. This test is often performed to diagnose or monitor conditions such as gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The test involves measuring the pH level of the stomach contents using a thin, flexible tube called a catheter that is passed through the nose and down into the stomach. In some cases, a small sample of stomach fluid may also be collected for further testing.

The normal range for gastric acidity is typically considered to be a pH level below 4. A higher pH level may indicate that the stomach is producing too little acid, while a lower pH level may suggest that it is producing too much. Based on the results of the test, healthcare providers can develop an appropriate treatment plan for the underlying condition causing abnormal gastric acidity.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Pernicious anemia is a specific type of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia that is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor, a protein made in the stomach that is needed to absorb vitamin B12. The absence of intrinsic factor leads to poor absorption of vitamin B12 from food and results in its deficiency.

Vitamin B12 is essential for the production of healthy red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. Without enough vitamin B12, the body cannot produce enough red blood cells, leading to anemia. Pernicious anemia typically develops slowly over several years and can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and a decreased appetite.

Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disorder, which means that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the stomach lining, leading to a loss of intrinsic factor production. It is more common in older adults, particularly those over 60 years old, and can also be associated with other autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Addison's disease.

Treatment for pernicious anemia typically involves vitamin B12 replacement therapy, either through oral supplements or injections of the vitamin. In some cases, dietary changes may also be recommended to ensure adequate intake of vitamin B12-rich foods such as meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products.

The Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction is a histological staining method used to detect the presence of certain carbohydrates, such as glycogen and glycoproteins, in tissues or cells. This technique involves treating the tissue with periodic acid, which oxidizes the vicinal hydroxyl groups in the carbohydrates, creating aldehydes. The aldehydes then react with Schiff's reagent, forming a magenta-colored complex that is visible under a microscope.

The PAS reaction is commonly used to identify and analyze various tissue components, such as basement membranes, fungal cell walls, and mucins in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It can also be used to diagnose certain medical conditions, like kidney diseases, where abnormal accumulations of carbohydrates occur in the renal tubules or glomeruli.

In summary, the Periodic Acid-Schiff reaction is a staining method that detects specific carbohydrates in tissues or cells, which can aid in diagnostic and research applications.

A Gastrectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of all or part of the stomach. This procedure can be total (complete resection of the stomach), partial (removal of a portion of the stomach), or sleeve (removal of a portion of the stomach to create a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch).

Gastrectomies are typically performed to treat conditions such as gastric cancer, benign tumors, severe peptic ulcers, and in some cases, for weight loss in individuals with morbid obesity. The type of gastrectomy performed depends on the patient's medical condition and the extent of the disease.

Following a gastrectomy, patients may require adjustments to their diet and lifestyle, as well as potential supplementation of vitamins and minerals that would normally be absorbed in the stomach. In some cases, further reconstructive surgery might be necessary to reestablish gastrointestinal continuity.

Ghrelin is a hormone primarily produced and released by the stomach with some production in the small intestine, pancreas, and brain. It is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite, promotes food intake, and contributes to the regulation of energy balance.

Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after eating. In addition to its role in regulating appetite and meal initiation, ghrelin also has other functions, such as modulating glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, gastric motility, and cardiovascular function. Its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found in various tissues throughout the body, indicating its wide range of physiological roles.

Portal hypertension is a medical condition characterized by an increased pressure in the portal vein, which is the large blood vessel that carries blood from the intestines, spleen, and pancreas to the liver. Normal portal venous pressure is approximately 5-10 mmHg. Portal hypertension is defined as a portal venous pressure greater than 10 mmHg.

The most common cause of portal hypertension is cirrhosis of the liver, which leads to scarring and narrowing of the small blood vessels in the liver, resulting in increased resistance to blood flow. Other causes include blood clots in the portal vein, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts, and invasive tumors that block the flow of blood through the liver.

Portal hypertension can lead to a number of complications, including the development of abnormal blood vessels (varices) in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines, which are prone to bleeding. Ascites, or the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, is another common complication of portal hypertension. Other potential complications include encephalopathy, which is a condition characterized by confusion, disorientation, and other neurological symptoms, and an increased risk of bacterial infections.

Treatment of portal hypertension depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Medications to reduce pressure in the portal vein, such as beta blockers or nitrates, may be used. Endoscopic procedures to band or inject varices can help prevent bleeding. In severe cases, surgery or liver transplantation may be necessary.

Atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in size and wasting of an organ or tissue due to the disappearance of cells, shrinkage of cells, or decreased number of cells. This process can be caused by various factors such as disuse, aging, degeneration, injury, or disease.

For example, if a muscle is immobilized for an extended period, it may undergo atrophy due to lack of use. Similarly, certain medical conditions like diabetes, cancer, and heart failure can lead to the wasting away of various tissues and organs in the body.

Atrophy can also occur as a result of natural aging processes, leading to decreased muscle mass and strength in older adults. In general, atrophy is characterized by a decrease in the volume or weight of an organ or tissue, which can have significant impacts on its function and overall health.

Burimamide is a medication that was developed in the 1970s and is known as a histamine H2 receptor antagonist. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that is involved in allergic reactions and inflammation. Burimamide was originally developed to treat gastric ulcers, but it has largely been replaced by other medications with similar mechanisms of action, such as ranitidine and cimetidine, which have fewer side effects and are more effective.

The medical definition of 'Burimamide' is:

A synthetic histamine H2 receptor antagonist that was developed to treat gastric ulcers. It works by blocking the action of histamine at the H2 receptors in the stomach, reducing the production of stomach acid and promoting the healing of ulcers. Burimamide has largely been replaced by other medications with similar mechanisms of action, such as ranitidine and cimetidine, which have fewer side effects and are more effective.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Histidine Decarboxylase is a medical term that refers to an enzyme found in various organisms, including humans. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the conversion of the amino acid L-histidine into histamine, which is a biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter and inflammatory mediator in the human body.

Histidine decarboxylase is found in several tissues, including the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. It requires pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor for its enzymatic activity. Abnormal levels or activity of histidine decarboxylase have been implicated in several medical conditions, including allergic reactions, inflammation, and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Inhibitors of histidine decarboxylase are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various diseases, such as mast cell-mediated disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and neurological conditions associated with abnormal histamine levels.

Endoscopy of the digestive system, also known as gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, is a medical procedure that allows healthcare professionals to visually examine the inside lining of the digestive tract using a flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it, called an endoscope. This procedure can help diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the digestive system, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cancer.

There are several types of endoscopy procedures that focus on different parts of the digestive tract:

1. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is often used to investigate symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, or bleeding in the upper GI tract.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure explores the large intestine (colon) and rectum. It is commonly performed to screen for colon cancer, as well as to diagnose and treat conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or polyps.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: Similar to a colonoscopy, this procedure examines the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) and rectum. It is often used as a screening tool for colon cancer and to investigate symptoms like rectal bleeding or changes in bowel habits.
4. Upper GI endoscopy: This procedure focuses on the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it. It is used to diagnose and treat conditions such as GERD, ulcers, and difficulty swallowing.
5. Capsule endoscopy: This procedure involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera that captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through. It can help diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.

Endoscopy is typically performed under sedation or anesthesia to ensure patient comfort during the procedure. The images captured by the endoscope are displayed on a monitor, allowing the healthcare provider to assess the condition of the digestive tract and make informed treatment decisions.

Pepsinogen C is not typically referred to as a medical term. However, pepsinogens are proenzymes, or inactive forms, of the enzyme pepsin, which plays a crucial role in digesting proteins in the stomach. Pepsinogen C is one of the three types of pepsinogens (A, C, and F) found in the gastric mucosa.

Pepsinogen C is produced mainly by the chief cells in the fundic region of the stomach. Its primary function is to protect the gastric mucosa from self-digestion by remaining in an inactive state until it is converted into pepsin upon exposure to hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

While pepsinogen C has been studied in relation to gastric diseases, such as atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, it is not commonly used as a clinical marker or diagnostic tool compared to pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II.

Duodenal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. Here are some examples of duodenal diseases:

1. Duodenitis: This is inflammation of the duodenum, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating. Duodenitis can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or chronic inflammation due to conditions like Crohn's disease.
2. Peptic ulcers: These are sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum, usually as a result of infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or long-term use of NSAIDs. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, bloating, and heartburn.
3. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the duodenum. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, weight loss, and blood in the stool.
4. Celiac disease: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the lining of the small intestine in response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. This can lead to inflammation and damage to the duodenum.
5. Duodenal diverticulosis: This is a condition in which small pouches form in the lining of the duodenum. While many people with duodenal diverticulosis do not experience symptoms, some may develop complications such as inflammation or infection.
6. Duodenal atresia: This is a congenital condition in which the duodenum does not form properly, leading to blockage of the intestine. This can cause symptoms such as vomiting and difficulty feeding in newborns.

The "gastric stump" refers to the remaining portion of the stomach that is left behind following a surgical procedure called gastrectomy. In a gastrectomy, a part or the entire stomach is removed, and the remaining parts are reconnected. The gastric stump is the end that is connected to the small intestine, where the food residue from the stomach enters the intestinal tract. This term is often used in the context of patients who have undergone surgeries for conditions such as stomach cancer or peptic ulcers.

The ABO blood-group system is a classification system used in blood transfusion medicine to determine the compatibility of donated blood with a recipient's blood. It is based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), as well as the corresponding antibodies present in the plasma.

There are four main blood types in the ABO system:

1. Type A: These individuals have A antigens on their RBCs and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.
2. Type B: They have B antigens on their RBCs and anti-A antibodies in their plasma.
3. Type AB: They have both A and B antigens on their RBCs but no natural antibodies against either A or B antigens.
4. Type O: They do not have any A or B antigens on their RBCs, but they have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.

Transfusing blood from a donor with incompatible ABO antigens can lead to an immune response, causing the destruction of donated RBCs and potentially life-threatening complications such as acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. Therefore, it is crucial to match the ABO blood type between donors and recipients before performing a blood transfusion.

"Qi" is a concept in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and martial arts that refers to a vital energy or life force that is believed to flow through the body. It is considered to be essential for maintaining good health and can be influenced by various factors such as diet, exercise, emotions, and environment. However, it's important to note that "Qi" is not a term recognized in modern Western medicine and its definition and significance are based on cultural and philosophical beliefs rather than scientific evidence.

Physical restraint, in a medical context, refers to the use of physical force or equipment to limit a person's movements or access to their own body. This is typically done to prevent harm to the individual themselves or to others. It can include various devices such as wrist restraints, vest restraints, or bed rails. The use of physical restraints should be a last resort and must be in accordance with established guidelines and regulations to ensure the safety and rights of the patient are respected.

Gastrin-secreting cells, also known as G cells, are endocrine cells that produce and release the hormone gastrin. These cells are primarily located in the antrum of the stomach, but they can also be found in the duodenum and pancreas. Gastrin stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach, which aids in digestion by breaking down proteins and activating other digestive enzymes.

Gastrin secretion is regulated by several factors, including the presence of food in the stomach, particularly protein-rich foods, and the hormone gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), which is released from the small intestine in response to nutrient absorption. Gastrin also plays a role in regulating gastric motility and mucosal growth.

Abnormalities in gastrin-secreting cells can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which is characterized by excessive gastrin production and severe gastric acid hypersecretion, leading to peptic ulcers and other digestive complications.

The Forssman antigen is a type of heterophile antigen, which is a substance that can stimulate an immune response in animals of different species. It was first discovered by the Swedish bacteriologist, John Forssman, in 1911. The Forssman antigen is found in a variety of tissues and organs, including the kidney, liver, and brain, in many different animal species, including humans.

The Forssman antigen is unique because it can induce the production of antibodies that cross-react with tissues from other species. This means that an immune response to the Forssman antigen in one species can also recognize and react with similar antigens in another species, leading to the possibility of cross-species immune reactions.

The Forssman antigen is a complex glycosphingolipid molecule that is found on the surface of cells. It is not clear what role, if any, the Forssman antigen plays in normal physiological processes. However, its presence has been implicated in various disease processes, including autoimmune disorders and transplant rejection.

In summary, the Forssman antigen is a heterophile antigen found in a variety of tissues and organs in many different animal species, including humans. It can induce cross-reacting antibodies and has been implicated in various disease processes.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Secretory rate refers to the amount or volume of a secretion produced by a gland or an organ over a given period of time. It is a measure of the productivity or activity level of the secreting structure. The secretory rate can be quantified for various bodily fluids, such as saliva, sweat, digestive enzymes, hormones, or milk, depending on the context and the specific gland or organ being studied.

In clinical settings, measuring the secretory rate might involve collecting and analyzing samples over a certain duration to estimate the production rate of the substance in question. This information can be helpful in diagnosing conditions related to impaired secretion, monitoring treatment responses, or understanding the physiological adaptations of the body under different circumstances.

Aminopyrine is a type of medication known as a non-opioid analgesic, which is used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is an antipyretic and analgesic drug that was widely used in the past, but its use has been limited or discontinued in many countries due to the risk of rare but serious side effects such as agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), which can make individuals more susceptible to infections.

Chemically, aminopyrine is an aromatic heterocyclic compound containing a pyridine ring substituted with an amino group and a phenyl group. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which is involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that mediate pain and inflammation. By reducing prostaglandin levels, aminopyrine helps to alleviate pain and reduce fever.

It's important to note that due to its potential side effects, aminopyrine is not commonly used in modern medical practice, and other safer and more effective medications are available for pain relief and fever reduction.

Bethanechol compounds are a type of cholinergic agent used in medical treatment. They are parasympathomimetic drugs, which means they mimic the actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Specifically, bethanechol compounds stimulate the muscarinic receptors in the smooth muscle of the bladder and gastrointestinal tract, increasing tone and promoting contractions.

Bethanechol is primarily used to treat urinary retention and associated symptoms, such as those that can occur after certain types of surgery or with conditions like spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. It works by helping the bladder muscle contract, which can promote urination.

It's important to note that bethanechol should be used with caution, as it can have various side effects, including sweating, increased salivation, flushed skin, and gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. It may also interact with other medications, so it's crucial to discuss any potential risks with a healthcare provider before starting this treatment.

Pepstatins are a group of naturally occurring cyclic peptides that inhibit aspartic proteases, a type of enzyme that breaks down proteins. They are isolated from various actinomycete species of Streptomyces and Actinosynnema. Pepstatins are often used in laboratory research to study the function of aspartic proteases and as tools to probe the mechanism of action of these enzymes. In addition, pepstatins have been explored for their potential therapeutic use in various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and cardiovascular disease. However, they have not yet been approved for clinical use.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that play a role in inflammation, pain, and fever.

There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is produced continuously in various tissues throughout the body and helps maintain the normal function of the stomach and kidneys, among other things. COX-2, on the other hand, is produced in response to inflammation and is involved in the production of prostaglandins that contribute to pain, fever, and inflammation.

COX inhibitors can be non-selective, meaning they block both COX-1 and COX-2, or selective, meaning they primarily block COX-2. Non-selective COX inhibitors include drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, while selective COX inhibitors are often referred to as coxibs and include celecoxib (Celebrex) and rofecoxib (Vioxx).

COX inhibitors are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. However, long-term use of non-selective COX inhibitors can increase the risk of gastrointestinal side effects such as ulcers and bleeding, while selective COX inhibitors may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the potential risks and benefits of COX inhibitors before using them.

Duodenitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine that receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

Duodenitis can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. In some cases, the cause may remain unidentified, leading to a diagnosis of "non-specific duodenitis."

Treatment for duodenitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as eradicating H. pylori infection or discontinuing NSAID use. Acid-suppressing medications and antacids may also be prescribed to alleviate symptoms and promote healing of the duodenal lining. In severe cases, endoscopic procedures or surgery might be necessary to manage complications like bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

Taurocholic acid is a bile salt, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. It is formed in the liver by conjugation of cholic acid with taurine, an amino sulfonic acid.

Taurocholic acid has a detergent-like effect on the lipids in our food, helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed through the intestinal wall and transported to other parts of the body for energy production or storage. It also helps to maintain the flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine, where it is stored until needed for digestion.

Abnormal levels of taurocholic acid in the body have been linked to various health conditions, including gallstones, liver disease, and gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy balance of bile salts, including taurocholic acid, for optimal digestive function.

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Secretion of gastric acid or alkaline pancreatic juice from the ectopic mucosa leads to ulceration in the adjacent ileal mucosa ... Jejunal, duodenal mucosa or Brunner's tissue were each found in 2% of ectopic cases. Heterotopic rests of gastric mucosa and ... This scan detects gastric mucosa; since approximately 50% of symptomatic Meckel's diverticula have ectopic gastric or ... Bleeding may be caused by: Ectopic gastric or pancreatic mucosa: Where diverticulum contains embryonic remnants of mucosa of ...
... are mostly exocrine glands and are all located beneath the gastric pits within the gastric mucosa-the mucous ... The gastric mucosa is pitted with innumerable gastric pits which each house 3-5 gastric glands. The cells of the exocrine ... There are millions of gastric pits in the gastric mucosa and their necessary narrowness determines the tubular form of the ... These cells line the gastric mucosa. Mucous neck cell - Mucous neck cells are located within gastric glands, interspersed ...
Intrinsic factor is produced by parietal cells of the gastric mucosa (stomach lining) and the intrinsic factor-B12-complex is ... Antibodies to intrinsic factor and parietal cells cause the destruction of the oxyntic gastric mucosa, in which the parietal ... Miederer, S.E. (1977). The Histotopography of the Gastric Mucosa. Thieme, ISBN 3-13-508601-1 Butler CC, Vidal-Alaball J, ... Impaired B12 absorption can also occur following gastric removal (gastrectomy) or gastric bypass surgery. In these surgeries, ...
Prabhu SR, Ranganathan S, Amarapurkar DN (November 1994). "Helicobacter pylori in normal gastric mucosa". J Assoc Physicians ... Since 1% to 3% of infected individuals are likely to develop gastric cancer, H. pylori-induced gastric cancer is the third ... Because of the usual lack of symptoms, when gastric cancer is finally diagnosed it is often fairly advanced. More than half of ... As evaluated in 2002, it is present in the gastric tissues of 74% of middle-aged adults in developing countries and 58% in ...
Silen, W.; Machen, T. E.; Forte, J. G. (September 1975). "Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa". The American Journal ...
Silen, W.; Machen, T. E.; Forte, J. G. (September 1975). "Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa". The American Journal ...
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Machen TE, Rutten MJ, Ekblad EB (February 1982). "Histamine, cAMP, and activation of piglet gastric mucosa". The American ... Increased mast cell activation is a common finding in the mucosa of patients with functional GI disorders. ... ▸ Treatment with ... mucosa of the lungs, and digestive tract, as well as the mouth, conjunctiva, and nose. Mast cells play a key role in the ...
In contrast, ID4 is highly expressed in normal gastric mucosa. There is an undefined but significant association seen in ID4 ... ID4 is closely associated with gastric cancer. The ID4 promoter region is hypermethylated and infrequently expressed in gastric ... "Downregulation of ID4 by promoter hypermethylation in gastric adenocarcinoma". Oncogene. 22 (44): 6946-53. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... "Downregulation of ID4 by promoter hypermethylation in gastric adenocarcinoma". Oncogene. 22 (44): 6946-6953. doi:10.1038/sj.onc ...
Goddard, Andrew Francis (1997). Factors influencing antibiotic transfer across the gastric mucosa (MD thesis). University of ... "Factors influencing antibiotic transfer across the gastric mucosa". He trained in Cambridge, Norwich, Bury St. Edmunds and ...
Pepsin Lee D, Ryle AP (September 1967). "Pepsinogen D. A fourth proteolytic zymogen from pig gastric mucosa". The Biochemical ... Foltmann B (1981). "Gastric proteinases--structure, function, evolution and mechanism of action". Essays in Biochemistry. 17: ... Phe24-Phe and Phe25-Tyr bonds in the B chain of insulin The enzyme is a predominant endopeptidase in the gastric juice of ...
Findings on gastroscopy may include edematous gastric mucosa, and hyperperistalsis. Finding on colonoscopy may include: fragile ... mucosa, segmental erythema, longitudinal ulcer, and loss of haustrations Plain X-rays are often normal or show non-specific ...
Josefssson, M.; Ekblad, E. (2009). "Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in Gastric Mucosa: Gastric Iodide Secretion". In Preedy, ... gastric mucosa, salivary glands, oral mucosa, arterial walls, thymus, epidermis, choroid plexus and cerebrospinal fluid, among ... In the proposed mechanism, the iodide ion functions in gastric mucosa as an antioxidant reducing species that detoxifies ... gastric mucosa, cervix, cerebrospinal fluid, arterial walls, ovary and salivary glands. In the cells of these tissues the ...
Zverkov IV, Vinogradov VA, Smagin VG (October 1983). "[Endorphin-containing cells in the gastric antral mucosa in duodenal ... Secrete motilin Gastric enteroendocrine cells are found in the gastric glands, mostly at their base. The G cells secrete ... K cells secrete gastric inhibitory peptide, an incretin, which also promotes triglyceride storage. K cells are mostly found in ... Goswami C, Shimada Y, Yoshimura M, Mondal A, Oda S, Tanaka T, Sakai T, Sakata I (2015-06-26). "Motilin Stimulates Gastric Acid ...
"Identification of mucus glycoprotein fatty acyltransferase activity in human gastric mucosa". Digestion. 32 (1): 57-62. doi: ...
2000). "Expression and activity of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase in human gastric mucosa". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ...
Vitamin B12 requires intrinsic factor from the gastric mucosa to be absorbed. In patients with a small gastric pouch, it may ... Leakage of an anastomosis can occur in about 2% of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and less than 1% in mini gastric bypass. Leaks ... in Poland gastric bypass costs around £4,000, whereas in Turkey it costs £3,200. Gastric bypass surgery has an emotional and ... while the pouch of the gastric bypass may be 15 mL in size. The gastric bypass pouch is usually formed from the part of the ...
In the stomach, TGF-α is manufactured within the normal gastric mucosa. TGF-α has been shown to inhibit gastric acid secretion ... "Transforming growth factor alpha expression in normal gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric carcinoma-- ... This protein shows potential use as a prognostic biomarker in various tumors, like gastric carcinoma. or melanoma has been ... MMP-9 and CXCR4 proteins involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition on overall survival of patients with gastric cancer". ...
"Gene expression changes in patient-matched gastric normal mucosa, adenomas, and carcinomas". Experimental and Molecular ... C11orf86 is down-regulated from non-neoplastic mucosa to adenomas and carcinomas, down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma, and ...
"Biosynthesis in vitro of a sulfated triglucosyl monoalkylmonoacylglycerol by rat gastric mucosa". J. Biol. Chem. 257 (20): ...
"Conversion of gastric mucosa to intestinal metaplasia in Cdx2-expressing transgenic mice". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Liu Q, Teh M, Ito K, Shah N, Ito Y, Yeoh KG (Dec 2007). "CDX2 expression is progressively decreased in human gastric intestinal ... Heterozygous CDX2 knock-outs have intestinal lesions caused by the differentiation of intestinal cells into gastric epithelium ... Gastric Cancer. 4 (4): 185-91. doi:10.1007/PL00011741. PMID 11846061. Eda A, Osawa H, Yanaka I, Satoh K, Mutoh H, Kihira K, ...
Takafuji VA, Evans A, Lynch KR, Roche JK (January 2002). "PGE(2) receptors and synthesis in human gastric mucosa: perturbation ... "Activation of prostaglandin E2-receptor EP2 and EP4 pathways induces growth inhibition in human gastric carcinoma cell lines". ...
Imidazopyridine Parisio, C; Clementi, F (November 1976). "Surface Alterations Induced by Stress in Gastric Mucosa: Protective ...
Clausen C, Machen TE, -- (July 1982). "Changes in the Cell Membranes of the Bullfrog Gastric Mucosa with Acid Secretion". ... Karasov WH (July 1983). "Gut physiology: Trophic control of the intestinal mucosa". Nature. 304 (5921): 18. Bibcode:1983Natur. ...
"Mutagenic activation of environmental carcinogens by microsomes of gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia". Cancer Research ... "Characterisation of xenobiotic-metabolising enzyme expression in human bronchial mucosa and peripheral lung tissues". European ...
2003). "Expression of TFF2 and Helicobacter pylori infection in carcinogenesis of gastric mucosa". World J. Gastroenterol. 9 (5 ... Their functions are not defined, but they may protect the mucosa from insults, stabilize the mucus layer and affect healing of ... The encoded protein inhibits gastric acid secretion. This gene and two other related trefoil family member genes are found in a ... They are stable secretory proteins expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa. ...
Brandi G (Aug 2006). "Urease-positive bacteria other than Helicobacter pylori in human gastric juice and mucosa". Am J ... Gastric bypass procedures such as a duodenal switch and RNY, where the largest acid producing parts of the stomach are either ... For practical purposes, gastric pH and endoscopy should be done in someone with suspected achlorhydria. Older testing methods ... Little is known on the prognosis of achlorhydria, although there have been reports of an increased risk of gastric cancer. A ...
The cancer eventually metastasized to her gastric mucosa, evolving to a terminal stage; thus, whatever treatment proved to be ...
Kawabata A (July 2002). "PAR-2: structure, function and relevance to human diseases of the gastric mucosa". Expert Reviews in ...
The gastric mucosa is the mucous membrane layer of the stomach, which contains the glands and the gastric pits. In humans, it ... Gastric glands are simple or branched tubular glands that emerge on the deeper part of the gastric foveola, inside the gastric ... Several types of endocrine cells are found in throughout the gastric mucosa. The pyloric glands contain gastrin-producing cells ... These are the ducts of the gastric glands, and at the bottom of each may be seen one or more minute orifices, the openings of ...
Heterotopic gastric mucosa is rare, but it is the most reported epithelial heterotopia. It is mostly seen in the GI tract, ... His final pathology showed anorectal mucosa with heterotopic gastric mucosa and hemorrhoids. ... Video presentation: Rectal heterotrophic gastric mucosa. Chaya Shwaartz, MD, Alexandra Argiroff, MD, Sanghyun A Kim, MD, FACS. ... Biopsies of the polyp showed heterotopic gastric mucosa.. His intermittent rectal bleeding was likely from this polyp and ...
The spread of primary gastric non-Hodgkins lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) to the perigastric lymph ... Factors influencing lymph node infiltration in primary gastric malignant lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ... The spread of primary gastric non-Hodgkins lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) to the perigastric lymph ... Our data thus support the thesis that gastric MALT lymphomas show clinicopathologic similarities with gastric carcinomas. We ...
... cyclic AMP and the secretory response of piglet gastric mucosa ... Temperature changes in the gastric mucosa during gastric juice ... and gastric secretory failure. Correlative study by suction biopsy and exfoliative cytology of gastric mucosa, paper ... Fade and tachyphylaxis of gastric acid secretory response to pentagastrin in rat isolated gastric mucosa British Journal of ... Main, I.H.; Whittle, B.J. 1976: A study of the vascular and acid-secretory responses of the rat gastric mucosa to histamine ...
Kowalewski, K.; Schier, J.F.; Chmura, G. 1970: Effect of sex hormones on gastric secretion and on gastric mucosa in ... Role of urease in the gastric mucosa. III. Plasma urea as source of ammonium ion in gastric juice of histamine-stimulated dog ... Histamine content in human gastric mucosa: its relation to the pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion and to selective-gastric ... Ruoff, H.J.; Sewing, K.F. 1973: Cyclic amp in the rat gastric mucosa after penta gastrin histamine and carbachol Acta Hepato- ...
Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be ... Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. ... Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. ... AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA ...
In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as ... The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the ... The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes ... Glycophenotypic alterations induced by Pteridium aquilinum in mice gastric mucosa: synergistic effect with Helicobacter pylori ...
In gastric mucosa from HD subjects, compared to control subject biopsies, a reduced expression of gastrin (a marker of G cells ... Characterization of gastric mucosa biopsies reveals alterations in Huntingtons Disease. PLoS Currents 1 10.1371/currents.hd. ... We therefore set out to study gastric mucosa of patients with HD, looking for abnormalities of mucosal cells using ... In order to investigate possible histological differences related to gastric acid production, we evaluated the cell density of ...
"Gastric Mucosa" by people in this website by year, and whether "Gastric Mucosa" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Gastric Mucosa" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Gastric Mucosa" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Gastric Mucosa". ...
Medichron Publications LLC is a publishing company for the online health and medical community. The company specializes in research in the field of chronobiology and news pertaining to a chronobiological approach to health. ...
Alterations of the gastric stump and not resected stomach mucosa after truncal vagotomy in rats. Author(s): *Rodrigues, Paulo ... Specimens from RY and RYTV groups did not show alterations in the gastric stump mucosa. At the jejunal side of the ... PURPOSE:To evaluate morphological changes of the gastric stump and not resected stomach mucosa after the completion of truncal ...
What are the benefits for gastric health? Research has demonstrated the ability of ZnC to restore the gastric mucosa (2), and ... Its a natural solution that helps to protect the integrity of the gastric mucosa and reduce the symptoms associated with acid ... L-Carnosine and Zinc in Gastric Protection; pp. 548-565.. *Mahmood A., FitzGerald A.J., Marchbank T., Ntatsaki E., Murray D., ... Miyoshi A., Namiki A., Asagi S., Harasawa S., Ooshiba S., Hayakawa K. Clinical Evaluation of Z-103 on Gastric Ulcer-A ...
... Possibility of Endoscopic Resection in ... Gastric B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Clinicopathological study and evaluation of the prognostic ... Regression of primary low-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after eradication of ... Effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the treatment of early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ...
... Possibility of Endoscopic Resection in ... Gastric B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Clinicopathological study and evaluation of the prognostic ... Regression of primary low-grade B-cell gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after eradication of ... Effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the treatment of early-stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue ...
Submucosal layer of gastric wall. 2 d. Epigastric pain, edema of oral mucosa. Whole, 99% ethanol, very well conserved. CTAB. ... Gastric mucosa. 24 h. Epigastric pain, urticaria, generalized edema. Whole, 99% ethanol, well conserved. CTAB. 2,180, ,100. ... Fumarola L, Monno R, Ierardi E, Rizzo G, Giannelli G, Lalle M, Anisakis pegreffii etiological agent of gastric infections in ... Gastric anisakiasis in Italy: case report. Med J Sur Med. 1996;4:13-6. ...
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TpH-1) in gastric mucosa of patients with ... 2001). Effect of cisapride on gastric sensitivity to distension, gastric compliance and duodeno-gastric reflexes in healthy ... was estimated in gastric mucosa with RT-PCR.. Results:. The expression of this enzyme in antral mucosa was 2.69 ±0.97 in group ... in antral mucosa and from 2.28 ±0.69 to 1.69 ±0.39 in gastric body mucosa (p , 0.05) (Figure 7). ...
Gastric mucosa - Peptic ulcers. Peripheral nerves - Progressive neuropathy. Liver and spleen - Organomegaly (usually well- ...
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal; Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos; Mentol/administração & dosagem; Mentol/farmacologia; ... The aim of the present study was to assess whether the gastric peristalsis-suppressing effect is dose-dependently induced by L- ... phase II randomized study evaluating dose-response of antiperistaltic effect of L-menthol sprayed onto the gastric mucosa for ... Peppermint oil solution was found to be effective for reducing gastric spasm during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. ...
Gastric and upper intestine ulcers *Stomach cancer. *Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma ... Helicobacter pylori and other gastric Helicobacter species. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and ...
Background Chromoendoscopy is an endoscopic technique that uses stains during endoscopy to highlight differences in mucosa, as ... Ectopic gastric mucosa. Gastric cancer. Adequacy of vagotomy. Phenol red (phenolsulfonephthalein). Color change from yellow to ... Magnifying chromoendoscopic findings of early gastric cancer and gastric adenoma. Dig Dis Sci. 2011 Sep. 56 (9):2715-22. [QxMD ... 16] gastric metaplasia and adenocarcinoma, [17, 18, 19, 20, 21] colon polyps, [22, 23] colon cancer, [24, 25, 26, 27, 28] and ...
Gastric Mucosa / immunology* * Humans * Immune Tolerance* * Immunity, Mucosal* * Intestinal Mucosa / immunology* ...
Chromosomal instability in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: a fluorescent in situ hybridization study using ... An unexpected high and previously unreported gain of chromosome X in gastric MALT lymphomas was found. This tumor appears, ... An unexpected high and previously unreported gain of chromosome X in gastric MALT lymphomas was found. This tumor appears, ... Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT] lymphomas) of the gastrointestinal tract ...
... identified the gastric mucosa as the initial target for admittance, simply no parasites becoming detectable inside the mucosa ... identified the gastric mucosa as the initial target for admittance, simply no parasites becoming detectable inside the mucosa ... Upon mouth an infection of mice, the real variety NMS-P715 of Y30 and Y82 parasites in gastric epithelial cells differed widely ... The real variety of Y30 and Y82 parasites in gastric epithelial cells differed widely. Our outcomes indicate that Rabbit ...
Cheng, YT, Wu, CH, Ho, CY & Yen, GC 2013, Catechin protects against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage of the gastric mucosa ... Catechin protects against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage of the gastric mucosa by up-regulating Nrf2 in vitro and in vivo. ... Catechin protects against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage of the gastric mucosa by up-regulating Nrf2 in vitro and in vivo ... Catechin protects against ketoprofen-induced oxidative damage of the gastric mucosa by up-regulating Nrf2 in vitro and in vivo ...
Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with MALT translocation gene 1 diagnosed ... Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with MALT translocation gene 1 diagnosed ... Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with MALT translocation gene 1 diagnosed ... Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with MALT translocation gene 1 diagnosed ...
Formulated to enhance absorption by the gastric mucosa for improved efficacy and to prevent adverse symptoms associated with ...
What are the NCCN recommendations for the diagnostic workup of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) non-Hodgkin ... Gastric marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) type ... recommends the following studies to establish a diagnosis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma [1] :. * ... system for staging gastric cancer, which presents more accurately the depth of gastric wall involvement, a factor in the ...
gastric mucosa. *left uterine tube. *gallbladder. *saphenous vein. *vena cava. *nipple. *periodontal fiber ...
Multiple ulcerations and hemorrhages of gastric and small-intestinal mucosa on endoscopy ...
  • Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (bmj.com)
  • AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. (bmj.com)
  • In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • Using endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) as a diagnostic therapy, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with MALT translocation gene 1 without Helicobacter pylori infection was detected. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori infection causes a variety of gastrointestinal diseases, including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. (rcsb.org)
  • Interleukin-12 drives the Th1 signaling pathway in Helicobacter pylori- infected human gastric mucosa. (bvsalud.org)
  • The spread of primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) to the perigastric lymph nodes is a very important step concerning the prognosis of these tumours. (nih.gov)
  • 위 MALT 림프종(low grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma)은 결절외 변연부 림프종(extranodal marginal zone lymphoma)의 하나로 B세포 림프종의 5~8%를 차지하며 원발성 위 림프종 중에서는 가장 흔한 암종이다[ 1 , 2 ]. (helicojournal.org)
  • Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT] lymphomas) of the gastrointestinal tract have been known to have characteristic chromosomal aberrations including trisomies of chromosomes 3, 12, and 18. (uninsubria.it)
  • The gastric mucosa is the mucous membrane layer of the stomach, which contains the glands and the gastric pits. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are the ducts of the gastric glands, and at the bottom of each may be seen one or more minute orifices, the openings of the gland tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastric glands are simple or branched tubular glands that emerge on the deeper part of the gastric foveola, inside the gastric areas and outlined by the folds of the mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. (rush.edu)
  • The gastric mucosa lines the stomach and contains the gastric glands, which secrete different substances. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Chief cells are present in the base of gastric glands, which are in the fundus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Chew CS, Hersey SJ, Sachs G, Berglindh T: Histamine responsiveness of isolated gastric glands. (karger.com)
  • Glandular hyperplasia is characterized by an increase in density of glands within the mucosa. (nih.gov)
  • Hyperplasia of the glandular stomach is diagnosed and graded based on the extent of the lesion and the number of cells within the gastric glands. (nih.gov)
  • Note the reduction in height of the glandular mucosa, and numbers of mucosal gastric glands. (cdc.gov)
  • An important iodine concentration by sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is present in mucinous cells of surface epithelium and gastric pits of the fundus and pyloric part of the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • PURPOSE:To evaluate morphological changes of the gastric stump and not resected stomach mucosa after the completion of truncal vagotomy.METHODS:Eighty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: CT, TV, RY and RYTV. (unesp.br)
  • Adult stages of anisakid nematodes reside in the stomach of marine mammals, where they are embedded in the mucosa in clusters. (cdc.gov)
  • The surface of the stomach and opening of the gastric pits have a single layer of columnar epithelial cells, known as surface mucous cells or foveolar cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Parietal cells are present in the gastric pits that mainly occur in the upper part of the stomach, or the fundus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Neuroendocrine cells occur in the gastric pits of the stomach. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When the stomach reaches a certain level of acidity, D-cells release somatostatin, which then suppresses gastrin and the overall production of gastric acid. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The gastric mucosal barrier is the property of the stomach that allows it to safely contain the gastric acid required for digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the barrier is broken, as by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) in acid solution, acid diffuses back into the mucosa where it can cause damage to the stomach itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • A peptic ulcer is an open sore or raw area in the lining of the stomach (gastric) or the upper part of the small intestine (duodenal). (mountsinai.org)
  • Hyperplasia of the glandular stomach mucosa is not common in controls but may be seen in regenerative hyperplasia, such as at the margin of an ulcer or erosion. (nih.gov)
  • Its colonization of the gastric mucosa of the human stomach is a prerequisite for survival in the stomach. (rcsb.org)
  • Research has demonstrated the ability of ZnC to restore the gastric mucosa (2), and some studies even suggest this effect could extend to the whole of the digestive tract, from taste disorders to intestinal disturbances (6-8). (supersmart.com)
  • Some reports have suggested that intestinal diseases, such as ulcers, are associated with lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage in the mucosa. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • We evaluated the effects of catechin, theaflavin, malvidin, cyanidin and apigenin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in human intestinal-407 (Int-407) cells and rat primary gastric cells treated with ketoprofen. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • More importantly, the treatment of Sprague-Dawley rats with catechin (35 mg/kg/day) prior to the administration of ketoprofen (50 mg/kg/day) successfully inhibited oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of the antioxidant system in the intestinal mucosa. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • A Silastic gastric ring is placed around the vertically constructed gastric pouch above the anastomosis between the pouch and intestinal Roux limb. (sages.org)
  • Presentan complicaciones como hemorragia, perforación u obstrucción intestinal que en ocasiones simulan una apendicitis aguda. (bvsalud.org)
  • Upon mouth an infection of mice, the real variety NMS-P715 of Y30 and Y82 parasites in gastric epithelial cells differed widely. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of the present study is to evaluate the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TpH-1) in gastric mucosa of patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic H. pylori infection in relation to the intensity of bacterial colonization and severity of dyspeptic symptoms. (archivesofmedicalscience.com)
  • Can netazepide eradicate the inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa to H. pylori infection? (clinicaltrialsregister.eu)
  • Helicobacterpylori infection and chronic gastric acid hyposecretion. (karger.com)
  • In order to evaluate the parameters that influence the infiltration of the lymph nodes we retrospectively investigated 145 surgical specimens with gastric MALT lymphoma. (nih.gov)
  • Our data thus support the thesis that gastric MALT lymphomas show clinicopathologic similarities with gastric carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • We suggest that the depth of infiltration should be included in the pathological reports concerning primary gastric lymphomas of the MALT. (nih.gov)
  • An unexpected high and previously unreported gain of chromosome X in gastric MALT lymphomas was found. (uninsubria.it)
  • It consists of simple columnar epithelium, lamina propria, and the muscularis mucosae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both substances get excited about lysosome exocytosis-dependent web host cellular invasion, but display differential gastric mucin-binding capability, a property crucial for parasite migration toward NMS-P715 the gastric mucosal epithelium. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • Both substances get excited about host cellular invasion, but display differential gastric mucin-binding capability, which is crucial for parasite migration toward the gastric mucosal epithelium. (healthandwellnesssource.org)
  • The mucosa further subdivides into the surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosa. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. (bmj.com)
  • The level of mRNA expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TpH-1) was estimated in gastric mucosa with RT-PCR. (archivesofmedicalscience.com)
  • Dzierzanowska-Fangrat K, Michalkiewicz J, Cielecka-Kuszyk J, Nowak M, Celinska-Cedro D, Rozynek E, Dzierzanowska D, Crabtree JE: Enhanced gastric IL-18 mRNA expression in Helicobacterpylori -infected children is associated with macrophage infiltration, IL-8, and IL-1 beta mRNA expression. (karger.com)
  • The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process. (pasteur.fr)
  • Specimens from RY and RYTV groups did not show alterations in the gastric stump mucosa. (unesp.br)
  • This could contribute to the explanation as to why the so-called early lymphomas with an infiltration limited to mucosa and submucosa have a much better prognosis than more advanced tumours. (nih.gov)
  • The submucosa layer is beneath the mucosa. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In asymptomatic infections eradication of H. pylori is a preventive management of gastric cancer, especially in patients with a family history of this disease [ 20 - 22 ]. (archivesofmedicalscience.com)
  • Patients and controls a possible cause of gastric ulcers seen in This was a case-control study of H. pylori patients with CLD [ 10,11 ]. (who.int)
  • Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. (pasteur.fr)
  • Moreover, it leads to destructive changes in the gastric and duodenal mucosa and can be the cause of asymptomatic peptic ulcers [ 17 - 19 ]. (archivesofmedicalscience.com)
  • The mixture of Salvia miltiorrhiza-Carthamus tinctorius (Danhong injection) alleviates low-dose aspirin induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. (rush.edu)
  • Erosive gastritis causes an erosion of the gastric mucosa leading to bleeding. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • These two photomicrographs off a side-by-side comparison of the cytoarchitectural changes seen in a patient with atrophic gastritis, and accompanying pernicious anemia on the left, with the appearance of a normal section of gastric mucosa on the right. (cdc.gov)
  • His intermittent rectal bleeding was likely from this polyp and possible intermittent ulcers on the surrounding mucosa from the acid secretion. (sages.org)
  • The four key components of gastric digestive function are its function as a reservoir, acid secretion, enzyme secretion and its role in gastrointestinal motility. (karger.com)
  • Carcinoma of the esophagus: successful resection of lower end of esophagus with reestablishment of esophageal gastric continuity. (medscape.com)
  • Indication: 16 y/o with chronic vomiting Findings: Flat salmon pink mucosal lesion at the proximal esophagus surrounded by endoscopically normal appearing mucosa, suggestive of gastric inlet patch. (naspghan.org)
  • These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. (pasteur.fr)
  • Biopsy confirmed hetrotrophic gastric mucosa. (naspghan.org)
  • The validity of these measures was compared with Campylobacter-like organ- ism analysis (gold standard) performed on patients requiring gastric biopsy. (who.int)
  • This study examined gastric secretory, hormonal and mucosal changes in individuals with portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) due to schistosomal hepatic fibrosis (SHF) before and after sclerotherapy. (who.int)
  • We present the case of rectal heterotopic gastric mucosa excised using transanal endoscopic microsurgery. (sages.org)
  • Chromoendoscopy is an endoscopic technique that uses stains during endoscopy to highlight differences in mucosa, as well as dysplastic and malignant changes that are not apparent in white light. (medscape.com)
  • There are few reports regarding endoscopic removal of dysfunctioning banding after VBG or gastric banding, but no report after SRGB. (sages.org)
  • We report a case of endoscopic removal of silastic gastric ring with use of self-expanding stent in the treatment of non-eroded relative stenosis. (sages.org)
  • Her symptoms were controllable with medical management, and endoscopic gastric ring removal was performed. (sages.org)
  • Biopsies of the polyp showed heterotopic gastric mucosa. (sages.org)
  • We started by scoring the mucosa around the identified lesion, about 0.5-1cm away from the polyp. (sages.org)
  • Using the "no touch technique," we were able to lift the polyp on the mucosa up and proceed with a full thickness dissection without grabbing the polyp itself. (sages.org)
  • This insoluble mucus forms a protective gel-like coating over the entire surface of the gastric mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mucus protects the gastric mucosa from autodigestion by e.g. pepsin and from erosion by acids and other caustic materials that are ingested. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multicenter phase II randomized study evaluating dose-response of antiperistaltic effect of L-menthol sprayed onto the gastric mucosa for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Peppermint oil solution was found to be effective for reducing gastric spasm during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy . (bvsalud.org)
  • Canine gastric muscarinic receptors up-regulate after vagotomy. (rush.edu)
  • Gastric Mucosa" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • The mucosa has folds to increase the surface area available for nutrient absorption. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Several studies have reported conflicting and inconclusive results concerning the clinical relevance of mucin expression in gastric carcinoma. (bmj.com)
  • We therefore set out to study gastric mucosa of patients with HD, looking for abnormalities of mucosal cells using immunohistochemistry. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • In order to investigate possible histological differences related to gastric acid production, we evaluated the cell density of acid producing parietal cells, as well as gastrin producing cells (the endocrine cell controlling parietal cell function). (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, no morphological differences have been found in gastric mucosa or in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines [ 31 - 33 ]. (archivesofmedicalscience.com)
  • In gastric mucosa from HD subjects, compared to control subject biopsies, a reduced expression of gastrin (a marker of G cells) was found. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Our goal was to evaluate the predictive power of TNM stage for gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC), in a low-incidence country. (researchgate.net)
  • It's a natural solution that helps to protect the integrity of the gastric mucosa and reduce the symptoms associated with acid reflux . (supersmart.com)
  • Background Gastrectomy with negative resection margins and adequate lymph node dissection is the cornerstone of curative treatment for gastric cancer (gc). (researchgate.net)
  • The overarching aim of the Epigenetics common cause of gastric cancer, Pan-cancer genoMe and Group (EGE) is to advance the which is the third most common cause tranScriPtoMe analySiS and understanding of the role of epigenetic of cancer-related deaths worldwide. (who.int)
  • The expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, and MUC6 was investigated immunohistochemically in gastric carcinoma (n = 46) in relation to patient clinicopathological features. (bmj.com)
  • Dysplasia of the gastric mucosa and its relation to the precancerous state. (nih.gov)
  • Samloff IM: Cellular localization of group I pepsinogens in human gastric mucosa by immunofluorescence. (karger.com)
  • Gastric emptying of water in obese pregnant women at term. (rush.edu)
  • Geliebter A, Westreich S, Gage D: Gastric distention by balloon and test-meal intake in obese and lean subjects. (karger.com)
  • Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. (pasteur.fr)
  • This study investigated the correlations between aberrant expression of mucins in gastric carcinoma and patient clinicopathological features. (bmj.com)
  • The pursestring at the proximal margin was secured with a clip to the gastric mucosa. (sages.org)
  • Free acidity, total acidity, basal acid output, serum pepsinogen I, gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and gastrin were significantly lower in group II, whereas serum gastrin and somatostatin staining were significantly higher. (who.int)
  • Uvnas B: The part played by the pyloric region in the cephalic phase of gastric secretion. (karger.com)
  • Fumarola L , Monno R , Ierardi E , Rizzo G , Giannelli G , Lalle M , Anisakis pegreffii etiological agent of gastric infections in two Italian women. (cdc.gov)