The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12 (cyanocobalamin). Deficiency of intrinsic factor leads to VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY and ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.
L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
Retrograde flow of duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the STOMACH.
Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.
A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B 12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.
A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.
A basic aluminum complex of sulfated sucrose.
A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that produces the familiar grapefruit. There is evidence that grapefruit inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A4, resulting in delayed metabolism and higher blood levels of a variety of drugs.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist with low toxicity that inhibits gastric acid secretion. The drug is used for the treatment of duodenal ulcers.
A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.
Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
Tracheal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, and integrity of the trachea, including inflammation, infection, trauma, tumors, and congenital abnormalities, which can lead to symptoms such as cough, wheezing, difficulty breathing, and stridor.
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
A diagnostic test in which vitamin B12 is tagged with radioactive cobalt, taken orally, and gastrointestinal absorption is determined via measurement of the amount of radioactivity in a 24-hour urine collection.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nitroso compounds are organic or inorganic substances containing the nitroso functional group, which consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom through a single covalent bond, often abbreviated as -NO.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into 3-ring PHENANTHRENES.
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.

Influence of a new antiulcer agent, ammonium 7-oxobicyclo (2, 2, 1) hept-5-ene-3-carbamoyl-2-carboxylate (KF-392) on gastric lesions and gastric mucosal barrier in rats. (1/999)

Antiulcer effects of KF-392 were studied in several experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. It was found that KF-392 given orally at 1.0 to 5.0 mg/kg had a marked suppression on the developments of Shay ulcer as well as the aspirin-, stress-, and reserpine-induced gastric lesions. The influence of KF-392 on gastric mucosal barrier was also studied. A back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa and a fall of transmucosal potential difference were induced with KF-392 given orally at the above mentioned doses. KF-392 given s.c. at 5.0 mg/kg showed no inhibition of Shay ulcer and no induction of back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa.  (+info)

Metabolism and disposition of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanone (NNK) in rhesus monkeys. (2/999)

Metabolism and disposition of the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a potent rodent lung carcinogen, were studied in rhesus monkeys. In three males receiving a single i.v. dose of [5-3H]NNK (0.72 mCi; 4.6-9.8 microg/kg), urine was collected for 10 days. Within the first 24 h, 86.0 +/- 0.7% of the dose was excreted. NNK-derived radioactivity was still detectable in urine 10 days after dosing (total excretion, 92.7 +/- 0.7%). Decay of urinary radioactivity was biexponential with half-lives of 1.7 and 42 h. Metabolite patterns in urine from the first 6 h closely resembled those reported previously for patas monkeys; end products of metabolic NNK activation represented more than 50% of total radioactivity. At later time points, the pattern shifted in favor of NNK detoxification products (60-70% of total radioactivity in urine), mainly 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its O-glucuronide conjugates. One female rhesus monkey received a single i.v. dose of [5-3H]NNK (1.72 mCi; 28.4 microg/kg) under isoflurane anesthesia; biliary excretion over 6 h (0.6% of the dose) was 10 times less than predicted by our previously reported rat model. No preferential excretion of NNAL glucuronide was observed in monkey bile. Collectively, these results suggest that the rhesus monkey could be a useful model for NNK metabolism and disposition in humans.  (+info)

Proximal gastric vagotomy: effects of two operative techniques on clinical and gastric secretory results. (3/999)

PGV performed in 39 patients by separating the lesser omentum from the stomach beginning 6 or 7 cm proximal to the pylorus and skeletonizing the distal 1 to 2 cm of esophagus was followed by 15.4% of proven and 10.2 of suspected recurrent ulcers. Insulin tests were done during the first 3 months postoperatively on 31 of the patients, including the 6 with proven and the 4 with suspected recurrent ulcers. The peak acid output to insulin minus tha basal acid output (PAOI-BAO) was less than 5 mEq/hr in 16 cases (52%) and from 5 to 25 mEq/hr in the remaining 15 cases. In 6 patients with proven recurrent ulcer, PAOI-BAO averaged 21.9 mEq/hr (range, 11.3 to 41.8); in the 4 patients with suspected recurrence, 9.5 (range, 4.4 to 11.8). The operative technique was changed in one respect; the distal 5 to 7.5 cm of the esophagus was skeletonized. In 14 patients, the mean PAOI-BAO +/- S.E. within 3 months of PGV was 1985 +/- 0.7 mEq/hr, and 13 of 14 values were less than 5 mEq/hr. One patient developed recurrent ulcer and required re-operation; this patient's value for PAO-BAO was 1.8 mEq/hr. The results show quantitatively that great differences in the completeness of PGV result from differences in the periesophageal dissection and emphasize its importance if optimal results are to be obtained and, especially, if the efficacy of the operation is to be judged.  (+info)

Systemic and local immune responses against Helicobacter pylori urease in patients with chronic gastritis: distinct IgA and IgG productive sites. (4/999)

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori urease is a major target for immune responses among various bacterial components in H pylori infected patients. AIMS: To analyse the relation between systemic and local humoral immune responses to H pylori urease and grades of chronic gastritis. PATIENTS: Seventy five patients with chronic gastritis associated with H pylori infection were classified into three groups (grade I, superficial gastritis; II, atrophic gastritis, quiescent; or III, atrophic gastritis, active). METHODS: Anti-H pylori urease specific antibodies in the serum, gastric juice, and biopsy specimens were determined by ELISA or western blotting analysis. The sites for H pylori urease and its specific antibody producing B lymphocytes were confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: In the sera of patients with grade I gastritis, weak IgG but relatively strong IgG responses to H pylori urease were observed; dominant strong IgG responses were detected in grade II gastritis. In grade III gastritis, significant IgG and IgA responses were obtained. A similar pattern of IgA and IgG responses was detected in gastric juice and tissue. H pylori urease specific, antibody producing B cells were not found in the gastric mucosa of patients with grade I gastritis despite the presence of such B cells in the duodenal bulb. Specific B cells were observed in the gastric mucosa of patients with grade II and III gastritis with atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Purified H pylori urease, together with localisation of its specific antibody producing B cells, are useful for serological testing and histopathological analysis for determining the stage of chronic gastritis and studying the pathogenesis of H pylori infection.  (+info)

Acute lung injury after instillation of human breast milk into rabbits' lungs: effects of pH and gastric juice. (5/999)

BACKGROUND: The authors compared the lung injury in rabbits that occurred after tracheal instillation of human breast milk (HBM) acidified to pH 1.8 with hydrochloric acid (HCl), HBM at its native pH (7.0), and HBM acidified with gastric juice to pH 1.8 and 3.0. METHODS: The alveolar-to-arterial oxygen tension gradient and dynamic compliance were recorded before and hourly for 4 h after intratracheal instillation of 0.8 ml/kg HBM acidified with HCI (pH 1.8), HBM at its native pH (7.0), HBM acidified with gastric juice (pH 1.8 or 3.0), or 5% dextrose solution acidified with gastric juice (pH 1.8) as a control in 30 adult rabbits. The circulating neutrophil count and phagocyte oxidant activity were determined before and 1 and 4 h after instillation. RESULTS: The alveolar-to-arterial oxygen tension gradient increased and dynamic compliance decreased significantly in all groups after instillation of HBM compared with baseline values and those in the control group. The severity of the lung injury after instillation of HBM at all pH values (1.8, 3.0, and 7.0) and after acidification with gastric juice or HCl was similar. The circulating neutrophil count increased steadily for 4 h after instillation (P < 0.013), whereas spontaneous phagocyte oxidant burst activity peaked at 1 h (P < 0.007) and returned to baseline by 4 h after instillation. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of the lung injury after tracheal instillation of 0.8 ml/kg HBM in rabbits is similar at pH values between 1.8 and 7.0 after acidification with HCl or gastric juice. Tracheal instillation of HBM increases the circulating neutrophil count and phagocyte oxidant burst activity.  (+info)

Digestion and absorption of bovine milk xanthine oxidase and its role as an aldehyde oxidase. (6/999)

The effects of acidic and intestinal proteolytic environments on bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) activity were determined in order to evaluate the extent to which this enzyme was absorbed in biologically active form. The inhibition of XO by folic acid and the relative affinities of XO for the oxidation of palmitaldehyde, stearaldehyde, and xanthine were compared. The effects of acid and gastric juice on XO activity were measured by incubating purified enzyme, and non-purified enzyme (milk), in buffers ranging in pH from 2 to 9. Fresh gastric juice was also incubated with milk. Increasing amounts of the enzyme were inactivated as the pH of the incubation mixture was reduced below pH 6.5. Below pH 3.5, the enzyme was completely inactivated. Gastric juice, pH juice incubated with milk. Milk XO activity was reduced 36% when mild was incubated with an equal volume of gastric juice. Homogenized milk had 59% less XO activity compared with raw molk. Fresh raw milk XO, homogenized milk XO, and purified XO were equally susceptible to inactivation by acid or gastric juice. After incubation of milk with gastric juice, or gastric juice followed by pancreatin, XO activity was associated with a macromolecule of 300,000 daltons molecular weight and subunits containg activity were not found. It was estimated that 0.00008% of the XO in the intestine was absorbed. Both folic acid and allopurinol inhibited XO activity in vitro. Allopurinol was 3.5 times more potent an inhibitor than folic acid. A large excess of dietary folic acid did not reduce rat liver or intestinal XO activity in vivo. XO had a much greater affinity for xanthine than for palmitaldehyde or stearaldehyde substrates. It was estimated that of 100 mg of XO in fresh raw milk, 41 mg remained after homogenization, 27 mg entered the intestine and only 20 ng were absorbed as intact enzyme.  (+info)

Does Helicobacter pylori infection contribute to gastroesophageal reflux disease? (7/999)

Helicobacter pylori organisms that infect the stomach conceivably could contribute to esophageal inflammation in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) through any of at least three potential mechanisms: 1) by causing an increase in gastric acid secretion; 2) by spreading to infect the gastric-type columnar epithelium that occasionally can line the distal esophagus; and/or 3) by secreting noxious bacterial products into the gastric juice. Studies regarding these potential mechanisms are discussed in this report. Most investigations have found no apparent association between H. pylori infection and reflux esophagitis. Presently, infection with H. pylori does not appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of GERD.  (+info)

Detection of anti-VacA antibody responses in serum and gastric juice samples using type s1/m1 and s2/m2 Helicobacter pylori VacA antigens. (8/999)

Several different families of vacuolating toxin (vacA) alleles are present in Helicobacter pylori, and they encode products with differing functional activities. H. pylori strains containing certain types of vacA alleles have been associated with an increased risk for peptic ulcer disease. In this study, we tested serum samples and gastric juice from 19 H. pylori-negative and 39 H. pylori-positive patients for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactivity with two different types of VacA antigens (types s1/m1 and s2/m2), which were purified from H. pylori 60190 and 86-338, respectively. Both antigens were recognized better by serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) from H. pylori-positive persons than by serum IgG from H. pylori-negative persons (P < 0.01). The s1/m1 VacA antigen was better recognized by sera from patients carrying vacA type s1/m1 strains than by sera from patients carrying vacA type s2/m2 or s1/m2 strains (P < 0.01). Conversely, the s2/m2 VacA antigen was better recognized by sera from patients carrying type s2/m2 or s1/m2 strains (P = 0.03). Serum IgG anti-VacA antibodies were present more frequently in patients carrying type s1/m1 strains than in other H. pylori-positive patients (P = 0.0002). In addition, the highest levels of IgA anti-VacA antibodies were detected in the gastric juice of patients carrying type s1/m1 strains. These data indicate that different VacA isoforms have distinct antigenic properties and that multiple forms of VacA elicit antibody responses in H. pylori-positive humans.  (+info)

Gastric juice is a digestive fluid that is produced in the stomach. It is composed of several enzymes, including pepsin, which helps to break down proteins, and gastric amylase, which begins the digestion of carbohydrates. Gastric juice also contains hydrochloric acid, which creates a low pH environment in the stomach that is necessary for the activation of pepsin and the digestion of food. Additionally, gastric juice contains mucus, which helps to protect the lining of the stomach from the damaging effects of the hydrochloric acid. The production of gastric juice is controlled by hormones and the autonomic nervous system.

The Intrinsic Factor is a glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells in the stomach lining. It plays an essential role in the absorption of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) in the small intestine. After binding with vitamin B12, the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex moves through the digestive tract and gets absorbed in the ileum region of the small intestine. Deficiency in Intrinsic Factor can lead to Vitamin B12 deficiency disorders like pernicious anemia.

Tetragastrin is not a medical condition but a synthetic peptide hormone that is used in medical research and diagnostic tests. It is composed of four amino acids (glutamic acid, proline, tryptophan, and methionine) and is similar to the natural hormone gastrin, which is produced by the stomach and helps regulate digestion.

Tetragastrin is used in medical research to study the function of the stomach and intestines, and it is also used in diagnostic tests to stimulate the release of gastric acid from the stomach. This can help diagnose conditions such as pernicious anemia, a condition in which the body cannot absorb vitamin B12 due to a lack of intrinsic factor, a protein produced by the stomach.

In summary, Tetragastrin is a synthetic hormone that mimics the function of natural gastrin and is used for research and diagnostic purposes related to the digestive system.

Gastric mucosa refers to the innermost lining of the stomach, which is in contact with the gastric lumen. It is a specialized mucous membrane that consists of epithelial cells, lamina propria, and a thin layer of smooth muscle. The surface epithelium is primarily made up of mucus-secreting cells (goblet cells) and parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, and chief cells, which produce pepsinogen.

The gastric mucosa has several important functions, including protection against self-digestion by the stomach's own digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The mucus layer secreted by the epithelial cells forms a physical barrier that prevents the acidic contents of the stomach from damaging the underlying tissues. Additionally, the bicarbonate ions secreted by the surface epithelial cells help neutralize the acidity in the immediate vicinity of the mucosa.

The gastric mucosa is also responsible for the initial digestion of food through the action of hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. The intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells plays a crucial role in the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine.

The gastric mucosa is constantly exposed to potential damage from various factors, including acid, pepsin, and other digestive enzymes, as well as mechanical stress due to muscle contractions during digestion. To maintain its integrity, the gastric mucosa has a remarkable capacity for self-repair and regeneration. However, chronic exposure to noxious stimuli or certain medical conditions can lead to inflammation, erosions, ulcers, or even cancer of the gastric mucosa.

Pepsin A is defined as a digestive enzyme that is primarily secreted by the chief cells in the stomach's fundic glands. It plays a crucial role in protein catabolism, helping to break down food proteins into smaller peptides during the digestive process. Pepsin A has an optimal pH range of 1.5-2.5 for its enzymatic activity and is activated from its inactive precursor, pepsinogen, upon exposure to acidic conditions in the stomach.

Duodenogastric reflux (DGR) is a medical condition in which the contents of the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, flow backward into the stomach. This occurs when the pyloric sphincter, a muscle that separates the stomach and duodenum, fails to function properly, allowing the reflux of duodenal juice into the stomach.

Duodenogastric refluxate typically contains bile acids, digestive enzymes, and other stomach-irritating substances. Chronic DGR can lead to gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), ulcers, and other gastrointestinal complications. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and indigestion. Treatment usually involves medications that reduce acid production or neutralize stomach acid, as well as lifestyle modifications to minimize reflux triggers.

Gastric acidity determination is a medical test used to measure the amount of acid in the stomach. This test is often performed to diagnose or monitor conditions such as gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The test involves measuring the pH level of the stomach contents using a thin, flexible tube called a catheter that is passed through the nose and down into the stomach. In some cases, a small sample of stomach fluid may also be collected for further testing.

The normal range for gastric acidity is typically considered to be a pH level below 4. A higher pH level may indicate that the stomach is producing too little acid, while a lower pH level may suggest that it is producing too much. Based on the results of the test, healthcare providers can develop an appropriate treatment plan for the underlying condition causing abnormal gastric acidity.

Pernicious anemia is a specific type of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia that is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor, a protein made in the stomach that is needed to absorb vitamin B12. The absence of intrinsic factor leads to poor absorption of vitamin B12 from food and results in its deficiency.

Vitamin B12 is essential for the production of healthy red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. Without enough vitamin B12, the body cannot produce enough red blood cells, leading to anemia. Pernicious anemia typically develops slowly over several years and can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and a decreased appetite.

Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disorder, which means that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the stomach lining, leading to a loss of intrinsic factor production. It is more common in older adults, particularly those over 60 years old, and can also be associated with other autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Addison's disease.

Treatment for pernicious anemia typically involves vitamin B12 replacement therapy, either through oral supplements or injections of the vitamin. In some cases, dietary changes may also be recommended to ensure adequate intake of vitamin B12-rich foods such as meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products.

In anatomical terms, the stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. It is part of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a crucial role in digestion. The stomach's primary functions include storing food, mixing it with digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid to break down proteins, and slowly emptying the partially digested food into the small intestine for further absorption of nutrients.

The stomach is divided into several regions, including the cardia (the area nearest the esophagus), the fundus (the upper portion on the left side), the body (the main central part), and the pylorus (the narrowed region leading to the small intestine). The inner lining of the stomach, called the mucosa, is protected by a layer of mucus that prevents the digestive juices from damaging the stomach tissue itself.

In medical contexts, various conditions can affect the stomach, such as gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the stomach or duodenum), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and stomach cancer. Symptoms related to the stomach may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and difficulty swallowing.

A stomach ulcer, also known as a gastric ulcer, is a sore that forms in the lining of the stomach. It's caused by a breakdown in the mucous layer that protects the stomach from digestive juices, allowing acid to come into contact with the stomach lining and cause an ulcer. The most common causes are bacterial infection (usually by Helicobacter pylori) and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Stomach ulcers may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, heartburn, and nausea. If left untreated, they can lead to more serious complications like internal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

Pentagastrin is a synthetic polypeptide hormone that stimulates the release of gastrin and hydrochloric acid from the stomach. It is used diagnostically to test for conditions such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare disorder in which tumors in the pancreas or duodenum produce excessive amounts of gastrin, leading to severe ulcers and other digestive problems.

Pentagastrin is typically administered intravenously, and its effects are monitored through blood tests that measure gastric acid secretion. It is a potent stimulant of gastric acid production, and its use is limited to diagnostic purposes due to the risk of adverse effects such as nausea, flushing, and increased heart rate.

A duodenal ulcer is a type of peptic ulcer that develops in the lining of the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum. It is characterized by a break in the mucosal layer of the duodinal wall, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Duodenal ulcers are often caused by an imbalance between digestive acid and mucus production, which can be exacerbated by factors such as bacterial infection (commonly with Helicobacter pylori), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, and stress. Symptoms may include gnawing or burning abdominal pain, often occurring a few hours after meals or during the night, bloating, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Complications can be severe, including bleeding, perforation, and obstruction of the duodenum. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy, and treatment may include antibiotics (if H. pylori infection is present), acid-suppressing medications, lifestyle modifications, and potentially surgery in severe cases.

Stomach diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the stomach, a muscular sac located in the upper part of the abdomen and is responsible for storing and digesting food. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, indigestion, loss of appetite, and bloating. Some common stomach diseases include:

1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining that can cause pain, irritation, and ulcers.
2. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and damage to the esophageal lining.
3. Peptic ulcers: Open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infections or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. Stomach cancer: Abnormal growth of cancerous cells in the stomach, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
5. Gastroparesis: A condition where the stomach muscles are weakened or paralyzed, leading to difficulty digesting food and emptying the stomach.
6. Functional dyspepsia: A chronic disorder characterized by symptoms such as pain, bloating, and fullness in the upper abdomen, without any identifiable cause.
7. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A condition where eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, accumulate in the esophagus, causing inflammation and difficulty swallowing.
8. Stomal stenosis: Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and small intestine, often caused by scar tissue or surgical complications.
9. Hiatal hernia: A condition where a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the chest cavity, causing symptoms such as heartburn and difficulty swallowing.

These are just a few examples of stomach diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the stomach. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing these conditions and preventing complications.

Cobalt isotopes are variants of the chemical element Cobalt (Co) that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. This results in the different isotopes having slightly different masses and varying levels of stability.

The most naturally occurring stable cobalt isotope is Co-59, which contains 27 neutrons in its nucleus. However, there are also several radioactive isotopes of cobalt, including Co-60, which is a commonly used medical and industrial radioisotope.

Co-60 has 30 neutrons in its nucleus and undergoes beta decay, emitting gamma rays and becoming Nickel-60. It has a half-life of approximately 5.27 years, making it useful for a variety of applications, including cancer treatment, industrial radiography, and sterilization of medical equipment.

Other radioactive isotopes of cobalt include Co-57, which has a half-life of 271.8 days and is used in medical imaging, and Co-56, which has a half-life of just 77.2 seconds and is used in research.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Gastric acid, also known as stomach acid, is a digestive fluid produced in the stomach. It's primarily composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl). The pH of gastric acid is typically between 1.5 and 3.5, making it a strong acid that helps to break down food by denaturing proteins and activating digestive enzymes.

The production of gastric acid is regulated by the enteric nervous system and several hormones. The primary function of gastric acid is to initiate protein digestion, activate pepsinogen into the active enzyme pepsin, and kill most ingested microorganisms. However, an excess or deficiency in gastric acid secretion can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders such as gastritis, ulcers, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Achlorhydria is a medical condition characterized by the absence or near-absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid is a digestive fluid that helps to break down food, particularly proteins, and also creates an acidic environment that prevents harmful bacteria from growing in the stomach.

Achlorhydria can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, autoimmune disorders, aging, or surgical removal of the stomach. Symptoms of achlorhydria may include indigestion, bloating, abdominal pain, and malabsorption of nutrients. If left untreated, it can lead to complications such as anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, and increased risk of gastrointestinal infections.

It is important to note that achlorhydria can be diagnosed through various tests, including a gastric acid analysis or a pH test. Treatment for achlorhydria may involve supplementing with hydrochloric acid or other digestive enzymes, modifying the diet, and addressing any underlying conditions.

Gastritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and stress.

Gastritis can present with a range of symptoms, such as abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and bloating. In some cases, gastritis may not cause any noticeable symptoms. Depending on the severity and duration of inflammation, gastritis can lead to complications like stomach ulcers or even stomach cancer if left untreated.

There are two main types of gastritis: acute and chronic. Acute gastritis develops suddenly and may last for a short period, while chronic gastritis persists over time, often leading to atrophy of the stomach lining. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy and tissue biopsy to assess the extent of inflammation and rule out other potential causes of symptoms. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, or lifestyle modifications.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately 50% of the global population. It is closely associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood and can persist for life if not treated. The bacterium's spiral shape and flagella allow it to penetrate the mucus layer and adhere to the gastric epithelium, where it releases virulence factors that cause inflammation and tissue damage. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection can be made through various tests, including urea breath test, stool antigen test, or histological examination of a gastric biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and promote healing of the stomach lining.

Helicobacter infections are caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which colonizes the stomach lining and is associated with various gastrointestinal diseases. The infection can lead to chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric cancer.

The spiral-shaped H. pylori bacteria are able to survive in the harsh acidic environment of the stomach by producing urease, an enzyme that neutralizes gastric acid in their immediate vicinity. This allows them to adhere to and colonize the epithelial lining of the stomach, where they can cause inflammation (gastritis) and disrupt the normal functioning of the stomach.

Transmission of H. pylori typically occurs through oral-oral or fecal-oral routes, and infection is more common in developing countries and in populations with lower socioeconomic status. The diagnosis of Helicobacter infections can be confirmed through various tests, including urea breath tests, stool antigen tests, or gastric biopsy with histology and culture. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors to eradicate the bacteria and reduce stomach acidity.

'Citrus sinensis' is the scientific name for the fruit species more commonly known as sweet oranges. These are popular fruits that belong to the Rutaceae family and have originated in Southeast Asia. Sweet oranges are widely cultivated and consumed all over the world, both fresh and as juice. They have a sweet taste and juicy pulp, enclosed in a thick and fragrant orange-colored peel. Some well-known varieties of 'Citrus sinensis' include Navel, Valencia, and Blood oranges.

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is not a substance that is typically found within the human body. It is a strong mineral acid with the chemical formula HCl. In a medical context, it might be mentioned in relation to gastric acid, which helps digest food in the stomach. Gastric acid is composed of hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and sodium chloride dissolved in water. The pH of hydrochloric acid is very low (1-2) due to its high concentration of H+ ions, making it a strong acid. However, it's important to note that the term 'hydrochloric acid' does not directly refer to a component of human bodily fluids or tissues.

Duodenitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine that receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach. The inflammation can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

Duodenitis can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. In some cases, the cause may remain unidentified, leading to a diagnosis of "non-specific duodenitis."

Treatment for duodenitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as eradicating H. pylori infection or discontinuing NSAID use. Acid-suppressing medications and antacids may also be prescribed to alleviate symptoms and promote healing of the duodenal lining. In severe cases, endoscopic procedures or surgery might be necessary to manage complications like bleeding, perforation, or obstruction.

Sucralfate is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called aluminum complexes. It's often used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers, including duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in the prevention of stress-induced mucosal damage in critically ill patients.

Sucralfate works by forming a protective barrier over the ulcer site, which helps to prevent further damage from acid and digestive enzymes. It's not absorbed into the bloodstream, so it acts locally in the gastrointestinal tract. The medical definition of Sucralfate is:

A synthetic basic aluminum salt of sucrose octasulfate, which is used in the treatment of gastro duodenal ulcers and as a protectant against stress-induced mucosal damage in critically ill patients. It exerts its therapeutic effect by forming a complex, adhesive protective coating over ulcerated areas, thereby preventing further erosion from gastric acid and pepsin.

'Citrus paradisi' is the scientific name for a citrus fruit also known as the grapefruit. Grapefruits are a hybrid of pomelo and orange, believed to have originated in Barbados in the 18th century. They are known for their tangy, slightly bitter taste and juicy pulp.

Grapefruits are popular for their nutritional benefits as they are high in vitamin C, fiber, and antioxidants like lycopene and flavonoids. Some studies suggest that consuming grapefruit may help with weight loss, reduce the risk of certain cancers, and improve heart health. However, it's important to note that grapefruits can interact with certain medications, so it's always best to consult with a healthcare provider before adding them to your diet if you are taking medication.

Nizatidine is a histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonist, which is a type of medication that works by reducing the amount of acid produced by the stomach. It is used to treat and prevent ulcers in the stomach and intestines, and to manage conditions where the stomach produces too much acid, such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Nizatidine is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and other conditions in which acid backs up from the stomach into the esophagus, causing heartburn.

The medical definition of Nizatidine is: "A synthetic histamine H2-receptor antagonist that is used in the treatment of gastric ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease. It is also used to manage Zollinger-Ellison syndrome."

Aspiration pneumonia is a type of pneumonia that occurs when foreign materials such as food, liquid, or vomit enter the lungs, resulting in inflammation or infection. It typically happens when a person inhales these materials involuntarily due to impaired swallowing mechanisms, which can be caused by various conditions such as stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, or general anesthesia. The inhalation of foreign materials can cause bacterial growth in the lungs, leading to symptoms like cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. Aspiration pneumonia can be a serious medical condition, particularly in older adults or individuals with weakened immune systems, and may require hospitalization and antibiotic treatment.

Pepstatins are a group of naturally occurring cyclic peptides that inhibit aspartic proteases, a type of enzyme that breaks down proteins. They are isolated from various actinomycete species of Streptomyces and Actinosynnema. Pepstatins are often used in laboratory research to study the function of aspartic proteases and as tools to probe the mechanism of action of these enzymes. In addition, pepstatins have been explored for their potential therapeutic use in various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and cardiovascular disease. However, they have not yet been approved for clinical use.

Anti-ulcer agents are a class of medications that are used to treat and prevent ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. These medications work by reducing the production of stomach acid, neutralizing stomach acid, or protecting the lining of the stomach and duodenum from damage caused by stomach acid.

There are several types of anti-ulcer agents, including:

1. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): These medications block the action of proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. PPIs include drugs such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole.
2. H-2 receptor antagonists: These medications block the action of histamine on the H-2 receptors in the stomach, reducing the production of stomach acid. Examples include ranitidine, famotidine, and cimetidine.
3. Antacids: These medications neutralize stomach acid and provide quick relief from symptoms such as heartburn and indigestion. Common antacids include calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide.
4. Protective agents: These medications form a barrier between the stomach lining and stomach acid, protecting the lining from damage. Examples include sucralfate and misoprostol.

Anti-ulcer agents are used to treat conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. It is important to take these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as they can have side effects and interactions with other medications.

The pylorus is the lower, narrow part of the stomach that connects to the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). It consists of the pyloric canal, which is a short muscular tube, and the pyloric sphincter, a circular muscle that controls the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum. The pylorus regulates the entry of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine by adjusting the size and frequency of the muscular contractions that push the chyme through the pyloric sphincter. This process helps in further digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.

A medical definition of an ulcer is:

A lesion on the skin or mucous membrane characterized by disintegration of surface epithelium, inflammation, and is associated with the loss of substance below the normal lining. Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers are types of peptic ulcers that occur in the gastrointestinal tract.

Another type of ulcer is a venous ulcer, which occurs when there is reduced blood flow from vein insufficiency, usually in the lower leg. This can cause skin damage and lead to an open sore or ulcer.

There are other types of ulcers as well, including decubitus ulcers (also known as pressure sores or bedsores), which are caused by prolonged pressure on the skin.

Pepsinogen A is the inactive precursor form of the enzyme pepsin, which is produced in the stomach chief cells. Once exposed to acidic environment in the stomach, pepsinogen A is converted into its active form, pepsin. Pepsin plays a crucial role in digestion by breaking down proteins into smaller peptides. An elevated level of pepsinogen A in the blood may indicate damage to the stomach lining, such as that seen in gastritis or gastric cancer.

Bile reflux is a condition in which bile flows backward from the small intestine into the stomach and sometimes into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, nausea, vomiting a greenish-yellow fluid (bile), and abdominal pain. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps to break down fats in the small intestine. Normally, a muscle called the sphincter of Oddi prevents bile from flowing backward into the stomach. However, if this muscle becomes weak or damaged, bile reflux can occur.

Bile reflux is different from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which occurs when stomach acid flows backward into the esophagus. Although both conditions can cause similar symptoms, such as heartburn and regurgitation, they require different treatments. Bile reflux can increase the risk of complications such as inflammation of the stomach lining (gastritis), ulcers, and cancer of the esophagus. If left untreated, bile reflux can lead to serious health problems, so it is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms.

Secretory rate refers to the amount or volume of a secretion produced by a gland or an organ over a given period of time. It is a measure of the productivity or activity level of the secreting structure. The secretory rate can be quantified for various bodily fluids, such as saliva, sweat, digestive enzymes, hormones, or milk, depending on the context and the specific gland or organ being studied.

In clinical settings, measuring the secretory rate might involve collecting and analyzing samples over a certain duration to estimate the production rate of the substance in question. This information can be helpful in diagnosing conditions related to impaired secretion, monitoring treatment responses, or understanding the physiological adaptations of the body under different circumstances.

Tracheal diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the trachea, also known as the windpipe. The trachea is a tube-like structure made up of rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which extends from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (airways leading to the lungs). Its primary function is to allow the passage of air to and from the lungs.

Tracheal diseases can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, often caused by viral or bacterial infections.
2. Tracheal stenosis: Narrowing of the trachea due to scarring, inflammation, or compression from nearby structures such as tumors or goiters.
3. Tracheomalacia: Weakening and collapse of the tracheal walls, often seen in newborns and young children but can also occur in adults due to factors like chronic cough, aging, or connective tissue disorders.
4. Tracheoesophageal fistula: An abnormal connection between the trachea and the esophagus, which can lead to respiratory complications and difficulty swallowing.
5. Tracheal tumors: Benign or malignant growths that develop within the trachea, obstructing airflow and potentially leading to more severe respiratory issues.
6. Tracheobronchial injury: Damage to the trachea and bronchi, often caused by trauma such as blunt force or penetrating injuries.
7. Congenital tracheal abnormalities: Structural defects present at birth, including complete tracheal rings, which can cause narrowing or collapse of the airway.

Symptoms of tracheal diseases may include cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. Treatment options depend on the specific condition and its severity but may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to alleviate symptoms and improve respiratory function.

A food-drug interaction is a reaction that occurs when the pharmacological effects of a drug are altered by concurrently consuming a certain food or beverage. This interaction can result in an enhanced or reduced drug effect, and it may change the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of the drug.

Some food-drug interactions can lead to increased side effects, decreased effectiveness of the medication, or even toxicity. For example, consuming grapefruit juice with certain medications such as statins, calcium channel blockers, and benzodiazepines can increase their blood levels and result in adverse reactions.

It is essential to be aware of potential food-drug interactions and follow the recommended guidelines for medication use, including any specific dietary restrictions or recommendations provided by healthcare professionals.

Gastric mucins refer to the mucin proteins that are produced and secreted by the mucus-secreting cells in the stomach lining, also known as gastric mucosa. These mucins are part of the gastric mucus layer that coats and protects the stomach from damage caused by digestive acids and enzymes, as well as from physical and chemical injuries.

Gastric mucins have a complex structure and are composed of large glycoprotein molecules that contain both protein and carbohydrate components. They form a gel-like substance that provides a physical barrier between the stomach lining and the gastric juices, preventing acid and enzymes from damaging the underlying tissues.

There are several types of gastric mucins, including MUC5AC and MUC6, which have different structures and functions. MUC5AC is the predominant mucin in the stomach and is produced by surface mucous cells, while MUC6 is produced by deeper glandular cells.

Abnormalities in gastric mucin production or composition can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, including gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer.

Histamine H2 antagonists, also known as H2 blockers, are a class of medications that work by blocking the action of histamine on the H2 receptors in the stomach. Histamine is a chemical that is released by the body during an allergic reaction and can also be released by certain cells in the stomach in response to food or other stimuli. When histamine binds to the H2 receptors in the stomach, it triggers the release of acid. By blocking the action of histamine on these receptors, H2 antagonists reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ulcers. Examples of H2 antagonists include ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), and cimetidine (Tagamet).

Duodenal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. Here are some examples of duodenal diseases:

1. Duodenitis: This is inflammation of the duodenum, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating. Duodenitis can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or chronic inflammation due to conditions like Crohn's disease.
2. Peptic ulcers: These are sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum, usually as a result of infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or long-term use of NSAIDs. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, bloating, and heartburn.
3. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the duodenum. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, weight loss, and blood in the stool.
4. Celiac disease: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the lining of the small intestine in response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. This can lead to inflammation and damage to the duodenum.
5. Duodenal diverticulosis: This is a condition in which small pouches form in the lining of the duodenum. While many people with duodenal diverticulosis do not experience symptoms, some may develop complications such as inflammation or infection.
6. Duodenal atresia: This is a congenital condition in which the duodenum does not form properly, leading to blockage of the intestine. This can cause symptoms such as vomiting and difficulty feeding in newborns.

The pyloric antrum is the distal part of the stomach, which is the last portion that precedes the pylorus and the beginning of the duodenum. It is a thickened, muscular area responsible for grinding and mixing food with gastric juices during digestion. The pyloric antrum also helps regulate the passage of chyme (partially digested food) into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter, which controls the opening and closing of the pylorus. This region is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract's motor functions and overall digestive process.

Saliva is a complex mixture of primarily water, but also electrolytes, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and various other substances. It is produced by the salivary glands located in the mouth. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining oral health by moistening the mouth, helping to digest food, and protecting the teeth from decay by neutralizing acids produced by bacteria.

The medical definition of saliva can be stated as:

"A clear, watery, slightly alkaline fluid secreted by the salivary glands, consisting mainly of water, with small amounts of electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), mucus, and antibacterial compounds. Saliva aids in digestion, lubrication of oral tissues, and provides an oral barrier against microorganisms."

The ABO blood group system is a classification system for human blood based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). The system also includes the Rh factor, which is a separate protein found on the surface of some RBCs.

In the ABO system, there are four main blood groups: A, B, AB, and O. These groups are determined by the type of antigens present on the surface of the RBCs. Group A individuals have A antigens on their RBCs, group B individuals have B antigens, group AB individuals have both A and B antigens, and group O individuals have neither A nor B antigens on their RBCs.

In addition to the antigens on the surface of RBCs, the ABO system also involves the presence of antibodies in the plasma. Individuals with type A blood have anti-B antibodies in their plasma, those with type B blood have anti-A antibodies, those with type AB blood have neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies, and those with type O blood have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies.

The ABO blood group system is important in blood transfusions and organ transplantation because of the potential for an immune response if there is a mismatch between the antigens on the donor's RBCs and the recipient's plasma antibodies. For example, if a type A individual receives a transfusion of type B blood, their anti-B antibodies will attack and destroy the donated RBCs, potentially causing a serious or life-threatening reaction.

It is important to note that there are many other blood group systems in addition to the ABO system, but the ABO system is one of the most well-known and clinically significant.

Metaplasia is a term used in pathology to describe the replacement of one differentiated cell type with another differentiated cell type within a tissue or organ. It is an adaptive response of epithelial cells to chronic irritation, inflammation, or injury and can be reversible if the damaging stimulus is removed. Metaplastic changes are often associated with an increased risk of cancer development in the affected area.

For example, in the case of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), chronic exposure to stomach acid can lead to metaplasia of the esophageal squamous epithelium into columnar epithelium, a condition known as Barrett's esophagus. This metaplastic change is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma.

A peptic ulcer is a sore or erosion in the lining of your stomach and the first part of your small intestine (duodenum). The most common causes of peptic ulcers are bacterial infection and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen.

The symptoms of a peptic ulcer include abdominal pain, often in the upper middle part of your abdomen, which can be dull, sharp, or burning and may come and go for several days or weeks. Other symptoms can include bloating, burping, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Severe ulcers can cause bleeding in the digestive tract, which can lead to anemia, black stools, or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

If left untreated, peptic ulcers can result in serious complications such as perforation (a hole through the wall of the stomach or duodenum), obstruction (blockage of the digestive tract), and bleeding. Treatment for peptic ulcers typically involves medications to reduce acid production, neutralize stomach acid, and kill the bacteria causing the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be required.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

Aromatic amino acids are a specific type of amino acids that contain an aromatic ring in their side chain. The three aromatic amino acids are phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Trp). These amino acids play important roles in various biological processes, including protein structure and function, neurotransmission, and enzyme catalysis.

The aromatic ring in these amino acids is composed of a planar six-membered carbon ring that contains alternating double bonds. This structure gives the side chains unique chemical properties, such as their ability to absorb ultraviolet light and participate in stacking interactions with other aromatic residues. These interactions can contribute to the stability and function of proteins and other biological molecules.

It's worth noting that while most amino acids are classified as either "hydrophobic" or "hydrophilic," depending on their chemical properties, aromatic amino acids exhibit characteristics of both groups. They can form hydrogen bonds with polar residues and also engage in hydrophobic interactions with nonpolar residues, making them versatile building blocks for protein structure and function.

Gastrins are a group of hormones that are produced by G cells in the stomach lining. These hormones play an essential role in regulating gastric acid secretion and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most well-known gastrin is known as "gastrin-17," which is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.

Gastrins are stored in secretory granules within G cells, and their release is triggered by several factors, including the presence of food in the stomach, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and vagus nerve stimulation. Once released, gastrins bind to specific receptors on parietal cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of enzymes that promote hydrochloric acid secretion.

Abnormalities in gastrin production can lead to several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastrinomas (tumors that produce excessive amounts of gastrin), which can cause severe gastric acid hypersecretion and ulcers. Conversely, a deficiency in gastrin production can result in hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid levels) and impaired digestion.

Urease is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants. In medicine, urease is often associated with certain bacterial infections, such as those caused by Helicobacter pylori, which can produce large amounts of this enzyme. The presence of urease in these infections can lead to increased ammonia production, contributing to the development of gastritis and peptic ulcers.

Omeprazole is defined as a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastric ulcers, and other conditions where reducing stomach acid is desired. It works by blocking the action of the proton pumps in the stomach, which are responsible for producing stomach acid. By inhibiting these pumps, omeprazole reduces the amount of acid produced in the stomach, providing relief from symptoms such as heartburn and pain caused by excess stomach acid.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and oral suspension, and is typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the condition being treated. As with any medication, omeprazole should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and its potential side effects and interactions with other medications should be carefully considered before use.

Ascorbic acid is the chemical name for Vitamin C. It is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. Ascorbic acid is required for the synthesis of collagen, a protein that plays a role in the structure of bones, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. It also functions as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

Ascorbic acid cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Good food sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers, broccoli, and spinach.

In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to treat or prevent vitamin C deficiency and related conditions, such as scurvy. It may also be used in the treatment of various other health conditions, including common cold, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, although its effectiveness for these uses is still a matter of scientific debate.

"Vaccinium macrocarpon" is the scientific name for the American cranberry, a type of evergreen shrub that produces berries which are commonly used in food and also have potential health benefits. The active ingredients in cranberries, including proanthocyanidins, are thought to help prevent urinary tract infections by preventing bacteria from adhering to the walls of the urinary tract. However, it is important to note that consuming cranberry products should not be considered a substitute for medical treatment for UTIs or any other health conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that work to reduce gastric acid production by blocking the action of proton pumps in the parietal cells of the stomach. These drugs are commonly used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, and other conditions where excessive stomach acid is a problem.

PPIs include several different medications such as omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, and esomeprazole. They are usually taken orally, but some PPIs are also available in intravenous (IV) form for hospital use.

By inhibiting the action of proton pumps, PPIs reduce the amount of acid produced in the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. They are generally considered safe and effective when used as directed, but long-term use may increase the risk of certain side effects, including bone fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency, and Clostridium difficile infection.

Gastroscopy is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a gastroscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end, through the mouth and into the digestive tract. The gastroscope allows the doctor to visually examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) for any abnormalities such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors.

The procedure is usually performed under sedation to minimize discomfort, and it typically takes only a few minutes to complete. Gastroscopy can help diagnose various conditions, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastritis, stomach ulcers, and Barrett's esophagus. It can also be used to take tissue samples for biopsy or to treat certain conditions, such as bleeding or the removal of polyps.

Amoxicillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillin. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which is necessary for their growth and survival. By disrupting this process, amoxicillin can kill bacteria and help to clear up infections.

Amoxicillin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, and urinary tract infections. It is available as a tablet, capsule, chewable tablet, or liquid suspension, and is typically taken two to three times a day.

Like all antibiotics, amoxicillin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections more difficult to treat in the future.

The Schilling test is a medical procedure that was used to diagnose pernicious anemia and malabsorption of vitamin B12. The test measures the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12 from food or supplements.

In the test, the patient is given a small amount of radioactive vitamin B12 to swallow. After a set period of time, a urine sample is collected and measured for the amount of radioactivity present. If the body has properly absorbed the vitamin B12, it will be excreted in the urine.

If the test shows that the patient is not absorbing enough vitamin B12, they may have pernicious anemia or another condition that affects vitamin B12 absorption. The Schilling test has largely been replaced by other diagnostic tests, such as blood tests for anti-intrinsic factor antibodies and parietal cell antibodies.

In a medical context, nitrites are typically referred to as organic compounds that contain a functional group with the formula R-N=O, where R represents an alkyl or aryl group. They are commonly used in medicine as vasodilators, which means they widen and relax blood vessels, improving blood flow and lowering blood pressure.

One example of a nitrite used medically is amyl nitrite, which was previously used to treat angina pectoris, a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. However, its use has largely been replaced by other medications due to safety concerns and the availability of more effective treatments.

It's worth noting that inorganic nitrites, such as sodium nitrite, are also used in medicine for various purposes, including as a preservative in food and as a medication to treat cyanide poisoning. However, these compounds have different chemical properties and uses than organic nitrites.

Nitroso compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain a nitroso functional group, which is composed of a nitrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom with a single covalent bond. The general formula for nitroso compounds is R-N=O, where R represents an organic group such as an alkyl or aryl group.

Nitroso compounds are known to be reactive and can form under various physiological conditions. They have been implicated in the formation of carcinogenic substances and have been linked to DNA damage and mutations. In the medical field, nitroso compounds have been studied for their potential use as therapeutic agents, particularly in the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. However, their use is limited due to their potential toxicity and carcinogenicity.

It's worth noting that exposure to high levels of nitroso compounds can be harmful to human health, and may cause respiratory, dermal, and ocular irritation, as well as potential genotoxic effects. Therefore, handling and storage of nitroso compounds should be done with caution, following appropriate safety guidelines.

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of DNA, formation of red blood cells, and maintenance of the nervous system. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell in the body, particularly affecting DNA regulation and neurological function.

Vitamin B12 is unique among vitamins because it contains a metal ion, cobalt, from which its name is derived. This vitamin can be synthesized only by certain types of bacteria and is not produced by plants or animals. The major sources of vitamin B12 in the human diet include animal-derived foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, as well as fortified plant-based milk alternatives and breakfast cereals.

Deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to various health issues, including megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, neurological symptoms such as numbness and tingling in the extremities, memory loss, and depression. Since vitamin B12 is not readily available from plant-based sources, vegetarians and vegans are at a higher risk of deficiency and may require supplementation or fortified foods to meet their daily requirements.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or blocking the vagus nerve, which is a parasympathetic nerve that runs from the brainstem to the abdomen and helps regulate many bodily functions such as heart rate, gastrointestinal motility, and digestion. In particular, vagotomy is often performed as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it can help reduce gastric acid secretion.

There are several types of vagotomy procedures, including:

1. Truncal vagotomy: This involves cutting the main trunks of the vagus nerve as they enter the abdomen. It is a more extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion significantly but can also lead to side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.
2. Selective vagotomy: This involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the stomach, leaving the rest of the nerve intact. It is a less extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects.
3. Highly selective vagotomy (HSV): Also known as parietal cell vagotomy, this involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the acid-secreting cells in the stomach. It is a highly targeted procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Vagotomy is typically performed using laparoscopic or open surgical techniques, depending on the patient's individual needs and the surgeon's preference. While vagotomy can be effective in treating peptic ulcers, it is not commonly performed today due to the development of less invasive treatments such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that reduce gastric acid secretion without surgery.

Abietanes are a subclass of diterpenes, which are a type of organic compound consisting of four isoprene units and having the chemical formula C20H32. Diterpenes are synthesized by a wide variety of plants and some animals, and they have diverse biological activities.

Abietanes are characterized by a distinctive carbon skeleton that contains three six-membered rings arranged in a linear fashion, with the fourth ring being a five-membered ring. This particular structure is derived from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), a precursor to many diterpenes.

Abietanes are found in various natural sources, including pine resin, where they exist as resin acids such as abietic acid, pimaric acid, and isopimaric acid. These compounds have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of abietanes and to develop safe and effective treatments based on these compounds.

Dyspepsia is a medical term that refers to discomfort or pain in the upper abdomen, often accompanied by symptoms such as bloating, nausea, belching, and early satiety (feeling full quickly after starting to eat). It is also commonly known as indigestion. Dyspepsia can have many possible causes, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcers, gastritis, and functional dyspepsia (a condition in which there is no obvious structural or biochemical explanation for the symptoms). Treatment for dyspepsia depends on the underlying cause.

Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic medication that is used to reduce or prevent bleeding. It works by inhibiting the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, which is a protease that degrades fibrin clots. By preventing the breakdown of blood clots, tranexamic acid helps to reduce bleeding and promote clot formation.

Tranexamic acid is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. It is used in a variety of clinical settings, such as surgery, trauma, and heavy menstrual bleeding. The medication can be taken orally or administered intravenously, depending on the severity of the bleeding and the patient's medical condition.

Common side effects of tranexamic acid include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. Less commonly, the medication may cause allergic reactions, visual disturbances, or seizures. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking tranexamic acid to minimize the risk of side effects and ensure its safe and effective use.

Alkalies are a type of basic compound that has a pH level greater than 7. They are also known as bases and can neutralize acids. Alkalies can react with acids to form salts and water. Some common alkalies include sodium hydroxide (lye), potassium hydroxide, and calcium hydroxide. When in solution, alkalies can increase the pH level of a substance, making it more basic or alkaline. They are widely used in various industries for different purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, and processing.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Metronidazole works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, which inhibits their ability to grow and multiply.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, creams, and gels, and is often used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.

Like all antibiotics, metronidazole should be taken only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications.

A capsule is a type of solid pharmaceutical dosage form in which the drug is enclosed in a small shell or container, usually composed of gelatin or other suitable material. The shell serves to protect the drug from degradation, improve its stability and shelf life, and facilitate swallowing by making it easier to consume. Capsules come in various sizes and colors and can contain one or more drugs in powder, liquid, or solid form. They are typically administered orally but can also be used for other routes of administration, such as rectal or vaginal.

The esophagus is the muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the stomach. It is located in the midline of the neck and chest, passing through the diaphragm to enter the abdomen and join the stomach. The main function of the esophagus is to transport food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach for digestion.

The esophagus has a few distinct parts: the upper esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the throat), the middle esophagus, and the lower esophageal sphincter (another ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the stomach). The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow food and liquids to enter the stomach and then contracts to prevent stomach contents from flowing back into the esophagus.

The walls of the esophagus are made up of several layers, including mucosa (a moist tissue that lines the inside of the tube), submucosa (a layer of connective tissue), muscle (both voluntary and involuntary types), and adventitia (an outer layer of connective tissue).

Common conditions affecting the esophagus include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, esophageal strictures, and eosinophilic esophagitis.

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas with the chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a basic compound, meaning it has a pH greater than 7. Ammonia is naturally found in the environment and is produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as animal waste and decomposing plants. In the medical field, ammonia is most commonly discussed in relation to its role in human metabolism and its potential toxicity.

In the body, ammonia is produced as a byproduct of protein metabolism and is typically converted to urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or if there is an excess of protein in the diet, ammonia can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition called hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia can lead to serious neurological symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, and coma, and is treated by lowering the level of ammonia in the blood through medications, dietary changes, and dialysis.

Capnography is the non-invasive measurement and monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) in exhaled breath, also known as end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2). It is typically displayed as a waveform graph that shows the concentration of CO2 over time. Capnography provides important information about respiratory function, metabolic rate, and the effectiveness of ventilation during medical procedures such as anesthesia, mechanical ventilation, and resuscitation. Changes in capnograph patterns can help detect conditions such as hypoventilation, hyperventilation, esophageal intubation, and pulmonary embolism.

Esophageal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Here are some common esophageal diseases with their brief definitions:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A chronic condition in which stomach acid or bile flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophageal lining, often caused by GERD, infection, or medication.
3. Esophageal stricture: Narrowing of the esophagus due to scarring or inflammation, which can make swallowing difficult.
4. Esophageal cancer: Cancer that forms in the tissues of the esophagus, often as a result of long-term GERD or smoking.
5. Esophageal motility disorders: Disorders that affect the normal movement and function of the esophagus, such as achalasia, diffuse spasm, and nutcracker esophagus.
6. Barrett's esophagus: A condition in which the lining of the lower esophagus changes, increasing the risk of esophageal cancer.
7. Esophageal diverticula: Small pouches that form in the esophageal wall, often causing difficulty swallowing or regurgitation.
8. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE): A chronic immune-mediated disorder characterized by inflammation of the esophagus due to an allergic reaction.

These are some of the common esophageal diseases, and their diagnosis and treatment may vary depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

p. 1. ISBN 0-486-69213-2. gastric juice. Harré, R. (1981). Great Scientific Experiments. Phaidon (Oxford). pp. 39-47. ISBN 0- ... Beaumont, William (1838). Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. Edinburgh: ... "Father of Gastric Physiology" following his research on human digestion started at Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, Michigan. ...
p. 1. ISBN 0-486-69213-2. gastric juice. Harré, R. (1981). Great Scientific Experiments. Phaidon (Oxford). pp. 39-47. ISBN 0- ... Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. Edinburgh: Maclachlan and Stewart. ... "Father of Gastric Physiology" following his research on human digestion started at Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, Michigan. ...
Latner, A. L.; Ungley, C. C.; Cox, E. V.; McEvoy-Bowe, E.; Raine, L. (1953). "Electrophoresis of Human Gastric Juice in ... Oral Administration with Normal Gastric Juice". BMJ. 2 (4685): 908-911. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4685.908. PMC 2039122. PMID 14772515 ...
If the pH value of the sample is shifted to the acidic side, for example, in the case of increased acidity of gastric juice, ... Pei-Jung Lu (2010). "Gastric juice acidity in upper gastrointestinal diseases". World Journal of Gastroenterology (journal) ( ... Such a design bears the risk of false-positive result due to the pH value of the gastric biopsy when it is placed on the ... This avoids the influence of the pH value of the sample (gastric biopsy) on the result of a selective urease test, which ...
... vomiting gastric juice; and addition alkalemia (excess alkali ingestion) into his textbook 'Metabolic Aspects of Surgery" ...
Gastric juice in duodenal and gastric ulcers. J. Am. Med. Assoc, 68:330-33. With J. J. Moorhead and F. W. Burcky. An ... Fatal effect of total loss of gastric juice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 26:305-7. 1930 With J. C. Ellis. Liver autolysis in ... They found that removal of the antrum noticeably reduced the flow of gastric juices. That same year, while at the University of ... The gastrin and stomach's secretions stimulate the flow of gastric juices and cause the stomach "digest" itself, causing the ...
Gastrin stimulates the gastric glands to release gastric juice. These cells are mostly found in pyloric glands in the antrum of ... Gastric glands are mostly exocrine glands and are all located beneath the gastric pits within the gastric mucosa-the mucous ... The gastric mucosa is pitted with innumerable gastric pits which each house 3-5 gastric glands. The cells of the exocrine ... "gastric pits, that each open into four or five gastric glands", Quantitative Human Physiology 2E, 2017, Joseph Feher " ...
For example, Naproxen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is a weak acid (its pKa value is 5.0). The gastric juice ... Cells have a more acidic pH inside the cell than outside (gastric mucosal cells being an exception). Therefore, basic drugs ( ...
Gastric juice in the stomach starts protein digestion. Gastric juice mainly contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin. In infants ... Gastric juice contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin which would damage the walls of the stomach and mucus and bicarbonates are ... This activates the release of acetylcholine, which stimulates the release of more gastric juices. As protein enters the stomach ... This triggers G cells to release gastrin, which in turn stimulates parietal cells to secrete gastric acid. Gastric acid is ...
Paoletti MG, Norberto L, Damini R, Musumeci S (2007). "Human gastric juice contains chitinase that can degrade chitin". Annals ...
Modlin, I. M. (September 1999). "A gastric sexology: the story of three men and three bottles of gastric juice". J. Clin. ... Beaumont published the account of his experiments in 1838 as Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice, and the ... O'Leary, J. P. (January 1994). "The identification of the caustic agent in gastric juice". The American Surgeon. 60 (1): 79-80 ... Experiments and observations on the gastric juice and the physiology of digestion. By William Beaumont. Plattsburgh. Printed by ...
Also recovered from gastric juice, sputum and urine samples. Strain 2186/92 = ATCC 51985 = CCUG 42422 = CCUG 42559 = CIP 105465 ...
Gastric and duodenal ulcer. Medical cure by an efficient removal of gastric juice corrosion. Diagnosis of esophageal lesions. " ... Medical cure by an efficient removal of gastric juice corrosion. By Bertram W. Sippy". JAMA. 250 (16): 2192-2197. doi:10.1001/ ... Sippy, B. W. (October 28, 1983). "Landmark article May 15, 1915: Gastric and duodenal ulcer. ...
Gastric acid also known as gastric juice is secreted from gastric glands, which are located in gastric pits. Gastric juice ... Gastric pits are indentations in the stomach which denote entrances to 3-5 tubular shaped gastric glands. They are deeper in ... "Secretions from several gastric glands flow into each gastric pit" Principals of Anatomy & Physiology 15th Ed 2017, Gerard ... Hydrochloric acid is secreted by parietal cells, pepsinogen is secreted by gastric chief cells and mucus is secreted by mucus ...
Beaumont's research into gastric juices was very advanced for the time. His work confirmed William Prout's theory that gastric ... p. 1. gastric juice. Myer, Jesse S., ed. (1912). Life and Letters of Dr. William Beaumont. C. V. Mosby Company (St. Louis). p. ... p. 1. gastric juice. Harré, R. (1981). Great Scientific Experiments. Phaidon (Oxford). pp. 39-47. ISBN 978-0-7148-2096-5. ... Studies of St-Martin's stomach led to greater understanding of the stomach, gastric juices and the processes of digestion. On ...
Gastric acid (informally gastric juice), produced in the stomach plays a vital role in the digestive process, and mainly ... A peptide hormone, gastrin, produced by G cells in the gastric glands, stimulates the production of gastric juice which ... Gastric lipase secreted by the chief cells in the fundic glands in the gastric mucosa of the stomach, is an acidic lipase, in ... The second stage, the gastric phase, happens in the stomach. Here the food is further broken down by mixing with gastric acid ...
"William Prout and the discovery of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 20 (2): 340- ... He however identified the gastric acid incorrectly as phosphoric acid and it was only ten years later that William Prout ... in the stomach by an acidic juice and that the mass then went to the duodenum where it mixed with bile and pancreatic juice. ... Richmond, Caroline (1986). "Two and a quarter centuries of digestive juices". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 11 (12): 528-530 ...
"Purification of intrinsic factor and vitamin B12 binders from human gastric juice". Annales Medicinae Experimentalis et ...
Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice, and the Physiology of Digestion. Edinburgh: Maclachlan and Stewart, 1838. ...
He discovered hydrochloric acid in gastric juice and its chemical interaction with pepsin. He studied bile and pancreatic ... juices. Some of this work was done with Friedrich Bidder. He studied chemical changes in blood associated with cholera, ...
Brandi G (Aug 2006). "Urease-positive bacteria other than Helicobacter pylori in human gastric juice and mucosa". Am J ... Gastric bypass procedures such as a duodenal switch and RNY, where the largest acid producing parts of the stomach are either ... For practical purposes, gastric pH and endoscopy should be done in someone with suspected achlorhydria. Older testing methods ... Little is known on the prognosis of achlorhydria, although there have been reports of an increased risk of gastric cancer. A ...
When alcohol goes straight Stomach, it reduces the secretion of gastric juices. It can also cause interference to the mucous ...
They secrete neutral mucin that protects the esophagus from acidic gastric juices. They are simple tubular or branched tubular ... esophago-gastric junction) in the lamina propria mucosae. ...
Beaumont, William; Combe, Andrew (1838). Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice, and the Physiology of Digestion ( ... United States Army surgeon William Beaumont pioneers human gastric endoscopy on Alexis St. Martin. Scottish surgeon John Henry ...
Beaumont, W; Combe, A (1838). Experiments and observations on the gastric juice, and the physiology of digestion (reprint ed ... The practice of gastric endoscopy in humans was pioneered by United States Army surgeon William Beaumont (1785-1853) in 1822 ...
... , gastric juice, or stomach acid is a digestive fluid formed within the stomach lining. With a pH between 1 and 3, ... Gastric acid is then secreted into the lumen of the gastric gland and gradually reaches the main stomach lumen. The exact ... In the duodenum, gastric acid is neutralized by bicarbonate. This also blocks gastric enzymes that have their optima in the ... The primary active component of gastric acid is hydrochloric acid (HCl), which is produced by parietal cells in the gastric ...
The gastric juices and enzymes responsible for digestion are stimulated in the meantime. However, if a person walks after ... Postprandial walking but not consumption of alcoholic digestifs or espresso accelerates gastric emptying in healthy volunteers ... eating his dinner, the process of gastric emptying of the meal is accelerated leading to better digestion. This in turn, ...
William Beaumont publishes Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. Charles Bell ...
"Omeprazole and dietary nitrate independently affect levels of vitamin C and nitrite in gastric juice". Gastroenterology. 116 (4 ... In another study, 40 mg/day of omeprazole lowered the fasting gastric vitamin C levels from 3.8 to 0.7 µg/mL. Aspirin may also ...
Based on this work, he was the first researcher to isolate human gastric juices. His work confirmed that of René Antoine ... who showed the digestive power of gastric juices, and helped dispel earlier theories of digestion. Stevens's work on digestion ... Stevens' dissertation on gastric digestion was entitled De alimentorum concoctione. ...
English , 1 sense of the expression gastric juice:. NOUN. body. gastric juice, gastric acid. digestive secretions of the ... English , gastric juice: 1 sense , noun 1, body. Meaning. digestive secretions of the stomach glands consisting chiefly of ... digestive juice, digestive fluid. secretions that aid digestion. Substances. lipase. An enzyme secreted in the digestive tract ...
Gastric Juice ► Flinn Scientific SDS Sheets ► Learn health and safety information about chemicals. ... Gastric Juice. Flinn Scientific, Inc. P.O. Box 219, Batavia, IL 60510 (800) 452-1261. Chemtrec Emergency Phone Number: (800) ...
Chromatographic Separation of Human Gastric Juice: Electrophoretic Characterization, B12 Binding Capacity, and Intrinsic Factor ... Estimation of intrinsic factor in gastric juice by the carbon method. 1. Combining capacity of gastric juice with vitamin B12 C ... Morishita, R. 1969: Studies on human gastric intrinsic factor. II. in vitr assay of human gastric juice and purified human ... Correlation of in vitro Activity of Normal Human Gastric Juice on Casein at pH 7.4 with Gastric Intrinsic Factor Experimental ...
GASTRIC JUICE, n. The holy water sacred to the god Stomach.. Actually, its gastric juies, but Bierce was a man of his time, ... Gastric Juice: internal battery acid.. ----. (We did the recording last night. Tay has to get it to me in a form that I can ... Gastric juice, is that stuff yellow? Adi and I both barf up yellow stuff once in a while.. Adi did barf yellow last night after ... GASTRIC JUICE, n. A liquid for dissolving oxen and making men of the pulp. ...
Besides, you may not even have an over abundance of stomach acid, you may be suffering from a lack of gastric juice, which more ... Tags: acid reflux and indigestion, biological priority, cell health, gastric juice, Hiatal Hernia, internal pressure, poor ...
At histology, gastric body mucosa atrophy/metaplasia was detected in 65 (6.4%) cases, and a pH value ,4.5 in the gastric juice ... Background: In patients with atrophic gastritis involving gastric body mucosa the pH value of gastric juice is distinctly ... Background: In patients with atrophic gastritis involving gastric body mucosa the pH value of gastric juice is distinctly ... Real-time determination of gastric juice pH with EndoFaster® for atrophic gastritis assessment. Zullo A.;Germana B.;Galliani E ...
Gastric juice is a secretion of the glands present in___?- EveryDay Science MCQs , Get prepared for your upcoming test at Test ...
Stomach mucosa biopsies and gastric juices samples of 12 healthy persons were analysed by culturing in selective- and non- ... Stomach mucosa biopsies and gastric juices samples of 12 healthy persons were analysed by culturing in selective- and non- ... Microbiological survey of the human gastric ecosystem using culturing and pyrosequencing methods Microb Ecol. 2013 Apr;65(3): ... Considerable differences in the composition of the gastric microbiota were observed among the subjects, although in all samples ...
p. 1. ISBN 0-486-69213-2. gastric juice. Harré, R. (1981). Great Scientific Experiments. Phaidon (Oxford). pp. 39-47. ISBN 0- ... Beaumont, William (1838). Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. Edinburgh: ... "Father of Gastric Physiology" following his research on human digestion started at Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, Michigan. ...
Stomach (gastric juice) References. Hall JE, Hall ME. Genetic control of protein synthesis, cell function, and cell ...
1 Vomit is usually gastric juice, although in extreme cases intestinal juices can be included. Diarrhea is just the opposite-it ... Aburub A, Risely DS, Mishra D [2008]. A critical evaluation of fasted state simulating gastric fluid (FaSSGF) that contains ...
Gastric juice. 24 (34.3). 16 (50). 3 (25). 5 (19.2). Blood culture results‡. ...
Gastroscopy was performed and gastric juice pH measured on Days 0, 14, 28, 35 and 42. Gastric ulcer lesion number (NGN) and ... on gastric ulcer scores and gastric juice pH after omeprazole treatment in stall-confined horses. Eight Thoroughbred horses ... On Day 0 before treatment, mean NGN and NGS scores and gastric juice pH were not different (P,0.05) between treatment groups. ... and colleagues created a study to determine if SmartGut Ultra Pellets would affect gastric ulcer scores and gastric juice pH ...
With this redefinition, we used Roberts model to examine the cytoprotective effects of the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC ... The intragastric administration of alcohol induced gastric lesions, intracranial (superior sagittal sinus) hypertension, severe ... Veljaca, M.; Chan, K.; Guglietta, A. Digestion of h-EGF, h-TGF alpha, and BPC-15 in human gastric juice. Pharmacol. Res. 1995, ... BPC 157 was originally described as an anti-ulcer peptide that is stable in human gastric juice for more than 24 h [44]. It is ...
William Beaumont (1833) Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice, Plattsburgh, New York ...
Prednisolone can stimulate secretion of various components of gastric juice. Suppression of the production of corticotropin may ... Treatment of acute overdosage is by immediate gastric lavage or emesis followed by supportive and symptomatic therapy. For ...
CCK also triggers the release of gastric juice. How Is Alpilean Different From Exipure? (11 Links Used so far) Alpilean and ... Gingerol also stimulates the secretion of digestive juices. Ginger also appears to improve metabolism. One study showed that ...
Unlike gastric ulcers, which may be malignant in about 5% of cases, duodenal ulcers are almost invariably beni... ... Large volume of residual gastric juice in gastric outlet obstruction. Note the fluid level (arrow) between the barium and ... Large volume of residual gastric juice in gastric outlet obstruction. Note the fluid level (arrow) between the barium and ... gastric ulcers account for the rest. Unlike gastric ulcers, which may be malignant in about 5% of cases, [2] duodenal ulcers ...
Cobalt salts and cobalt metal powder are readily soluble in a gastric juice surrogate. Ingestion of dusts or liquids containing ... Employing gastric and intestinal fluid surrogates for the assessment of bioaccessibility of cobalt species is useful in ... Food-bound vitamin B12 has first to be liberated through peptic digestion and gastric acid secretion in the stomach. The free ... Particle-size dependant fractional deposition modelling coupled with gastric bioaccessibility data indicate that inhalation ...
With words and gastric juices. Much writing seems instead to dance Tarantellas around the central questions of our lives. In ...
The gastric juices have a high content of hydrochloric acid, a strong acid. Its loss causes an increase in the alkalinity of ...
Gastric juice volume (ml). pH. Free acidity (mEq/100g). Total acidity (mEq/100g). Lesion index. ... The volume of the gastric juice, pH, total and free acidity was measured. The inner surfaces of the free stomach of rats were ... indicated by the decrease in gastric juice volume in the product-treated animals (Table 2). The elevation in pH in Ghanasatwa ... treated animals proved its ability to reduce gastric juice acidity. The Ghanasatwa was capable of reducing the gastric free ...
... because the gastric juice overflows along the tube of the outer cannula during gastric lavage and other operations. ... and the problem that gastric juice overflows along the pipeline of the outer sleeve can occur when gastric lavage and other ... so that the problem that liquid or gastric juice overflows along the outer sleeve during gastric lavage is well solved. ... 3 is a six-flap structure, and the original purpose of the design is to prevent the liquid or gastric juice from overflowing ...
Lying down, slouching, slumping and stooping all bring gastric juices back up. When you have to bend over, do it with your ... And try sleeping with your head elevated about six inches, which takes advantage of gravity to help keep those gastric juices ... Add almonds. Eat a few almonds after each meal, since these tasty nuts neutralize the juices in the stomach, which may relieve ... Relax for relief. Stress compounds gastric upset, so learning to chill can ease the burn. Try approaches including prenatal ...
Significance of gastric juice analysis following various secretory stimulations]. Subject(s):. Gastric juice Secretion: ... Examination of portion of gastric contents by physico-chemical methods]. Subject(s):. Gastric juice Secretion: Examination: ... Significance of fractional gastric analysis, of histamine test and of gastrochromoscopy in the diagnosis of gastric diseases]. ...
2016). Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in cystic fibrosis patients. Sci. Rep. 6:26985. doi: ... gastric contents, and sputa (Al-Momani et al., 2016; Nielsen et al., 2016). Moreover, CF patients with a documented intestinal ...
She writes well and gets the gastric juices going. Irish Examiner Its the next best thing to going to a favourite friends ...
... juices that also come from the stomachs walls. In addition to breaking down food, gastric juices also help kill bacteria that ... The pancreas makes juices that help the body digest fats and protein. A juice from the liver called bile helps to absorb fats ... Those organs send different juices to the first part of the small intestine. These juices help to digest food and allow the ... It does this with help from the strong muscles in the walls of the stomach and gastric (say: GAS-trik) ...
... juices that also come from the stomachs walls. In addition to breaking down food, gastric juices also help kill bacteria that ... The pancreas makes juices that help the body digest fats and protein. A juice from the liver called bile helps to absorb fats ... Those organs send different juices to the first part of the small intestine. These juices help to digest food and allow the ... It does this with help from the strong muscles in the walls of the stomach and gastric (say: GAS-trik) ...
  • Prednisolone can stimulate secretion of various components of gastric juice. (drugs.com)
  • Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor that suppresses gastric acid secretion to decrease the acidity (i.e., increase the pH) of the gastric juices," she said. (thehorse.com)
  • a hormone that is produced by the duodenal mucosa and has an inhibitory action on gastric motility and secretion. (absp.org.uk)
  • The median dose in these latter patients was reduced from 1.92 to 1.67 μg/kg per day (−15%).The findings of this in vivo evaluation revealed that the dose of both tablet and softgel thyroxine correlates with gastric acidity but softgel T4 formulation should be the preferred one in hypothyroid patients with impaired gastric acid secretion. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • It stimulates the secretion of gastric juices and also removes the toxins from the liver. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Besides, you may not even have an over abundance of stomach acid, you may be suffering from a lack of gastric juice, which more often than not is the case. (refluxremedy.com)
  • Stomach mucosa biopsies and gastric juices samples of 12 healthy persons were analysed by culturing in selective- and non-selective-rich media. (nih.gov)
  • Heartburn occurs when the ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the stomach relaxes (like all the muscles in the GI tract), allowing food and harsh digestive juices to back up from the stomach to the esophagus. (whattoexpect.com)
  • Eat a few almonds after each meal, since these tasty nuts neutralize the juices in the stomach, which may relieve or even prevent heartburn. (whattoexpect.com)
  • It does this with help from the strong muscles in the walls of the stomach and gastric (say: GAS-trik) juices that also come from the stomach's walls. (kidshealth.org)
  • Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is a common disease in horses, frequently treated with the proton-pump inhibitor omeprazole to decrease stomach acidity. (thehorse.com)
  • About three quarts of the gastric juice is produced by glands in the stomach every day. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Pepsin is an enzyme that is found in the gastric juice of the stomach. (proprofs.com)
  • In the stomach, the chemical digestion of proteins is carried out by gastric juice, which is produced by the gastric glands in the stomach lining. (proprofs.com)
  • The stomach produces gastric juice or gastric acid, which is a digestive fluid that helps break down food in the stomach. (proprofs.com)
  • The stomach is lined internally by a mucosal wall that releases gastric juices to aid in digestion. (differencebetween.net)
  • Aspiration of gastric juice verifies entry into the stomach. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chemical or reactive gastritis is caused by injury to the gastric mucosa resulting from reflux of bile and pancreatic secretions into the stomach, but it can also be caused by exogenous substances, including NSAIDs, acetylsalicylic acid, chemotherapeutic agents, and alcohol. (medscape.com)
  • The hospitals, the overall health system and the Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine are all named for William Beaumont, a U.S. Army surgeon who became known as the "Father of Gastric Physiology" following his research on human digestion started at Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, Michigan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gastric juices have a high content of hydrochloric acid, a strong acid. (healthline.com)
  • Gastric juice contains hydrochloric acid and enzymes like pepsin, which break down proteins into smaller peptides. (proprofs.com)
  • Gastric ulcers are common in horses. (equimanagement.com)
  • Most duodenal ulcers present with dyspepsia as the primary associated symptom, but presentation can range in severity and may include gastrointestinal bleeding, gastric outlet obstruction, perforation, or fistula development. (medscape.com)
  • gastric ulcers account for the rest. (medscape.com)
  • Findings obtained in the study justified the clinical applications of Udumbara Ghanasatwa in the treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhoea. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Some horses being treated with omeprazole, however, suffer rapid recurrence of gastric ulcers upon discontinuing treatment. (thehorse.com)
  • Squamous ulcers often occur because of exposure to acidic gastric juices, typically during periods of fasting or intense exercise. (thehorse.com)
  • Veterinarians prescribe omeprazole to treat gastric ulcers, both squamous and glandular. (thehorse.com)
  • Background: In patients with atrophic gastritis involving gastric body mucosa the pH value of gastric juice is distinctly increased, so that pH assessment would allow predict this precancerous lesion. (unipg.it)
  • Methods: In this prospective, multicentre study, the accuracy of EndoFaster® for ruling out gastric atrophy involving corporal mucosa was assessed. (unipg.it)
  • At histology, gastric body mucosa atrophy/metaplasia was detected in 65 (6.4%) cases, and a pH value >4.5 in the gastric juice was observed in 150 patients. (unipg.it)
  • By considering also data of ammonium concentrations, the values of EndoFaster® in detecting extensive atrophy on gastric mucosa were 74% sensitivity, 84% specificity, 24% PPV, 98% NPV, and 83% accuracy. (unipg.it)
  • Certain substances may cause injury to the gastroduodenal mucosa, a protective barrier that prevents gastric juices from digesting a person's organs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Other classifications are based on the endoscopic appearance of the gastric mucosa (eg, varioliform gastritis). (medscape.com)
  • In both cases, gastric acidity is the common denominator, making acid suppression key to medical management. (thehorse.com)
  • The stomach's strong muscular walls mix and churn the food with acids and enzymes (gastric juice), breaking it into smaller pieces. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Medications like antacids, proton pump inhibitors, and H2 blockers can be used to minimize the production of gastric acids. (differencebetween.net)
  • We tested whether EndoFaster® − a device allowing real-time pH measure and H. pylori diagnosis - may optimize the need of taking gastric biopsies. (unipg.it)
  • Histology performed on 5 standard gastric biopsies was used as gold standard. (unipg.it)
  • In contrast, glandular disease is believed to result from breakdown of normal mucosal defense mechanisms with gastric acid perpetuating the injury," Wilkins explained. (thehorse.com)
  • Employing gastric and intestinal fluid surrogates for the assessment of bioaccessibility of cobalt species is useful in predicting the bioavailability of cobalt compounds and determining doses related to health risks caused by their ingestion. (europa.eu)
  • Complications of intubation are rare and include nasopharyngeal trauma with or without hemorrhage, sinusitis, sore throat, pulmonary aspiration, traumatic esophageal or gastric hemorrhage or perforation, and (very rarely) intracranial or mediastinal penetration. (msdmanuals.com)
  • a hormone which stimulates production of gastric juice. (absp.org.uk)
  • Real-time pH and ammonium determination was performed by aspirating 3-6 ml gastric juice during endoscopy. (unipg.it)
  • All these patients underwent endoscopy for either dyspepsia or follow up of gastric disorders. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Gastric juice has been sampled during endoscopy to measure H+ concentrations in gastric juice. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori is the leading cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. (medscape.com)
  • Pancreatic juice, produced by the pancreas, contains enzymes that further break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in the small intestine. (proprofs.com)
  • A juice from the liver called bile helps to absorb fats into the bloodstream. (kidshealth.org)
  • Dr. Frank Andrews and colleagues created a study to determine if SmartGut Ultra Pellets would affect gastric ulcer scores and gastric juice pH after omeprazole treatment. (equimanagement.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to test the effect of a commercially available supplement, SmartGut® Ultra pellets (SmGU) on gastric ulcer scores and gastric juice pH after omeprazole treatment in stall-confined horses. (equimanagement.com)
  • Mean gastric juice pH was higher in both groups on Day 14 as a result of omeprazole treatment when compared with other days. (equimanagement.com)
  • SmartGut® Ultra supplement added to the feed prevented the worsening of gastric ulcer number 2 weeks after omeprazole treatment, without altering the gastric juice pH. (equimanagement.com)
  • Tapering the omeprazole dose when planning to discontinue this medication is unlikely to minimize rebound gastric hyperacidity. (thehorse.com)
  • The differential diagnosis includes acalculous cholecystitis , acute cholecystitis , cholelithiasis , Crohn disease , gastric ulcer , gastroesophageal reflux , upper gastrointestinal bleeding , acute and chronic pancreatitis , Gastrointestinal tuberculosis , and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome . (medscape.com)
  • Another chemical in gastric juice is pepsin , the chemical that digests proteins. (exploringnature.org)
  • In the presence of gastric outlet or proximal duodenal obstruction, the endoscope may be unable to pass through the stenosis, and the full extent and the cause of the obstruction may not be defined. (medscape.com)
  • However, pepsin is specifically found in the gastric juice, making it the correct answer. (proprofs.com)
  • This is clinically relevant in patients with gastric disorders to tailor an individualized treatment. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • The pancreas makes juices that help the body digest fats and protein. (kidshealth.org)
  • In addition to breaking down food, gastric juices also help kill bacteria that might be in the eaten food. (kidshealth.org)
  • [ 9 ] The bacteria survive within the mucous layer that covers the gastric surface epithelium and the upper portions of the gastric foveolae. (medscape.com)
  • These juices help to digest food and allow the body to absorb nutrients. (kidshealth.org)
  • Gastric juice is a mixture of chemicals that digest food. (exploringnature.org)
  • Those with a positive skin test or abnormal chest X-ray were further evaluated by chest spiral computed tomography (CT) scan and triple gastric washing. (who.int)
  • Triple gastric washing ity. (who.int)
  • The Ghanasatwa exerted significant protective effects in both pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer and castor oil induced diarrhoeal models in a dose-dependent manner. (ijpsonline.com)
  • This phenomenon is thought to be due to 'rebound gastric hyperacidity' secondary to abnormally high levels of the hormone gastrin," relayed Ben Sykes, BSc, BVMS, MS, MBA, Dipl. (thehorse.com)
  • Gastric ulcer lesion number (NGN) and severity (NGS) scores were assigned to each horse by an investigator (F.M.A.) masked to treatment. (equimanagement.com)
  • In tests carried out on on meat and fruit juice samples, the organic preservative kept its samples fresh for two days without refrigeration, compared to commercial-grade artificial food preservatives. (sciencedaily.com)
  • It churns the food and mixes it with the gastric juices. (exploringnature.org)
  • A Levin or Salem sump tube is used for gastric decompression or analysis and rarely for short-term feeding. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 4.5 in the gastric juice was observed in 150 patients. (unipg.it)
  • In the group A (normal gastric acid), following the switch tablet/softgel, no patients showed a lower T4 requirement. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Considerable differences in the composition of the gastric microbiota were observed among the subjects, although in all samples the most abundant operational taxonomic units belonged to Streptococcus, Propionibacterium and Lactobacillus. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Aloe vera juice, cayenne pepper, and ginger juice are 3 other suggested home remedies to try that may well work best for you. (amoils.com)
  • Actually, it's gastric jui es , but Bierce was a man of his time, and his time didn't have in it a multi-billion-dollar medical enterprise, engaged in dissecting the structure and function of the alimentary canal, down to the last nucleotide, in a desperate search for a pill that will cure overeating. (blogspot.com)