Respiratory Tract Fistula
Urinary Bladder Fistula
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical
Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula
Digestive System Fistula
Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations
Coroners and Medical Examiners
Cause of Death
Selective action of a CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist, S-0509, on pentagastrin-, peptone meal- and beer-stimulated gastric acid secretion in dogs. (1/111)BACKGROUND: The pharmacological effects of a novel CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist, S-0509, on gastric acid secretion in dogs remain unknown. AIM: To evaluate the antisecretory effects of S-0509 on gastric acid secretion and to compare such effects with famotidine or atropine in dogs stimulated with various gastric stimulants. METHODS: Ten beagle dogs with a denervated Heidenhain pouch and three beagle dogs with an innervated gastric fistula were used. Gastric acid secretion was stimulated by either continuous intravenous administration of pentagastrin, carbachol or histamine, or oral administration of a peptone meal or beer. RESULTS: In the Heidenhain pouch model, both intravenously administered and orally administered S-0509 significantly inhibited the gastric acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin, peptone meal and beer. Nonetheless, the drug had little or no effect on carbachol-stimulated or histamine-stimulated acid secretion. Famotidine extensively inhibited all gastric acid secretion stimulated by the above stimulants in a non-selective manner. Atropine also significantly inhibited the acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin, peptone meal, beer or carbachol, but was not able to inhibit stimulation due to histamine. Oral administration of peptone meal or beer significantly increased the plasma gastrin level. Similarly to the Heidenhain pouch model, even in the gastric fistula (GF) model, S-0509 significantly inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion, yet the drug had no effect on carbachol-stimulated secretion. CONCLUSIONS: S-0509 is a selective CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist in dogs that inhibits gastric acid secretion stimulated by pentagastrin and gastrin-releasing substances, but does not inhibit histamine-stimulated and carbachol-stimulated acid secretion. (+info)
Anaesthetic agents inhibit gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release from rat stomach ECL cells. (2/111)By mobilizing histamine in response to gastrin, the ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa play a key role in the control of the parietal cells and hence of gastric acid secretion. General anaesthesia suppresses basal and gastrin- and histamine-stimulated acid secretion. The present study examines if the effect of anaesthesia on basal and gastrin-stimulated acid secretion is associated with suppressed ECL-cell histamine secretion. A microdialysis probe was implanted in the submucosa of the ventral aspect of the acid-producing part of the stomach (32 rats). Three days later, ECL-cell histamine mobilization was monitored 2 h before and 4 h after the start of intravenous infusion of gastrin (5 nmol kg(-1) h(-1)). The rats were either conscious or anaesthetized. Four commonly used anaesthetic agents were given 1 h before the start of the experiments by intraperitoneal injection: chloral hydrate (300 mg kg(-1)), pentobarbitone (40 mg kg(-1)), urethane (1.5 g kg(-1)) and a mixture of fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam (15/0.5/7.5 mg kg(-1)). In a parallel series of experiments, basal- and gastrin-induced acid secretion was monitored in six conscious and 25 anaesthetized (see above) chronic gastric fistula rats. All anaesthetic agents lowered gastrin-stimulated acid secretion; also the basal acid output was reduced (fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam was an exception). Anaesthesia reduced gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release by 55 - 80%. The reduction in gastrin-induced acid response (70 - 95%) was strongly correlated to the reduction in gastrin-induced histamine mobilization. The correlation is in line with the view that the reduced acid response to gastrin reflects impaired histamine mobilization. Rat stomach ECL cells were purified by counter-flow elutriation. Gastrin-evoked histamine mobilization from the isolated ECL cells was determined in the absence or presence of anaesthetic agents in the medium. With the exception of urethane, they inhibited gastrin-evoked histamine secretion dose-dependently, indicating a direct effect on the ECL cells. Anaesthetized rats are widely used to study acid secretion and ECL-cell histamine release. The present results illustrate the short-comings of such an approach in that a number of anaesthetic agents were found to impair not only acid secretion but also the secretion of ECL-cell histamine - some acting in a direct manner. (+info)
Review of 404 patients with gastrointestinal fistulas. Impact of parenteral nutrition. (3/111)This paper represents an extensive review, spanning 30 years of experience with 404 patients with gastrointestinal fistulas. It includes the first period (1945-1960) during the introduction of antibiotics, the second period (1960-1970) which saw rapid improvements in parasurgical care including, respiratory support, perfection of antibiotics, some introduction of nutritional support and improved monitoring, and the third period which saw the introduction of parenteral nutrition specifically central venous hyperalimentation using hypertonic glucose and amino acids (1970-1975) in the treatment of patients with fistulas. The principal causes for mortality in the historical sense were malnutrition, sepsis and electrolyte imbalance. Mortality among patients with gastrointestinal cutaneous fistulas decreased between the first and second periods from approximately 48 to 15%. Surprisingly, mortality did not decrease further in the "hyperalimentation period" although spontaneous closure of gastrointestinal fistulase increased. The results suggest that the improvement in mortality in patients with gastrointestinal cutaneous fistulas is mostly due to the introduction of improved parasurgical care. It is acknowledged that nutritional support was practiced in the 1960's although this was generally not in the form of hyperalimentation. The addition of hyperalimentation in large scale to the treatment of gastrointestinal cutaneous fistulas has improved spontaneous closure and is a valuable part of the armamentarium. The decrease in mortality however, cannot be attributed to parenteral nutrition. (+info)
Gastrocolic and gastrojejunocolic fistulae: report of twelve cases and review of the literature. (4/111)Seven gastrocolic and five gastrojejunocolic fistulae were recorded at Charity Hospital between 1940 and 1970. Such fistulae occurred in males more often than females. In this series, as in others, the most common cause was gastric surgery for peptic ulcer disease. Pain, diarrhea, and weight loss were clinical findings in half the patients; anemia, leukocytosis, electrolyte disturbances and hypoalbuminemia were common laboratory findings. A fistula was demonstrated radiologically in nine of the twelve patients, management of these patients included no operation (3); two-stage procedure (2); and one-stage procedure (7); with a recent trend toward the one-stage procedure. A case report of a fistula resulting from postoperative complications of perforative appendicitis in which a successful combination of hyperalimentation and diverting colostomy was used is presented. (+info)
The vagus, the duodenal brake, and gastric emptying. (5/111)It has been suggested that an intact vagal supply is essential for the normal function of the recptors in the duodenum and proximal small bowel, which influence the rate of gastric emptying. This paper reports the effect of vagal denervation on gastric emptying and also examines the site and mode of action of receptors in the proximal small bowel. It has been demonstrated in the dog that most, if not all, the receptors controlling gastric emptying lie in the proximal 50 cm of the small bowel. Following truncal vagotomy the emptying time of each instillation increased significantly and the differential rate of emptying of different instillations remained unchanged. The proximal 50 cm of small bowel was capable to differentiating between different instillates even after selective extragastric vagotomy, in which the duodenum was vagally denervated and, therefore, duodenal braking receptors function independently of vagal innervation. (+info)
Gastric necrosis and perforation as a complication of splenectomy. Case report and related references. (6/111)Necrosis of the stomach after isolated splenectomy with the formation of gastrocutaneous fistula is a rare event that occurs in less than 1% of splenectomies. It is more frequent when the removal of the spleen is done because of hematological diseases. Its mortality index can reach 60% and its pathogenesis is controversial, as it may be attributed both to direct trauma of the gastric wall and to ischemic phenomena. Although the stomach may exhibit exuberant arterial blood irrigation, anatomical variations can cause a predisposition towards the appearance of potentially ischemic areas, especially after ligation of the short gastric vessels around the major curvature of the stomach. Once this is diagnosed in the immediate postoperative period, it becomes imperative to reoperate. The surgical procedure will depend on the conditions of the peritoneal cavity and patient's clinic status. The objective of this study was to report on the case of a patient submitted to splenectomy because of closed abdominal traumatism, who then presented peritonitis and percutaneous gastric fistula in the post-operative period. During the second operation, perforations were identified in anterior gastric wall where there had been signs of vascular stress. The lesion was sutured after revival of its borders, and the patient had good evolution. Prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment of this unusual complication are needed to reduce its high mortality rate. (+info)
The effects of intra-ruminal loading with cold water on thermoregulatory behaviour in sheep. (7/111)1. Shorn sheep exposed to ambient termperatures of 5 degrees C soon learned to turn on infra-red heaters by placing their muzzles through a photoelectric beam, although before shearing they did not operate the heaters. 2. The duration of infra-red heating obtained decreased at higher ambient temperatures and at 25 degrees C very little heat was obtained. 3. When infra-red heaters totalling 900 or 1800 W were suspended above the sheep they turned on the 900 W heaters for almost exactly twice as long as they did the 1800 W heaters when exposed to 10 degrees C for 24 hr periods. 4. Loading the rumen with 1 l. water at 0-1 degree C produced an increment in the duration of infra-red heating obtained in a 1 hr period. At ambient temperatures of 0, 10 and 20 degrees C the increment observed after intraruminal loading with 2 l. water at 0-1 degree C was almost exactly double that obtained with a 1 l. loading. 5. Loading the rumen with 1 l. water at 0-1 degree C did not result in the sheep increasing the duration of infra-red heating obtained at ambient temperatures of 30 degrees C but a 2 l. loading was effective. At an ambient temperature of 40 degrees C the 2 l. load was ineffective. (+info)
PACAP stimulates gastric acid secretion in the rat by inducing histamine release. (8/111)Previous studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) stimulates enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell histamine release, but its role in the regulation of gastric acid secretion is disputed. This work examines the effect of PACAP-38 on aminopyrine uptake in enriched rat parietal cells and on histamine release and acid secretion in the isolated vascularly perfused rat stomach and the role of PACAP in vagally (2-deoxyglucose) stimulated acid secretion in the awake rat. PACAP has no direct effect on the isolated parietal cell as assessed by aminopyrine uptake. PACAP induces a concentration-dependent histamine release and acid secretion in the isolated stomach, and its effect on histamine release is additive to gastrin. The histamine H2 antagonist ranitidine potently inhibits PACAP-stimulated acid secretion without affecting histamine release. Vagally stimulated acid secretion is partially inhibited by a PACAP antagonist. The results from the present study strongly suggest that PACAP plays an important role in the neurohumoral regulation of gastric acid secretion. Its effect seems to be mediated by the release of ECL cell histamine. (+info)
A gastric fistula is a abnormal connection between the stomach and another body cavity or organ, such as the esophagus, small intestine, colon, or chest. It can occur as a complication of surgery, trauma, or infection, and can lead to the leakage of stomach contents into the surrounding area, causing inflammation, infection, and other complications. Treatment options for gastric fistulas depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include surgery, medications, and nutritional support.
In the medical field, a fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs or between an organ and the skin. Fistulas can occur in various parts of the body, including the digestive tract, urinary tract, reproductive system, and skin. For example, a colovesical fistula is a connection between the colon and the bladder, while a vesicovaginal fistula is a connection between the bladder and the vagina. Fistulas can be congenital, meaning present at birth, or acquired, meaning developed later in life due to injury, infection, or surgery. Fistulas can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the abnormal connection. Some common symptoms include pain, discharge, difficulty urinating or defecating, and recurrent infections. Treatment for fistulas depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition, and may include surgery, medications, or other interventions.
An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a abnormal connection between an artery and a vein. This connection can occur naturally or as a result of surgery or injury. In some cases, an AVF may be intentionally created by a medical professional to provide access to the bloodstream for dialysis or other medical treatments. AVFs can be classified as either high flow or low flow, depending on the rate at which blood flows through the fistula. High flow AVFs are those in which blood flows rapidly through the fistula, while low flow AVFs have a slower flow of blood. AVFs can be found in various locations throughout the body, but are most commonly found in the arms or legs. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and difficulty moving the affected limb. In some cases, an AVF may require treatment to prevent complications or to improve blood flow.
An intestinal fistula is a abnormal connection between two or more parts of the gastrointestinal tract, or between the gastrointestinal tract and another body cavity or organ. This connection allows the flow of digestive contents, such as stool or gas, between the two areas. Intestinal fistulas can be congenital, meaning present at birth, or acquired, meaning developed at some point after birth. They can be caused by a variety of factors, including surgery, infection, trauma, and inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment for intestinal fistulas depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula or remove the affected tissue.
Pentagastrin is a synthetic peptide that stimulates the release of gastric acid and other digestive enzymes from the stomach. It is commonly used in medical research and diagnostic testing to evaluate the function of the stomach and its digestive system. Pentagastrin is typically administered intravenously or orally, and its effects can be measured through various methods, such as pH monitoring or enzyme assays. In some cases, pentagastrin may also be used to treat certain digestive disorders, although its use in this context is limited and typically reserved for cases where other treatments have been ineffective.
Gastrins are a family of hormones that are produced by cells in the lining of the stomach and small intestine. They play a key role in regulating the production of stomach acid and the movement of food through the digestive tract. Gastrins are also involved in the growth and development of the stomach and other digestive organs. In the medical field, gastrins are often measured as a diagnostic tool for conditions such as peptic ulcers, stomach cancer, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which is a rare condition characterized by excessive production of stomach acid.
Cutaneous fistula is a type of abnormal connection or tunnel that forms between two or more tissues or organs, usually through the skin. In the medical field, a cutaneous fistula is typically defined as a persistent or recurrent communication between an internal organ or tissue and the skin, which allows the passage of fluids, gases, or other substances. Cutaneous fistulas can occur in various parts of the body, including the head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, and extremities. They can be caused by a variety of factors, such as surgery, trauma, infection, radiation therapy, or cancer. The symptoms of a cutaneous fistula may include drainage of fluid or other substances from the skin, redness, swelling, pain, warmth, and odor. Treatment options for cutaneous fistulas depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include antibiotics, drainage, surgery, or other interventions.
A bronchial fistula is an abnormal connection between the bronchial tubes (airways that carry air to and from the lungs) and another body cavity or surface, such as the trachea, esophagus, pleural space, or skin. This connection can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing later in life due to injury, infection, or surgery). Bronchial fistulas can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and recurrent infections. They can also lead to the leakage of air or other substances from the bronchial tubes, which can cause respiratory distress and other complications. Treatment for bronchial fistulas depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, conservative management with antibiotics and supportive care may be sufficient. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the fistula.
A vascular fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two blood vessels. It can occur when a blood vessel is damaged or ruptured, causing a direct connection between two vessels. This can lead to a variety of complications, including bleeding, infection, and the formation of blood clots. Vascular fistulas can be congenital, meaning they are present at birth, or they can develop as a result of injury, surgery, or a medical condition such as cancer. They can be treated with medications, surgery, or other interventions, depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition.
A rectal fistula is a abnormal connection between the rectum and another body cavity or surface, such as the skin, vagina, or bladder. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, trauma, or surgery. Symptoms of a rectal fistula may include discharge from the anus, pain or discomfort in the rectal area, and difficulty passing stool. Treatment options for rectal fistulas may include surgery, medications, or other therapies, depending on the cause and severity of the condition.
A urinary fistula is a abnormal connection between the urinary tract and another body cavity or surface, such as the vagina, rectum, or skin. This connection allows urine to leak out of the body through the abnormal opening, causing urinary incontinence or difficulty controlling the flow of urine. There are several types of urinary fistulas, including: 1. Vesicovaginal fistula: A connection between the bladder and the vagina, which can occur after childbirth or as a complication of pelvic surgery. 2. Vesico-rectal fistula: A connection between the bladder and the rectum, which can occur after pelvic surgery or as a complication of radiation therapy for cancer. 3. Ureterovaginal fistula: A connection between the ureter (the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) and the vagina, which can occur after pelvic surgery or as a complication of radiation therapy for cancer. 4. Ureterocutaneous fistula: A connection between the ureter and the skin, which can occur after kidney surgery or as a complication of a kidney stone. Treatment for urinary fistulas typically involves surgery to repair the abnormal connection and restore normal urinary function. In some cases, additional treatments such as antibiotics or bladder training may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
An esophageal fistula is a abnormal connection or passage between the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach) and another body cavity or organ, such as the trachea (windpipe), bronchi (airways), stomach, or small intestine. This abnormal connection can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (occurring later in life due to injury, surgery, or disease). Esophageal fistulas can cause a variety of symptoms, including difficulty swallowing, coughing, chest pain, and recurrent infections. Treatment options depend on the location and severity of the fistula, as well as the underlying cause. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula or remove the affected tissue. In other cases, medications or other medical interventions may be used to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
A biliary fistula is a abnormal connection between the bile ducts and another body cavity or surface, such as the stomach, small intestine, colon, or skin. This can occur due to various medical conditions, including trauma, surgery, liver disease, or cancer. Bile is a fluid produced by the liver that helps with digestion and absorption of fats. When a biliary fistula occurs, bile can leak out of the bile ducts and into the surrounding tissue or other body cavities, leading to a range of symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Treatment for biliary fistulas depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, the fistula may close on its own over time. However, in more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the fistula and prevent complications such as infection or abscess formation.
A pancreatic fistula is a abnormal connection between the pancreas and another body cavity or surface, such as the stomach, small intestine, colon, or abdominal wall. This can occur due to injury, surgery, or infection, and can lead to the leakage of digestive enzymes and fluids from the pancreas into the surrounding tissue. Symptoms of a pancreatic fistula may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and diarrhea. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula and managing any complications that may arise. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the fistula.
Rectovaginal fistula is a abnormal connection between the rectum and the vagina. This connection can be caused by a variety of factors, including surgery, infection, radiation therapy, or trauma. Symptoms of rectovaginal fistula may include discharge from the vagina, difficulty with bowel movements, and pain or discomfort in the pelvic area. Treatment options for rectovaginal fistula may include surgery, medications, or other therapies, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.
A vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a abnormal connection between the bladder and the vagina. This connection can cause urine to leak from the bladder into the vagina, leading to a constant, uncontrollable dribble of urine. VVF can occur as a complication of childbirth, particularly in cases of obstructed labor, or as a result of other pelvic surgeries or injuries. It can also be caused by radiation therapy for cancer of the cervix or rectum. VVF can be a serious medical condition that can cause significant discomfort, infection, and social isolation. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the fistula.
A respiratory tract fistula is a abnormal connection or passage between two or more parts of the respiratory tract, such as the trachea, bronchi, or lungs. This can occur due to a variety of causes, including injury, infection, or surgery. Respiratory tract fistulas can be classified based on the location of the fistula, such as a tracheoesophageal fistula, which is a connection between the trachea and esophagus, or a bronchopleural fistula, which is a connection between a bronchus and the pleural space. Respiratory tract fistulas can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty breathing, coughing up blood, and recurrent infections. Treatment options may include surgery to repair the fistula, medications to manage symptoms, and supportive care to manage complications.
Vaginal fistula is a medical condition in which there is a abnormal opening or passage between the vagina and another body cavity or organ, such as the bladder, rectum, or small intestine. This can result in the leakage of urine, feces, or gas through the vagina, causing discomfort, infection, and social isolation. Vaginal fistulas can be caused by a variety of factors, including childbirth complications, pelvic inflammatory disease, and surgery. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the fistula, although the success of the procedure depends on the size and location of the fistula, as well as the underlying cause.
A tracheoesophageal fistula (TOF) is a abnormal connection between the trachea (windpipe) and the esophagus (food pipe). This connection can occur as a result of injury, surgery, or a congenital abnormality. In a TOF, food and liquids can pass from the esophagus into the trachea, rather than into the stomach. This can lead to aspiration pneumonia, which is a serious condition that can be life-threatening if left untreated. TOFs can be classified as either primary or secondary. Primary TOFs occur as a result of congenital abnormalities, while secondary TOFs occur as a result of injury or surgery. Treatment for TOFs typically involves surgery to repair the fistula and prevent further complications. In some cases, a tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis (TEP) may be used to help the patient speak and eat.
Histamine is a chemical substance that is produced by certain cells in the body, including immune cells and cells in the digestive system. It plays a role in a variety of physiological processes, including the contraction of smooth muscles, the dilation of blood vessels, and the stimulation of nerve endings. In the medical field, histamine is often used as a diagnostic tool to help identify conditions such as allergies, asthma, and certain types of infections. It is also used as a treatment for certain conditions, such as allergic reactions and certain types of digestive disorders.
Urinary bladder fistula is a medical condition in which there is a abnormal connection or opening between the urinary bladder and another body cavity or organ, such as the vagina, rectum, or skin. This can result in the leakage of urine from the bladder through the fistula, leading to various symptoms such as incontinence, urinary tract infections, and discomfort or pain in the pelvic area. There are different types of urinary bladder fistulas, including traumatic, iatrogenic (caused by medical procedures), and obstetric (occurring during childbirth). Treatment options for urinary bladder fistula depend on the type and severity of the condition, and may include surgical repair, medical management, or a combination of both.
An arterio-arterial fistula (AAF) is a type of abnormal connection between two arteries. It occurs when a weakened or damaged blood vessel wall allows blood to flow from one artery to another, bypassing the normal blood flow through the circulatory system. There are two types of AAFs: 1. True AAF: This type of AAF occurs when there is a direct connection between two arteries, bypassing the normal blood flow through the circulatory system. True AAFs are usually caused by trauma or surgery. 2. False AAF: This type of AAF occurs when there is a connection between an artery and a vein, rather than another artery. False AAFs are usually caused by atherosclerosis or other conditions that weaken the blood vessel walls. AAF can cause a variety of symptoms, including pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected limb. It can also lead to serious complications, such as high blood pressure, stroke, and heart attack. Treatment for AAF depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the abnormal connection.
An arteriovenous shunt, surgical, is a surgical procedure that creates an artificial connection between an artery and a vein. This connection, or shunt, allows blood to bypass the normal circulatory system and flow directly from the artery to the vein. This can be done for a variety of reasons, including to improve blood flow to a particular area of the body, to treat certain medical conditions, or to relieve symptoms such as pain or swelling. The procedure is typically performed under local or general anesthesia and may involve the use of small incisions or a larger incision, depending on the specific location and purpose of the shunt. After the procedure, the patient will need to be monitored for any complications and may need to take medications to prevent infection or blood clots.
A carotid-cavernous sinus fistula (CCF) is a type of abnormal connection between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, a hollow space in the skull that contains blood vessels and nerves. This connection allows blood to flow from the carotid artery into the cavernous sinus, bypassing the normal blood flow through the eye and brain. CCFs can be congenital, meaning they are present at birth, or they can be acquired as a result of injury or disease. Acquired CCFs are more common and can be caused by head or neck trauma, infection, or tumors. Symptoms of CCF can include headache, double vision, eye pain, and nosebleeds. In severe cases, CCF can lead to vision loss, stroke, or death. Treatment for CCF depends on the severity of the condition and the underlying cause. In some cases, medications may be used to reduce blood pressure and decrease the risk of stroke. In more severe cases, surgery or may be necessary to repair the fistula or block the abnormal blood flow.
A digestive system fistula is a abnormal connection between two organs or between an organ and the skin that allows the flow of digestive fluids or contents between them. This can occur as a result of injury, infection, or surgery, and can lead to a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Treatment options for digestive system fistulas depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition, and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations (CNVMs) are abnormal blood vessels that develop in the brain or spinal cord. These malformations can be congenital, meaning they are present at birth, or they can develop later in life. CNVMs can cause a variety of symptoms, including headaches, seizures, and stroke-like episodes. They can also be a risk factor for bleeding in the brain, which can be life-threatening. Treatment for CNVMs may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy, depending on the size and location of the malformation and the severity of symptoms.
Pleural diseases refer to any disorders that affect the pleura, which is the thin, double-layered membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest cavity. The pleura helps to lubricate the lungs and reduce friction as they move during breathing. Pleural diseases can be classified into two main categories: pleural effusions and pleural thickening. Pleural effusions are the accumulation of fluid in the space between the two layers of the pleura. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, cancer, heart failure, and lung diseases such as pneumonia or tuberculosis. Pleural effusions can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing. Pleural thickening, also known as pleural plaques, is the thickening of the pleura itself. This can be caused by exposure to asbestos, which is a known carcinogen that can cause mesothelioma, a rare and aggressive form of cancer that affects the lining of the lungs and chest cavity. Pleural thickening can also be caused by other factors such as radiation therapy, infections, and autoimmune diseases. Other pleural diseases include pleural fibrosis, which is the scarring of the pleura, and pleural calcification, which is the formation of calcium deposits in the pleura. These conditions can also be caused by exposure to asbestos or other irritants, as well as by certain medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
An oral fistula is an abnormal opening or tract that develops between the oral cavity and another part of the body, such as the throat, sinuses, or neck. It can occur as a result of injury, infection, or surgery, and can lead to the leakage of saliva, food, and other substances from the mouth. In the medical field, oral fistulas are typically classified based on their location and cause. For example, an oroantral fistula is an opening between the mouth and the maxillary sinus, which can occur as a complication of sinusitis or dental surgery. An oro-pharyngeal fistula is an opening between the mouth and the throat, which can occur as a complication of head and neck surgery or trauma. Treatment for oral fistulas depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, the fistula may heal on its own over time. In other cases, surgical repair may be necessary to close the opening and prevent further complications.
In the medical field, "Death, Sudden" refers to an unexpected and rapid loss of life, typically occurring within minutes to hours of the onset of symptoms. Sudden death can be caused by a variety of factors, including heart attacks, strokes, sudden arrhythmias, severe allergic reactions, and other medical emergencies. It is often characterized by the absence of warning signs or symptoms, and can occur in both young and old individuals. Sudden death is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate attention and intervention to prevent further harm or loss of life.
An autopsy is a medical examination of a dead body to determine the cause of death. It involves a thorough examination of the body, including internal organs and tissues, to identify any signs of disease, injury, or other conditions that may have contributed to the person's death. During an autopsy, the body is typically opened and the organs and tissues are removed and examined under a microscope or other specialized equipment. The pathologist who performs the autopsy will also take samples of tissue and fluids for further analysis in the laboratory. Autopsies can be performed for a variety of reasons, including to determine the cause of death in cases where the death was unexpected or unexplained, to investigate criminal or suspicious deaths, or to provide information for medical research. They are an important tool for advancing medical knowledge and improving public health.
In the medical field, bereavement refers to the emotional and psychological response to the loss of a loved one, such as a spouse, parent, child, or friend. Bereavement is a natural and normal process that involves a range of emotions, including sadness, anger, guilt, and confusion. The grieving process can vary from person to person and can take different lengths of time. Some people may experience a period of intense grief immediately after the loss, while others may feel a sense of numbness or detachment. In the medical field, bereavement is often treated as a mental health issue, and healthcare professionals may provide support and counseling to help individuals cope with their grief. This can include therapy, medication, or other interventions designed to help individuals manage their emotions and adjust to their new reality.
Coroners and medical examiners are officials who are responsible for investigating deaths that occur suddenly or unexpectedly, or deaths that are deemed suspicious. They are also responsible for determining the cause of death and making a ruling on whether the death was natural, accidental, or the result of foul play. Coroners are typically elected officials who serve in a county or district, while medical examiners are appointed by the government and serve at the state or local level. They are responsible for conducting autopsies, which involve examining the body and its organs to determine the cause of death. They may also review medical records, interview witnesses, and consult with other medical professionals as part of their investigation. The findings of a coroner or medical examiner can have important legal and medical implications, and their reports may be used in court proceedings or to inform medical treatment decisions.
In the medical field, the cause of death is the underlying reason or condition that directly led to a person's death. It is the primary factor that initiated the chain of events that ultimately resulted in the person's demise. The cause of death is typically determined by a medical examiner or a doctor who has been authorized to issue a death certificate. This determination is based on a thorough examination of the person's medical history, physical examination, and any relevant test results. The cause of death can be either an acute or chronic condition, and it can be related to a variety of factors, including illness, injury, genetics, environmental factors, or lifestyle choices. Some common causes of death include heart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory failure, and accidents.
Alexis St. Martin
Blind loop syndrome
Francesco La Cava
Anton Julius Carlson
Self-expandable metallic stent
Discovery and development of proton pump inhibitors
List of MeSH codes (C23)
Natural scientific research in Canada
Urine urea nitrogen
List of ICD-9 codes 520-579: diseases of the digestive system
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
List of MeSH codes (C06)
Cheri L. Canon
Esophageal Resection, Gastric Tube Reconstruction, and Omental Flap Coverage of Iatrogenic Aortoesophageal Fistula After...
Gastrointestinal fistula: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Anatomical Position of the Pancreas as a Risk Factor for Pancreatic Fistula after Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer. ...
Why is there blood in my stool? What does it mean?
Bard® Mesh, 6 in x 6 in (15cm x 15cm) - 0112720 | BD
Dr. John Tyner, MD, Critical Care Surgery Specialist - La Jolla, CA | Sharecare
Colorectal and MIS/Bariatric (Yellow) OR Schedule - Google Sheets
Digestive System Stories | Coast to Coast AM
Fatal aortoesophageal fistula bleeding after stenting for a leak post sleeve gastrectomy
DailyMed - VARIBAR THIN HONEY- barium sulfate suspension
Cabozantinib-s-malate or Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced or Metastatic Kidney...
David Carr-Locke Endoscopy Clinic - Index
Tell Your Weight Loss Surgery Story - BariatricPal
Dr. Blessy S Bhalla - Book Appointment, View Fees, Contact Number, Feedbacks | general physician,nephrologist/renal specialist...
The Cancer Institute Hospital of JFCR
View source for Tracheal compression - wikidoc
Revisional Weight Loss Surgery*
Gary Hartman - Stanford Medicine Children's Health
Pathology of Sudden Natural Death: Overview, Terminology, Medical Examiner Role and Autopsy Indications
Merck Provides Update on KEYNOTE-240, a Phase 3 Study of KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab) in Previously Treated Patients with Advanced...
Meta-analysis of pancreaticogastrostomy versus pancreaticojejunostomy on occurrences of postoperative pancreatic fistula after...
Photofrin (porfimer) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more
Clinical Trial: NCT03541902 - My Cancer Genome
Disorders of the Umbilicus: Background, History of the Procedure, Problem
- Anatomical Position of the Pancreas as a Risk Factor for Pancreatic Fistula after Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer. (bvsalud.org)
- Laparoscopic gastrectomy is more frequently associated with postoperative pancreatic fistula than is open gastrectomy . (bvsalud.org)
- Pancreatic fistula (PF) is the most common and challenging complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). (scipedia.com)
- Jianhua Yu, L. Wu and B. Li, Meta-analysis of pancreaticogastrostomy versus pancreaticojejunostomy on occurrences of postoperative pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy, Asian Journal of Surgery (2015). (scipedia.com)
- 1 Pancreatic fistula (PF) is the most devastating postoperative complication occurring in 2.5-25% patients, 2 and has become the main reason for increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged length of hospital stay, and increased medical costs. (scipedia.com)
- Esophageal atresia with tracheo-esophageal fistula: Accidental transtracheal gastric intubation J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg. (hombalkarhospital.in)
- Anastomotic leak after a gastric resection for cancer, peptic ulcer disease, or bariatric surgery can lead to leakage of intestinal or gastric juices, which initiates a cascade of events: localized infection, abscess formation, and, possibly, abscess and fistula formation. (medscape.com)
- Crohn disease , malignancy, peptic ulcer disease, and pancreatitis spontaneously cause 10%-15% of small bowel fistulas. (medscape.com)
- These fistulas may occur from disruption of the anastomotic suture line, inadvertent iatrogenic enterotomy, or small bowel injury at the time of closure. (medscape.com)
- The abscess would not dissipate, and an infected iatrogenic aortoesophageal fistula was formed, which was surgically treated with esophageal resection, gastric tube reconstruction, and omental flap coverage. (uu.nl)
- We report a 43-year old female who had undergone a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy that was complicated by a proximal gastric pouch leak at the gastroesophageal junction. (wjgnet.com)
- A gastrointestinal fistula is an abnormal opening in the stomach or intestines that allows the contents to leak to another part of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
- Depending on where the leak is, these fistulas may cause diarrhea , and poor absorption of nutrients. (medlineplus.gov)
- Other fistulas cause intestinal contents to leak through an opening in the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
- Almadi MA, Bamihriz F, Aljebreen AM. Fatal aortoesophageal fistula bleeding after stenting for a leak post sleeve gastrectomy. (wjgnet.com)
- In the last 18 years, Dr. Ara Keshishian has performed more than 500 revisions from other Weight Loss Surgeries such as RNY Gastric Bypass , Adjustable Gastric Band , and Sleeve Gastrectomy to Duodenal Switch on patients who have come from all over the United States and other countries . (dssurgery.com)
- There are also certain patients who have had ill effects from their primary operations, including ulceration and stricture in the case of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and slippage or erosion in the case of an adjustable gastric banding. (dssurgery.com)
- Gastric bypass surgery helps a lot of people, but doctors warn patients about its risks, especially because the patients carry so much excess weight. (mybestmedicine.com)
- An emergency laparotomy was performed and identified the source of bleeding to be an aortoesophageal fistula. (wjgnet.com)
- An aortoesophageal fistula after an esophageal SEMS insertion for a benign disease has rarely been reported and only in cases where there was a thoracic neoplasm, thoracic aortic aneurism, endovascular stent repair, foreign body or esophageal surgery. (wjgnet.com)
- Most GI fistulas (75%-85%) occur as a complication of abdominal surgery. (medscape.com)
- In patients with Crohn disease, fistulas arise from aphthous ulcers that progress to deep transmural fissures and inflammation, subsequently leading to adherence of the bowel to adjacent structures that eventually penetrate other structures. (medscape.com)
- However, 15%-25% of fistulas evolve spontaneously and are usually the result of intra-abdominal inflammation or infection. (medscape.com)
- Internal fistulas connect the GI tract with another internal organ, the peritoneal space, the retroperitoneal space, the thorax, or a blood vessel. (medscape.com)
- Have active tumor bleeding or a high risk of bleeding (examples include but are not limited to radiographic evidence of major blood vessel invasion/infiltration or tumor demonstrates >90 degree abutment or encasement of a major vessel [carotid, jugular, bronchial artery] and/or exhibits other high-risk features such as arteriovenous fistula). (who.int)
- Some fistulas may not cause symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
- Bronchoesophageal Fistula From Self-Induced Vomiting This unusual case study is supplemented with CT and endoscopy images. (medscape.com)
- Fistulas may result in malnutrition and dehydration, depending on their location in the intestine. (medlineplus.gov)
- The present study aimed to elucidate the correlation between the anatomical position of the pancreas and PF after LG for gastric cancer . (bvsalud.org)
- Erosion and migration of the mesh have been reported in gastric banding procedures. (bd.com)
- A fistula (a term derived from the Latin word for pipe) is an abnormal connection between 2 epithelialized surfaces that usually involves the gut and another hollow organ, such as the bladder, urethra, vagina, or other regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (medscape.com)
- Participants with previous malignancies (except non-melanoma skin cancers, and the following in situ cancers: bladder, gastric, esophageal, colon, endometrial, cervical/dysplasia, melanoma, or breast) unless a complete remission was achieved at least 2 years prior to study entry AND no additional therapy is required during the study period. (who.int)
- Contrary to common belief, fistulas do not necessarily develop as a consequence of downstream stenosis of the intestine. (medscape.com)
- Fistulas were formerly associated with considerable mortality rates. (medscape.com)
- In addition, the frequency of fistula formation has not decreased, because of advanced and complicated disease, complex surgical techniques, and an aging population. (medscape.com)
- Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia: An Ongoing Case This case describes a typical presentation of a patient with gastric antral vascular ectasia and the treatment course. (medscape.com)
- Gastric, duodenal, and small intestinal fistulas. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some fistulas close on their own after a few weeks to months. (medlineplus.gov)
- [ 2 ] Used in combination, these classifications can help to provide an integrated understanding and optimal management scheme for the fistula. (medscape.com)