Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.
Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Luciferases from BACTERIA such as PHOTOBACTERIUM; VIBRIO; and PHOTORHABDUS.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.
Endogenous and exogenous compounds and that either inhibit CASPASES or prevent their activation.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine peptidase that exhibits carboxypeptidase activity. It is highly expressed in a variety of immune cell types and may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.
A plant genus of the family DENNSTAEDTIACEAE. Members contain ptaquiloside, braxin A1, and braxin B. The name is similar to brake fern (PTERIS).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-4 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin 13 cause HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
It was also found to enhance cell anti-apoptosis response and abnormal cell growth and was even found to be an indicator of ... "TAZ overexpression is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells". ... TAZ has been found to be highly expressed in gastric cancer cells resistant to cisplatin. This resistance was identified to be ... Most isoforms are found in all tissues, but some are found only in certain types of cells. Mutations in the TAZ gene have been ...
... null mouse gastric mucosa exhibits hyperplasia due to stimulated proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in epithelial cells, ... Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. In melanocytic cells RUNX3 gene ... "Causal relationship between the loss of RUNX3 expression and gastric cancer". Cell. 109 (1): 113-24. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02) ... Vogiatzi P, De Falco G, Claudio PP, Giordano A (Apr 2006). "How does the human RUNX3 gene induce apoptosis in gastric cancer? ...
SFRP1 was found to be expressed in mesenchymal cells. Hedgehog is secreted from differentiated epithelial cells to induce SFRP1 ... There are 3 types of tumor suppressor genes: Genes that affect cell growth Genes that limit the cell cycle and induce apoptosis ... such as colorectal cancer and gastric cancer, through the breakdown of Hedgehog-dependent Wnt signal inhibition. Regions of the ... showed that SFRP1 expression in UMRC3 cells (clear cell renal cell carcinoma cell line) resulted in a growth-inhibited ...
"Mammalian occludin in epithelial cells: its expression and subcellular distribution". European Journal of Cell Biology. 73 (3 ... showed morphological stability in several epithelial tissues but also found chronic inflammation and hyperplasia in the gastric ... In standard cells, loss or disruption of occludin and other tight junction proteins leads to initiation of apoptosis through ... It was first identified in epithelial cells as a 65 kDa integral plasma-membrane protein localized at the tight junctions. ...
The prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LnCAP overexpress TRPV6 relative to benign epithelial cells PrEC and BPH-1. The ... Chow J, Norng M, Zhang J, Chai J (April 2007). "TRPV6 mediates capsaicin-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells--Mechanisms ... This 13-amino acid peptide derived from 54-amino acid peptide found in the paralytic venom of the northern short-tailed shrew ( ... Forced expression of TRPV6 in gastric cancer cells increases their sensitivity to capsaicin-induced apoptosis whereas the siRNA ...
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell ... When TGF-β acts on activated Ras-expressing mammary epithelial cells, EMT is favored and apoptosis is inhibited.[40] This ... Gain of EMT markers was found to be associated with the resistance of ovarian carcinoma epithelial cell lines to paclitaxel. ... gastric cancer,[60] and esophageal cancer.[61] Although a great deal of research has been applied to studying interactions ...
This results in the ceasing of cell apoptosis (inhibition of controlled cell death - a safety mechanism within cells to stop ... Treponema denticola attaches to fibroblasts and epithelial cells as well as to extracellular matrix components which are found ... including precancerous gastric lesions). Atherosclerotic vascular disease is chronic inflammatory disease of large arteries ... The tapering of the cell ends, conserved between cells, encompass a patella-shaped structure observed in the periplasm at the ...
... tumor cell invasion, as well as metastasis of gastric cancer cells. HOXA11-AS has also been shown to affect cell apoptosis. ... HOXA11-AS lncRNA was found to inhibit apoptosis, promote cancer cell proliferation, promote cell migration, and activate the ... cell cycle. HOXA11-AS lncRNA is studied in cancer research since its over-expression has been reported in epithelial ovarian ... It is also similar because of its function in regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration, apoptosis, and promoting ...
... inadequate oxygenation results in tubular epithelial cell injury (of the cells lining the kidney tubules), and thus causes ... CD4+ T cells, and B cells all undergo apoptosis, whereas regulatory T cells are more apoptosis resistant. Subsequently, ... The same review found the sensitivity of the test to be 77% and the specificity to be 79%. The authors suggested that ... Medication to prevent deep vein thrombosis and gastric ulcers also may be used. Two sets of blood cultures (aerobic and ...
One study found that Myc and p53 genes were key to the survival of Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML) cells. Targeting Myc and p53 ... positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation. • positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation. • cellular response to ... apoptosis (downregulates Bcl-2), differentiation, and stem cell self-renewal. Myc is a very strong proto-oncogene and it is ... gastric, and uterine cancers.[19] ... but this new Myc family member was found to regulate cell ...
This results in the ceasing of cell apoptosis (inhibition of controlled cell death - a safety mechanism within cells to stop ... Treponema denticola attaches to fibroblasts and epithelial cells as well as to extracellular matrix components which are found ... including precancerous gastric lesions).[20] ... The tapering of the cell ends, conserved between cells, ... Cell structureEdit. The native cellular architecture of the bacterial cell was revealed using cryo-electron tomography, a ...
... can alter gastric epithelial cell adhesion and lead to the dispersion and migration of mutated epithelial cells without the ... H. pylori is found in the mucus, on the inner surface of the epithelium, and occasionally inside the epithelial cells ... this damages epithelial cells, disrupts tight junctions and causes apoptosis), and certain phospholipases. Cytotoxin associated ... It adheres to the epithelial cells by producing adhesins, which bind to lipids and carbohydrates in the epithelial cell ...
Gastrointestinal cells are susceptible to apoptosis and cell growth from both heat-killed and viable IMPC2.1 strains.L. ... These enzymes have been shown to provide cellular protection to human epithelial cells. Genetic diversity for the different L. ... Strain 8700:2 was also found to inhibit Salmonella enterica and Helicobacter pylori, two pathogens commonly found in the ... "Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Viable or Heat-Killed IMPC2.1 and GG in HGC-27 Gastric and DLD-1 Colon Cell Lines ...
The other 95% of T cells begin a process of apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death. The thymus increases in size from birth ... Cells in the lymphatic system react to antigens presented or found by the cells directly or by other dendritic cells. When an ... and undergo a selection process in the thymic cortex before entering the medulla to interact with epithelial cells. The thymus ... Both the short gastric arteries and the splenic artery supply it with blood. The germinal centers are supplied by arterioles ...
... non-tumorigenic fibroblasts and lung epithelial cells. FATE1 is suggested to be essential for survival of tumor cells as ... Elevated level of FATE1 is found to be associated with higher mortality rate in colorectal cancers, but in non-small-cell lung ... and drug dependent apoptosis in cancer cells. FATE1 expression leads to reduction of Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria and therefore ... in hepatocellular carcinomas and gastric and colon cancers. It is testis-specific in the fetus (aged 6 - 11 weeks). In adults, ...
"Gadd45g regulates dental epithelial cell proliferation through p38 MAPK-mediated p21 expression". Genes Cells. 18 (8): 660-71. ... GADD45G was found to inhibit Cdk1 kinase activity, which would cause disruption of cell growth. It also interacts with CRIF, ... GADD45G interacts with several other proteins that are involved in DNA repair, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and senescence. ... Similar circumstances are seen in gastric cardio adenocarcinomas where GADD45G is silenced. GADD45G methylation levels are also ...
... which is a human breast cancer cell line. When the cell line was treated with RH2, the C1orf198 gene was found to be ... Overexpression of LKLF in lung epithelial cells increases cytosolic phospholipase A2, which has shown to be the cause of ... Specifically, it was found to be a positive impact factor of gastric cancer. Additionally, microarray analysis revealed that ... HIF-1 is known to induce transcription of gene involved in energy metabolism, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and other genes whose ...
"Helicobacter pylori infection induces oxidative stress and programmed cell death in human gastric epithelial cells". Infect ... Increased apoptosis can result in selective survival of cells that are resistant to induction of apoptosis.[43] Colon cells ... and such cells may give rise to colon cancer.[43] Epidemiologic studies have found that fecal bile acid concentrations are ... Infection of gastric epithelial cells with H. pylori results in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).[45][46] ...
The fast rate of cell death and regeneration of the epithelium leaves behind many apoptotic cell bodies. These have been found ... "Essential Roles of IL-6 Trans-Signaling in Colonic Epithelial Cells, Induced by the IL-6/Soluble-IL-6 Receptor Derived from ... The importance of apoptosis". Journal of Cell Science. 107 (12): 3569-77. PMID 7706406. Varol, Chen; Vallon-Eberhard, Alexandra ... especially in gastric cancer. As soon as the tumors breach the basement membrane and reach the lamina propria, they are exposed ...
... gastric adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. However, CYR61 can also induce apoptosis and cellular senescence, two well ... in prostatic stromal and epithelial cells: CYR61 is required for prostatic cell proliferation". Prostate. 61 (4): 305-317. doi: ... CYR61 is also found in articular cartilage from patients with osteoarthritis and appears to suppress ADAMTS4 (aggrecanase) ... CYR61 is able to support cell adhesion, stimulate cell migration, promote growth factor-induced cell proliferation and ...
This result was also verified in gastric cancer cells, prostate cancer cells, and other cancer cell lines with reduced DLC1 ... The process of apoptosis, or programmed cell death, allows cells which are stressed or damaged to die in a controlled and ... Natural dietary flavones, found in parsley, celery, and citrus peels, reactivate DLC1 expression in breast cancer cell lines ... PPARγ is a steroid hormone receptor which inhibits cellular growth of several epithelial cancers. In HCC, loss of DLC1 ...
... epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness in normal pancreatic epithelial cells". Cell Cycle. 10 (8): 1312-21. doi:10.4161 ... "KLF4 promotes hydrogen-peroxide-induced apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia cells involving the bcl-2/bax pathway". Cell ... gastric cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, intestinal cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer and lung cancer. However ... It was found that the transcription factor Klf4 present at the promoter of an enzymatic subunit of telomerase (TERT), where it ...
"Helicobacter pylori infection induces oxidative stress and programmed cell death in human gastric epithelial cells". Infection ... Increased apoptosis can result in selective survival of cells that are resistant to induction of apoptosis. Colon cells with ... A large number of known carcinogens are found in cigarette smoke. Potent carcinogens found in cigarette smoke include ... Infection of gastric epithelial cells with H. pylori results in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS ...
HGF is mostly expressed on epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells, for example smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts). HGF is ... c-Met stimulates cell scattering, invasion, protection from apoptosis and angiogenesis. c-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase, ... gastric and small cell lung carcinomas, central nervous system tumours, as well as several sarcomas when its activity is ... When the co-crystal structures of AM7 and SU11274 with c-Met were compared, they were found to be different: SU-11274 binds ...
... but also found in the jejunum and duodenum. The L-cells are open-type triangular epithelial cells directly in contact with the ... GLP-1 evidently also increases β cell mass by promoting proliferation and neogenesis while inhibiting apoptosis. As both type 1 ... The rate of gastric emptying is therefore an important aspect to consider, as it regulates the entry of nutrients into the ... from which two discoveries were found. Firstly, the full-length GLP-1 (1-37) was found to be catalysed by endopeptidase to the ...
"Adherens junctions and tight junctions are regulated via different pathways by progastrin in epithelial cells". Journal of Cell ... Therefore, the effect of hPG80 on cell survival results from both increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Cell ... hPG80 is found in different tumor types and secreted in vitro by certain cancer cells. A study has shown its presence in the ... This has recently been confirmed for ovarian, breast, esophageal, liver and gastric cancers making this therapeutic antibody a ...
MET is normally expressed by epithelial cells. However, MET is also found on endothelial cells, neurons, hepatocytes, ... Foretinib has completed a phase 2 clinical trials with indications for papillary renal cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, and head ... In adult mice, MET is required to protect cardiomyocytes by preventing age-related oxidative stress, apoptosis, fibrosis and ... MET is normally expressed by cells of epithelial origin, while expression of HGF/SF is restricted to cells of mesenchymal ...
In epithelial cells, E-cadherin-containing cell-to-cell junctions are often adjacent to actin-containing filaments of the ... The authors also found that EMT can happen in breast cancer cell lines with hypermethylation of CDH1 promoter, but in breast ... Schmeiser K, Grand RJ (April 1999). "The fate of E- and P-cadherin during the early stages of apoptosis". Cell Death and ... Moran CJ, Joyce M, McAnena OJ (April 2005). "CDH1 associated gastric cancer: a report of a family and review of the literature ...
Overexpression of circ-NOLC1 in CAOV3 cells increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion ability, whereas silencing of ... Among ovarian cancer cell lines, circ-NOLC1 expression was the highest in A2780, and lowest in CAOV3. ... or RhoA expression in circ-NOLC1-overexpressing cells, which might act by modulating RhoA and CDK1 expression. In conclusion, ... In this case, we demonstrated the role of circ-NOLC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Our results have shown that Circ-NOLC1 ...
Curcumin induced modulation of cell cycle and apoptosis in gastric and colon cancer cells. Anticancer Res 2001;21(2A):873-878. ... Histologic examination revealed evidence of apoptosis of cancer cells. In mice, six weeks of a 2% curcumin diet was found to ... induced colonic epithelial cell proliferation and focal areas of dysplasia. Cancer Lett 6-15-1992;64(2):117-121. 1611594 ... In rat aortic smooth muscle cells, curcumin inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle progression, and induced cell ...
Alterations in cellular adhesion and apoptosis in epithelial cells overexpressing prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2. Cell, ... In addition, we and others have found that PGE2 itself inhibits apoptosis and stimulates proliferation in gastric (20) and ... pylori in gastric epithelial cells. We assessed COX-2 expression and promoter methylation status in six gastric epithelial cell ... Cell Lines and Treatments.. MKN28, MKN45, AGS, and KATOIII cells are established gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines maintained ...
... pylori and the gastric epithelial cell (1, 17, 23, 45). H. pylori LPS shows little activity in stimulating epithelial cells, ... pylori LPS causes an acute gastritis and results in the induction of gastric epithelial cell apoptosis (43). Another recent ... We find that HPE does not upregulate directly human endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression in vitro. However, activation of ... 1995) Interleukin-8 response of gastric epithelial cell lines to Helicobacter pylori stimulation in vitro. Infect. Immun. 63: ...
... cell proliferation and apoptosis in several cells. Previously, we found that H. pylori induces the expression of PAR-2, which ... may prevent cell death and DNA fragmentation with the activation of MAPK in gastric epithelial cells. ... and the activation of MAPK in gastric epithelial AGS cells. AGS cells were cultured in the presence of H. pylori transfected ... H. pylori-induced cell death and DNA fragmentation augmented in the cells transfected with PAR-2 AS ODN or treated with SBTI. ...
H. pylori promotes apoptosis of the gastric epithelial cell population, thus causing the atrophic gastritis and gastric ... Molecular chaperones found on the cell surface and/or secreted by cells and/or found in extracellular fluids ... trans-isomerase HP0175 of Helicobacter pylori induces apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells in a TLR4- and apoptosis signal- ... Increase in proliferation and apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells early in the natural history of Helicobacter pylori ...
The homeostasis of gastric mucosal epithelial cells is maintained by the balance between apoptosis of damaged or senescent ... In our present study, we found that XZ-1 treatment decreased GED incidence and enhanced gastric epithelial apoptosis. Besides, ... XZ-1 regulates cell apoptosis of gastric epithelial dysplasia via NF-κB/p53/Ki67 signaling pathway. Bo Xu, An-ming Zhang, Fang ... XZ-1 regulates cell apoptosis of gastric epithelial dysplasia via NF-κB/p53/Ki67 signaling pathway ...
... we found that epithelial cells and not stromal cells were Fas positive. Thus preferential expression of Fas by epithelial cells ... expression have been described in freshly isolated gastric epitelial cells, on mononuclear cells, and in gastric T cell lines, ... We also found that epithelial cells express Fas-L.. Therefore, a cross talk among epithelial cells themselves might contribute ... 1997) Regulation of gastric epithelial cell growth by Helicobacter pylori: offdence for a major role of apoptosis. ...
Collectively, this study reveals a possible association between VacA-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells, and ... Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a conserved and highly regulated pathway by which cells die1. Apoptosis can be ... We found that C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a key signaling protein of ER stress-induced apoptosis, was transcriptionally up ... promotion of differentiation into T regulatory cells13, stimulation of T cell proliferation14 and induction of T cell apoptosis ...
... inhibits the proliferation and cell cycle progression while induces the apoptosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. miR- ... metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer. Cao et al found that the restoration of miR-381 ... in gastric cancer, FGFR2 (18) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and YY1 (19) in ovarian cancer. In the current study, IGF-1R was ... found that miR-381 upregulation attenuates the cell invasion abilities and increases the chemosensitivity of renal cancer cells ...
Apoptotic cells were counted after staining with terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl nick end labeling, and epithelial cell ... No correlation was found between apoptosis and COX-2 or Bcl-2 expression. MNNG but not H. pylori significantly increased COX-2 ... The gastric antrums were assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry for studies of cell proliferation and apoptosis at 32 ... has an influence on cell kinetics, contributing to the development of gastric cancer. The reduced apoptosis of MNNG also ...
Concurringly, CTNNB1 knockdown in stable cell lines potently sensitized cells to trastuzumab and induced more apoptosis. Taken ... we established trastuzumab-resistant MKN45 and NCI N87 gastric cancer sublines from their parental cells. The resistant cells ... and found pathways that were altered significantly in MKN45/R cells, with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway being the most significant ... exhibited characteristics of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and acquired higher migratory and invasive capacities. To ...
Increase in proliferation and apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells early in the natural history of Helicobacter pylori ... Although strains harbouring babA2 were recently found to be associated with peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, the role of babA2 ... Helicobacter pylori cagA+ strains and dissociation of gastric epithelial cell proliferation from apoptosis. J Natl Cancer Inst ... Gastric mucosal inflammation and epithelial cell turnover are associated with gastric cancer in patients with Helicobacter ...
... then perhaps the increased rate of cell cycling predisposes gastric epithelial cells to genotoxic damage and an altruistic cell ... and explore the mechanisms and major implication of this finding-that an alteration of gastric epithelial apoptosis may relate ... H pylori and gastric epithelial cell apoptosis. Evidence for the induction of apoptosis by H pylorihas been obtained recently ... 1996) H. pylori induces apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells which is enhanced by cytokines derived from Th1 cells [abstract]. ...
Furthermore, PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation was found to be maintained in a low level in the normal gastric mucosal epithelial cells ... MicroRNA-16-1 Inhibits Tumor Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in A549 Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells. Weihua Wang ... and caspase 3 in NSCLC cells.. Key words: MicroRNA-16-1; Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); Cell proliferation; Apoptosis. ... Knockdown of Rap1b Enhances Apoptosis and Autophagy in Gastric Cancer Cells via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway. Yazhou Li,* Yang Liu ...
Through the action of sponge miRNA (miR), circHIPK3 regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, and plays a ... Through the action of sponge miRNA (miR), circHIPK3 regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, and plays a ... and invasion of ovarian cancer cells and normal ovarian epithelial cells were promoted, and apoptosis was inhibited. Gao Wenzhe ... Recent studies have found that smoking and other factors lead to continuous alveolar epithelial cell damage and abnormal repair ...
... apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, cell migration and invasion in gastric cancer. Cell Cycle. 2015;14:3112-23 ... promoter by the transcription factor Ets-1 triggers Ig Ialpha1-Calpha1 germline transcription in epithelial cancer cells. Cell ... We found LINC00152 was upregulated in TSCC and its high expression was associated with tumor progression, such as tumor size, ... apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell migration and invasion in gastric cancer [59]. In addition, another ...
Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis. For cell cycle analysis, transfected cells were cultured for 24 h and then collected and ... 5. Karantza V. Keratins in health and cancer: more than mere epithelial cell markers. Oncogene. 2011;30:127-138 ... which indicated that Krt17 inhibited apoptosis in human GC. Moreover, we found that silencing of Krt17 induced apoptosis was ... Silencing of Krt17 induces apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest at G1/S phase of GC cells. We examined the contribution of apoptosis ...
... cell cycle and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells and explored the potential mechanisms. In the present study, quantitative real ... Here, we evaluated the activity of synthetic miR-34a in MM cells. We found that transfection of miR-34a mimics in MM cells ... of HDAC8 was significantly upregulated both in GC cell lines and tumor tissues compared to human normal gastric epithelial cell ... apoptosis, and cell cycle on gastric cancer cells were examined.. RESULTS: Gefitinib or lapatinib showed synergistic anti- ...
Background The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of gastric infusion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on ... Apoptosis and cell cycle of ileal and colonic epithelial cell by flow cytometry. The epithelial cells of jejunum and colon were ... which found the percentage of jejunal and colonic apoptotic cells, the pro-apoptosis gene (Bax and Caspase-3) abundances, and ... Intestinal cell apoptosis and cell cycle. The impacts of gastric SCFA infusion on intestinal cell apoptosis and cell cycle are ...
... these bacteria stimulate both cell proliferation (15) and apoptosis (16) in gastric epithelial cells. These changes seem to ... and are situated in superficial areas in gastric glands (17). These cells are found in higher numbers deep in gastric glands in ... Oxidative stress by Helicobacter pylori causes apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway in gastric epithelial cells. Apoptosis ... Chu SH, Lim JW, Kim KH, Kim H. NF-kappaB and Bcl-2 in Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. Ann N ...
Onion extracts has apoptosis-inducing effects in epithelial MDA-MB-231 cells that cause breast cancer [146] . ... gastric-gastrointestinal, and prostate cancers. For breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers, the existing data support a ... "Black Magic" was found by these authors to have nearly three times the amount of antioxidant phenolics as the other eggplant ... Soh, Y., Shin, M., Lee, J., Jang, J., Kim, O.H., Kang, H. and Surh, Y. (2003) Oxidative DNA Damage and Glioma Cell Death ...
... gastric, colorectal, and lung cancers. To investigate the roles of parafibromin... ... The role of RhoC in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of ovarian carcinoma cells. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:477.CrossRefPubMed ... Parafibromin overexpression was found to suppress growth, migration, and invasion, and induce apoptosis, S arrest, and ... Expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF are closely linked to growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of gastric carcinoma. ...
Luteolin has been found to inhibit CRC cells proliferation, induce cells apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation (13-15). Liu et ... Zhou et al found that luteolin upregulated miR-34 expression in gastric cancer cells and upregulation of miR-34 enhanced the ... The normal human mucosal epithelial cell line NCM460 was purchased from the National Institute of Cells (Shanghai, China). All ... Many reports have reported that luteolin can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CRC cells. For example, Krifa et al ...
In response to DNA damage, apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells occurs with insufficient cell proliferation, which might be ... an increased apoptotic index was found in patients with gastric cancer. Gland crypt length might vary with the degree of ... the balance of gastric epithelial cell turnover is possibly altered. Although increased gastric epithelial apoptosis and/or ... The number of positive cells/100 gastric mucosal epithelial cells was counted in three sections (finally 300 cells were counted ...
... reduced cell proliferation; promoted G1 arrest and apoptosis; suppressed lamellipodia formation, cell migration, and invasion; ... RhoA or Wnt-5a was knocked down in OVCAR3 ovarian carcinoma cells using siRNAs and cell phenotype and expression of relevant ... Results: RhoA and Wnt-5a mRNA and protein expression were found to be significantly higher in metastatic omentum than in ... Conclusions: This is the first demonstration that RhoA and Wnt-5a are associated with ovarian carcinogenesis and apoptosis ...
... and cell transduction cascades have been well described. The study grouping GC into four molecular subtypes by The Cancer ... Scientists have been working hard to discover the myths beneath gastric tumorigenesis: novel biomarkers have been established, ... The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer (GC) rank top five and top three, respectively, among cancers around the world. ... either via B cell entry or fusion with epithelial cells directly [18, 19]. EBVaGC occurs in the upper and middle stomach in the ...
Thus, H. pylori induces gastric epithelial cell apoptosis, by a Bak-dependent pathway. ... Apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells is induced by Helicobacter pylori and accompanied by increased expression of BAK.. Chen G ... Carriage of the bacterium H. pylori in the human stomach is associated with evidence of increased epithelial cell apoptosis. ... pylori was time and concentration-dependent and inhibited by preventing direct bacterial-epithelial cell contact. Apoptosis was ...
... strains and dissociation of gastric epithelial cell proliferation from apoptosis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (Bethesda), 89: 863-869 ... We found that H. pylori bacterial suspension or BCF increased the release of VEGF from MKN 28 cells, causing a 2.5-fold ... Human Gastric Epithelial Cells in Culture.. We used the MKN 28 cell line. This cell line derives from a well-differentiated ... Molecular response of gastric epithelial cells to Helicobacter pylori-induced cell damage. Cell. Microbiol., 1: 93-99, 1999. ...
... gastric and liver diseases. In the present review, we discuss the various pathways that mediate oxidative cellular damage. ... gastric and liver diseases. In the present review, we discuss the various pathways that mediate oxidative cellular damage. ... This is due to lipid peroxidation and irreversible protein modification that leads to cellular apoptosis or programmed cell ... This is due to lipid peroxidation and irreversible protein modification that leads to cellular apoptosis or programmed cell ...
  • Helicobacter pylori is causally linked to gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori gastritis is characterized by leukocyte infiltration of the gastric mucosa. (asm.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration and gastric carcinoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of chronic gastritis and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease, maltoma, and gastric cancer. (physiology.org)
  • Helicobacter pylori is a helical-shaped, gram negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric niche of half of the human population 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen binding adhesin (BabA) mediates bacterial adherence to human blood group antigens on gastric epithelium. (bmj.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori colonises the human stomach and is the principal cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric atrophy (AT), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and gastric adenocarcinoma. (bmj.com)
  • Apoptosis, like Helicobacter pylori , has a long history, extending back into the 19th Century. (bmj.com)
  • Background -Infection with a virulent Helicobacter pylori strain is associated with gastric mucosal damage and the increased risk of gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells is induced by Helicobacter pylori and accompanied by increased expression of BAK. (nih.gov)
  • Purpose: Helicobacter pylori causes gastric damage and is involved in gastric carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Infection with cagA -positive Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of B cell origin. (pnas.org)
  • Infection with Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Gastric cancer is usually associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The vacA , cagA and babA2 genotypes of Helicobacter pylori are associated with gastric pathology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) induces chronic inflammation, tissue damage, deregulation of cellular regeneration and gastric carcinogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, gastric mucosal infection by Helicobacter pylori may affect the normal balance between gastric epithelial proliferation and death from apoptosis, thus disregulating the normal cell cycle and initially leading to gastritis. (isciii.es)
  • Two key virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori are the secreted virulent proteins of vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin associated protein A (CagA) which lead to damages of gastric epithelial cells. (medsci.org)
  • ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of some specific biochemical indicators in discriminating between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and H. pylori-associated stomach cancer (serum gastrin level, serum soluble E-cadherin and tissue COX-2 activity, as well as serodiagnostic markers for H. pylori infection) in order to find a simple diagnostic test that can reasonably predict the development of gastric cancer. (who.int)
  • Lack of association between gene polymorphisms of Angiotensin converting enzyme, Nod-like receptor 1, Toll-like receptor 4, FAS/FASL and the presence of Helicobacter pylori-induced premalignant gastric lesions and gastric cancer in Caucasians. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Several polymorphisms of genes involved in the immunological recognition of Helicobacter pylori and regulating apoptosis and proliferation have been linked to gastric carcinogenesis, however reported data are partially conflicting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infections are strongly implicated in human gastric mucosa-associated diseases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background & Aims Infection with the gastric mucosal pathogen Helicobacter pylori is the strongest identified risk factor for distal gastric cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • The pathogenesis of gastric malignancies involves multistep progression changes in gastric mucosa and the Helicobacter pylori infections is the first step in most of cases. (who.int)
  • Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is disease, gastric cancer, and lymphoma are compli- common all over the world. (who.int)
  • Special Section-Gastric Cancer and Helicobacter pylori: Where To Next? (aacrjournals.org)
  • Revelation of the connection between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric adenocarcinoma has prompted new investigations pertaining to its basic and clinical aspects. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vitro studies suggest that in H. pylori infection, T cells infiltrating the gastric mucosa mainly produce proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). (physiology.org)
  • Activation of ER stress and up-regulation of BH3-only proteins were also observed in human H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. (jove.com)
  • Collectively, this study reveals a possible association between VacA-induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells, and activation of ER stress in H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa. (jove.com)
  • In a follow up of these findings, no mutagenic activity was found in H. pylori-infected mouse mucosa when tested for mutagenic substances with the Ames test. (diva-portal.org)
  • Intestinal mucosa is consisted of epithelial cells and responsible for nutrient absorption and waste secretion, which requires a selectively permeable barrier. (springer.com)
  • Despite this being the most common origin of peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma, the latter two conditions have different clinical courses and rarely develop concomitantly in the same mucosa. (isciii.es)
  • Epithelial cell proliferation was more likely to be increased in mucosa where intestinal metaplasia was present. (bmj.com)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a major role in gastric mucosa repair and is overexpressed in gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We now report that human colonic fibroblast cell lines produce significant amounts of PGI 2 and that fibroblast lines derived from normal-appearing colonic mucosa of hereditary nonpolyposis CRC individuals produce 50-fold more PGI 2 than normal fibroblast lines derived from individuals with nonhereditary CRC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It should be noted that the gastrointestinal tract is also sensitive to trichothecene-induced apoptosis affecting mainly the gastric mucosa, gastric granular epithelium and intestinal crypt cell epithelium (Bondy and Pestka, 2000). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • H. pylori infection is also associated with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of B cell origin ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, exactly why the genesis and progression of the atrophic changes takes place in the gastric mucosa of some, but not all of the subjects infected with H. pylori, is seldom described. (bvsalud.org)
  • Gastric Cancer arises from gastric mucosa which is lining of the stomach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eighty samples from gastric lesions (chronic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and intestinal metaplasia), 18 gastric adenocarcinoma and 10 normal mucosa H. pylori- negative (control) samples were obtained. (scielo.br)
  • Statistically significant differences were found between the histological and the molecular method in intestinal metaplasia (p = 0.0461) and gastric adenocarcinoma (p = 0.0011), due to underdetection of H. pylori by the histological method, which is probably due to the low density of the bacterium as a consequence of the severe atrophy of the gastric mucosa. (scielo.br)
  • Runx3 null mouse gastric mucosa exhibits hyperplasia due to stimulated proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in epithelial cells, and the cells are resistant to TGF-beta stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronis gastritis is the inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which leads to atrophy of the mucosal cells and metaplasia of the epithelial cells. (brainscape.com)
  • Basically a fancy way of saying a hole through the gastric mucosa caused by the digestion from stomach acid. (brainscape.com)
  • It is a malignant tumour that grows in the gastric mucosa and is very fatal. (brainscape.com)
  • Gastric mucosal defense systems assist the gastric mucosa to withstand frequent exposure to damaging factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the fundus for the TNM classification system) (UICC, and corpus, they differentiate within few 1997) are lined by two basically different weeks to chief cells, parietal cells, and suspected precursor cells can be identified mucosa is characterized by rather straight, Proliferation kinetics of the gastric antral cells, chief (or zymogenic) cells, parietal have concentrated on proliferation of the 1997). (dosingpdf.com)
  • in the distal third of the stomach, i.e. antrum and pylorus, and also at the cardia of epithelial cells in the antrum, but 2.8% in the gastric body epithelium were found to be in the in DNA synthesis (S-) phase of mean duration of S-phase of gastric antral different glands, fundus-type and antrum- type mucosa differ also with respect to the 1993). (dosingpdf.com)
  • Research progress of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of gastric mucosa injury caused by long-term use. (amegroups.com)
  • On the other hand, the decrease of COX-1 activity inhibits the production of prostaglandin (PG) in gastric mucosa, which leads to the decrease of gastric mucosal blood flow and the weakening of mucous barrier. (amegroups.com)
  • That makes the gastric mucosa more vulnerable to injury. (amegroups.com)
  • This paper reviews the research progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of gastric mucosa injury caused by LDA. (amegroups.com)
  • It was found that Panax quinquefolius ( Xiyangshen ) saponins, Astragaloside A, Dendrobium officinale ( Tiepishihu ) polysaccharide, Bletilla Striata ( Baiji ), Jinghua Weikang capsule, Danhong injection and other TCM components or preparations can increase the level of PG in gastric mucosa and increase the blood flow of gastric mucosa, so as to improve the effect of gastric mucous barrier. (amegroups.com)
  • This provides a certain idea for the prevention and treatment of gastric mucosa injury caused by long-term application of LDA in patients with CHD. (amegroups.com)
  • The commonest endoscopic finding was inflammation of gastric mucosa. (who.int)
  • Its recruitment tive gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric cancer and is mediated by H. pylori peptide (2-20), then eosin- mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (1). (who.int)
  • The mucous layer of the gastric mucosa is the oxyntic mucosa of the fundus and body except in primary site of H. pylori colonization and often heavy colonization (6). (who.int)
  • In contrast, in gastric cancer, COX-2 strongly predominates in the epithelium, suggesting that the transition to consistent epithelial COX-2 overexpression may be a critical molecular event in gastric carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings suggest that loss of COX-2 methylation may facilitate COX-2 expression and promote gastric carcinogenesis associated with H. pylori infection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This different cell response may favour gastric carcinogenesis. (diva-portal.org)
  • In conclusion, H. pylori may promote gastric carcinogenesis in several ways. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, the exact function of Krt17 in the carcinogenesis and the progression of gastric cancer (GC) remains unknown. (jcancer.org)
  • The present studies were performed to characterize PG production by human pericryptal fibroblast cell lines and to test the hypothesis that stromal PGs affect epithelial function and contribute to colon carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study may reflect an in vivo scenario illustrating multiphasic involvement of EBV in carcinogenesis of gastric or other epithelial cancers. (asm.org)
  • To clarify the role of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) and β-catenin in carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC), our results showed that high HDGF expression was found in CRC cells and tissues and significantly related to histological differentiation ( p = 0.035) and lymph node metastasis ( p = 0.000). (oncotarget.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: ACE, NOD1, TRL4 and FAS/FASL gene polymorphisms are not linked with gastric carcinogenesis in Caucasians, and therefore they should not be considered as potential biomarkers for identifying individuals with higher risk for GC. (biomedsearch.com)
  • H. pylori -induced persistent and uncontrolled gastric inflammation nearly always precedes the development of cancer and is instrumental in initiating a multistep process leading to carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Such knowledge might provide clues that allow more accurate prediction of variable outcomes of gastric inflammation and appropriate adjustment of treatment strategies, and might open up novel areas for studying gastric carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There is increasing evidence that lncRNAs play an important role in many aspects, such as cell differentiation, chromatin remodeling, immune responses and carcinogenesis [ 10 - 12 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • All individuals with H. pylori infection have gastritis, usually involving the antrum, that is characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration with polymorphonuclear cell invasion of the gastric lamina propria and glandular epithelium ( 10 , 11 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Gastric biopsies from H. pylori -positive and -negative patients were used to examine the in situ correlation of TNF-α and IFN-γ with epithelial cell apoptosis, bacterial load, and histological parameters of gastritis. (physiology.org)
  • In previous studies, we examined the effect of TNF-α and IFN-γ on gastrin release ( 20 ) as well as on migration and proliferation of isolated gastric cells ( 18 ) and suggested that TNF-α could be one of the key cytokines in H. pylori -associated gastritis and peptic ulcer disease ( 20 ). (physiology.org)
  • Furthermore, studies have shown the association among H. pylori gastritis, T cell infiltration, and class II major histocompatibility complex expression in gastric epitelial cells ( 29 , 33 ). (physiology.org)
  • Induction of apoptosis by H. pylori has been observed in patients with gastritis and duodenal ulcers ( 15 ) and subsides after successful H. pylori eradication ( 15 , 17 , 23 , 25 ). (physiology.org)
  • This infection has been proven to be associated with gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcers but also with gastric cancer and MALT-lymphoma. (diva-portal.org)
  • Although strains harbouring babA2 were recently found to be associated with peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, the role of bab A2 in cellular turnover, severity of gastritis, and premalignant changes is poorly understood. (bmj.com)
  • Infection with H. pylori plays a role in the pathogenesis of gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and gastric lymphoma, but mechanisms leading to the various clinical manifestations remain obscure and are the primary focus of research in this field. (isciii.es)
  • In all infectes subjects this bacterium induces chronic gastritis of varying severity, which in around 10-15% of cases progresses to peptic ulcer (infection is associated with 90% of gastric and duodenal peptic diseases), and in 1-2% of subjects ultimately results in MALT lymphoma or gastric adenocarcinoma (1-3) ( Fig. 1 ). (isciii.es)
  • Aims -To examine the characteristics of host gastric mucosal responses in patients with gastric cancer, histological grade of gastritis, gastric epithelial apoptosis, and proliferation were studied. (bmj.com)
  • Increased damage of gastric epithelial DNA and the presence of more severe atrophic gastritis might contribute to the development of gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • 3 Recent serological studies have shown that CagA seropositivity is associated with an increased risk of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Chronic gastritis induced by H pylori infection usually progresses to atrophic gastritis, which is a well known risk factor for gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • The objectives were to determine the frequency of infection and distribution of the vacA , cagA and babA2 genotypes of H. pylori in patients with gastric ulcer, chronic gastritis and gastric cancer, and to evaluate the association of virulent genotypes with diagnosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chronic gastritis was confirmed in 767 patients, gastric ulcer in 115 and cancer in 39. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They may experience no symptoms, have a peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma/ lymphoma or chronic gastritis. (brainscape.com)
  • The study participants comprised 20 patients with gastric carcinoma, 20 patients with positive H. pylori-associated gastritis and 20 individuals as the control group. (who.int)
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate potential associations between the presence of gastric cancer (GC) and high risk atrophic gastritis (HRAG) and polymorphisms of genes encoding Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Nod-like receptor 1 (NOD1), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and FAS/FASL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The expression of miR-370 was decreased in human gastritis and gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is implicated in the pathogenesis of a num- gastritis is a part of the inflammatory cells that play ber of digestive tract disorders, such as chronic ac- an important role in immune system. (who.int)
  • When in con- gastritis progresses to involve the gastric body and tact with epithelium, H. pylori organisms character- fundus resulting in pan-gastritis. (who.int)
  • This pan-gastritis istically attach to, but do not penetrate, the surface is associated with multifocal mucosal atrophy, re- mucous cells. (who.int)
  • The clinical spectrum of H. pylori infection ranges from asymptomatic gastritis and peptic ulcer to gastric malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The occurrence of one versus another is the result of differences in the magnitude of gastritis, and the current disease paradigm suggests gastric inflammation is common to all H. pylori -associated gastroduodenal diseases. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cardia gastric adenocarcinoma patients are younger at the time of diagnosis, mostly male, are more likely to use tobacco and alcohol, more likely to have concomitant hiatal hernia, less likely to have chronic gastritis, and more likely to have a diffuse type cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Different precancerous lesions probably exist for these two types inasmuch as the intestinal type of gastric adenocarcinoma follows the proposed sequential changes from gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia to cancer ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, circTCF25 overexpression promoted cell proliferation and migration by downregulating miR-103a-3p/-107 expression and increasing CDK6 (cell-dependent kinase 6) expression in vitro or in vivo 11 . (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, H.pylori significantly promoted cell proliferation in rats exposed to bile, and in mice given the combination of MNNG and bile. (diva-portal.org)
  • H. pylori and CagA inhibited the expression of p27 Kip1 (CDKN1B) and promoted cell proliferation by upregulating FoxM1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA), long intergenic non-coding RNA 152 (LINC00152), tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC), metastasis, prognosis. (jcancer.org)
  • These findings suggest that downregulated expression of parafibromin protein plays an important role in the pathogenesis, differentiation, and metastasis of HNSCCs possibly by inducing apoptosis, suppressing proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, invasion, and EMT. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies have revealed critical functions of miRNAs in tumor biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, metastasis and chemosensitivity ( 23 , 24 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Moreover, miR-30a has demonstrated its role in biological processes, including inhibiting proliferation and metastasis in many tumors, autophagy in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and regulating TGF-b1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. (hindawi.com)
  • In principle, cancer cells can spread within the body by different mechanisms, such as direct invasion of surrounding tissues (per continuitatem), spread via the blood vascular system (hematogenous metastasis) and spread via the lymphatic system (lymphatic metastasis). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Moreover, expression of VEGF-C mRNA has recently been shown to correlate with the rate of metastasis to lymph nodes in breast, colorectal, gastric, thyroid, lung and prostate cancers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • TNF may also play a role in metastasis, as it stimulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion from mammary epithelial cells ( 10 , 11 ) as well as the surrounding stroma ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our present study demonstrates that miR-143-3p, a miRNA species that is downregulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines, inhibits the development and metastasis of ESCC cells both in vivo and in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we show that up-regulated expression of EBV-miR-BART13-3p leads to increased capacity in migration and invasion of NPC cells in vitro and causes tumor metastasis in vivo . (aging-us.com)
  • Tumor progression and metastasis are influenced by tumor-associated stroma as well as the tumor cell itself [37]. (acmbcb.org)
  • Abnormally expressed miRNA may serve as tumour suppressors or oncogenes, which regulate a wide range of biological processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis [ 19 - 21 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Low grk2 expression is associated with lung metastasis in gastric cancer. (genscript.com)
  • Title: Long noncoding RNA UCA1 promotes tumour metastasis by inducing GRK2 degradation in gastric cancer. (genscript.com)
  • Epithelial- Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) plays a key role in the process of metastasis, which is a biological process that epithelial cells lose their polarity and turn into mesenchymal phenotype. (imedpub.com)
  • However, the regulatory mechanisms of GC tumorigenesis and cancer cell motility are completely unknown. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • To investigate the roles of parafibromin expression in tumorigenesis, progression, and prognostic evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), we transfected parafibromin-expressing plasmid into HNSCC cell and examined the phenotypes and their relevant molecules. (springer.com)
  • Luteolin also inhibited the tumorigenesis and induced the apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer cells by upregulation of miR-34a-5p by targeting MDM4 ( 26 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Chen S, Wang J, Gou W-F, Xiu Y-L, Zheng H-C, Zong Z-H, Takano Y, Zhao Y. The Involvement of RhoA and Wnt-5a in the Tumorigenesis and Progression of Ovarian Epithelial Carcinoma. (mdpi.com)
  • Scientists have been working hard to discover the myths beneath gastric tumorigenesis: novel biomarkers have been established, and cell transduction cascades have been well described. (intechopen.com)
  • This mechanism may have relevance to maintenance of cells in the normal crypt and to clonal expansion of mutant colonocytes during tumorigenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a xenograft model of nude mice, administration of PPZ significantly inhibited tumorigenesis and induced large-scale apoptosis of tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While in colorectal cancer, FAT4 was found to inhibit tumorigenesis by regulating the PI3K activity in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and to play a significant role in preventing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic ablation of ASC in the gp130 F/F spontaneous mouse model of intestinal-type gastric cancer suppressed tumorigenesis by augmenting caspase-8-like apoptosis in the gastric epithelium, independently from effects on myeloid cells and mucosal inflammation. (monash.edu)
  • Genetic ablation of IL18 in the same model also suppressed gastric tumorigenesis, whereas blockade of IL1β and IL1α activity upon genetic ablation of the IL1 receptor had no effect. (monash.edu)
  • HDGF knockdown dramatically inhibited cellular proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis, both in vitro and in vivo , but induced G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in CRC cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • Overexpression of miR-7 repressed RELA and FOS expression and prevented GC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. (rupress.org)
  • One virulence factor that has been associated with increased risk of gastric disease is the Cag-pathogenicity island, a 40-kb region within the chromosome of H. pylori that encodes a type IV secretion system and the cognate effector molecule, CagA 4,5 . (jove.com)
  • The Cag-T4SS is responsible for translocating CagA and peptidoglycan into host epithelial cells 5,6 . (jove.com)
  • We correlated H pylori babA2 , vacuolating toxin ( vacA ), and cytotoxin associated gene A ( cagA ) genotypes with the severity of gastric inflammation and epithelial cell turnover in a group of Chinese patients from an area with a high incidence of gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • The presence of babA2 + H pylori strains alone or in combination with cagA + and vacA s1 was associated with the presence of preneoplastic gastric lesions. (bmj.com)
  • The cytotoxin associated gene A ( cagA) was the first to be identified and was shown to be associated with duodenal ulcers and gastric carcinoma. (bmj.com)
  • Infection with an H pylori strain possessing the cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) causes enhanced gastric epithelial proliferation and apoptosis. (bmj.com)
  • 8, 9 However, in Japan, where most H pylori are of the vacA s1a/m1, cagA positive genotype, strain diversity has not been associated with gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • The cagA -encoded CagA protein is delivered into gastric epithelial cells via the bacterial type IV secretion system and, upon tyrosine phosphorylation by Src family kinases, specifically binds to and aberrantly activates SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase, a bona fide oncoprotein in human malignancies. (pnas.org)
  • CagA also elicits junctional and polarity defects in epithelial cells by interacting with and inhibiting partitioning-defective 1 (PAR1)/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK) independently of CagA tyrosine phosphorylation. (pnas.org)
  • Wild-type CagA transgenic mice showed gastric epithelial hyperplasia and some of the mice developed gastric polyps and adenocarcinomas of the stomach and small intestine. (pnas.org)
  • Systemic expression of wild-type CagA further induced leukocytosis with IL-3/GM-CSF hypersensitivity and some mice developed myeloid leukemias and B cell lymphomas, the hematological malignancies also caused by gain-of-function SHP-2 mutations. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, epidemiological studies have suggested a critical role of cagA -positive H. pylori in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The cagA -encoded CagA protein is delivered into gastric epithelial cells via the bacterial type IV secretion system ( 8 ), where it undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by Src or Abl kinase at the Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) motifs present in variable numbers in the C-terminal region ( 9 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • CagA-deregulated SHP-2 perturbs the Erk MAP kinase ( 15 ) and also dephosphorylates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to induce an elongated cell-shape known as the hummingbird phenotype ( 8 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • More recently, CagA was found to impair the cell-cell interaction independently of CagA tyrosine phosphorylation. (pnas.org)
  • CagA disrupts tight junctions and causes the loss of apical-basolateral polarity in polarized epithelial cells by binding and inhibiting partitioning-defective 1 (PAR1)/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK) ( 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because normal epithelial architecture constrains abnormal cell proliferation ( 22 ), its disorganization by CagA may also contribute neoplastic transformation of cells. (pnas.org)
  • The DNA of H. pylori and the vacA , cagA and babA2 genes was detected by PCR in total DNA from gastric biopsies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • babA2 was associated with gastric cancer, and cagA was not associated with the diagnosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In population from Southern Mexico, H. pylori and the s1m1 genotype were associated with gastric cancer and the s1m1 / cagA +/ babA2 + strains predominated in tumor and adjacent tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection with babA2 -positive H. pylori has been associated with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma and is related to increased risk of severe disease when it coexists with the cagA gene and the vacA s1 allele. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the first described bacterial oncoprotein, CagA causes gastric epithelial cell transformation by promoting an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype that disrupts junctions and enhances motility and invasiveness of the infected cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, the mechanism by which CagA disrupts gastric epithelial cell polarity to achieve its oncogenicity is not fully understood. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mechanistically, the CagA-ASPP2 interaction is a key event that promotes remodeling of the partitioning-defective (PAR) polarity complex and leads to loss of cell polarity of infected cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To test this hypothesis, the human gastric cell line KATO III cells were co-cultured with H. pylori 60190 (VacA + /CagA + ) and C3G. (medsci.org)
  • CagA also induces cellular apoptosis 6 , interleukin-8 secretion 7 , 8 and cancer development via multiple pathways 9 - 11 . (medsci.org)
  • ectopic expression of CagA in gastric epithelial cells increased phosphorylation of HDM2 along with the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of p53. (elsevier.com)
  • All trans -retinoic acid (Retin-A) has been shown to effectively reverse GED and thereby suppress its progression to gastric cancer [ 10 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Inhibition of endogenous Rap1b dramatically reduced the cell cycle progression but strongly enhanced the apoptosis capacity of human GC cell lines MKN-28 and SGC-7901 cells compared with the control group. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • However, the expression of lncRNAs in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and their relevance on the diagnosis, progression and prognosis of TSCC have not been thoroughly elucidated. (jcancer.org)
  • Downregulated parafibromin expression is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of parathyroid, breast, gastric, colorectal, and lung cancers. (springer.com)
  • The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genetic program is implicated as a significant contributor to prostate cancer progression. (medsci.org)
  • SNHG6 is a lncRNA that has previously been found to contribute to the initiation and progression of hepatocellular and gastric carcinomas. (springer.com)
  • similarly, miR-30a also plays an important role in cancer development and progression by modulating target genes, including inhibiting proliferation, invasion, and migration, inducing apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Myeloid cell leukemia-1 ( MCL1 ) is one of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins with a short half-life period, and previous work has demonstrated that up-regulation of MCL1 might inhibit apoptosis, chemoresistance, and cell cycle progression of tumor cells [ 4 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • No study has investigated yet its role in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in cancer initiation and progression via their ability to affect expression of genes and proteins that regulate cell proliferation and/or cell death. (plos.org)
  • indicated that ectopic expression of miR-34 induces cell cycle arrest in both primary and tumor-derived cell lines, which is consistent with the ability of miR-34 to downregulate a program of genes promoting cell cycle progression [11] . (plos.org)
  • In this review, we discuss how recent discoveries about chromatin modifications, particularly histone acetylation, are shaping our knowledge of cell biology and our understanding of the molecular circuitry governing tumor progression and consider whether recent insights may extend to novel therapeutic approaches. (omicsonline.org)
  • H. pylori infection generally persists for life with a widespread gastric inflammatory response, implying that the local mechanisms are ineffective in clearing the infection. (physiology.org)
  • Moreover, H.pylori infection is associated with increased cell proliferation and unchanged apoptosis, which increases the risk for mitotic errors and mutations from endo- and exogenous carcinogens. (diva-portal.org)
  • There is also scientific evidence that demonstrates an association between H. pylori infection and exacerbated synthesis of free radicals, the latter being well known as a primary cause of cell death. (isciii.es)
  • Our findings suggest that PCR is the more efficient method for the assessment of H. pylori infection, especially in metaplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma. (scielo.br)
  • Our data suggest that consumption of foods containing anthocyanin may be beneficial in reducing cell damage due to H. pylori infection. (medsci.org)
  • Turmeric and its constituent curcumin have been found to inhibit lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase in rat tissues and in vitro 23 , 18 , 22 , as well as thromboxane B 2 19 and leukotriene B4 formation 28 , 23 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the present study, the results showed that miR‑381 was downregulated in EC tissues and cell lines. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the present study, the expression of Krt17 in 20 fresh GC and matched normal tissues were detected and Krt17 was found to be significantly increased in GC tissues compared to normal tissues. (jcancer.org)
  • Then, expression of pleiotrophin (PTN) and miR‑384 was detected in cells and CRC tissues by qPCR. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Luteolin was found to upregulate miR‑384 and downregulate PTN expressions both in CRC cells and tissues. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Galectin-1 is widely distributed in many normal and pathological tissues and appears to be functionally polyvalent, such as regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, mediating tumor transformation, growth and so on. (biovendor.com)
  • In this study, we found that ENO1 was highly expressed in BC tissues and cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • Most isoforms are found in all tissues, but some are found only in certain types of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our study suggested that LINC00152 was overexpressed in GC tissues, and it down-regulated miR-193a-3p to enhance MCL1 expression thereby promoting GC cells proliferation. (portlandpress.com)
  • We found that a large set of miRNAs were ectopic expressions and miR-140-5p is the most significantly downregulated in human RB tissues compared with normal retinas. (bioportfolio.com)
  • TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor-beta1) is a potent growth inhibitor in epithelial tissues, and it also induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we investigated the function of MMP-7 in cervical cancer cells and evaluated its clinical significance in both tissues and serum from cervical cancer patients. (dovepress.com)
  • Tumor cells can invade either the blood or lymphatic vessels to access the general circulation and then establish themselves in other tissues. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We investigated the occurrence of neoplasms, karyometric patterns, androgen and estrogen receptors, basal cells, and global methylation status in ventral and dorsolateral prostate tissues. (pills2021.com)
  • Lower expression of FAT4 was observed in ovarian cancer cell lines and human samples as compared to non-malignant tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this case the tumor becomes heterogeneous and some cells are able to separate from others and spread into other tissues. (conicyt.cl)
  • When these cells reach the blood through the lymph vessels, the dissemination can reach distant tissues. (conicyt.cl)
  • We analyzed microRNA profiling data of human nasopharyngeal tissues (312 paraffin-embedded NPC specimens vs. 18 normal nasopharyngeal tissues) in GEO database, and we found that expression levels of EBV-miR-BART13-3p were higher in NPC tissues than in normal nasopharyngeal tissues. (aging-us.com)
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
  • Significant positive correlation between HDGF expression and β-catenin abnormal expression was found in CRC tissues. (oncotarget.com)
  • Experiments indicated that miR-18b was upregulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Specifically controlled morphogenesis and growth of developing epithelial tissues require coordination of multiple factors, including proliferation, adhesion, cell shape, and apoptosis. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Methods Mongolian gerbils were challenged with H pylori and their gastric tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting with p53 antibodies. (elsevier.com)
  • Using the quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) method for telomere measurement, we were able to measure the telomere lengths of various cell types within tissues. (wiley.com)
  • Normal diploid cells from humans show a limited capacity for proliferation in culture, 1 and this finite replicative lifespan has frequently been used as a model of human aging in mitotic tissues and organs. (wiley.com)
  • 5 Telomeric repeats of DNA sequences at chromosome ends are shortened by 33-120 bp with each cell division in human fibroblasts 6 and lymphocytes 7 in vitro , but the question of telomere shortening with aging in many other cell types, and human tissues and organs in vivo remains unclear. (wiley.com)
  • The expression levels of circRNA 0001073 (circ-1073) in BC cells (BCCs) and tissues and peritumoural tissues were detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. (dovepress.com)
  • Low circ-1073 expression was discovered in BCCs and BC tissues compared with normal mammary epithelial cells and peritumoural tissues, respectively. (dovepress.com)
  • Circular RNAs (circRNAs) belong to a special class of noncoding RNAs with regulatory potential 2 , 3 and are broadly expressed across cells and tissues. (dovepress.com)
  • Effects of GLP-1, including increased insulin secretion, decreased glucagon secretion, slowed gastric emptying, and maintenance of blood glucose levels [ 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Pantoprazole (PPZ) of these proton pump inhibitors, a substituted 2-pyridyl methyl/sulfinyl benzimidazole derivative, is a prodrug requiring protonation for functional activation at acidic conditions, accumulating selectively in acidic gastric luminal space and ultimately inhibiting acid secretion by the covalent binding with cysteine residues in α-subunit of H + /K + -ATPase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The potential disease-preventive actions of anthocyanins include antibacterial effects 22 , 23 , inhibitory effects on the development of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer 10 , 14 , 24 , and reduction in interleukin-8 secretion 7 . (medsci.org)
  • In the current report, using a newly developed anti-SecA antibody, we found that C3G inhibited synthesis of SecA resulting in inhibition of VacA secretion. (medsci.org)
  • We usually treat gastric mucous injury caused by long-term use of low-dose-aspirin (LDA) with drugs that inhibit gastric acid secretion. (amegroups.com)
  • We usually treat gastric mucous injury caused by LDA with drugs that inhibit gastric acid secretion ( 12 ). (amegroups.com)
  • Overexpression of circ-NOLC1 in CAOV3 cells increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion ability, whereas silencing of circ-NOLC1 in A2780 cells had the opposite effect: however, neither circ-NOLC1 downregulation nor overexpression influenced NOLC1 mRNA expression. (nature.com)
  • Through the action of sponge miRNA (miR), circHIPK3 regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, and plays a key role in disease processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, we showed silencing of Krt17 inhibited GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis by altering Bcl2 family protein expression and cleaved caspase3 upregulation. (jcancer.org)
  • First, the effects of luteolin on CRC cells proliferation, migration and invasion were examined by CCK‑8, wound healing and Transwell assays, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It was demonstrated that luteolin had no effects on CRC cells proliferation while inhibited cells migration and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • miR‑384 inhibition and PTN overexpression partially reversed the inhibition of HT‑29 cells migration and invasion induced by luteolin. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Background: Ras homolog gene family member A ( RhoA ) is involved in Wnt-5a-induced migration of gastric and breast cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The effects of berberine on cell migration and invasion were determined by transwell migration assay and Matrigel invasion assay. (medsci.org)
  • Our data also indicate that SNHG6 may contribute to the migration and EMT of breast cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumor growth in prostate cancer in a cannabinoid-receptor 2 dependent manner. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Silencing of MMP-7 significantly decreased cervical cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. (dovepress.com)
  • MMP-7 appears to act as an oncogene in cervical cancer cells and is involved in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. (dovepress.com)
  • compared to normal gastric epithelial cells, and the extract effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • effectively inhibits gastric cancer cell growth, migration and invasion. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • CCL5 mediates recruitment and migration of T lymphocytes and macrophages4, 5 and is indicated by a wide variety of cells including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and platelets4. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Proliferation, wound healing, transwell-migration/invasion and adhesion assays were performed in HCCLM3 and HepG2 cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bufalin inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, Akt1 down-regulation in IGF-IR-stimulated cells promoted dramatic neomorphic effects characteristic of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced cell migration induced by IGF-I or EGF stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, down-regulation of Akt2 suppressed the EMT-like morphological conversion induced by Akt1 down-regulation in IGF-IR-overexpressing cells and inhibited migration in EGF-stimulated cells. (rupress.org)
  • These results highlight the distinct functions of Akt isoforms in regulating growth factor-stimulated EMT and cell migration, as well as the importance of Akt1 in cross-regulating the ERK signaling pathway. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, we find that EBV-miR-BART13-3p directly targets ABI2, known as a tumor suppressor and a cell migration inhibitor, drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by activating c-JUN/SLUG signaling pathway. (aging-us.com)
  • Endometriosis, which shares certain characteristics with cancers, may cause abnormal expression of proteins involved in cell migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) are believed to play an important role in endometriotic migration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study suggests that the up-regulation of MMP-9 via activation of OPN induced by estrogen may correlate with the migration of endometrial epithelial cells in patients with endometriosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In any subsite of the stomach, the proliferating stem cells are localized in the neck of gastric glands, and epithelial migration occurs bidirectionally. (dosingpdf.com)
  • It also enjoys a potential effect on invasion and migration of multiple malignancies, including that of gastric cancer. (imedpub.com)
  • Recent studies found that EMT has a potential effect on invasion and migration of multiple malignancies [ 16 , 17 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • Tumor cell migration and motor ability are enhanced. (imedpub.com)
  • In order to determine the role of miR-21 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) functional assays such as cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion, and migration, were done after knocking down miR-21 expression in A-498 cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fas and Fas-ligand (Fas-L) expression have been described in freshly isolated gastric epitelial cells, on mononuclear cells, and in gastric T cell lines, as well as in gastric adenocarcinoma ( 3 ). (physiology.org)
  • Sustained stimulation of apoptosis could ultimately result in excessive cell loss and ulcer development (in the acute phase) or atrophy (in the chronic phase) and promote the subsequent occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma. (physiology.org)
  • Recently, the antitumor effects of luteolin have been extensively investigated in breast and gastric cancer ( 6 ), melanoma ( 7 ), esophageal carcinoma ( 8 ), glioblastoma ( 9 ), hepatocellular carcinoma ( 10 ), placental choriocarcinoma ( 11 ) and lung adenocarcinoma ( 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Gastric adenocarcinoma is the fourth most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, an increasing number of studies have suggested a causal relationship between EBV and primary gastric carcinoma of the more common adenocarcinoma type ( 11 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The PCR test detected H. pylori in 27.5% (22/80) of the benign gastric lesions and in 50% (9/18) of the gastric adenocarcinoma cases, the histological diagnosis being negative for this bacterium. (scielo.br)
  • The two main types of EC are esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and each disease possesses distinct histopathological features and clinical behaviors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HDGF is a prognostic marker in several types of cancer including hepatocellular carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and non small cell lung cancer [ 2 - 7 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • These strains creased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma (6). (who.int)
  • Despite initial optimism about the potential of combination anti- H. pylori therapy to ultimately eradicate gastric adenocarcinoma, recent investigations suggest its use should be targeted and tailored to a selected patient group considering the multifaceted role of H. pylori in disease and the disease heterogeneity of gastric adenocarcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The evolving new technologies, such as microarray, proteomic, and functional genomic analyses, promise to shed new light on the immense complexity of the presumed host-environment interactions and will reveal more useful markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite its decline in incidence, gastric adenocarcinoma remains a worldwide disease with a dismal prognosis ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is noteworthy that gastric adenocarcinoma is heterogeneous with respect to anatomic location, histologic subtypes, and etiologic factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anatomically, gastric adenocarcinoma can grossly be split into two major types, cardia and noncardia gastric adenocarcinomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cardia cancers share important features with esophageal and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas and these features distinguish cardia from "noncardia" gastric adenocarcinoma, found more commonly in the distal stomach. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The incidence of cardia cancer (in contrast to that of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma) is increasing ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Histologically, gastric adenocarcinoma may be subdivided into intestinal and diffuse types. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The intestinal type (also known as the "epidemic type") predominates in high-risk populations, is more frequently found in the elderly, and is characterized by a histologic pattern similar to that of large bowel adenocarcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The diffuse type of gastric adenocarcinoma is less common, occurring relatively more frequently in low-risk populations and mostly in younger or "blood group A" people. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, profiles of genetic alterations differ in relation to its anatomic locations and histologic subtypes of gastric adenocarcinoma ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In terms of etiologic factors, the major environmental risks for gastric adenocarcinoma are traditionally linked to diet, smoking, and occupational exposure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The resistant cells exhibited characteristics of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and acquired higher migratory and invasive capacities. (mdpi.com)
  • Liu et al also reported that luteolin was able to inhibit CRC cells epithelial to mesenchymal transition by suppressing CREB1 expression ( 16 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, it strongly stated an evidence that miR-30a increases the cisplatin sensitivity of gastric cancer cells by suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [ 31 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ectopic expression of miR-143-3p also reduced the metastatic potential of cells by selectively regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulatory proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The adhesion molecule, FAT4, has a tumor suppressor function with a critical role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and anti-malignant growth in several cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), a mechanism associated with embryogenesis and wound repair but also with mobility acquisition, is one of the concerned processes. (conicyt.cl)
  • Currently, studies are focused on three mechanisms: epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor microenvironment influence and activated fibroblasts present in tumoral desmoplastic reaction, the cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF). (conicyt.cl)
  • Moreover, circ-1073 upregulation significantly suppressed cell mobility and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. (dovepress.com)
  • Feng W, Cong H, Shen X, Zong W, Ju S (2018) Roles of Long Noncoding RNAs in Regulating Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process in Gastric Cancer. (imedpub.com)
  • The ectopic expression of miR‑381 significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of EC cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • IGF‑1R overexpression partially abrogated the tumor‑suppressive effects of miR‑381 on the proliferation and invasion of EC cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Correspondingly, inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway by ICG-001, a specific Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor, preferentially reduced proliferation and invasion of trastuzumab-resistant cells and reversed EMT. (mdpi.com)
  • We have performed cell viability, colony formation, and invasion assays in ovarian cancer cells treated with siRNA to knockdown FAT4 gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This down-regulation seems to enhance cell viability, invasion, and colony formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Actually peritumoral inflammation is significantly associated with perineural invasion suggesting a relationship PF299804 between the presence of inflammation and tumor cell invasiveness. (acmbcb.org)
  • MiR-18b downregulation suppressed the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells. (alliedacademies.org)
  • miR-34 restoration significantly inhibited clonogenic cell growth and invasion, induced apoptosis and G1 and G2/M arrest in cell cycle, and sensitized the cells to chemotherapy and radiation. (plos.org)
  • MTT, colony formation, Transwell and EdU assays were performed to assess the effects of miR-424 or circLARP4 on cell proliferation and invasion. (paperity.org)
  • Ectopic expression of miR-424 promoted proliferation and invasion of GC cells by targeting LATS1 gene. (paperity.org)
  • Growing evidence has shown that miRNAs play important roles in numerous cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, differentiation, metabolism and stress response ( 11 - 13 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • LMP1 induces epidermal hyperplasia in transgenic mice ( 41 ), alters keratin gene expression in human keratinocytes ( 7 ), inhibits cell differentiation in some immortalized epithelial cell lines ( 5 ), induces expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor ( 21 ), and blocks p53-mediated apoptosis through activation of the A20 gene ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • This cytokine has been shown to have pleiotropic effects on cells, with the outcome of cell death, growth, or differentiation being concentration-dependent and context-dependent ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a physiologically relevant three-dimensional model system, TNF stimulated the proliferation and branching morphogenesis of rat mammary epithelial organoids, and modulated functional differentiation ( 1 , 5 , 9 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although most infections are asymptomatic, H. pylori is associated with the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric carcinoma, and gastric lymphoma ( 2-4 , 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Patients with low grade dysplasia are usually younger than those with high grade dysplasia, whereas no difference in age was found between patients with high grade dysplasia and those with carcinoma [ 8 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Among them, tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) accounts for approximately 25% to 40% of oral cancers [ 1 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Krt17 was originally discovered as a major constituent of basal cell skin carcinoma [ 10 ], and is a member of the type I acidic epithelial keratin family [ 11 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • on the other hand, despite the high percentage of infected subjects among those who develop gastric carcinoma, a direct mutagenic effect has not been established for these bacteria as yet. (isciii.es)
  • Oncolytic activity of reovirus in HPV positive and negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Cytogenetic alterations and their molecular genetic correlates in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a next generation window to the biology of disease. (springer.com)
  • RhoA or Wnt-5a was knocked down in OVCAR3 ovarian carcinoma cells using siRNAs and cell phenotype and expression of relevant molecules were assayed. (mdpi.com)
  • It is widely reported that Galectin-1 is overexpressed in many different types of digestive systém tumors, including gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. (biovendor.com)
  • Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 mRNA expression in renal cell carcinoma. (biovendor.com)
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphoplasmacytic cells are a key feature of medullary carcinoma of the breast (MCB), a distinct subtype of human breast cancer that, despite cytologically anaplastic characteristics, has a more favorable prognosis than other types of breast cancer. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, EBV infection accelerated, to a significant extent, the growth rate and agar clonability of NU-GC-3 cells, an established EBV-negative but EBV-susceptible human gastric carcinoma cell line. (asm.org)
  • Both EBV-converted PGE and NU-GC-3 clones, like EBV-positive gastric carcinoma biopsy specimens, expressed a restricted set of EBV latent infection genes characterized by the absence of EBNA2 and latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) expression. (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that EBV infection causes a transformed phenotype on PGE in the setting of possible unregulated cell cycling and renders even established gastric carcinoma cells more malignant via a limited spectrum of viral latent-gene expression. (asm.org)
  • About 5 to 15% patients with gastric carcinoma in all parts of the world have EBV DNA in 100% of carcinoma cells ( 11 , 13 , 18 , 30 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Analysis of the terminal sequence of EBV plasmid DNA in gastric carcinoma cells indicated that tumor cells arose from a single EBV-infected cell, thus suggesting that EBV infection had occurred in the very early stage of tumor development ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Gastric carcinoma cells express a limited number of EBV genomes, similar to those in Burkitt's lymphoma, which are EBV-determined nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), two small nonpolyadenylated RNAs known as EBER1 and EBER2, the transcripts from the Bam HI-A region (BARF0), and latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) ( 13 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • This is different from the pattern in NPC, in which LMP1 is also expressed in carcinoma cells in about half of the patients ( 27 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • Thus far, there has been no evidence that EBV provides a continuing contribution to the growth phenotype of EBV-positive gastric carcinoma, which is negative for LMP1 expression. (asm.org)
  • 5 Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) is the most commonly used tumor marker for squamous cell cervical carcinoma. (dovepress.com)
  • However, increased serum SCC-Ag levels are commonly observed not only in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix but also in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, lungs, head and neck, and anus. (dovepress.com)
  • MiR-143-3p has been identified to function as a tumor suppressor in several tumors, but the role of miR-143-3p in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been intensively investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical and biological impact of cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • Results show that Cks1 and Cks2 promoted proliferation and prevented apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Describe gastric carcinoma and its symptoms. (brainscape.com)
  • Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a heparin-binding protein that was originally purified from the conditioned media of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HuH-7, which proliferate autonomously in serum-free chemically defined medium [ 1 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • Anoikis of colon carcinoma cells triggered by beta-catenin loss can be enhanced by tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 antagonists [ 15 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • This disease may be subdivided into small-cell lung carcinoma and Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) according to histological characteristics [ 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • However, the regulation of miR-21 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not yet been studied systematically. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Quantitative Real time PCR (qRT-PCR) results indicated that LINC00152 was highly expressed in 15 primary TSCC biopsies when compared with 14 adjacent non-tumor tongue squamous cell epithelium samples. (jcancer.org)
  • In normal human epithelia, Krt17 expression is identified in various glands, including the respiratory epithelium and urothelium, and Krt17 is regarded as a basal/myoepithelial cell keratin [ 12 , 13 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • this renders mucus ineffective as a barrier defending the gastric epithelium from acid secretions and luminal toxins. (isciii.es)
  • The infected clones retained the ultrastructural morphology characteristic of gastric mucosal epithelium and have been growing stably for more than 18 months (corresponding to at least 300 generations) so far, in clear contrast to the parental PGE cells, which ceased growth after 60 generations. (asm.org)
  • A potential candidate is tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which is expressed in the mammary epithelium and stroma ( 1 , 2 ), as well as the immune cells which are recruited to the mammary gland stroma under various physiologic or pathologic conditions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On the basis of the original study by Li and co-workers (2002), the majority of later literature citing Li and co-workers (2002) assumed that RUNX3 was expressed in the normal gut epithelium and that it is therefore likely to act as a tumor suppressor in the particular epithelial cancer investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others used poorly characterized (or fully invalidated) antibodies to detect the RUNX3 protein, or used RT-PCR or validated antibodies and failed to detect RUNX3 in the gut epithelium but still did not question the original finding by Li and co-workers (2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • The specific protumorigenic role for IL18 was associated with high IL18 gene expression in the gastric tumor epithelium compared with IL1β, which was preferentially expressed in immune cells. (monash.edu)
  • In mediates the homeostasis of epithelium is addition to CD95, H. pylori can also induce programmed cell death, or apoptosis. (dosingpdf.com)
  • Outcomes mutant cells go through apoptosis Our prior function provides proven that imaginal disk cells get rid of epithelial honesty and reside basal to the epithelium (Speck et al. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Additionally, we observed cells within the imaginal epithelium that were caspase positive (Fig. S1 A), indicating that apoptosis was not a secondary effect of loss of epithelial honesty. (stopvivisection.info)
  • For example, circ-Foxo3 can inhibit CDK2 (cell-dependent kinase 2) and induce cell cycle arrest through a circ-Foxo3-p21-CDK2 ternary complex 16 . (nature.com)
  • Luteolin has been found to inhibit CRC cells proliferation, induce cells apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation ( 13 - 15 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Several reports have confirmed that the miR-30a can significantly inhibit cancer cell proliferation [ 15 , 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The upregulated integrin β4 expression was identified to promote gefitinib resistance and proliferation, and inhibit apoptosis, while downregulation of integrin β4 was to inhibit gefitinib resistance and proliferation, and induce apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the basis of the fact that blocking the clearance of acidic metabolites are known to induce the cell death, we hypothesized that pantoprazole (PPZ), one of gastric H + /K + -ATPase inhibitors used frequently to treat acid-related diseases, could inhibit growth of tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SW was shown to markedly inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of cancer cell lines in the in vitro and in vivo assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As a prevalent chemotherapeutic drug in clinical practice, 5-Fu can inhibit cancer cell proliferation and DNA replication, including gastric, breast and colorectal cancer cells, by inhibiting thymidylate synthase Bafetinib kinase inhibitor from synthesizing thymine, which ultimately induces apoptosis[9-11]. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that SCFA are involved in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, but the effects of SCFA on intestinal epithelial cell proliferation are controversial in in vivo and in vitro studies. (springer.com)
  • The ability of H. pylori to directly induce epithelial apoptosis was examined in vitro by fluorescence and electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and DNA fragmentation ELISA. (nih.gov)
  • This study was therefore designed to evaluate whether H. pylori alters VEGF expression in gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to assess the role of H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin VacA in any such effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An in vitro model system was used to simulate in vivo growth conditions whereby pericryptal fibroblast lines and HCA-7 polarized epithelial monolayers were cocultured on the opposing surfaces of Transwell filters. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We overexpressed and downexpressed miR-193a-3p to study the in vitro effect of miR-193a-3p on GC cells proliferation and vitality. (portlandpress.com)
  • The p53 gene of the parental PGE cells was found to be overexpressed, perhaps thereby conferring the basal potential for long-term survival in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Although the interaction between EBV and lymphoid cells has been studied extensively, the remarkable resistance of epithelial cells to EBV infection in vitro has hampered studies of the role of EBV in epithelial malignancies. (asm.org)
  • PPZ selectively induced in vivo and in vitro apoptotic cell death in gastric cancer, suggesting that proton pump inhibitors could be used for selective anticancer effects. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sarsaparilla ( Smilax Glabra Rhizome) has growth-inhibitory effects on several cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo , with little toxicity on normal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also investigated the role of miR-143-3p in the regulation of QKI-5 expression in ESCC cell lines both in vivo and in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ectopic expression of miR-143-3p suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in ESCC cells both in vivo and in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More significantly, miR-34 restoration led to an 87% reduction of the tumor-initiating cell population, accompanied by significant inhibition of tumorsphere growth in vitro and tumor formation in vivo . (plos.org)
  • The infection induces a chronic active inflammation with infiltrating neutrophils, T lymphocytes, B cells, and plasma cells. (physiology.org)
  • Failure to resolve the infection probably results from induction of an inappropriate immune response and might be facilitated by an exaggerated activation of T cells. (physiology.org)
  • Proliferation and apoptosis are essential in the maintenance of gastric tissue homeostasis, and changes seen in their balance may condition gastric mucosal changes during infection. (isciii.es)
  • Structural and functional changes caused by this process on mitochondrial organelles lie at the origin of gastric mucosal toxicity, and lead to the development of the various manifestations associated with this infection. (isciii.es)
  • Conclusions -Infection with H pylori causes increased gastric epithelial apoptosis, resulting in more severe glandular atrophy in patients with gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • In Western countries, infection with a virulent H pylori strain is recognised to be associated with the development of gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • Recently, we generated EBV recombinants with a selectable marker, which makes it possible to select EBV-infected cells even when the efficiency of infection is low or the EBV-uninfected population in culture is able to proliferate ( 34 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • EBV infection has been found in almost all NPC patients, with the highest EBV titers in patients diagnosed with undifferentiated cancer [ 7 ]. (aging-us.com)
  • Restoration of miR-34 expression in the pancreatic cancer cells by either transfection of miR-34 mimics or infection with lentiviral miR-34-MIF downregulated Bcl-2 and Notch1/2. (plos.org)
  • to evaluate the endoscopic and histological patterns of infection and to correlate endoscopic finding with histopathological parameters. (who.int)
  • Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, the inducible form of the rate-limiting enzyme for prostaglandin synthesis, is up-regulated in gastrointestinal cancers and is a key mediator of epithelial cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because aberrant promoter methylation inhibits expression of a variety of genes in gastrointestinal cancers, we sought to determine whether methylation of the COX-2 promoter could regulate the response to H. pylori in gastric epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because a recent novel report demonstrated aberrant methylation of COX-2 in colorectal cancers and cell lines (28) and we have observed altered COX-2 methylation in gastric carcinomas, 4 we sought to determine whether COX-2 promoter methylation regulates COX-2 expression and functional activity in gastric epithelial cells exposed to H. pylori . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Luteolin (3,4,5,7‑tetrahydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonoid that has been found to exhibit anticancer properties in certain types of cancers. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer (GC) rank top five and top three, respectively, among cancers around the world. (intechopen.com)
  • In comparison, p53 alterations are found in only 20-40% of invasive ductal breast cancers. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, quite many genes are known to be methylated in tumor cell genomes, and the majority of these genes are not expressed in the normal tissue of origin of these cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclophilin A, a protein found in other cancers, was differentially α-acetylated on the N terminus, and both isoforms appeared during normal prostate and prostate tumor development. (mcponline.org)
  • With a Bafetinib kinase inhibitor broad spectrum of activity against malignant cells, 5-?uorouracil (5-Fu) is commonly employed against gastric, liver and colorectal cancers[6-8]. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • the capability to go through apoptosis is certainly thought to be at the heart of abnormal tissue growth that occurs in many cancers. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Recently, it was shown that inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway augmented H. pylori -induced apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells [ 13 ], demonstrating the possible involvement of MAPK in gastric apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More importantly, inhibition of NF-κB or p53 pathway attenuated the XZ-1-mediated induction of gastric epithelial apoptosis and decline of GED incidence. (bioscirep.org)
  • Knockdown of CHOP by siRNA resulted in inhibition of VacA-induced apoptosis. (jove.com)
  • Western blotting assay showed that Rap1b inhibition resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I, and the levels of p62 protein were decreased in both MKN-28 and SGC-7901 cells. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • Furthermore, PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation was found to be maintained in a low level in the normal gastric mucosal epithelial cells, while it was significantly upregulated in GC cells, which could be decreased by Rap1b inhibition. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • In conclusion, we demonstrate that Rap1b expression is aberrantly increased in GC, resulting in the inhibition of autophagy and apoptosis of GC cells by the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • Thus, excessive apoptosis or proliferation inhibition will result in cell mass loss, which is observed in gastric ulcers. (isciii.es)
  • With a variable antigen-binding region that acts as a surrogate antigen for CA-125, abagovomab may stimulate the host immune system to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against CA-125-positive tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. (cancer.gov)
  • S phase arrest, autophagy, or/and apoptosis were partly responsible for SW-induced growth inhibition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As SecA is involved in translocation of bacterial proteins, we predicted that inhibition of the SecA pathway by C3G should decrease H. pylori -induced cell death. (medsci.org)
  • Gastric histology also demonstrated the inhibition of damage by hydrogen-rich alkaline water. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effect of bufalin on the inhibition of an AKT-related signaling pathway, and examined the relationship between regulatory proteins and anti-tumor effects in hepatoma cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our previous studies indicated that large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1), a core part of Hippo signaling pathway, functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer (GC). (paperity.org)
  • Therefore, a definition of predictive values for genetic and biochemical markers just prior to H. pylori eradication and the long-term follow-up of patients with gastric paraneoplastic lesions may help establish preventive therapeutic options. (isciii.es)
  • Gastric cancer is difficult to cure, and the majority of patients with gastric cancer was diagnosed at an advanced stage [ 3 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • BACKGROUND Gastric cancer is one of the most common and deadly malignancies worldwide. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • Apoptosis Core tip: 5-?uorouracil (5-Fu) is an effective treatment for gastric cancer, which is one of the most common and deadly malignancies worldwide. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • EBV is associated with multiple human malignancies, including NPC, NK/T cell lymphoma and gastric cancer, etc . (aging-us.com)
  • Many current anti-cancer treatments, including ionizing radiation, induce apoptosis via DNA damage. (jove.com)
  • How does the human RUNX3 gene induce apoptosis in gastric cancer? (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical significance of GED has been stressed because of the establishment of its close association with the risk of gastric cancer [ 1 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • Our analysis supports the hypothesis that longer exposure to estrogen effects of either ovarian or exogenous origin may decrease risk of gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • H pyloriinduced dysregulation of p53 is a potential mechanism by which the microorganism increases the risk of gastric cancer in infected individuals. (elsevier.com)
  • Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1), a key positive regulator of cell proliferation, is overexpressed in gastric cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Treatment of COX-2 -methylated cells with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine had a modest effect on COX-2 expression, but when 5-azacytidine-treated cells were subsequently stimulated with H. pylori , there was a significant, 5-10-fold enhancement of both COX-2 mRNA and protein expression and release of the COX-2 product, prostaglandin E 2 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Levels of the chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
  • Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), which is activated by trypsin, induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), cell proliferation and apoptosis in several cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells have multiple compartments (cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, nucleus), and in these compartments stress-induced protein folding is known as the unfolded protein response ( 158 ). (asm.org)
  • The unfolded protein responses are an important element in the integrated biology of the cell, are linked to key intracellular signaling pathways, and are now being associated with human disease states ( 158 ). (asm.org)
  • We found that C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a key signaling protein of ER stress-induced apoptosis, was transcriptionally up-regulated following incubation of gastric epithelial cells with VacA. (jove.com)
  • Further studies showed that silencing of the PERK gene with siRNA attenuated VacA-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2-alpha, CHOP induction, expression of BH3-only protein Bim and Bax activation, and cell death induced by VacA with ammonium chloride, indicating that ER stress may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction during VacA-induced toxicity. (jove.com)
  • This is due to lipid peroxidation and irreversible protein modification that leads to cellular apoptosis or programmed cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • PGI 2 binds either G protein-coupled cell surface PGI 2 receptor or the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1995). The T-2 toxin inhibits DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, affecting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis programmed death of cells (Rocha et al. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The structure of the encoded protein has been found to differ at their N terminus and the central region, which are two functionally notable regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TAZ gene provides instructions for producing a protein called tafazzin, which is localized to mitochondria, the energy-producing centers of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A2AR, a G protein-coupled receptor, is highly expressed on the cell surfaces of T-cells and, upon activation by adenosine, inhibits their proliferation and activation. (cancer.gov)
  • Upon subcutaneous administration, abaloparatide acts similar to PTHrP and targets, binds to and activates parathyroid hormone 1 (PTH1) receptor (PTH1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed in osteoblasts and bone stromal cells. (cancer.gov)
  • Since it has been proposed that the improved clinical outcome is due at least in part to the presence of a prominent lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltrate in the tumor stroma, we recently examined the tumor-infiltrating B cell response in MCB and showed that it is oligoclonal and directed against an intracellular protein translocated to the cell surface upon MCB cell apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, the overexpression of integrin β4 in SGC7901 cells resulted in the down-regulation of p-EGFR protein levels while down-regulation of integrin β4, significantly resulted in overexpression of p-EGFR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell survival and cell death are tightly controlled by numerous signal enzymes and regulators such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A heterodimer of this protein and a beta subunit forms a complex that binds to the core DNA sequence 5'-YGYGGT-3' found in a number of enhancers and promoters, and can either activate or suppress transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • VacA functions as an intracellular-acting protein exotoxin 1 , and causes cellular apoptosis 1 , 2 , gastric epithelial cell damage by inducing vacuoles 3 - 5 . (medsci.org)
  • Expression of apoptosis-related protein X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and apoptosis inducing factor were significantly reduced and increased, respectively, in the 5-Fu-resistant gastric cancer line SGC-7901/R treated with extract plus 5-Fu, while the expression of survivin did not change. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • This complex process is regulated by a series of key proteins, such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and survivin. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • The CKS2 mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects specialized role for the encoded protein. (nih.gov)
  • This protein is a histone acetylase that has a role in DNA repair and apoptosis and is thought to play an important role in signal transduction. (cancerindex.org)
  • Here we reveal a protumorigenic role in gastric cancer for the key inflammasome adaptor apoptosis-related speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and its effector cytokine IL18. (monash.edu)
  • In clinical specimens of human gastric cancer tumors, we observed a significant positive correlation between elevated mature IL18 protein and ASC mRNA levels. (monash.edu)
  • Human recombinant Wnt3a and DKK1 treatment increased and decreased HDGF, β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1, MMP9, and phos-GSK-3β (Ser9) protein expression in nuclear and cytoplasmic fraction of CRC cells upon β-catenin knock-down, respectively. (oncotarget.com)
  • The encoded protein phosphorylates the beta-adrenergic receptor as well as a wide range of other substrates including non-GPCR cell surface receptors, and cytoskeletal, mitochondrial, and transcription factor proteins. (genscript.com)
  • During this process, there are many molecules that can be used as a marker for EMT, for example, the decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, Zonula Occludens protein 1 (ZO- 1), Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), the increased expression of mesenchymal markers Vimentin, N-cadherin [ 18 ]. (imedpub.com)
  • Physicians studying the regulation of bmp as a precursor cell in exchange for sodium dependent pi cotransport proc natl acad sci usa a caspary t michele a cleary m a phenotypic changes in rabbits kidney int a brem a s rizzoni g novelli g nicholls a j c the wilms tumour gene is involved in proteina protein interactions agulnick schmeichel and beckerle several factors such as a. (nationalnewstoday.com)
  • These products are variously termed heat shock proteins (Hsps) or cell stress proteins and were originally identified as molecules that are produced in response to the presence of unfolded proteins within the cell ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Specimens taken from the pyloric area of the stomachs from rats in each group were subjected to Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining for pathological examination, TUNEL staining for apoptosis detection, and Western blot analysis for apoptosis-related proteins. (bioscirep.org)
  • Keratins (Krts), including 28 type I and 26 type II keratins, are the intermediate filament forming proteins of epithelial cells, and constitute an indispensable part of cytoskeleton [ 5 , 6 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Apoptosis was accompanied by increased expression of Bak, with little change in expression of other Bcl-2 family proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Free radicals cause damage to all essential biocompounds such as DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids, thereby causing cause cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Galectins are proteins of 30 kDa that can be found in the cellular nucleus, the cytosol and also in the extracellular space. (biovendor.com)
  • Galectin-1, a member of carbohydrate-binding proteins with an affinity for b-galactoside, was found strong expressed in the isolated activated PSCs. (biovendor.com)
  • Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) comprise a newly discovered class of non-selenium-dependent peroxidase proteins that are widely distributed in various organisms.16 PRDX a type of antioxidant enzyme, is thought to catalyze redox reactions and maintain the balance of hydrogen ML 228 peroxide in cells.17 Presently, PRDX1-PRDX6 have been found to contain a 1-Cys PRDX group and 2-Cys PRDX group. (annumed.net)
  • Due to their central role in the regulation of apoptosis, the antiapoptotic BCL2-proteins are highly promising targets for the development of novel anticancer treatments. (hindawi.com)
  • We propose that the Ab response against actin produced by tumor-infiltrating B lymphoplasmacytic cells is Ag-driven, affinity-matured, and elicited due to the increased rate of apoptosis occurring within the MCB tumor that facilitates the translocation and proteolytic fragmentation of intracellular proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because HSPs include pro- and antiapoptotic proteins that interact with a variety of cellular proteins, the type of HSP induced and its level of expression can determine the fate of a cell in response to a death stimulus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that C3G treatment caused a decrease in activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins caspase-3/-8 in H. pylori -infected cells leading to a decrease in cell death. (medsci.org)
  • Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) mediates mucosal repair and belongs to a highly conserved trefoil factor family proteins which are secreted by epithelial cells in the stomach or colon mucous membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, whether these proteins exert a similar influence on endometrial cells in endometriosis has not yet been fully investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the target proteins regulated by miR-34 are Notch pathway proteins and Bcl-2, suggesting the possibility of a role for miR-34 in the maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. (plos.org)
  • In prostate cancer cells, luteolin treatment inhibited prostate cancer cells proliferation and induced apoptosis through downregulation of miR-301 by triggering DEDD2 expression ( 25 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Circ-1073 overexpression significantly inhibited BCC proliferation and induced apoptosis by increasing Cleaved Caspase-3/9 levels. (dovepress.com)
  • In the present study, the role of luteolin and its underlying mechanisms were explored in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We reported previously that a human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line, HCA-7, produces significant levels of PGE 2 , PGD 2 , thromboxane, and PGF 2α , but not PGI 2 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2 Many studies have noted an association between particular strains of H pylori and the development of gastric cancer. (bmj.com)
  • 10, 11 Therefore, other factors might contribute to the development of gastric cancer in patients infected with H pylori . (bmj.com)
  • Beta-Amyloid (betaA)-induced oxidative stress is a well-established pathway of neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Meanwhile, XZ-1 activated the NF-κB/p53/Ki67-apoptosis signaling pathway, which might be one of the mechanisms whereby XZ-1 reversed GED. (bioscirep.org)
  • To exploit the activated pathways and develop new strategies to overcome trastuzumab resistance, we investigated MKN45 and MKN45/R cells via label-free quantitative proteomics, and found pathways that were altered significantly in MKN45/R cells, with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway being the most significant. (mdpi.com)
  • We further confirmed the activation of this pathway by detecting its key molecules in MKN45/R and NCI N87/R cells via Western blot, in which Wnt3A, FZD6, and CTNNB1 increased, whereas GSK-3β decreased, manifesting the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • It is thought that all cells have a default pathway ending in apoptosis, unless inhibited by specific external constraints, such as the interaction of a cell with its neighbour and/or the extracellular matrix. (bmj.com)
  • 5 This time dependent pathway, or "senescent" apoptosis at the end of a cell's natural lifespan, is probably the major physiological way cells are lost in the stomach, as in other regions of the gut. (bmj.com)
  • A thorough review of the literature and the results of our experimental research lead to conclude that H. pylori-induced oxidative stress activates the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. (isciii.es)
  • Thus, H. pylori induces gastric epithelial cell apoptosis, by a Bak-dependent pathway. (nih.gov)
  • MicroRNA-140-5p suppresses retinoblastoma cell growth via inhibiting c-Met/AKT/mTOR pathway. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Results of microarray analysis and validation by quantitative RT-PCR indicated the involvement of oxidative stress and the MAPK1 pathway in SW-treated cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, SW-induced GSH/GSSG imbalance activated the ERK1/2 pathway, which contributed to SW-induced S phase arrest, apoptosis, autophagy, and resultant growth-inhibitory effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell growth and enhanced the anti-cancer effect of 5-Fu through the AKT-mTOR pathway. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to observe the anti-tumor effects and molecular mechanisms of bufalin in hepatoma cells, especially the AKT signaling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The signaling substances from the Wnt and TGF-β1-Smad pathway had been expressed more often in the tumor cells and/or CAFs from the intrusive margin than those from the tumor surface area. (acmbcb.org)
  • Previous studies have exhibited that apoptosis can be induced by activation of the JNK signaling pathway in response to pathogen contamination (Takeda et al. (stopvivisection.info)
  • The activity of the Cag-T4SS results in numerous changes in host cell biology including upregulation of cytokine expression, activation of proinflammatory pathways, cytoskeletal remodeling, and induction of oncogenic cell-signaling networks 5-8 . (jove.com)
  • We have reported selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by the natural compound pancratistatin (PST). (jove.com)
  • As championed by Potten and colleagues, an altruistic or self-defensive form of apoptotic cell death may occur in response to severe DNA damage-such a mechanism was suggested to explain the induction of apoptosis in the intestinal crypts of irradiated rodents. (bmj.com)
  • The induction of apoptosis by H. pylori was time and concentration-dependent and inhibited by preventing direct bacterial-epithelial cell contact. (nih.gov)
  • It also shows the suppressive effect of berberine on the proliferation of various cancer cells through induction of cell cycle arrest and cellular apoptosis [ 6 - 8 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Adenosine diphosphate-sensitive P2Y11 receptor inhibits endothelial cell proliferation by induction of cell cycle arrest in the S phase and induces the expression of inflammatory mediators. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Functional studies after inhibiting miRNA-21 in RCC cell lines show cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and reduced invasive and migratory capabilities. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Based on our previous studies demonstrating TNF-stimulated proliferation of normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells, we hypothesized that TNF might promote the growth of breast cancer in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • TNF has been shown to increase the growth of both normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells in experimental models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The functional role of SNHG6 was investigated using RNAi-mediated silencing and exogenous overexpression in breast cancer-derived cells. (springer.com)
  • By contrast, normal gastric mucosal cells showed the resistance to PPZ-induced apoptosis through the overexpression of antiapoptotic regulators including HSP70 and HSP27. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, RUNX3 overexpression played the same role as miR-18b under expression in NSCLC cells, by a series of experiments. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Functional assays displayed that overexpression of miR-596 repressed EOC cell proliferation and stemness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aims of this thesis were to explore some possible mechanisms by which H.pylori may contribute to the onset of gastric cancer. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, the underlying mechanisms of resistance in gastric cancer have not been fully elucidated. (mdpi.com)
  • We shall review the recent evidence that indicates that H pylori is capable of inducing apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells, and explore the mechanisms and major implication of this finding-that an alteration of gastric epithelial apoptosis may relate to the outcome of chronic H pylori colonisation. (bmj.com)
  • The present study aims to explore the effects of the sophocarpine on the proliferation and apoptosis of GC cells and elucidates the relevant molecular mechanisms. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of gefitinib resistance is desperately needed to formulate novel strategies against gastric cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additional studies are warranted to extend this finding and to identify the underlying mechanisms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite the broad advances in gynecological research, the cascade of events leading to epithelial ovarian cancer remains ambiguous, and efforts are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mucosal defense in the gastrointestinal tract includes local gastric mucosal defense mechanisms and neurohormonal regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated the molecular mechanisms of p53 regulation in H pyloriinfected cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of this paper is to review the major events involved in apoptosis, their causes at both the molecular and cellular level, and their pathologic consequences, focusing on H. pylori -induced apoptosis in gastric mucosal epithelial cells as well as on bacterial strains. (isciii.es)
  • The babA2 + strains were found in 83 (79.8%) patients and were associated with higher lymphocytic infiltration (p=0.028), presence of glandular atrophy (odds ratio (OR) 7.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-24.3), and intestinal metaplasia (OR 7.4, 95% CI 2.2-25.3) in the antrum. (bmj.com)
  • For example, atrophy when cell loss is excessive compared with proliferation, and neoplasia when the converse occurs. (bmj.com)
  • 7 As H pylori can cause very diverse clinical outcomes, including neoplasms in some individuals, in others atrophy, and in most an unaltered tissue mass, attention has recently been paid to examining the effect of H pylori on the balance between gastric epithelial cell apoptosis and proliferation. (bmj.com)
  • The latter may become gastric atrophy, and then subsequently metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric cancer (10). (isciii.es)
  • Here we present an optimized protocol to grow H. pylori in varying conditions of iron availability prior to co-culture with human gastric epithelial cells. (jove.com)
  • Zhou et al found that luteolin upregulated miR-34 expression in gastric cancer cells and upregulation of miR-34 enhanced the susceptibility of cells to luteolin ( 6 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition to the activation of proapoptotic factors, resistance to apoptosis is often due to upregulation of antiapoptotic factors. (hindawi.com)
  • FoxM1 upregulation was time- and concentration-dependent in gastric epithelial-derived cell lines infected with H. pylori . (aacrjournals.org)
  • These compounds may protect the cells from betaA(1-42) insult through antioxidant pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • VacA also causes cell death by mitochondrial damage, via signaling pathways that are not fully defined. (jove.com)
  • There are currently no good markers to differentiate these two pathways to apoptosis, although p53 probably plays a role more in altruistic than in senescent apoptosis. (bmj.com)
  • We found that silencing AXL could sensitize the resistance to gefitinib, and the downstream pathways were significantly inhibited. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • Toxic concentrations of cadmium induce astrocytic apoptosis by depleting intracellular glutathione levels, elevating intracellular calcium levels, altering mitochondria membrane potentials, and activating JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Long-chain fatty acids and several of their metabolites have now been shown to be involved as primary or secondary messengers in specific cell signalling pathways. (pills2021.com)
  • Unfortunately, such treatments are non-selective to cancer cells and produce similar toxicity in normal cells. (jove.com)
  • miR-15a/miR-16 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cells by suppressing oncogene BMI1. (cancerindex.org)
  • By regulating a variety of target genes in cancer cells, miRNAs act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Berberine is a natural alkaloid with significant antitumor activities against many types of cancer cells. (medsci.org)
  • Berberine exerted inhibitory effects on the migratory and invasive abilities of highly metastatic prostate cancer cells. (medsci.org)
  • Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that PRDX6 promotes cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer cells by promoting the stem-like properties of cancer cells. (annumed.net)
  • In addition, apoptosis represents a major barrier to cancer cells that must be circumvented. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, a number of genes that encode components of the apoptotic machinery are directly targeted by activating or inactivating genetic lesions in cancer cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Adenosine is often overproduced by cancer cells and plays a key role in immunosuppression. (cancer.gov)
  • Sophocarpine inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells via autophagy and apoptosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Antifibrotic Agent Pirfenidone Suppresses Proliferation of Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Inducing G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We hypothesized that PFD-induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest might be achieved in other types of cells, including cancer cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Integrin β4-expression vector or siRNA were used to analyze the functional effects of integrin β4 on chemoresistance of gastric cancer cells to gefitinib. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EGFR and integrin β4 expression, proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence, western blot, MTT and flow cytometry respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After PPZ treatment, apoptotic cell death was seen selectively in cancer cells and was accompanied with extracellular signal-regulated kinase deactivation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other programmed responses contribute to clear potential cancer cells. (isciii.es)
  • RESULTS Gastric cancer cells were more sensitive to the natural extract of Thunb. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • The extract improved the anti-cancer effect of 5-Fu by enhancing the chemosensitization of gastric cancer cells. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • Cancer cells with decreased E-cadherin expression are primarily located at the tumor periphery and directly contact CAFs revealing that the EMT may be PF299804 modulated by CAFs [32]. (acmbcb.org)
  • Moreover, IL18 blockade either by a neutralizing anti-IL18 antibody or by CRISPR/Cas9-driven deletion of ASC augmented apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. (monash.edu)
  • Many classical chemotherapeutic anticancer agents kill cancer cells by directly damaging their DNA, which has the problem of non-specificity and relatively high toxicity. (cdrjournal.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that miR-34 may restore, at least in part, the tumor suppressing function of the p53 in p53-deficient human pancreatic cancer cells. (plos.org)
  • We have recently shown that expression of miR-34s is dramatically reduced in p53-mutant gastric cancer cells and that the restoration of miR-34 expression inhibited the cancer cell growth [6] . (plos.org)
  • CircRNAs are endogenous RNAs that are widely distributed in eukaryotic cells and have a stable cyclic structure, playing a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. (nature.com)
  • 2 Although apoptosis is often used interchangeably today with the term "programmed cell death", implying gene transcription and energy expenditure, in some instances the morphology of apoptosis may be achieved without activating the programmed cell death machinery. (bmj.com)
  • To discover novel TSCC-related lncRNAs, we analyzed the lncRNA expression patterns in two sets of previously published TSCC gene expression profile data (GSE30784 and GSE9844), and found that long intergenic non-coding RNA 152 (LINC00152) was significantly upregulated in TSCC samples. (jcancer.org)
  • 4, 5 Vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), encoded by the vacA gene, induces cytoplasmic vacuolation in eukaryotic cells. (bmj.com)
  • 7 Divergency in the vacA gene has been also examined and H pylori strains with the vacA s1a/m1 genotype are associated with enhanced gastric inflammation. (bmj.com)
  • The present work aimed to probe into the effect of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) LINC00152 on gastric cancer (GC) cells proliferation by regulating miR-193a-3p and its target gene MCL1 . (portlandpress.com)
  • however, recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the p53 gene in nearly 100% of MCBs and immunohistochemically verified accumulation of p53 in the nuclei of tumor cells in MCBs ( 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Concerning the effects of EBV products on epithelial cells, LMP1 has some pleiotropic biological activities but other gene products do not. (asm.org)
  • Second, we utilized gene silencing to explore the role of MMP-7 in cells. (dovepress.com)
  • The babA2 gene encodes the blood group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA), which binds to the fucosylated Lewis b antigen present on the surface of gastric epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In melanocytic cells RUNX3 gene expression may be regulated by MITF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients harboring a H. pylori strain containing the Eastern type of the cag A gene have a much higher risk developing gastric ulceration and stomach cancer 12 - 14 . (medsci.org)
  • The present study aims to investigate whether H. pylori -induced apoptotic cell death is related to the expression of PAR-2 and the activation of MAPK in gastric epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • VacA induces apoptotic cell death, which is potentiated by ammonia. (jove.com)
  • Here we have made an endeavor to search whether any miRNAs are involved in the regulation of BMI1 in breast cancer that leads to mitochondrial dependent apoptotic cell death. (cancerindex.org)
  • Biochemically, thehallmark of apoptotic cell death is Apoptosis in the stomach: general below). (dosingpdf.com)
  • In the healthy stomach, a balance exists between proliferation of new epithelial cells and death of senescent cells ( 15 , 17 ). (physiology.org)
  • Currently, we know little about the relative contributions of these two forms of apoptosis to normal cell loss in the stomach or, indeed, in other regions of the gut. (bmj.com)
  • Carriage of the bacterium H. pylori in the human stomach is associated with evidence of increased epithelial cell apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • For the search of tamoxifen studies, the following strategy was used: tamoxifen AND (gastric cancer OR stomach cancer OR stomach neoplasms OR gastrointestinal neoplasms) AND (case-control studies OR case-control OR cohort studies OR cohort OR longitudinal studies OR longitudinal OR retrospective studies OR retrospective OR prospective studies OR prospective OR follow-up studies OR epidemiologic studies). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Among TFF family, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) had been identified in human, mouse, rat and canine [ 4 ] and was secreted by epithelial cells that associated with mucus membranes of stomach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Various subtypes of CD95L in the close proximity to apoptotic gastric epithelial cells suggest a functional the normal stomach, apoptosis due to cell physiological epithelial turnover. (dosingpdf.com)
  • Here we summarize the results obtained for various cell types in the stomach, tongue and breast. (wiley.com)
  • Extracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP) mediates a wide range of physiological effects as an extracellular signaling molecule, including platelet aggregation, vascular tone, cell proliferation, and apoptosis by interacting with plasma membrane P2 receptors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • VEGF signals through two tyrosine kinase receptors, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, which are expressed predominantly but not exclusively on vascular endothelial cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell adhesion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ten lesions were laterally spreading tumors and 15 lesions were found in the rectum. (bvsalud.org)
  • Infiltration of lymphatic vessels by tumor cells has been found at the periphery of many experimental and human tumors, and the lymphatic system has been recognized as a conduit for tumor cell dissemination. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Gastric cancer is one of the world's highest incidences of malignant tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sequence is an irreversible cell cycle arrest program with distinct characteristics that appears to be interrupted in some tumors. (isciii.es)
  • Finally, cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) are a type of cells found in tumors, developed from local tissue or possibly from bone marrow. (conicyt.cl)
  • This phenotype was characterized by reduced activation of caspase-1 and NF-κB activation and reduced expression of mature IL18, but not IL1b, in gastric tumors. (monash.edu)
  • Genistein inhibited the expression of miR-21 in A-498 cells and in the tumors formed after injecting genistein treated A-498 cells in nude mice besides inhibiting tumor formation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We aimed to determine the effect of 'Xiaozeng No. 1' (XZ-1) on cellular apoptosis changes of gastric epithelial dysplasia (GED) and to explore the underlying mechanism. (bioscirep.org)
  • Upon administration of the A-101 topical solution to an affected area of skin, the hydrogen peroxide penetrates into the cells, increases oxygen content, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), causes oxidative stress and induces apoptosis through oxidative damage. (cancer.gov)
  • GED has been morphologically categorized into adenomatous (or intestinal) and foveolar (or gastric) types [ 1 , 4 ]. (bioscirep.org)
  • These data indicated that gastric infusion of SCFA, especially high SCFA concentration, may be beneficial to gut development of piglets via improving gut morphology, decreasing apoptotic cell percentage, and maintaining intestinal barrier function. (springer.com)
  • Following ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated feed, intestinal epithelial cells can be exposed to toxins. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • In this case, we demonstrated the role of circ-NOLC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). (nature.com)
  • Among ovarian cancer cell lines, circ-NOLC1 expression was the highest in A2780, and lowest in CAOV3. (nature.com)
  • Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) is a malignant disease originating from the outer surface cells covering the ovary [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), a subclass of ovarian cancer (OC), is usually diagnosed at advanced stages due to the lack of effective screening means. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oxidative stress in oral disease is related to other systemic diseases in the body such as periodontitis, cardiovascular, pancreatic, gastric, and liver diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • We examined the roles of miR-34 in p53-mutant human pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa2 and BxPC3, and the potential link to pancreatic cancer stem cells. (plos.org)
  • Our data support the view that miR-34 may be involved in pancreatic cancer stem cell self-renewal, potentially via the direct modulation of downstream targets Bcl-2 and Notch, implying that miR-34 may play an important role in pancreatic cancer stem cell self-renewal and/or cell fate determination. (plos.org)
  • Restoration of miR-34 may hold significant promise as a novel molecular therapy for human pancreatic cancer with loss of p53-miR34, potentially via inhibiting pancreatic cancer stem cells. (plos.org)
  • Recently, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have revolutionized nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • These cells form a uniform polarizing monolayer when cultured on Transwell filters, and the epidermal growth factor receptor is found predominantly at the basolateral surface, as it is in all polarized epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Basolateral but not apical delivery of the epidermal growth factor receptor ligand transforming growth factor α results in up-regulation of COX-2 and production of PGs that are released exclusively into the basolateral medium of polarized HCA-7 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gefitinib has shown anticancer activity against gastric cancer which work through inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the use of serial histological sections, this study showed for the first time the in situ correlation of TNF-α and IFN-γ with epithelial cell apoptosis, bacterial load, and histological severity of disease and emphasizes the role of these cytokines in the pathophysiology of H. pylori -associated disease. (physiology.org)
  • No significant correlation was found between the endoscopic findings and histological findings. (who.int)
  • 3 Semantic differences notwithstanding, apoptosis is defined by a highly characteristic sequence of morphological changes, resulting in the death of a cell without inflammatory sequelae, unlike necrotic cell death. (bmj.com)
  • Generally, cells can die by apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, or after acute injury by necrosis and cell lysis, which initiates an inflammatory response. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast to apoptosis, where cells play an active role in their own destruction, in necrosis cells undergo lysis by cytokines produced by inflammatory cells. (isciii.es)
  • Following respiratory burst Ramelteon cell signaling leads to era of reactive air types (ROS), and mobile destruction by free of charge radicals and following initiation of inflammatory cascades result in activation and additional recruitment of leukocytes, which aggravate the level of irritation and damage2, 3. (stopvivisection.info)
  • The tumor-associated stroma is composed of the extracellular matrix and many different cells such as inflammatory cells macrophages endothelial cells and fibroblasts [38]. (acmbcb.org)
  • Network analysis indicated that YD could alleviate the symptoms and signs of pneumonia through regulating host immune inflammatory response, angiogenesis and vascular permeability, the barrier function of the airway epithelial cells, hormone releasing and cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AGS cells were cultured in the presence of H. pylori transfected with PAR-2 antisense (AS) oligonucleotide (ODN) or treated with a soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 was enhanced but activator insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) blocked the Rap1b silencing-induced enhancement of apoptosis and autophagy in MKN-28 and SGC-7901 cells. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • Cadmium induces apoptotic program imbalance and cell cycle inhibitor expression in cultured human astrocytes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Gefitinib is one of the representative drugs which is a selective inhibitor of EGFR and typically acts as antiproliferative agent and induces cell apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Survivin is a unique inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), as it does not directly interact with caspases but with some adaptors or cofactors[22-26]. (congresoendocrinologia2016.com)
  • Additional siRNA-based experiments revealed that SNHG6 silencing led to G1 cell cycle arrest in SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer-derived cells. (springer.com)
  • Here you can see the latest Cannabinoid Induces Cell Cycle Arrest Apoptosis Inhibits Proliferation articles that have been published worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We have published hundreds of Cannabinoid Induces Cell Cycle Arrest Apoptosis Inhibits Proliferation news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Cannabinoid Induces Cell Cycle Arrest Apoptosis Inhibits Proliferation Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Cannabinoid Induces Cell Cycle Arrest Apoptosis Inhibits Proliferation for you to read. (bioportfolio.com)
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  • Pirfenidone (PFD), which is an antifibrotic agent used for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in fibroblasts. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We further found that SW destroyed intracellular-reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) balance, and supplement with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH) significantly antagonized SW-induced S phase arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For instance, an excessive shortening of terminal DNA sequences or telomeres, which may naturally occur in any replication cycle, would result in chromosomal instability, thus activating a cell cycle arrest to prevent potential mutations (9) and then leading to a common program for cell death. (isciii.es)
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic en-bloc resection of the large colorectal lesions is technically difficult. (bvsalud.org)