Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Signs and symptoms of higher cortical dysfunction caused by organic conditions. These include certain behavioral alterations and impairments of skills involved in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of knowledge or information.
The application of pathology to questions of law.
A highly toxic compound used as a gasoline additive. It causes acute toxic psychosis or chronic poisoning if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
X-linked recessive NEPHROLITHIASIS characterized by HYPERCALCIURIA; HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; and PROTEINURIA. It is associated with mutations in the voltage-gated chloride channel, CLC-5 (Dent Disease I). Another group of mutations associated with this disease is in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-5-phosphatase gene.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into a series of (2'-5') linked oligoadenylates and pyrophosphate in the presence of double-stranded RNA. These oligonucleotides activate an endoribonuclease (RNase L) which cleaves single-stranded RNA. Interferons can act as inducers of these reactions. EC 2.7.7.-.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Nested case-control study of leukaemia, multiple myeloma, and kidney cancer in a cohort of petroleum workers exposed to gasoline. (1/232)

OBJECTIVES: This nested case-control study was based on data in a cohort study of more than 18,000 petroleum distribution workers exposed to gasoline, which contains about 2%-3% benzene. Risks of leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, multiple myeloma, and kidney cancer were examined relative to exposure to gasoline. METHODS: For each case, up to five individually matched controls were selected. Analyses based on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure as well as univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression were performed for each disease category. Jobs with similar exposures were grouped into homogeneous categories for analysis. Several quantitative indices of exposure to gasoline were used in the analyses: duration of exposure, cumulative exposure, frequency of peak exposure, and time of first exposure. RESULTS: No increased risks for the four cancers were found for any job category. Analyses with logistic regression models based on duration of exposure, cumulative exposure, and frequency of peak exposure did not show any increased risk or exposure-effect relation. Time of first exposure to gasoline was also found to be unrelated to the four diseases under investigation. CONCLUSION: Exposure to gasoline or benzene at the concentrations experienced by this cohort of distribution workers is not a risk factor for leukaemia (all cell types), acute myeloid leukaemia, multiple myeloma, or kidney cancer.  (+info)

Analysis of chromosome loss and non-disjunction in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes of 24 male subjects. (2/232)

Chromosome malsegregation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 24 healthy male subjects was analysed by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromeric probes of chromosomes 7, 11, 18 and X. On the basis of the distribution of centromeric signals in cytokinesis-blocked cells, both loss (leading to centromere-positive micronuclei) and non-disjunction (resulting in an unbalanced distribution of signals in the main nuclei) of the hybridized chromosomes in vitro were identified. In addition, the incidence of binucleated cells with two hyperploid nuclei, possibly arising from mitotic division of trisomic types, was determined. In this way, the incidence of chromosome malsegregation in vivo and in vitro could be compared in the same cell samples. The results obtained show that ageing is positively correlated with the incidence of malsegregation of chromosome X in peripheral lymphocytes of male subjects and confirm the higher susceptibility of chromosome X to malsegregation in comparison with autosomes. A positive correlation between in vitro and in vivo malsegregation rates was observed for both chromosome X and for autosomes. Finally, relatively high frequencies of multiple malsegregation events, greater than expected for independent events, were recorded for both chromosome X and for autosomes, indicating that the abnormal segregation of chromosomes may be connected to a general dysfunction of the mitotic apparatus. The correlation observed between in vitro and in vivo malsegregation frequencies and the association of both parameters with ageing suggest that analysis of chromosome malsegregation in binucleated cells is a useful tool in the study of genomic instability in human populations.  (+info)

Physiologically based toxicokinetic modeling of inhaled ethyl tertiary-butyl ether in humans. (3/232)

A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed for evaluation of inhalation exposure in humans to the gasoline additive, ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE). PBTK models are useful tools to relate external exposure to internal doses and biological markers of exposure in humans. To describe the kinetics of ETBE, the following compartments were used: lungs (including arterial blood), liver, fat, rapidly perfused tissues, resting muscles, and working muscles. The same set of compartments and, in addition, a urinary excretion compartment were used for the metabolite tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA). First order metabolism was assumed in the model, since linear kinetics has been shown experimentally in humans after inhalation exposure up to 50 ppm ETBE. Organ volumes and blood flows were calculated from individual body composition based on published equations, and tissue/blood partition coefficients were calculated from liquid/air partition coefficients and tissue composition. Estimates of individual metabolite parameters of 8 subjects were obtained by fitting the PBTK model to experimental data from humans (5, 25, 50 ppm ETBE, 2-h exposure; Nihlen et al., Toxicol. Sci., 1998; 46, 1-10). The PBTK model was then used to predict levels of the biomarkers ETBE and TBA in blood, urine, and exhaled air after various scenarios, such as prolonged exposure, fluctuating exposure, and exposure during physical activity. In addition, the interindividual variability in biomarker levels was predicted, in the eight experimentally exposed subjects after a working week. According to the model, raising the work load from rest to heavy exercise increases all biomarker levels by approximately 2-fold at the end of the work shift, and by 3-fold the next morning. A small accumulation of all biomarkers was seen during one week of simulated exposure. Further predictions suggested that the interindividual variability in biomarker levels would be higher the next morning than at the end of the work shift, and higher for TBA than for ETBE. Monte Carlo simulations were used to describe fluctuating exposure scenarios. These simulations suggest that ETBE levels in blood and exhaled air at the end of the working day are highly sensitive to exposure fluctuations, whereas ETBE levels the next morning and TBA in urine and blood are less sensitive. Considering these simulations, data from the previous toxicokinetic study and practical issues, we suggest that TBA in urine is a suitable biomarker for exposure to ETBE and gasoline vapor.  (+info)

Mass psychogenic illness attributed to toxic exposure at a high school. (4/232)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Mass psychogenic illness may be difficult to differentiate from illness caused by bioterrorism, rapidly spreading infection, or toxic substances. We investigated symptoms attributed to exposure to toxic gas at a high school in Tennessee. In November 1998, a teacher noticed a 'gasoline-like' smell in her classroom, and soon thereafter she had a headache, nausea, shortness of breath, and dizziness. The school was evacuated, and 80 students and 19 staff members went to the emergency room at the local hospital; 38 persons were hospitalized overnight. Five days later, after the school had reopened, another 71 persons went to the emergency room. An extensive investigation was performed by several government agencies. RESULTS: We were unable to find a medical or environmental explanation for the reported illnesses. The persons who reported symptoms on the first day came from 36 classrooms scattered throughout the school. The most frequent symptoms (in this group and the group of people who reported symptoms five days later) were headache, dizziness, nausea, and drowsiness. Blood and urine specimens showed no evidence of carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, paraquat, or mercury. There was no evidence of toxic compounds in the environment. A questionnaire administered a month later showed that the reported symptoms were significantly associated with female sex, seeing another ill person, knowing that a classmate was ill, and reporting an unusual odor at the school. CONCLUSIONS: The illness attributed to toxic exposure had features of mass psychogenic illness - notably, widespread subjective symptoms thought to be associated with environmental exposure to a toxic substance in the absence of objective evidence of an environmental cause. Alleviation of the anxiety surrounding an episode of mass psychogenic illness requires prompt recognition and a detailed investigation.  (+info)

Analysis of a petrol plume over England: 18-19 January 1997. (5/232)

OBJECTIVES: About 7000 tonnes of unleaded petrol were discharged into the English Channel after a tanker collision off Ostend on Saturday 18 January 1997. The petrol evaporated and the vapour plume was carried across the central part of England to Wales, resulting in reports of unidentified odours, and irritation of the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory tract. This work uses this incident to show how marine and atmospheric dispersion modelling together with routine air quality monitoring can assist in identifying hazards to the population at risk from chemical incidents. METHODS: Public health surveillance and results from environmental sampling were compared with the behaviour of the plume as predicted by computer modelling. RESULTS: The predicted plume path and dispersion were shown to correlate well with the results from surveillance and environmental analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for public health professionals to interact with medical toxicologists, atmospheric and marine scientists and engineers, and other environmental experts in managing events of this nature.  (+info)

Analysis of incidence of childhood cancer in the West Midlands of the United Kingdom in relation to proximity to main roads and petrol stations. (6/232)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is an excess of leukaemias in 0-15 year old children among those living in close proximity (within 100 m) of a main road or petrol station. METHODS: Data for 0-15 year old children diagnosed between 1990 and 1994 in the United Kingdom West Midlands were used. Postcode addresses were used to locate the point of residence which was compared with proximity to main roads and petrol stations separately, and to both together. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with solid tumours as a control, and incidence ratios (IRs) with population density as a control. RESULTS: The method based on solid tumours as a control showed ORs of 1.61 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.90 to 2.87) and 1.99 (95% CI 0.73 to 5.43), for those living within 100 m of a main road or petrol station respectively. When population was used as a control, the estimated IRs for leukaemia were 1.16 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.72) and 1.48 (95% CI 0.65 to 2.93) for residence within 100 m of a main road or petrol station respectively, but neither reached significance at the 95% level. Results for residence in close proximity to both a main road and petrol station were inconsistent, but there were few. The influence of socioeconomic factors as represented by the Townsend deprivation index on leukaemia incidence was not significant and the results were not explicable on the basis of impact of social class. CONCLUSIONS: The results are suggestive of a small increase in risk of childhood leukaemia, but not solid tumours, for those living in close proximity to a main road or petrol station. This increase in risk is not, however, significant and a larger study is warranted to establish the true risk and causes of any increase in risk.  (+info)

Diesel exhaust particles up-regulate expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human bronchial epithelial cells. (7/232)

Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may play an active role in the increased respiratory mortality and morbidity. We have shown that DEP augmented the production of inflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells in vitro. ICAM-1 has been shown to play an important role in the local accumulation of inflammatory cells. We studied the effect of DEP on ICAM-1 gene expression and surface expression in human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. DEP (5-50 microg/ml) showed a stimulatory effect on ICAM-1 mRNA levels as evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated an increased ICAM-1 expression on the epithelial cell surfaces. The soluble form of ICAM-1 molecules was also increased by the stimulation of DEP. In vitro neutrophil attachment onto DEP-stimulated epithelial cells was augmented, which was partially blocked by anti-ICAM-1 neutralizing antibody. Finally, these events were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with anti-oxidants pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and N-acetyl cysteine, and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580. These findings suggested that DEP induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 gene, and this process might be largely dependent on oxidant-mediated NF-kappaB activation and p38-MAPK pathways.  (+info)

A Mycobacterium strain with extended capacities for degradation of gasoline hydrocarbons. (8/232)

A bacterial strain (strain IFP 2173) was selected from a gasoline-polluted aquifer on the basis of its capacity to use 2,2, 4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) as a sole carbon and energy source. This isolate, the first isolate with this capacity to be characterized, was identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis, and 100% sequence identity with a reference strain of Mycobacterium austroafricanum was found. Mycobacterium sp. strain IFP 2173 used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as growth substrates, including n-alkanes and multimethyl-substituted isoalkanes with chains ranging from 5 to 16 carbon atoms long, as well as substituted monoaromatic hydrocarbons. It also attacked ethers, such as methyl t-butyl ether. During growth on gasoline, it degraded 86% of the substrate. Our results indicated that strain IFP 2173 was capable of degrading 3-methyl groups, possibly by a carboxylation and deacetylation mechanism. Evidence that it attacked the quaternary carbon atom structure by an as-yet-undefined mechanism during growth on 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and 2,2-dimethylpentane was also obtained.  (+info)

Gasoline increased 0.02 USD/GAL or 1.31% to 1.58 on Friday November 16 from 1.56 in the previous trading session. Historically, Gasoline reached an all time high of 3.46 in April of 2011 and a record low of 0.90 in February of 2016. Gasoline is the largest single volume refined product sold in the United States accounting for almost half of national oil consumption. The NYMEX Division New York harbor unleaded gasoline futures contract and reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygen blending (RBOB) futures contract trade in units of 42,000 gallons (1,000 barrels). They are based on delivery at petroleum products terminals in the harbor, the major East Coast trading center for imports and domestic shipments from refineries in the New York harbor area or from the Gulf Coast refining centers. The Gasoline prices displayed in Trading Economics are based on over-the-counter (OTC) and contract for difference (CFD) financial instruments. Our Gasoline prices are intended to provide you with a reference only,
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. US Gasoline market research report provides granular analysis of the market share, segmentation, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. US Gasoline Market report 2016-2020 focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. The US Gasoline market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of US Gasoline Industry.. Analysts forecast the global US Gasoline Warming Devices market to grow at a CAGR of X% during the period 2016-2020.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Global US Gasoline market research report @ http://www.marketreportsworld.com/10279620. The research report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global US Gasoline industry for 2016-2020.. Gasoline (also known as petrol in Europe) is widely used as a fuel in automobiles. Gasoline, in essence, is a complex mixture of hydrocarbon ...
For a long time, gasoline was produced by rectification (distillation) and stripping of oil fractions boiling away within certain temperature range (up to 100°C - gasoline grade I, up to 110°C - special gasoline, up to 130°C - gasoline grade II). However, a common property of those gasolines was low octane number. In general, getting straight-run gasoline with an octane rating above 65 by motor method is rare and is only possible for the oil of Azerbaijan, Central Asia, Krasnodar Territory and Sakhalin. However, even for distillates of those grades of petroleum, a sharp decrease in octane number with increasing temperature in the end of stripping, was characteristic. Thus the entire gasoline fraction (180°C) is seldom used. For the oil from Ural-Volga basin, Kazakhstan, as well as that from West Siberia oilfields, it is characterized by the predominance of normal paraffinic hydrocarbons, thus straight-run gasoline from those is exemplified by low octane numbers. This prompted ...
Gasoline demand has been extensively researched, yet there has been no attempt to estimate cross-price elasticities of different grades of gasoline. Such knowledge will allow accurate determination of the impact of a fuel pricing policy that has different rates of tax or subsidy depending on the gasoline grade. Using monthly data on the Mexican gasoline market from 1999 to 2014, regular gasoline demand is estimated with an ARDL model. Endogeneity of the price and structural break are also investigated. The cross-price elasticity between regular and premium gasoline is found to be 0.875, confirming high substitutability among gasoline with different grades.. ...
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Recent research findings show that mid-range ethanol blends - fuel mixtures most likely between E20 and E30 - can in some cases provide better fuel economy than regular unleaded gasoline, even in standard, non-flex-fuel vehicles. Previous assumptions held that ethanols lower energy content directly correlates with lower fuel economy for drivers. Those assumptions were found to be incorrect. E20 and E30 ethanol blends outperformed unleaded gasoline in fuel economy tests for certain autos. The tests were conducted using four 2007 model vehicles: a Toyota Camry, a Ford Fusion, and two Chevrolet Impalas, one flex-fuel and one non-flex-fuel. Contrary to Btu-based estimates of fuel economy for ethanol blends, three of the four vehicles tested achieved their highest fuel efficiency not on gasoline, but on an ethanol blend. Mid-level blends of ethanol E20 (20% ethanol, 80% gasoline) and E30 (30% ethanol, 70% gasoline) offered the best fuel economy in these tests. E30 offered better fuel economy than gasoline
[...] since the collapse of oil prices in late 2014, that trend has stalled and now reversed as gasoline consumption hit a record high this summer. Since climbing to a national average of just under $3.80 a gallon in the summer of 2014, average retail gasoline prices have fallen as low as $1.84 a gallon, according to the Energy Department. In the Houston area, the average retail gasoline price per gallon a week ago was $2.01 on Sunday, according to GasBuddy.com, a website that tracks gasoline prices and refining activity.
Petrol attendants are exposed to petrol volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which may have genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. The single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) is a method highly sensitive to DNA damage induced by environmental and occupational exposure to carcinogenic and mutagenic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of exposure of petrol attendants to petrol VOCs and also to determine their effect on DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes of African petrol attendants. The exposed group consisted of 20 subjects, randomly selected from three petrol stations. A control group of 20 unexposed subjects was also chosen and matched for age and smoking habits with the exposed group. Sorbent tubes were used to assess personal exposure of petrol attendants. The comet assay was used to investigate the basal DNA damage and repair capacity in isolated lymphocytes of petrol attendants and unexposed subjects. Blood samples were taken from the petrol attendants at the end ...
Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences
Blends of petroleum-based gasoline with 10% ethanol, commonly referred to as E10, account for more than 95% of the fuel consumed in motor vehicles with gasoline engines. Ethanol-blended fuels are one pathway to compliance with elements of the federal renewable fuel standard (RFS). The total volume of ethanol blended into motor fuels used in the United States has continued to increase since 2010, albeit at a declining rate of growth. Meanwhile, the use of ethanol-free gasoline (E0) by fuel consumers has declined.. EIA tracks fuel components through data it collects from refiners, importers, large blending terminals, and ethanol producers. US refiners produce large volumes of blendstocks for oxygenate blending (BOB) that are referred to as RBOB or CBOB depending on whether they are formulated to be blended with ethanol to make reformulated or conventional gasoline, respectively. Another distinct gasoline blendstock known as CARBOB is used to produce California reformulated gasoline; EIA reports ...
For example, Petrobras gasoline cost 0.16 real per litre less than U.S. imported gasoline in Brazil as of Aug. 1, according to data from the consultancy.. Adriano Pires, a consultant at Brazils Center for Infrastructure (CBIE), said the change shows how Petrobras continues to change its methods toward market practices, leaving behind an era when the firm used to lose billions of dollars per year keeping gasoline prices artificially low to help the government rein in inflation.. Petrobras said it would not comment on its fuels pricing strategies.. The indebted company lost market share to imported fuel in recent months, when pricing far above the international market to boost revenues.. Gasoline imports jumped 70 percent in the first quarter, compared to the same period a year earlier, according to numbers from Brazils oil regulator ANP.. Refinery runs went down to around 75 percent of capacity, which compares to around 95 percent in 2014, also according to ANP. ...
EIA does not expect the current situation in corn markets to have a significant effect on the pump price of gasoline. Given the year-to-date ethanol supply and the availability of banked renewable identification number (RIN) credits, the current relationship between the prices of ethanol and petroleum-based gasoline components, and the relatively modest share of ethanol in the overall gasoline pool [10%], we expect gasoline prices will continue to be driven by crude oil prices and refining margins. The impact of the forecasted decline in domestic ethanol production should be primarily reflected in reduced ethanol exports. ...
* Two Senators ask EPA to look at gasoline price concerns* Ethanol credit costs have climbed on blend wall concerns* First action on contentious RIN issue by lawmakers* Lawmaker questions whether speculators behind spike (New throughout, adds comment from EPA, Republican lawmaker)By Ayesha RascoeWASHINGTON, March 20 (Reuters) - Two senior Republicansenators on Wednesday joined the oil industry in warning thatthe U.S. ethanol mandate could push up gasoline prices forconsumers ahead of the summer driving season.The ethanol mandate requires increasing volumes of biofuelsto be blended into the U.S. fuel supply each year through 2022.Refiners buy credits, or RINs, from producers of renewable fuelsto comply with the federal targets.Senators David Vitter of Louisiana and Lisa Murkowski ofAlaska, urged the Environmental Protection Agency in a letter totake decisive action to protect consumers from the rising costsof the credits, known as RINs, required by the mandate for allproducers of gasoline.Refiners
US refiners are in the process of planning and executing capital projects to comply with the new MSAT (Mobile Source Air Toxics) II regulations that become effective January 1, 2011. These new rules will restrict the annual average benzene level in the gasoline sold in U.S. except California to 0.62 vol%. California has similar restrictions on gasoline benzene content. Of the various refinery streams that are blended into gasoline 70 ? 85% of the benzene is contributed by reformate from catalytic reforming and 10-25% by FCC gasoline. Most MSAT II compliance strategies focus on reducing benzene in reformate. The benzene content in reformate can be changed by either removing compounds in the reformer feed that form benzene in the reforming reaction or by removing benzene from reformate by hydrotreating or solvent extraction. Removal of benzene from FCC gasoline is less straight forward. The relationship of feed properties and reaction process conditions to the production of various compounds in a ...
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Utah has traditionally focused on reducing emissions from gasoline engines as a key strategy to improve the states air quality. However, diesel vehicles are believed to account for nearly half of the on-road mobile source nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate exhaust (PM2.5) and NH3 emissions in Utah non-attainment areas. National and international studies are revealing that diesel and gasoline vehicles may be contributing more ammonia emissions than previously accepted. As an example, Sun et al. (2016) estimated vehicular NH3 emissions in the US are likely more than twice those given in the US National Emissions Inventory. Very little information, however, exists on the true emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles under Utah-specific conditions. Evaluating emissions, including ammonia emissions, from vehicles under Utah-specific conditions and examining how ammonia emissions are distributed in Utah valleys will help in understanding the true emissions impact from diesel and gasoline ...
Both the human and animal data indicate that exposure to high levels of gasoline can produce acute central nervous system depression. There is also evidence from the clinical literature that repeated exposure to gasoline at very high levels, under abuse conditions, can produce more profound central nervous system effects. Less clear is the degree to which these effects may have been due to the lead additives as opposed to the hydrocarbon constituents. There is little evidence of chronic neurological effects in humans exposed repeatedly at lower, occupational levels. The animal data provide little experimental support for chronic neurological effects from either unleaded gasoline or naphtha blending stocks. Initial studies with wholly vaporized unleaded gasoline provided evidence of exacerbation of normal, age-related changes. However, subsequent studies with gasoline vapor and naphtha blending stocks had no clear or reproducible effects on motor activity, produced no functional changes, and did ...
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Notes: Domestic crude oil production includes lease condensate and is estimated using a combination of short-term forecasts for the lower 48 states and the latest available production estimates from Alaska. Beginning with data for the week ending June 1, 2018, weekly crude oil production estimates are rounded to the nearest 100,000 b/d at the U.S. and lower 48 state levels. Finished motor gasoline production and product supplied includes a weekly adjustment applied only to the U.S. total to correct for the imbalance created by blending of fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components. From 1993 to June 4, 2010, this adjustment was estimated from the latest monthly data and allocated to formulation and PAD District production data. Reformulated and conventional gasoline production excludes adjustments for fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components. Historical data prior to June 4, 2010 includes the adjustment allocated by PAD District formulation. Propane/propylene includes ...
Notes: Domestic crude oil production includes lease condensate and is estimated using a combination of short-term forecasts for the lower 48 states and the latest available production estimates from Alaska. Beginning with data for the week ending June 1, 2018, weekly crude oil production estimates are rounded to the nearest 100,000 b/d at the U.S. and lower 48 state levels. Finished motor gasoline production and product supplied includes a weekly adjustment applied only to the U.S. total to correct for the imbalance created by blending of fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components. From 1993 to June 4, 2010, this adjustment was estimated from the latest monthly data and allocated to formulation and PAD District production data. Reformulated and conventional gasoline production excludes adjustments for fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components. Historical data prior to June 4, 2010 includes the adjustment allocated by PAD District formulation. Propane/propylene includes ...
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Early in 1944, William Boyd, president of the American Petroleum Institute and chairman of the Petroleum Industry War Council said: The Allies may have floated to victory on a wave of oil in World War I, but in this infinitely greater World War II, we are flying to victory on the wings of petroleum. In December, 1941 the United States had 385,000 oil wells producing 1.4 billion barrels of oil a year and 100-octane aviation gasoline capacity was at 40,000 barrels a day. By 1944 the U.S. was producing over 1.5 billion barrels a year (67 percent of world production) and the petroleum industry had built 122 new plants for the production of 100-octane aviation gasoline and capacity was over 400,000 barrels a day - an increase of more than ten-fold. It was estimated that the U.S. was producing enough 100-octane aviation gasoline to permit the dropping of 20,000 tons of bombs on the enemy every day of the year. The record of gasoline consumption by the Army prior to June, 1943 was uncoordinated as ...
Early in 1944, William Boyd, president of the American Petroleum Institute and chairman of the Petroleum Industry War Council said: The Allies may have floated to victory on a wave of oil in World War I, but in this infinitely greater World War II, we are flying to victory on the wings of petroleum. In December, 1941 the United States had 385,000 oil wells producing 1.4 billion barrels of oil a year and 100-octane aviation gasoline capacity was at 40,000 barrels a day. By 1944 the U.S. was producing over 1.5 billion barrels a year (67 percent of world production) and the petroleum industry had built 122 new plants for the production of 100-octane aviation gasoline and capacity was over 400,000 barrels a day - an increase of more than ten-fold. It was estimated that the U.S. was producing enough 100-octane aviation gasoline to permit the dropping of 20,000 tons of bombs on the enemy every day of the year. The record of gasoline consumption by the Army prior to June, 1943 was uncoordinated as ...
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These kinds of injuries are avoidable and the painful consequences often last a lifetime, says Karla Klas, B.S.N., R.N., C.C.R.P., injury prevention education specialist at the University of Michigan Trauma Burn Center.. Most of this years cases involved adults putting gasoline and other accelerants on bonfires and brush fires, says Klas, who also sits on the American Burn Associations Burn Prevention Committee. Several additional cases involved kids playing around with gasoline and lighters.. Gasoline fires kill about 500 people and are responsible for more than 10,000 emergency room visits each year, according to the American Burn Association. A gallon of gas is equivalent to 20 sticks of dynamite, the National Fire Protection Association notes.. Because we safely use gasoline every day in our cars and lawn mowers, people dont always realize how dangerous it can be when its improperly used, Klas says. People underestimate how flammable and explosive it can be.. Here are some safety ...
CD-1 mice were exposed to baseline gasoline vapor condensate (BGVC) alone or to vapors of gasoline blended with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE). Inhalation exposures were 6h/d on GD 5-17 at levels of 0, 2000, 10,000, and 20,000mg/m3. Dams were evaluated for evidence of maternal toxicity, and fetuses were weighed, sexed, and evaluated for external, visceral, and skeletal
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE); Advance Notice of Intent to InitiateRulemaking Under the Toxic Substances Control Act to Eliminate or Limit the Use ofMTBE as a Fuel Additive in Gasoline
According to a work sponsored by the Ford Motor Company, the lubricity of a reformulated gasoline containing oxygenates (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether -MTBE-) and a high aromatic content was not unusual or markedly different from commercially available non-oxygenated gasoline fuels [12]. However, Eleftherakis et al. [11] reported that both aromatics and MTBE enhanced gasoline lubricity. Wei et al. [5] modified a conventional high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) by deepening the fuel holder and covering the lubricant test chamber with a close-fitting lid in order to measure the wear performance of gasoline and diesel fuels. They found that commercial gasoline containing detergent additives had a wide range of variation in lubricity (from poorer to slightly better than Class 1 Sweden low sulfur diesel fuel -680 µm-). They concluded that detergent additives did not significantly affect fuel lubricity and that commercial lubricity additives for diesel fuels were also effective for gasoline. ...
Methanol is today a wellknown product used among others in industriel products. In China it is much cheaper and easier to produce and as a result methanol covers 10 percent of the whole fuel consumption. And the rest of the world is slowly discovering the advantage as well. The first methanol filling station was opened today in Denmark.. Until now not many cars in Denmark are suitable for methanol, but as the CEO of the filling station chain OK mentions that it is more the idea behind it that they want to demonstrate, they are not hoping for a long queue of new customers.. Methanol and the technology behind. Metanol is liquid as petrol and it is possible to produce it on a eco-friendly basis of bio mass and waste. The OK CEO believes it has more advantages as e.g. alternative fuel like gas and hydrogen.. The commercial director of Serenergy continues: A battery-driven electrical car with a reduced battery-size where the methanol fuel cell is put in can drive 800 km. It is possible to use the ...
Warner Oil Company is doing our best at making an impact on our nations dependence on foreign oil; We are pleased to offer RENEWABLE DIESEL FUEL ADDITIVE. Renewable Diesel Fuel Additive (R100) is approved by the EPA as a fuel additive that meets the ASTM D975-10 specification for No. 2 Diesel fuel. It is a fuel additive made from oil seed (soybeans and others) that is 100% compatible with any diesel fuel and home heating oil. In fact, the blended fuel tests to the same specifications as diesel fuel in terms of BTU content. Our lab tests have shown that this product, when blended at 20% by volume, is capable of the same fuel characteristics as ULSD. This blend known as R20 will provide superior lubricity while maintaining cold flow properties as low as 20 below zero. In addition reducing usage of foreign oil, renewable diesel fuel will save the user money at the pump. For more information on renewable diesel fuel and how it can save money in your fleet contact us today or visit our Alternative ...
View reliable Fuel Additives manufacturers on Made-in-China.com. This category presents Arla, Urea Solution, from China Fuel Additives suppliers to global buyers.
The third shoe is gasoline prices. They are rising and will continue to rise. Some of us are paying more than $2.00 a gallon for regular. I predict that gas will cost more than $3.00 a gallon in New York City and Chicago before the summer is over. Why is this happening? Because environmentalists have convinced the EPA to require many different formulations of gasoline for different cities, regions and states. This prevents oil refineries from taking advantage of economies of scale. That costs us money. It also prevents refineries from making one product that they can send anywhere in the U.S. So when a regional refinery breaks down or has to be shut down for maintenance, the locals cant use gasoline from some other place. The net-net of that is higher prices.. There is another problem. The environmentalists feel that wild animals are more important than humans. They have blocked our ability to extract the energy we need from U.S. sources. That does two bad things. First, it artificially ...
By Jeff Cooper on The E-XCHANGE For millions of Americans, Memorial Day weekend marks the unofficial start to summer. Despite gas prices that are nearly 40% higher than a year ago, families across the nation will celebrate the upcoming holiday weekend by taking a road trip. According to the AAA auto club, an estimated 31 million Americans will take to the highways this weekend. According to AAAs survey of traveler intentions, the average distance traveled by Americans during the Memorial Day holiday weekend is expected to be 792 miles. So, what does Memorial Day have to do with ethanol? As families hit the road this weekend, the increasing availability of ethanol will ensure they spend considerably less on gasoline than would otherwise be the case. In fact, this short analysis concludes the average American family traveling this Memorial Day will save more than $31 simply due to the fact that ethanol is holding gasoline prices down. Aggregate gasoline savings due to ethanol this weekend will be $440
SAO PAULO/NEW YORK, May 14 (Reuters) - Fuel retailers in Brazil have asked the government to reduce the amount of ethanol required to be blended into gasoline, saying a smaller production in the current season has reduced the biofuels supply and increased prices.. Fecombustiveis, an association representing around 40,000 gas stations in Brazil, asked for the ethanol blend in gasoline to be reduced from 27% currently to 18%, saying the smaller sugar cane crop this year due to drier-than-normal weather reduced ethanol production.. Nearly 90% of ethanol produced in Brazil is made from sugar cane, with around 10% being corn-based. The countrys center-south cane crop is off to a slow start this year.. Fecombustiveis said it received reports from associated companies saying fuel distributors were having trouble acquiring enough ethanol from mills for the mandatory blending requirements, causing delays in gasoline distribution.. Brazil last month cut the amount of biodiesel it blends into diesel from ...
The existing tax policies toward gasoline and diesel cars in European countries provide a unique opportunity to analyze quality-based price discrimination and the implied tax incidence. In my econometric framework, consumers choose the type of engine based on their annual mileage; prices are set by the manufacturers. The relative pricing of gasoline and diesel cars appears to be consistent with monopolistic price discrimination, effectively segmenting low-mileage from high-mileage consumers. On average, about 75% to 90% of the price differentials between gasoline and diesel cars can be explained by markup differences. I draw implications for the effectiveness and the revenue effects of tax policy.
But the situation may not be that simple, as illustrated in the map above. The schools have a much closer neighbor - a gasoline station thats right across the street, 250′ north of the elementary school, that has been there since at least 1993. When I worked for the Environmental Protection Agency in the 1990s, the problem of fuel oozing out of leaking underground storage tanks (yes, we called them LUSTs) at homes, gas stations, on farms, and other sites around the country was just beginning to get nationwide attention and prompted a suite of new rules from the EPA. Gas stations around the country were required to replace their old tanks. Many sites had plumes of gasoline floating on the local water table, sometimes migrating off the gas station property and into surrounding neighborhoods, sending fumes into basements and chemicals into water-supply wells. Gasoline contains benzene. Could kids at these schools be exposed to old gasoline contamination from this nearby filling station? Or to ...
Fuel additives such as isooctane have so far been produced from mineral oil. Commissioned by the French-German company Global Bioenergies, the Fraunhofer Center for Chemical-Biotechnological Processes CBP in Leuna will soon be producing biobased additives for gasoline. The source is bio-isobutene, which is obtained biotechnically from sugar.
Alcohol (ethanol/methanol) in gasoline causes a number of problems in older outboards. Its not an octane or lead issue, as these motors were designed to run on 80-octane fuel, and lead isnt required in two-cycle engines. Crankcase sealing is important in any two-cycle engine, and one of the first areas alcohol causes problems is with the crankcase seals, which were never designed for it, and fuel-pump diaphragms. Methanol will also react with any brass components and lead to corrosion issues. Also, alcohols have a lower energy density than gasoline, so fuel economy and power output suffer when compared to pure gasoline ...
upward before spiking another $0.57 between May 29 and June 3, sending regional retail prices to recent or all-time highs. Conventional gasoline spot price differentials between Chicago and New York Harbor approached $1 per gallon at their peak on June 3. The Chicago spot price has since come down, falling $1.10 during the rest of June as refineries returned to full production, with declines in retail prices following.. Beginning in mid-April, refinery maintenance caused gasoline inventories in the Midwest to fall sharply - by more than 6 million barrels, moving stocks from the top to the bottom of the five-year range - before recovering in May and June as major refineries restarted from maintenance, long-term upgrades were completed, and product from the Rocky Mountain region entered the market. With production returning to normal levels, prices in the Midwest have come down significantly, with retail prices dipping below the national average on June 24 for the first time in more than two ...
As the latest EIA graphic shows, global oil prices represented just 35 percent of the total cost of gasoline across the nation in March, compared to an average of 61 percent from 2008 to 2017.. Reason #3: Refining, Transportation and Marketing Costs Part of Equation. The third factor that explains why pump prices didnt bottom out completely along with domestic oil prices last month are the necessary refining, distribution and marketing costs that are included. Marketing and transportation costs have ranged between 25-42 percent of pump costs from 2008 to the present.. Notably, local refining can reduce the cost of transporting gasoline to the market, reducing prices at the pump as well. The latest EIA data show that refining costs have declined dramatically since 2017 along with crude oil prices, while taxes and marketing and distribution costs have grown sharply.. Conclusion. The fact that the United States has emerged as the worlds top crude oil producer and a major exporter explains why the ...
Brazils struggling sugar and ethanol mills got more good news on Monday after the government granted an expected increase in the national blend of the biofuel in gasoline to 27 percent on Feb. 15 from the current 25 percent, industry officials said. The higher blend is the latest of several measures taken by the government expected to have a positive effect on the industrys bottom line going forward.. In the past years, local firms such as Raizen , Biosev, Bunge, Sao Martinho and Guarani have struggled to post consistent and robust profits as rising production costs combined with government gasoline subsidies have squeezed mills margins. Also improving the outlook for mills was the governments January decision to raise taxes on gasoline starting on Feb. 1, allowing ethanol mills to raise prices in tandem and recover profit margins.. ...
Ethanol gained against gasoline on speculation that lower imports and higher demand will drain stockpiles of the fuel alternative.. The spread narrowed 2.65 cents to 69.01 cents a gallon. Imports were down 83 percent to 21,000 barrels a day in the week ended Feb. 15 from the 2012 high in October, according to the Energy Information Administration, while inventories are lower than year-ago levels.. Relative to the discount to gasoline, theres no reason blenders shouldnt be using as much as they possibly can, said Terry Reilly, senior commodity analyst at Futures International LLC in Chicago. Were importing less. Thats another reason we should see a drawdown in stocks.. Denatured ethanol for March delivery rose 0.8 cent, or 0.3 percent, to settle at $2.371 a gallon on the Chicago Board of Trade. Futures have advanced 8.3 percent this year.. Read more: Corn shortage idles 20 ethanol plants nationwide. Gasoline for March delivery decreased 1.85 cents, or 0.6 percent, to $3.0611 a gallon on ...
REGULATION 9 TOXIC AIR CONTAMINANTS CONTENTS PART 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 PURPOSE 1.2 APPLICABILITY 1.3 THROUGHPUT DETERMINATION 1.4 EXEMPTIONS PART 2.0 DEFINITIONS 2.1 ARB CERTIFIED VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.2 PHASE I VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.3 PHASE II VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM 2.4 GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.5 EXISTING GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.6 MODIFIED GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.7 NEW GASOLINE DISPENSING FACILITY 2.8 GASOLINE 2.9 THROUGHPUT 2.10 LEAK FREE 2.11 VAPOR TIGHT PART 3.0 STANDARDS 3.1 TRANSFER REQUIREMENTS 3.2 EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE 3.3 PROHIBITION OF USE 3.4 POSTING OF OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS PART 4.0 ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS 4.1 COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE PART 1.0 GENERAL 1.1 Purpose To comply with Health and Safety Code Section 93101, by reducing benzene emissions from gasoline dispensing facilities. 1.2 Applicability 1.2.1 This rule shall apply to any new or modified gasoline dispensing facility, or to any existing gasoline dispensing facility with an annual throughput of 480,000 ...
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EPAs Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program is a landmark program that affects new passenger vehicles and every gallon of gasoline sold in the U.S. Vehicles meeting the Tier 2 emission standards will be 77-95 percent cleaner than todays cars and trucks. At the same time, the program will result in cleaner-burning gasoline containing 90 percent less sulfur. ...
All gasoline-powered Mercedes-Benz vehicles, including the CLA, require unleaded, premium gasoline. Premium gasoline is any gas of at least 91 Octane. The CLA can use gasoline that contains up to 10...
Many studies have been carried out, using several animal species, to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of exposure to whole exhaust and to components of exhaust from diesel- and gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engines. The studies are considered within six subgroupings: (i) whole diesel engine exhaust; (ii) gas-phase diesel engine exhaust (with particles removed); (iii) diesel engine exhaust particles or extracts of diesel engine exhaust particles; (iv) whole gasoline engine exhaust; (v) condensates/extracts of gasoline engine exhaust; and (vi) engine exhausts in combination with known carcinogens. Whole diesel engine exhaust Mice, rats, Syrian hamsters and monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed by inhalation to a range of concentrations of whole diesel engine exhaust, with observations in some studies extending to the lifespan of the animals. Five studies conducted using two different strains of rats showed an increased incidence of benign and malignant lung tumours that was ...
Gasoline Octane directory ☆ Gasoline Octane manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Gasoline Octane buyers, importers, wholesalers, distributors
Glycerol is a major by-product in the biodiesel production process. Every 100 kg of biodiesel produced generates approximately 10 kg of crude glycerol. As the biodiesel industry has expanded rapidly in recent years, finding new uses of the excess crude glycerol is important. Many studies have examined alternative uses of crude glycerol. One of them is the use of glycerol derivatives, such as glycerol tert-butyl ethers as fuel additives. In this paper, the etherification kinetics of glycerol with tert-butyl alcohol to glycerol tert-butyl ethers was studied using an Amberlyst catalyst. The influences of the catalyst type and loading, reaction time, molar ratio, and temperature were investigated in detail.
Ford owners face Fuel System, Gasoline Fuel Injection System Fuel Rail problems. Do not ignore abnormal Fuel System, Gasoline Fuel Injection System Fuel Rail issues. What causes Fuel System, Gasoline Fuel Injection System Fuel Rail failures and issues? Consumer Took Car To Ford Dealer Regarding Recalls. Dealer Repaired 2 Recalls But
If the gasoline spontaneously ignites and detonates (i.e., explodes) before it is ignited by the spark plug, it causes an abnormal phenomenon known as knocking, pinging or spark knock. The knocking is quite audible and prolonged knocking will damage an engine. As briefly mentioned above, the most important performance characteristic of a gasoline is its octane rating, which is a measure of how resistant the gasoline is to knocking. In fact, the octane rating is sometimes referred to as the Anti-knock Index. The octane rating is based upon an arbitrary scale indexed relative to a liquid mixture of iso-octane (C8H18), which is 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, and n-heptane (C7H16). Iso-octane (see adjacent image), with a branched structure and a high resistance to knocking, has arbitrarily been assigned an octane rating of 100. N-heptane (see adjacent image), with a straight-chain structure and poor resistance to knocking has arbitrarily been assigned an octane rating of 0. The octane rating of a specific ...
D3606-17 Standard Test Method for Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Spark Ignition Fuels by Gas Chromatography benzene content~ toluene content~ motor gasoline~
Persuaded by the opposition of the SEMA Action Network (SAN), Nebraska legislation (L.B. 698) to remove labeling requirements on pumps dispensing ethanol-blended gasoline was indefinitely postponed in 2011. However, the legislature retained the option of reviving the bill in 2012. With the adjournment of the legislature for the year, the bill is now formally dead and would have to be reintroduced in 2013 in order to be reconsidered. Current law in Nebraska requires labeling when gasoline contains 1% or more alcohol, including labels for pumps dispensing E10. The bill would have made it impossible for enthusiasts to know whether the gasoline they put into their vehicles contained any ethanol, making unintentional misfueling and engine damage more likely. SAN maintains that you have a right to know what blend of ethanol you are putting in your older collector cars.. Thank you and congratulations to all who participated in opposing this bill!. Back to Breaking News: 2012 Archives. ...
New Hampshire Bill to Prohibit Ethanol Blended Gasoline at Levels Greater Than 10% Approved by House; Moves to Senate. Legislation (H.B. 1220) to prohibit a person from selling or offering for sale gasoline that contains more than 10% ethanol was approved by the New Hampshire House of Representatives. The bill now goes to the Senate Transportation Committee. Under a House committee amendment, the bill would take effect only if any two additional New England states adopt similar legislation limiting the amount of corn based ethanol in gasoline to 10 percent. We Urge You to Contact Members of the New Hampshire Senate Transportation Committee (List Below) Immediately to Request Support for H.B. 1220. ...
A Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) convened in Lyon, France, June 5-12 to scrutinise the available knowledge base on the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust, gasoline engine exhaust and some nitroarenes.1 Diesel and gasoline engine exhaust and nitroarenes were previously evaluated by IARC in 1989.2 For gasoline engine exhaust the classification remained Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) as well as for seven of the nitroarenes. The newly evaluated nitroarene 3-nitrobenzanthrone was also added to this group. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene were classified as 2A Probably carcinogenic to humans. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene are important exposure markers for diesel exhaust since metabolites of these substances have been found in workers exposed to diesel exhaust.3-5 The most prominent outcome of the IARC evaluation meeting was the upgrade of the classification of diesel exhaust, now in Group 1 Carcinogenic to humans with sufficient ...
Abstract. Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as directly in the exhaust plumes of individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks. BC emission factor distributions for HD trucks were more skewed than OA distributions (N = 293), with the highest 10% of trucks accounting for 56 and 42% of total measured BC and OA emissions, respectively. OA mass spectra measured for HD truck exhaust plumes show cycloalkanes are predominate in exhaust OA emissions relative to saturated alkanes (i.e., normal and iso-paraffins), suggesting that lubricating oil rather than fuel is the dominant ...
In this article, investigators report on the presence and nature of chemical sensitivities and other indices of illness in a cohort of workers excavating a new subway tunnel located under a former gasoline station. The workers were exposed to gasoline fumes for up to approximately 2 mo when they inadvertently dug into soil contaminated by...
Combo shipping paper for transporting Gasoline, Kerosene, Diesel Fuel, Fuel Oil, Ethanol and Gasoline Mixtures (UN3475) and/or Alcohols, n.o.s. (UN1987) in a cargo tank motor vehicle.
This report studies the fuel additives market which used in heavy fuel oil to control high temperature corrosion and ash fouling of gas turbine hot section components.
Intermediate for Motor Fuel Additives, Biomedical Activity, Agrichemicals, Olefin Polymerization, Flame Retardants, Metal Scavenging ...
Example ANOV-1: one-way analysis of variance This experiment studied the effect of different additives on the octane level of gasoline. There were 5 additives and 4 observations on each (P.W.M. John, Statistical Design and Analysis of Experiments, page 46). Define number of units in the experiment (5 types x 4 observations). UNITS [NVALUES=20] Define a factor to indicate the type of gasoline for each observation. FACTOR [LABELS=!T(A,B,C,D,E)] Gasoline Define variate to store the octane level recorded at each observation. VARIATE Octane Read the data, representing Gasoline by its labels. READ Gasoline,Octane; FREPRESENTATION=labels A 91.7 A 91.2 A 90.9 A 90.6 B 91.7 B 91.9 B 90.9 B 90.9 C 92.4 C 91.2 C 91.6 C 91.0 D 91.8 D 92.2 D 92.0 D 91.4 E 93.1 E 92.9 E 92.4 E 92.4 : Define the treatments to be fitted in the analysis. TREATMENTS Gasoline Analyse the variate Octane, printing just the AOV table. ANOVA [PRINT=aov] Octane Further output can be displayed without repeating the ...
The vapour pressure of biobutanol and bioethanol is very low compared to gasoline. A disadvantage of the bioethanol use is a formation of volatile azeotropic mixtures of ethanol and hydrocarbons present in the gasoline which causes the increase in the vapour pressure of gasoline in the range of 6 - 8 kPa (Muzikova et al., 2009). The formation of azeotropes occurs in the concentration up to 10% v/ v of biobutanol in gasoline but the highest increase in the vapour pressure is as low as 0.5 kPa at 5% v/ v of biobutanol in gasoline. At higher biobutanol concentrations, another volatile and/or oxygen compound has to be added to compensate vapour pressure decrease and to keep good engine startability. The formation of azeotropes is also associated with decrease of the boiling points of the blends. While the addition of bioethanol influences negatively the distillation curve profile, biobutanol has minor effect on the distillation curve.. Because of the use of different gasolines in several European ...
D3831 - 12(2017) Standard Test Method for Manganese in Gasoline By Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy , AAS, atomic absorption spectroscopy, gasoline, manganese, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, MMT,,
As Hurricane Sandy bears down on the East Coast, a lot of prognosticators are offering up predictions for what it means for gasoline prices in that market. I thought it might be of interest to note the differences in Hurricane Sandy and Hurricane Katrina concerning the oil and gas markets.. Hurricane Sandy has already reduced refining capacity in the Northeast, and the possibility exists of extended outages if any of these refineries take significant damage from the hurricane. Gasoline and heating oil inventories in the area were already very low, and this increases the chances of sharp gasoline spikes across the area. However, these spikes are expected to be short-lived and localized, as the area also receives gasoline from Europe and from the Colonial Pipeline, which brings supplies to the East Coast from the Gulf Coast. As long as refinery outages are not prolonged, the gasoline markets should return to normally fairly quickly. However, people would be wise to make sure their cars are topped ...
One of my first memories of watching TV during the early 1950s was ads promoting leaded gasoline for reducing engine knock. Little did I suspect the strange history of that gas. By the beginning of World War I, it became clear that the internal combustion automobile was edging out its rival steam cars and electric cars. Shortly afterwards, Thomas Midgley began researching how to remove the knocking ping sound from gasoline-powered cars.. Midgley devoted no fewer than six years of his life searching for a fuel additive that would have a no-knock effect. He found that corn alcohol would be too expensive. Benzene would also be effective, but it would be impossible to manufacture enough. Both oxygen and chlorine increased knock. Aniline, selenium oxychloride and tellerium worked, but produced an awful smell. Examining one element after another in a periodic table of the time, he finally found a gasoline additive: tetraethyl lead. Since poisonous effects of lead were well known, the product was ...
I was playing with the computer and found gasoline in Hattiesburg Ms at 2.54 per gallon . I was trying to rationalize this price as there are 3 stations at this price. We will need to wait and see if they have to close their door because of bankruptcy. It would not surprise me if the filling stations start giving money away because they have so much cash---joke.
Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp (134 kW) on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the vehicles gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles ...
Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp (112 kW) on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp (134 kW) on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the vehicles gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles ...
A Diesel engine has an extremely high compression ratio (around 16:1, if I recall correctly). A currently typical gasoline engine is probably about 8:1. (My Roadrunner is 12.5:1, but thats a full-race motor and has to burn aviation fuel.) A gas engine uses spark plugs to ignite the air/fuel mixture, but in a Diesel its the heat of compression that sets off the burn. Because of that ignition system, and a few other factors, a Diesel is most efficient at very low rpms. That compression factor gives a tremendous down-force to the pistons when it goes boom. The only time that I drove a semi, I was instructed to shift at 2,800 rpm. A gas engine typically shifts at around 5,000 - 7,000 rpm depending upon various factors (thats going by auto transmissions, which I hate). Some rice-rockets go to about 10,000 rpm, but those are just nuts. Anyhow, because of the compression factor, and often piston diameter, a gas engine has to turn a lot faster, and be geared down a lot, in order to produce the ...
Environmental benzene levels were measured in 26 petrol stations using both active and passive stationary and personal samplers. Simultaneously, benzene levels were measured in the petrol station operators on blood samples collected at the end of the work shift and the following morning before starting work. The petrol stations belonged to various different oil companies and were studied both during the winter (9 stations) and in the summer (17 stations). The environmental levels measured with active samplers in the 26 stations were on average 256 ng/l, were significantly lower (98 ng/l) in winter and higher (326 ng/l) in summer. The blood levels of benzene in 77 workers at the end of the work shift were on average 548 ng/l, were significantly lower (306 ng/l) in winter and higher (651 ng/l) in summer. The following morning, blood levels of benzene were lower than those found at the end of the work shift, on average 249 ng/l in winter and 427 ng/l in summer. Smokers had higher benzene levels ...
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If fuels that are more resistant to auto-ignition are injected near TDC in compression ignition engines, they ignite much later than diesel fuel and combustion occurs when the fuel and air have had more chance to mix. This helps to reduce NOX and smoke emissions at much lower injection pressures compared to a diesel fuel. However, PPCI (Partially Premixed Compression Ignition) operation also leads to higher CO and HC at low loads and higher heat release rates at high loads. These problems can be significantly alleviated by managing the mixing through injector design (e.g. nozzle size and centreline spray angle) and changing CR (Compression Ratio). This work describes results of running a single-cylinder diesel engine on fuel blends by using three different nozzle design (nozzle size: 0.13 mm and 0.17 mm, centreline spray angle: 153° and 120°) and two different CRs (15.9:1 and 18:1). The engine could be run on such blends with extremely low smoke and low NOX at speeds and loads of up to 4000 ...
The distribution of PM(2.5) and manganese (Mn) personal exposures was determined over a 4-month period in Indianapolis, IN, at a time when the gasoline additive, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), was not being used. The data collection period coincided with the data collection period in the Toronto, ON, study, where MMT had been used as a gasoline additive for over 20 years. The inferential or target population consisted of noninstitutionalized residents of the Indianapolis area during the monitoring period (from May 1996 through August 1996) who were at least 16 years old. The survey instruments used in this study (and also in Toronto) included a household screener form (HSF), a study questionnaire (SQ), and a time and activity questionnaire (TAQ). The SQ was administered to elicit information about the participant and his/her activities, occupation, and surroundings that might be relevant to his/her exposure to particles and Mn. In addition to the personal particulate matter ...
Motorcycle Performance Guide - K&N filters, Dyno runs, gasoline, petrol, sparkplugs, tires, tyres, Dyna runs, Performance, Tuning, Horsepower, Torque, Racing, Speed, Street
Current public focus on reduction of the use of fossil fuels and replacement of these fuels with cleaner-burning renewable fuels has played a key role in the growth of the fuel ethanol industry. Large demand for blending ethanol into gasoline began with its use as an oxygenated gasoline additive. Currently the US EPA has set the denatured ethanol-to-gasoline blend rate at 10 percent, but discussions are being held to increase this level to 15 percent or higher. Automotive companies are also producing flex-fuel vehicles; able to operate on ethanol-to-gasoline blends of up to 85 percent denatured ethanol, called E85.. With all this increased attention to fuel ethanol, producers and blenders have increased awareness of mandated fuel ethanol specifications, outlined in ASTM D4806 - Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasoline for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel.. Ethanol producers are required by law to render the fuel ethanol unfit for human consumption by adding ...
In the recent years, environmental concerns and depletion in petroleum resources have forced researchers to concentrate on finding renewable alternatives to conventional petroleum fuels. Therefore, alcohols as renewable and alternative energy sources for the diesel engines gain importance. For this reason, in this study, the performance, exhaust emissions, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine have been experimentally investigated under different injection timings when methanol-blended diesel fuel was used from 0 to 15%, with an increment of 5%. The tests were conducted at three different injection timings (15 degrees, 20 degrees, and 25 degrees CA BTDC) by changing the thickness of advance shim. All tests were conducted at four different loads (5, 10, 15, and 20 Nm) at constant engine speed of 2200 rpm. The experimental test results showed that BSFC, BSEC, combustion efficiency, and NOx and CO2 emissions increased as BTE, rate of heat release, peak cylinder pressure, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in lymphocyte subsets. AU - Lan, Qing. AU - Vermeulen, Roel. AU - Dai, Yufei. AU - Ren, Dianzhi. AU - Hu, Wei. AU - Duan, Huawei. AU - Niu, Yong. AU - Xu, Jun. AU - Fu, Wei. AU - Meliefste, Kees. AU - Zhou, Baosen. AU - Yang, Jufang. AU - Ye, Meng. AU - Jia, Xiaowei. AU - Meng, Tao. AU - Bin, Ping. AU - Kim, Christopher. AU - Bassig, Bryan A.. AU - Hosgood, H. Dean. AU - Silverman, Debra. AU - Zheng, Yuxin. AU - Rothman, Nathaniel. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group I carcinogen based largely on its association with lung cancer. However, the exposure-response relationship is still a subject of debate and the underlying mechanism by which DEE causes lung cancer in humans is not well understood. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in a diesel engine truck testing ...
Bio fuels like ethanol and bio diesel produced from renewable sources are being promoted world over to provide freedom from dependence on imported oil and to reduce pollution. Blends of ethanol in gasoline have been used for several decades. Bio diesel has been recognized as an alternative which not only has some of the properties superior to petroleum diesel but also reduces emissions of carbon monoxide and particulates. India has started blending of 5% ethanol in motor gasoline and efforts are being made to increase this blending upto 10%. Further work is also being conducted to use ethanol as a blending component for diesel fuel which has high demand in India. It has also been recognized that in a country like India, we may produce bio diesel from non-edible sources like jatropha and pongamia pinnata so as to reduce the consumption of diesel fuel. IOC R&D has conducted elaborate studies to assess the impact of blending of ethanol in gasoline and diesel on vehicle performance and emissions ...
This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of using a continuously variable length intake runner (intake manifold) on Turbocharged multi-cylinder diesel engines. While there is a large amount of data available for naturally aspirated engines, no reliable source was found for the effect of varying the length of intake runner for Turbocharged engines. This study was done for relatively low-speed off-highway diesel engines.The study is based on the results of one-dimensional engine models simulated in AVL BOOSTTM engine simulation software. A simplified engine model has been used for the single cylinder naturally aspirated engine, to demonstrate the effects of varying intake runner effective length. The multi cylinder study is based on validated model of a 12 cylinder 1000hp turbocharged diesel engine. It has been found that multi-cylinder turbocharged diesel engines are more responsive to intake runner length variations than naturally aspirated engines ...
As for the refining process: When you refine a barrel of crude oil, you get some gasoline, some diesel, and some other stuff, including such nasties as chlorinated wastewater and the gaseous chemical byproducts of combustion. Its all the same process, so you cant avoid the manufacture of diesel by buying only gasoline. The toxics created by oil refineries are bad for the environment at large and disproportionately affect the people - mainly poor people - who live nearby. Good ol Environmental Defense gives a pithy description of the environmental impact of refineries and suggestions for actions to get them cleaned up.. Although refinery pollution is bad, pollution from vehicles is considered a more pressing environmental issue, as most of us are closer to the tailpipe than to the smokestack. As we toodle along the road, our tailpipe exhales carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and sulfur dioxide. Such chemicals bring us ozone, particulate matter, acid rain, nitrification of water ...
Buy the Paperback Book Manufacture Of Gasoline And Benzene-toluene From Petroleum And Other Hydrocarbons, Issues 114-115... by Walter Frank Rittman at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on History books over $25!
Gasoline engines are increasingly popular for use in small unmanned aircraft requiring endurance due to the specific energy of gasoline (47.3 MJ·kg-1) and its cost effectiveness. However, gasoline is volatile and it poses a health hazard. In this work, isopropanol is proposed and investigated as viable fuel for small gasoline engines. Isooctane is used as a benchmark for performance comparison. The field testing reveals that isopropanol offers similar running performance and ease of starting. The maximum output power of isopropanol is surprisingly found to occur at a more advanced ignition timing compared with isooctane. The significant outcome of this study is that isopropanol can readily be used as a replacement fuel for existing engines without the need for any modifications to the ignition module or the engine itself.
Clip Art Directory - Industry, Resources, Oil and Gas, Petroleum and Gasoline previews. Really cool, creative, cartoons, illustrations, photos, webart in many subjects and styles.
The ethanol supporters are looking to raise the content of ethanol in every day gasoline from 10 percent ethanol and 90 percent gasoline 20 percent ethanol and 80 percent gasoline. This will double the nations use of ethanol to further reduce Americas oil consumption. E85 (85 percent ethanol 15 percent gasoline) is still seemingly hard to find in many states, e10 has been utilized greatly across the country.. The only threat that can get this shot down is can todays cars use twice the ethanol that is currently available in e10? Some say, older vehicle engines may not be able to run on e20 because it will damage their engines.. The University of Minnesota and Minnesota State University have conducted studies to help ethanol out. They found that e20 will not damage engine parts. The e20 blend is not enough ethanol for engine parts to break down.. Even though there may be skepticism regarding ethanol as the fuel of the future, numerous states in America have laws requiring a certain percent of ...
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A business owner is facing criminal charges after a resident and deputy witnessed his employees dumping gasoline down a sewer, officials said. According to the Washtenaw County Sheriffs Office, Jeff Murrillo, owner of A 1 Auto Complete Car Care at 2555 Washtenaw Ave, is being charged with drain polluting stemming from the April 22 incident. If convicted, Murrillo faces a misdemeanor charge punishable by 90 days in jail and/or a $100 fine. Murrillo already pleaded no contest in district court to a civil infraction for littering. That ticket was written by Ypsilanti Township ordinance officials.. Murrillo declined to comment until after the case is over. A Washtenaw County Circuit Court judge also has issued a permanent restraining order barring the owner from violating any township zoning ordinances or illegally dumping anything on the property. The company is zoned B3 commercial, which allows for light minor auto repairs like oil changes or brake replacements. But Murrillos crew was performing ...
The current Cares A Lott mission centers around providing essential goods to local healthcare heroes who are ensuring local communities are cared for during these tough times. By providing goods like gasoline and fuel gift cards, co-sponsored by Chevron, Lott Oil hopes to provide a stress reliever to the doctors, nurses and hospital workers who are caring for COVID-19 patients. Lott Oil relies on and appreciates the support we get from our local communities, and anytime we get the opportunity to return the favor, we try to do just that. We thank our healthcare heroes for keeping us safe during these trying times and are grateful to Chevron for helping us with our most recent Cares A Lott initiative, said Lott Oil owner, Buddy Lott ...
The Missouri Renewable Fuel Standard requires gasoline to be blended with 10 percent ethanol when ethanol is cheaper than conventional gasoline. This price provision means ethanol cannot increase the cost to consumers, Marshall said.. He notes that blaming ethanol for skyrocketing food and fuel costs is not supported by the facts. According to figures from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, while households are facing a 23 percent increase in their total food costs, they are facing a 335 percent increase in their gasoline costs since 2002. If fuel prices had increased at the same rate as food, we would only be paying $1.39 per gallon for gasoline, Marshall says. And while grocery bills are going up due mainly to increasing transportation, labor and marketing expenses, Missouris food costs remain inline with other neighboring states.. ...
1947 - Gasoline tank filler neck on passenger side of bed. No vent windows in doors. Hood side emblems read "Chevrolet" with " ... Early 1949 - Gasoline tank now mounted upright behind seat in cab; filler neck aft of passenger door handle. New serial number ... "Gasoline". autopaper.com. Autopaper. Retrieved 5 December 2020. Chevrolet Advance Design at Curlie. ...
Campany's book Gasoline (2013) received attention upon its publication and was positively reviewed by critics. It consists of ... Gasoline. Edited by Campany. Includes transcript of an interview with George Kaplan. London: Mack, 2013. ISBN 9781907946448. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "'Gasoline': The end of oil's innocence". CNN. Retrieved 31 July 2018. O'Hagan, Sean ( ...
Gasoline, Model WM from TB 5-9720-11, 1944 G132 M3 tractor crane on IH TD-14 Engine: Allis-Chalmers WM. Gasoline. 4-cylinder 20 ...
Ethanol can be used in petrol engines as a replacement for gasoline; it can be mixed with gasoline to any percentage. Most ... is often claimed to provide a direct replacement for gasoline, because it can be used directly in a gasoline engine. Ethanol ... Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form (E100), but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase ... Ethanol has a smaller energy density than that of gasoline; this means it takes more fuel (volume and mass) to produce the same ...
Fail, Mike (August 6, 2015). "M&G's Top 25 Under 25: #22 - Garnet Hathaway". Matchsticks & Gasoline. SB Nation. Retrieved April ...
"Gasoline Tractor". Iowa Pathways. "From Steam to Gasoline…". Inspired Media. Archived from the original on 2012-02-24. ... While steam powered tractors had been built earlier, In 1892, John Froelich invented and built the first gasoline-powered ... which used liquid oxygen and gasoline as propellants. 1927 Bread slicer Sliced bread is a loaf of bread which has been pre- ...
It first appeared on LZ7's EP Gasoline, which was released in the UK in August 2008. It was then remixed in 2010 for inclusion ... The first video, filmed in 2008, was used to promote the original version of "This Little Light" that featured on Gasoline. It ... Cummings, Tony (29 August 2008). "LZ7 - Gasoline". Cross Rhythms. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 4 ... It originally featured on the group's 2008 EP Gasoline, before being remixed in 2010 for inclusion on their second studio album ...
"Microbe & Gasoline". October 4, 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2019 - via Amazon. "The Mind's Eye". October 4, 2016. Retrieved March ...
"Gasoline Rainbows". Contemporary Art Gallery, Vancouver. Retrieved 2019-03-11. "Until Then Then - Western Front". Retrieved ... Gasoline Rainbows, Contemporary Art Gallery, Vancouver, BC 2006, Until Then Then, Western Front, Vancouver, BC McKenzie-Sutter ...
Gasoline Alley, an electric steel-guiderail car ride below, was built together and intimately intertwined, which enhanced ride- ... 1976: Motorcycle Chase; Sky Jump; Sky Cabin; Propeller Spin; Loop Trainer Flying Machine; Whirlpool; Gasoline Alley; Whirlwind ... Sky Cabin/Sky Jump and Motorcycle Chase steeplechase roller coaster above the electric guided rail Gasoline Alley car ride. Sky ... 1969-1986 Gasoline Alley - 1969-1996 Gran Slammer - 1987-2003 Hammerhead - 1996-2003 Haunted Shack - 1954-2000 Henry's Auto ...
Two small gasoline/oil mix tanks were fitted within the upper perimeter of the annular intake's sheet metal housing for fueling ... Aviation gasoline; not considered desirable due to its high rate of consumption. Costing RM10,000 for materials, the Jumo 004 ...
gasoline tank. He had over 100 Jenny airframes to choose from. Lindbergh aborted his first takeoff attempt on a windy day with ...
His earliest comic strip recollection is of Gasoline Alley. He now lives in that same house and notes, "Little did I know that ... "Gasoline Alley". May 3, 2009. Daryl Cagles's Political Cartoonists Index Charlotte Folk Society "Archived copy". Archived from ... Since 1986, he has been writing and drawing the syndicated comic strip Gasoline Alley for Tribune Media Services. In that role ... Scancarelli began his professional association with Gasoline Alley as an assistant to Dick Moores in 1979. Moores sent him the ...
The album's second single, "Gasoline," was released in July 2012. It reached No. 31 in the 2012 Triple J Hottest 100, and was ... Alpine: "Gasoline" , Tracks , Pitchfork" Retrieved 22 March 2013. Winners By Year - 27th ARIA Awards 2013 Retrieved on 14 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Gasoline - single". Apple Music. 25 June 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2020. CS1 maint: ...
Atlantic Gasoline. 1926. Retrieved December 15, 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Bureau of Public Roads & American ...
"A car uses gasoline for fuel." << std::endl; return "gasoline"; } }; }; Any object of class type Machine can be accessed the ...
"Gasoline Alley , Village Voice". www.villagevoice.com. Retrieved 2019-08-10. "The Harpo Foundation , Rachel Owens and Socrates ...
The company was produced: electric cars; gasoline cars; steam cars; steam boilers; extraction machines; driving machines; ... the gasoline cars with 5 to 10 hp with engines of 1, 2, 4 and 8 cylinders, with or without reverse speed lever, cardan and ...
of gasoline. A foreign investment law granting capital from abroad equal treatment with national capital is promulgated. It ...
"Gasoline Stations". The Canadian Encyclopedia. The Historica Dominion Institute. Retrieved 28 February 2011. Fort Drummond[ ...
ISBN 978-0-88830-242-7. Fischer, Barbara (1996). "Wounded and Marked". Love Gasoline. Toronto: Mercer Union. Lambton, G. (1994 ...
"Gasoline Rainbows". Contemporary Art Gallery, Vancouver. Retrieved 2020-03-04. "Kika Thorne , Canadian Filmmakers Distribution ... Gasoline Rainbows, Contemporary Art Gallery, Vancouver, British Columbia 2007: Street Scene, Murray Guy, New York City 2014: ...
"The Video Dead: Brotherhood of the Dead". Gasoline Magazine. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved April ...
Grace Shackman (October 2000). "Gasoline Alley". Ann Arbor Observer. Wineberg, Marjorie Reade and Susan (1992). HISTORIC ...
"Gasoline locomotives". Time.com. 28 September 1925. Retrieved 1 January 2012. "Direct drive gasoline locomotives". Yardlimit. ... Petrol locomotives use petrol (gasoline) as their fuel. The first commercially successful petrol locomotive was a petrol- ... Meiklejohn, Bernard (January 1906). "New Motors on Railroads: Electric and Gasoline Cars Replacing the Steam Locomotive". The ...
March 2 - Amid the gasoline shortage, a survey showed that 58% of the gas stations in the Detroit area were closed and only ... Gasoline shortage; Contaminated feed forces the slaughter of thousands of farm animals; Democrats take the Fifth and Eighth ...
Here she supplied the units of Task Force 3 (later 23) with fuel, diesel, lubricating oil; gasoline stores; provisions; and ... gasoline, and other supplies necessary for Shenandoah were built; as well as handling and stowage facilities for three ...
gasoline tank. He had over 100 Jenny airplanes to choose from. Lindbergh took the plane out to the field and taxied around for ...
Atlantic Gasoline. 1926. Retrieved December 15, 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Map of Pennsylvania (Map). ...
Gasoline Brothers • Margriet kicks-ass • Antwerp Gipsy Ska Orchestra • Bo's da Bomb 2 • Hospital Bombers • N-E-W Nijmeegsche ...
A common ethanol-gasoline mix of 10% ethanol mixed with gasoline is called gasohol or E10, and an ethanol-gasoline mix of 85% ... ethanol in gasoline. The resulting fuel is often known as reformulated gasoline (RFG) or oxygenated gasoline, or in the case of ... Gasoline is produced in oil refineries. Roughly 19 U.S. gallons (72 L) of gasoline is derived from a 42-U.S.-gallon (160 L) ... Quality gasoline should be stable for six months if stored properly, but as gasoline is a mixture rather than a single compound ...
Gasoline at IMDb Gasoline at AllMovie v t e v t e. ... Gasoline (Italian: Benzina) is a 2001 Italian crime film ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Thomas, Kevin (2003-08-29), "Gasoline - Movie Review", Los Angeles Times, retrieved ... Chiara Conti as Pippi Marco Quaglia as Sandro Pietro Ragusa as Filippo Gasoline was nominated for the Prize of the City of ... "Gasoline Review", Variety, retrieved 2009-08-20 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Nominees for the 15th Annual GLAAD ...
A common ethanol-gasoline mix of 10% ethanol mixed with gasoline is called gasohol or E10, and an ethanol-gasoline mix of 85% ... ethanol in gasoline. The resulting fuel is often known as reformulated gasoline (RFG) or oxygenated gasoline, or in the case of ... a b gasoline, n., and gasoline, n., Oxford English Dictionary online edition ... A1 AU 2000/72399 A1 Gasoline test kit *^ "Top Tier Detergent Gasoline (Deposits, Fuel Economy, No Start, Power, Performance, ...
Gasoline In 1859 Edwin Drake and E. B. Bowditch of the Seneca Oil Company drilled the first commercial oil well in the United ... Gasoline How Products Are Made COPYRIGHT 1996 Gale Research Inc.. Gasoline. Background. Gasoline is a volatile, flammable ... gasoline, gasolene XIX. f. GAS1 + -OL + -INE5, -ENE.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your ... Gasoline Environmental Encyclopedia COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc.. Gasoline. Crude oil in its natural state has very few ...
Automotive gasoline has been found in at least 23 of the 1,430 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental ... At high levels, automotive gasoline is irritating to the lungs when breathed in and irritating to the lining of the stomach ... Exposure to automotive gasoline most likely occurs from breathing its vapor at a service station while filling a cars fuel ... What is automotive gasoline?. The gasoline discussed in this fact sheet is automotive used as a fuel for engines in cars. ...
The Presidents support for a mandate to increase ethanol in gasoline is political pandering at its worst. Ethanols ... One lawn equipment manufacturer warns that engines are not designed for 15% ethanol gasoline (E15) and goes further, saying, " ... Dont think that ethanol blends cause problems? Checking the internet finds a wide variety of gasoline additives designed to ... gasoline supply. The location was apt, since the only rationale for such a move is naked pandering that would make a carnival ...
Consumer prices rose the most in 10 months in February as the cost of gasoline spiked, but there was little sign that ... GASOLINE HURTS SENTIMENT Gasoline prices have increased 53 cents since the start of the year to an average of $3.88 a gallon in ... Gasoline accounted for more than 80 percent of the rise. Stripping out volatile food and energy costs, the so-called core CPI ... Surging gasoline prices put a small dent in consumer confidence early this month, other data showed on Friday. Still, Americans ...
This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. ... If gasoline gets into the lungs (aspiration), serious and possibly permanent lung damage can occur. ... The harsh taste of gasoline makes it unlikely that large quantities will be swallowed. However, several cases of poisoning have ... The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ...
Toxicological profile for automotive gasoline. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service ...
What are the most important things to know about gasoline in an emergency? ... What are other names or identifying information for gasoline? What is the WHMIS 1988 classification? ... Gasoline. CLOSE ALL. What are other names or identifying information for gasoline? CAS Registry No.: 8006-61-9. Other Names: ... Unleaded gasoline. Main Uses: Fuel, industrial solvent. Appearance: Clear colourless - amber volatile liquid.. Odour: Gasoline- ...
... this is probably everything you needed to know about gasoline (and them some). Information is Courtesy of the United States D ... "Motor Gasoline" includes conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline ... Definitions of Gasoline Grades. (classification of gasoline by octane ratings). Each type of gasoline (conventional, oxygenated ... Regular Gasoline: - Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal to 85 and less than 88. Note ...
By under-taxing gasoline -- and thus under-pricing gasoline -- the United States encourages over-dependency. Furthermore, the ... America actually taxes gasoline less than most other nations. Only two countries-Kuwait and Saudi Arabia-charge lower gas taxes ... The federal gas tax has remained unchanged at 18.4 cents for a gallon of gasoline (and 24.4 cents for diesel) for nearly two ... And despite the rationality of a user-fee system, neither party will lead the charge to raise the gasoline tax. Few taxes ...
"All signs point to a much, much cheaper year than weve seen for gasoline prices since 2009 or 2010," says Tom Kloza, global ... The decline in gas prices translates to a savings of about $149 million per day in gasoline spending, according to a Bankrate ... More than 4 out of 5 consumers wont spend more during the holidays despite the recent drop in gasoline prices. ... Their savings cushions are insufficient, and any breathing room from the drop in gasoline prices could prove temporary should ...
The major problems of the various mixture formation concepts for direct-injection gasoline engines that have been proposed up ... Development of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine 970541. The major problems of the various mixture formation concepts for direct ... GDI™ (Gasoline Direct Injection) engine adopting these technologies is developed. At partial loads, fuel economy improvement ... Citation: Iwamoto, Y., Noma, K., Nakayama, O., Yamauchi, T. et al., "Development of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine," SAE ...
In 1980, a voluntary standards subcommittee, ASTM F15.10, was formed to look specifically at the safety of portable gasoline ... Gasoline from gas cans is responsible for deaths and injuries both from ignition of the volatile vapors and from direct ... aspiration into the lung or aspiration following vomiting of ingested gasoline. ... The available gasoline cans did not meet the new regulations and major changes had to be incorporated in order to comply with ...
Rising gasoline prices are casting a shadow over the summer tourism season, prompting many destinations to offer deals to ease ... Gasoline Prices Haunt Travel Plans Typical Summer Car Trip Could Cost up to $50 More; Less Time on the Road. ... Rising gasoline prices are casting a shadow over the summer tourism season, prompting many destinations that depend on ... The Travel Industry Association of America yesterday predicted high gasoline prices will limit travel growth this summer to ...
Gasoline (gas·o·line) /ˌɡasəˈlēn,ˈɡasəlēn/ Refined petroleum used as fuel for internal combustion engines. Caffei ... Caffeine & Gasoline (caf·feine) & (gas·o·line) /kaˈfēn,ˈkafˌēn/ & /ˌɡasəˈlēn,ˈɡasəlēn/. 1. A stimulant for car enthusiasts that ... Sign in, if youre already a member of this group or Join Caffeine & Gasoline ...
... By John N. Doggett Published May 11, 2001 at 1:00am ... On the gasoline front, lets pick one, clean, standard and use it for the entire United States. If it is Californias standard ... The third shoe is gasoline prices. They are rising and will continue to rise. Some of us are paying more than $2.00 a gallon ... As more people, businesses and vehicles consume energy, we will need to provide more gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel to ...
When the median voter becomes a driver, the gasoline tax drops on average by 20%. ... Gasoline taxes are the most important tax on car use. The question naturally arises as to what tax would be adopted by a ... "What drives gasoline taxes?," Working Papers Department of Economics ces10.01, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business, ... "Optimum Tariffs and Exhaustible Resources: Theory and Evidence for Gasoline," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 12/163, ...
Weve made some changes to EPA.gov. If the information you are looking for is not here, you may be able to find it on the EPA Web Archive or the January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot. ...
Quotes are not sourced from all markets and may be delayed up to 20 minutes. Information is provided as is and solely for informational purposes, not for trading purposes or advice.Disclaimer ...
Gasoline futures soared to a record premium over ethanol on Monday as gas prices topped $4 per gallon in some states while ... With retail gasoline in Chicago reportedly at a record high, April gasoline futures rose to $3.4175 per gallon at the New York ... We need exports to balance out or gasoline to pick up." Julie Ward, analyst at R.J. OBrien, added: "We need to get into a ... CHICAGO (Reuters) - Gasoline futures soared to a record premium over ethanol on Monday as gas prices topped $4 per gallon in ...
Imported/Exported Gasoline and Fuel Oil Methodology The Import and Export Other Petroleum Products Index is comprised of a ... Measuring Price Change for Crude Oil, Gasoline, and Fuel Oil in the U.S. Import/Export Price Indexes. The Bureau of Labor ... Thomson Reuters News Service is the source for the following spot prices: conventional regular gasoline for New York Harbor and ... The procedures explained here refer to the methodology used to calculate the gasoline data input portion of the Other Petroleum ...
Natural gasoline, Petrol [Note: A complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons (paraffins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics).] Clear ... Motor fuel, Motor spirits, Natural gasoline, Petrol [Note: A complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons (paraffins, ...
... and inspection for refiners, traders, distribution, logistics, and business.. Intertek provides full gasoline ... The gasoline test labs are staffed with experienced chemists using recognized international fuel testing methods. Gasoline ... Gasoline quality analysis and testing are available throughout the global Intertek laboratory network. Related field fuel ... testing specifications include ASTM, IP, EN, blended gasoline, pipeline specifications, regulatory specifications (CARB, EPA, ...
Gasoline prices have hit another all-time high, selling at an average of more than $3.22 per gallon nationwide, as they follow ... Gasoline Soars Months Before Driving Season Gasoline prices have hit another all-time high, selling at an average of more than ... SCOTT HORSLEY: Gasoline prices have been on a tear, jumping more than a quarter a gallon in the last four weeks to shatter the ... Gasoline prices have hit another all-time high, selling at an average of more than $3.22 per gallon nationwide, as they follow ...
... E. Coli headlines usually bring bad news about food poisonings and product recalls. ... of gasoline ... O Noble Group courts or sucrose or whatever call of sorts receipt ... right now how long theyve been working ... will see that though that offer the option of gasoline costs ... right now ... I can you break it down for all of us on how it ... who who uses gasoline ... completes the show she and he and ... his decision at that time who ... use and Buderus ... alright ...
... 2011-01-0659. Laser plasma ignition has been pursued by engine researchers as ... Citation: Genzale, C., Pickett, L., Hoops, A., and Headrick, J., "Laser Ignition of Multi-Injection Gasoline Sprays," SAE ... We study laser ignition at various timings during single and double injections at simulated gasoline engine conditions within a ...
  • The crude oil used to make gasoline is selling for well over $100 a barrel. (npr.org)
  • This is an engineering breakthrough on two fronts: A potentially cost-effective way to take CO2 out of the atmosphere to fight climate change and a potentially cost-competitive way to make gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel that doesn't add any additional CO2 to the atmosphere. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gasoline is a complex mixture containing as many as 250 separate hydrocarbons including several with well-established toxicity (e.g., benzene, toluene, xylenes, and n-hexane). (ccohs.ca)
  • The principal aromatic hydrocarbons--benzene, toluene and xylene--make up more than 40% of gasoline. (latimes.com)
  • Benzene is also produced by combustion of aromatic hydrocarbons even in benzene-free gasoline. (latimes.com)
  • Gasoline contains poisonous chemicals called hydrocarbons. (reference.com)
  • As early as 1925, German chemists Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch devised an industrial process to produce hydrocarbons such as gasoline and diesel from syngas - a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. (innovations-report.com)
  • The reactor carries out the first conversion step, where many different hydrocarbons, including the components of gasoline, are produced from syngas. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, this initial step also generates undesirable hydrocarbons, which comprise longer chains of carbon atoms than the gasoline components. (innovations-report.com)
  • Gasoline is a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons containing straight, branched, and cycloalkanes , which contain 5 to 18 carbons , olefins ( alkenes ), and aromatic hydrocarbons , including benzene , toluene , and xylenes . (factbites.com)
  • Gasoline , also called petrol, is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzenes to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. (factbites.com)
  • Some crude oils have a higher proportion of hydrocarbons with very high boiling points than other crude oils and therefore require more complex refinery configurations to produce lower boiling point hydrocarbons that are usable in gasolines. (citizendium.org)
  • Motor gasoline, as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C, is characterized as having a boiling range of 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point to 365 to 374 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90 percent recovery point. (everything2.com)
  • All types of finished motor gasoline may be sold is this area. (everything2.com)
  • Finished motor gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations as stated by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency under Section 211(k) of the Clean Air Act . (everything2.com)
  • Other Oxygenates' includes ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending (e.g., isopropyl ether (IPE) or n-propanol). (eia.gov)
  • Mathematical models have been developed and effectively applied to daily refinery motor gasoline blending operations that allow the Reid vapor pressure (RVP) and the ASTM distillation properties of the gasoline to be predicted from a low-resolution gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the gasoline. (astm.org)
  • Based on inhalation tests in rodents, the Environmental Protection Agency estimated in 1984 that the probability of developing cancer following lifetime exposure to 1 p.p.m. benzene or gasoline is about 1% and 0.1%, respectively. (latimes.com)
  • Long-term inhalation of unleaded gasoline by rodents induced liver and kidney cancers that were associated with isoalkanes in gasoline. (latimes.com)
  • Direct inhalation of gasoline causes carbon monoxide poisoning. (reference.com)
  • The animal data indicate that gasoline exposure by inhalation at high levels can produce kidney tumors in male rats and liver tumors in female mice. (europa.eu)
  • On average, a 42-U.S.-gallon (160-liter) barrel of crude oil yields about 19 U.S. gallons (72 liters) of gasoline after processing in an oil refinery , though this varies based on the crude oil assay . (wikipedia.org)
  • Today gasoline is the most important product of a typical oil refinery: The entire refinery process is designed to maximize its production. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gasoline is a complex mixture of molecules with a boiling range of 40 - 200 ° C (104 - 392 ° F). To produce various grades, there is a blending of many refinery components, each of which promotes specific fuel qualities such as desired octane rating, volatility, and minimization of engine deposits. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It also prevents refineries from making one product that they can send anywhere in the U.S. So when a regional refinery breaks down or has to be shut down for maintenance, the locals can't use gasoline from some other place. (wnd.com)
  • LONDON, Jan 9 (Reuters) - Gasoline exports from Europe to the Middle East have surged in recent months to record highs as traders seek to fill a gap due to particularly heavy refinery maintenance in the region in the coming months, according to shipping data and trading sources. (reuters.com)
  • Because sulfur in gasoline inhibited the octane-enhancing effect of the alkyl lead , the sulfur content of the thermally-cracked refinery streams for gasolines was restricted. (factbites.com)
  • On average, a 160-liter (42-U.S.-gallon) barrel of crude oil can yield up to about 72 liters (19 U.S. gallons) of gasoline after processing in an oil refinery, depending on the crude oil assay and on what other refined products are also extracted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, each refinery has its own unique configuration of petroleum refining processes that produces its own unique set of gasoline blend components. (citizendium.org)
  • The average refinery yield of gasoline in other countries may be different. (citizendium.org)
  • 1) Prepare the blended test fuel from typical refinery gasoline blending components. (cornell.edu)
  • HOUSTON, June 15 (Reuters) - Gasoline strengthened in the Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay spot markets on Friday after a storage tank leak at a Phillips 66 refinery, traders said. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Gasoline ( American English ) or petrol ( British English ) is a transparent petroleum -derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines . (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "petrol" is used in place of "gasoline" in most Commonwealth countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of the word gasoline instead of petrol outside North America can often be confusing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most areas outside of the US and Canada, gasoline is called petrol . (everything2.com)
  • Gasoline (/ˈɡæsəliːn/) or petrol (/ˈpɛtrəl/) (see the etymology for naming differences) is a transparent, petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignited internal combustion engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of the word gasoline instead of petrol is uncommon outside North America,[citation needed] though gasolina is used in Spanish and Portuguese, particularly given the usual shortening of gasoline to gas, because various forms of gaseous products are also used as automotive fuel, such as compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline or petrol is a fuel, derived from petroleum crude oil , for use in spark-ignited internal combustion engines . (citizendium.org)
  • Shortening gasoline to gas , which happens often, causes confusion with various forms of gaseous products also used as automotive fuel (for example, compressed natural gas (CNG) , liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline is produced from petroleum in the refining process. (cdc.gov)
  • The Import and Export Other Petroleum Products Index is comprised of a variety of petroleum items as well as gasoline data inputs. (bls.gov)
  • The procedures explained here refer to the methodology used to calculate the gasoline data input portion of the Other Petroleum Products Index. (bls.gov)
  • BLS uses an average of the daily spot prices for the first 5 business days of the month to calculate the Import and Export Fuel Oil Index and the gasoline data inputs within the Other Petroleum Products Index. (bls.gov)
  • In 1984 the American Petroleum Institute identified a new class of carcinogens in gasoline even more potent than benzene. (latimes.com)
  • The bottom line: The petroleum industry sells gasolines we don't need that are slowly killing us and destroying the environment. (latimes.com)
  • Despite the petroleum industry's claims that ethanol and methanol are too expensive, compared to the retail and hidden price we pay for gasoline, these fuels are a true bargain. (latimes.com)
  • Gasoline produced by the direct distillation of crude petroleum is known as straight-run gasoline . (factbites.com)
  • High-grade gasoline can be produced by a process known as hydrofining, that is, the hydrogenation of refined petroleum oils under high pressure in the presence of a catalyst such as molybdenum oxide. (factbites.com)
  • The first commercial cellulosic biofuel plant aims to turn Mississippi wood chips into diesel fuel and gasoline that are chemically identical to petroleum products. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Producers would need to be able to manufacture large quantities of drop-in biofuels at a cost that's competitive with gasoline and other petroleum products, and without expending excessive amounts of energy in the process. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The ban is "a kiss of death for gasoline and petroleum as California tends to be a trendsetter," said Patrick DeHaan, head of petroleum analysis for fuel-pricing firm GasBuddy. (rigzone.com)
  • Gasoline and other end-products are produced from petroleum crude oil in petroleum refineries . (citizendium.org)
  • [1] Gasoline contains benzene and other known carcinogens . (wikipedia.org)
  • In many countries, gasoline has a colloquial name derived from that of the chemical benzene (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the harmful effects seen after exposure to gasoline are due to the individual chemicals in the gasoline mixture, such as benzene and lead. (cdc.gov)
  • Laboratory tests are available that can measure elevated blood or urine levels of lead (as an indication of exposure to leaded gasoline only), benzene, or other substances that may result from exposure to gasoline or other sources. (cdc.gov)
  • Effects on the blood, which have been seen in some studies, are most likely from the presence of benzene or lead in the gasoline. (ccohs.ca)
  • Gasoline contains variable amounts of benzene, a known mutagen. (ccohs.ca)
  • Consumers are now routinely exposed to 1 part per million (p.p.m.) benzene during full-service gasoline refueling, and 3 p.p.m. at self-serve pumps. (latimes.com)
  • Gasoline contains benzene and other known carcinogens and causes over 100 thousand premature deaths every year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chemicals are frequently added to gasoline to improve chemical stability and performance characteristics, control corrosiveness and provide fuel system cleaning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline" is a North American word that refers to fuel for automobiles . (wikipedia.org)
  • British refiners originally used "motor spirit" as a generic name for the automotive fuel and "aviation spirit" for aviation gasoline . (wikipedia.org)
  • The octane number for a test gasoline represents the percentage by volume of isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) in a reference fuel consisting of the mixture of isooctane and heptane that would be necessary to match the test fuel's knocking tendency. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Exposure to automotive gasoline most likely occurs from breathing its vapor at a service station while filling a car's fuel tank. (cdc.gov)
  • The gasoline discussed in this fact sheet is automotive used as a fuel for engines in cars. (cdc.gov)
  • Kinawy subjected 15 rats to leaded gasoline - which is still available in Egypt - and 15 to unleaded fuel. (wired.com)
  • Gasoline direct injection is one of the best way to reduce fuel consumption of spark ignited engines. (sae.org)
  • As more people, businesses and vehicles consume energy, we will need to provide more gasoline, natural gas and diesel fuel to keep up with growth. (wnd.com)
  • Surging global energy prices amid sanctions against major oil producer Iran have underpinned gas prices even as they crimped fuel demand from drivers, with demand for gasoline in the United States over the past four weeks down nearly 8 percent from a year ago, according to the U.S. Energy Administration. (reuters.com)
  • The gasoline test labs are staffed with experienced chemists using recognized international fuel testing methods. (intertek.com)
  • They deliver 90 percent of the fuel to British gasoline stations. (upi.com)
  • Europe produces more gasoline that it needs and is a major exporter of the motor fuel. (reuters.com)
  • Fuel ethanol, used in Brazil for years, has been sold in this country as "gasohol," 10% agriculturally derived ethanol and 90% gasoline. (latimes.com)
  • Ok, everyone that frets about gasoline rates as well as gas prices increases in tax obligations originating from a person in fuel administration, please wait a 2nd prior to being upset. (storify.com)
  • The thought is every person could discussed better fleet management for their gas management system and also saving cash on energy cards, diesel fuel rates, mobile fueling as well as gasoline additives. (storify.com)
  • A recent article ("Pumping Up the Price" Feb. 26) on gasoline prices should make it clear to readers that the price of gasoline is no longer the result of inefficient fuel use or too much demand. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The use of ethanol in gasoline has a long and sordid history ("Food or fuel? (baltimoresun.com)
  • NEW YORK (MarketWatch) -- China plans next month to raise tax on regular gasoline by five fold and diesel fuel tax by eight fold, in a move to take advantage of falling crude prices and encourage energy conservation, state-run media reported Friday. (marketwatch.com)
  • Exposure to small amounts of gasoline vapors when filling a car's fuel tank do not necessarily cause adverse health effects. (reference.com)
  • While the Fischer-Tropsch process soared through the industrial trials, the fuel it produces is considerably more expensive than conventional gasoline obtained from crude oil. (innovations-report.com)
  • Gasoline volatility is being reduced as modern engines , with their fuel injection and management systems, can automatically compensate for some of the changes in ambient conditions - such as altitude and air temperature, resulting in acceptable driveability using less volatile fuel . (factbites.com)
  • Gasoline intended for use in engines is rated by octane number, an index of quality that reflects the ability of the fuel to resist detonation and burn evenly when subjected to high pressures and temperatures inside an engine. (factbites.com)
  • DETROIT -- The world's automakers are choosing sides in the gasoline vs. methanol strategy for fuel cells. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. and Renault SA are giving gasoline priority in their fuel-cell research, according to reports in Japan. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Those automakers believe using gasoline to derive hydrogen will bring fuel-cell vehicles to market faster because the refueling infrastructure would not have to be modified. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • So what that means is that drop-in biofuel must be a hydrocarbon-molecularly indistinguishable from the gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel making the world mobile today. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The octane rating of gasoline tells you how much the fuel can be compressed before it spontaneously ignites. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Bought to fuel a generator during the power outage caused by Hurricane Sandy five years ago, Pequannock woman finally getting rid of expired gasoline. (dailyrecord.com)
  • AAA's Fuel Gauge Report shows the nationwide average for a gallon of regular unleaded gasoline stood at $2.968 on Wednesday. (truthout.org)
  • Badger, operated by West Shore Pipeline Co., transports gasoline, diesel and jet fuel in the Chicago area. (dailyherald.com)
  • Chicago gasoline versus the same fuel on the Gulf Coast widened by 6.5 cents to 37.5 cents a gallon, while diesel fuel expanded by 3 cents to 16.25 cents higher, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. (dailyherald.com)
  • Gasoline" is an English word that denotes fuel for automobiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research conducted at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and headed by George Huber focuses on converting sawdust and switchgrass into 'green gasoline'--a fuel that we can use within our current infrastructure. (nsf.gov)
  • Faced with the ever-increasing cost of gasoline, automakers worldwide are working overtime to cost-effectively improve vehicle fuel economy while still meeting today's strict emissions requirements. (howstuffworks.com)
  • One promising way to boost fuel economy is to add hydrogen to the fuel/air mixture in a conventional gasoline engine. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Engines designed to run on a mix of hydrogen/gasoline can see a fuel-economy gain of 20 to 30 percent with no requirement for control of harmful NOx emissions, oxides of nitrogen. (howstuffworks.com)
  • However, I recently came across some documents put out by FEMA and the United Nations on how to handle an emergency of a gasoline shortage or even if the prices are too high to purchase fuel. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Note that the "fuel type" for the fuels specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section is considered to be gasoline. (cornell.edu)
  • In contrast, fuels with higher ethanol concentrations, such as fuel containing 82 percent ethanol , are considered to be ethanol fuels rather than gasoline. (cornell.edu)
  • On Thursday, April 22, EPA met with a group of oil refiners regarding clean fuel credits available on the market to purchase or trade to aid compliance with EPA's Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur program. (epa.gov)
  • The resulting synthetic fuel can be blended or used on its own as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • WASHINGTON - The government is establishing its first emergency reserves of gasoline to address future fuel disruptions in the New York City area and New England like those caused by Superstorm Sandy in 2012, the Energy Department announced Friday. (deseretnews.com)
  • University of California, Berkeley, chemists have engineered bacteria to churn out a gasoline-like biofuel (butanol) at about 10 times the rate of competing microbes, a breakthrough that could soon provide an affordable transportation fuel. (enn.com)
  • However, gasoline with ethanol blends over 10 percent can cause serious damage to your boat fuel tank and engine. (dailytribune.com)
  • Starting Monday, all Shell gas stations will be pumping a new fuel: Shell's nitrogen-enhanced gasoline. (cnet.com)
  • Before you start speculating about the wonder fuel of tomorrow, understand that this nitrogen-enriched gasoline differs from the gas Shell was pumping yesterday in its engine-cleaning detergents and additives. (cnet.com)
  • Shell stated that it didn't expect this new nitrogen-enhanced gasoline to result in an increase in fuel price. (cnet.com)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about automotive gasoline. (cdc.gov)
  • At high levels, automotive gasoline is irritating to the lungs when breathed in and irritating to the lining of the stomach when swallowed. (cdc.gov)
  • Automotive gasoline has been found in at least 23 of the 1,430 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • What is automotive gasoline? (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to automotive gasoline when it enters the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to automotive gasoline? (cdc.gov)
  • How can automotive gasoline affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • How likely is automotive gasoline to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have not classified automotive gasoline for carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Automotive gasoline is currently undergoing review by the EPA for cancer classification. (cdc.gov)
  • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to automotive gasoline? (cdc.gov)
  • In many geographical areas, the amount of gasoline produced during the summer season (i.e., the season of the greatest demand for automotive gasoline) varies significantly from the amount produced during the winter season. (citizendium.org)
  • Gasoline prices have increased 53 cents since the start of the year to an average of $3.88 a gallon in the week to Monday. (reuters.com)
  • The federal gas tax has remained unchanged at 18.4 cents for a gallon of gasoline (and 24.4 cents for diesel) for nearly two decades. (cnn.com)
  • CHICAGO (Reuters) - Gasoline futures soared to a record premium over ethanol on Monday as gas prices topped $4 per gallon in some states while stocks of the biofuel were likely to continue swelling, analysts and traders said. (reuters.com)
  • With retail gasoline in Chicago reportedly at a record high, April gasoline futures rose to $3.4175 per gallon at the New York Mercantile Exchange, just below the 10-month high set last week, as ideas of prolonged low interest rates propped up global oil prices. (reuters.com)
  • The drop in demand for gas has helped push up ethanol stocks to a record high last week of 22.7 million barrels as the U.S. government mandates that each gallon of gasoline in the country can contain only 10 percent ethanol. (reuters.com)
  • Many ethanol plants ramped up production at the end of 2011, ahead of the expiration of the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit, or VEETC, a tax incentive that provided 45 cents per gallon to blenders who mixed ethanol with gasoline. (reuters.com)
  • Gasoline prices have hit another all-time high, selling at an average of more than $3.22 per gallon nationwide, as they follow crude oil prices upward. (npr.org)
  • Gasoline is selling at an average of more than $3.22 per gallon nationwide. (npr.org)
  • SCOTT HORSLEY: Gasoline prices have been on a tear, jumping more than a quarter a gallon in the last four weeks to shatter the old record set last May. (npr.org)
  • Despite industry propaganda, few modern automobiles need 93 octane gasolines, costing 10 to 20 cents per gallon more than regular (87 octane) unleaded. (latimes.com)
  • Gasoline for March delivery dropped 4.21 cents, or 1.4 percent, to $3.0115 a gallon on the New York Mercantile Exchange . (bloomberg.com)
  • The average price of a gallon of regular gasoline in California rose 1.8 cents in the last week to $3.818, breaking a six-week streak of declines, according to the Energy Department's weekly survey of service stations. (latimes.com)
  • Nationally, the average for a gallon of regular gasoline rose 1.7 cents to $3.699, which was 95 cents higher than a year earlier. (latimes.com)
  • Here's how much more Maryland drivers paid for a gallon of gasoline after Tuesday's tax increase: .4 cents. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Not long after the Maryland General Assembly last adjourned back in mid-April, gasoline prices were approaching $4 a gallon. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Imagine that next week the price of a gallon of gasoline in Maryland went up a nickel or so. (baltimoresun.com)
  • U.S. gasoline prices averaged $2.41 a gallon Monday, down 3.3 cents from last Monday's level and the lowest price in more than three months. (usatoday.com)
  • Washington - Despite weak demand in the U.S. and Europe, oil prices climbed this week to near $90 a barrel and gasoline prices have passed $3 a gallon on the West Coast and parts of the Northeast. (truthout.org)
  • It's all about investor optimism, and that's been the story about 2010 … that's the primary reason why we're seeing oil prices at $90 (a barrel) and gasoline making an uncharacteristic climb in December towards $3 a gallon," said Troy Green, a national spokesman for the AAA Motor Club, which monitors gasoline prices. (truthout.org)
  • The premium for conventional, 85-octane gasoline, or CBOB, in Chicago gained 7.5 cents to 24.5 cents a gallon above futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange at 4:02 p.m., the highest level since Sept. 19, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. (dailyherald.com)
  • Conventional, 85- octane gasoline, or CBOB, in the region advanced 1 cent to a discount of 13 cents a gallon below futures. (dailyherald.com)
  • However, if the need arises suddenly with $8 a gallon gasoline. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • EPA's Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur Program is a landmark program that affects new passenger vehicles and every gallon of gasoline sold in the U.S. Vehicles meeting the Tier 2 emission standards will be 77-95 percent cleaner than today's cars and trucks. (epa.gov)
  • Thus, a gasoline that burns with the same amount of knocking as a mixture of 92 percent isooctane and 8 percent heptane is classified as a 92 octane gasoline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gasoline is a manufactured mixture that does not exist naturally in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • How the gasoline is made determines which chemicals are present in the gasoline mixture and how much of each is present. (cdc.gov)
  • A blend of ethyl alcohol (ethanol - CH3CH2OH) and gasoline, usually in a 10% ethanol to 90% gasoline mixture. (everything2.com)
  • The major problems of the various mixture formation concepts for direct injection gasoline engines that have been proposed up to the present were caused by the difficulties of preparing the mixture with adequate strength at spark plug in wide range of engine operating conditions. (sae.org)
  • Overall a typical gasoline is predominantly a mixture of paraffins (alkanes), naphthenes (cycloalkanes), aromatics and olefins (alkenes). (factbites.com)
  • A small amount of hydrogen made on-board by the reformer is added to the normal intake air and gasoline mixture in the vehicle's engine. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Conventional gasoline is mostly a blended mixture of more than 200 different hydrocarbon liquids ranging from those containing 4 carbon atoms to those containing 11 or 12 carbon atoms. (citizendium.org)
  • Some laboratory animals that breathed high concentrations of unleaded gasoline vapors continuously for 2 years developed liver and kidney tumors. (cdc.gov)
  • The rats were exposed to gasoline vapors for 30 minutes each day for six weeks, then housed for 10 days with litter mates that had not been used in the test. (wired.com)
  • Gasoline from gas cans is responsible for deaths and injuries both from ignition of the volatile vapors and from direct aspiration into the lung or aspiration following vomiting of ingested gasoline. (cpsc.gov)
  • In smaller doses, gasoline vapors result in nose and throat irritation, dizziness and breathing difficulties. (reference.com)
  • In the lab, pyrolysis of sawdust is done in the absence of oxygen so the vapors can't burn like they do in a fire--the vapors instead react on the catalyst surface to form gasoline. (nsf.gov)
  • Considering that the tax on gasoline prices was 24.4 cents in 1993 as well as gas tax was 18.4 cents if they were changed for inflation they ought to be 43 cents on gasoline prices and also 36 on gas costs. (storify.com)
  • Under the proposed measures, gasoline tax will go from 0.2 yuan a liter (3 U.S. cents) currently to 1 yuan, and diesel tax will rise from 0.1 yuan per liter to 0.8 yuan, effective Jan. 1, Xinhua news agency reported, citing a government statement. (marketwatch.com)
  • In the Portland, Oregon, market, gasoline remained at 17 cents under July NYMEX RBOB gasoline. (chicagotribune.com)
  • At higher concentration alcohols can be used as gasoline extenders, thus decreasing our dependency upon imported crude oil. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Refined from crude oil, gasoline prices have been lagging their progenitor for the better part of a year now. (zealllc.com)
  • Refiners will cut back on zero-margin gasoline production, which will reduce gasoline supplies, which will then drive gasoline prices higher to catch up with crude oil. (zealllc.com)
  • Boiled out of raw crude oil lower and hotter in the fractionating column than gasoline, the broad economic impact of rising diesel prices may ultimately rival that of gas prices. (zealllc.com)
  • So if oil doesn t correct sharply soon, then gasoline will inevitably climb until it adequately reflects the expenses of producing and delivering it in a $100+ crude world. (zealllc.com)
  • However, as an average of all the refineries operating in the United States in 2007, [5] refining a barrel of crude oil (i.e., 42 gallons or 159 litres ) yielded 19.2 gallons (72.7 litres) of end-product gasoline as shown in the adjacent image. (citizendium.org)
  • A new study from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign says that 938 million more gallons of gasoline go into vehicles annually because drivers and passengers are considerably heavier today than in 1960. (scienceblogs.com)
  • PEQUANNOCK - Donna Pettigrew Fillweber prepared for Superstorm Sandy with gallons of gasoline to power her generator. (dailyrecord.com)
  • The suspect in last week's deadly shooting rampage inside a crowded Colorado movie theater booby-trapped his Aurora apartment with more than 30 homemade grenades and 10 gallons of gasoline, a law enforcement official who viewed video showing the apartment's interior has told CNN. (cnn.com)
  • The two reserves totaling 1 million gallons of gasoline will be stored in leased commercial terminals around New York Harbor and Boston, the Energy Department said. (deseretnews.com)
  • And a million gallons represents only a small fraction of the 13.8 million gallons of gasoline used daily in New York state alone. (deseretnews.com)
  • With the phase-out of lead additives, the aromatic content of gasoline has doubled, particularly in super premium (93 octane) gasoline. (latimes.com)
  • A 1977 amendment to the Clean Air Act required gasoline additives to be substantially similar to those used in certifying vehicles to emission standards. (epa.gov)
  • Reduced gasoline volatility and composition changes, along with cleanliness additives and engine management systems, can help minimise cold start emissions, but currently the most effective technique appears to be rapid, deliberate heating of the catalyst , and the new generation of low thermal inertia "fast light-up" catalysts reduce the problem, but further research is necessary [76,82]. (factbites.com)
  • Considering that detergents and additives are federally mandated in the United States, and just about every brand of gasoline being pumped today makes some mention of the power of their detergents, we don't see Shell's gas as being very revolutionary. (cnet.com)
  • Gasoline has to be volatile enough to vaporize and mix with air to burn, but one problem is that the vapor pressure can go up or down with a change in temperature or with altitude. (factbites.com)
  • The study finds that over a 30-year span, biofuels end up contributing twice as much carbon dioxide to the air as that amount of gasoline would, when you add in the global effects. (npr.org)
  • The first thing to do if a person breathes an excessive amount of gasoline fumes is to get that person into fresh air as quickly as possible. (reference.com)
  • This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Amal Kinawy of Cairo University found that rats exposed to gasoline fumes were more aggressive than those breathing clean air and more likely to show signs of anxiety. (wired.com)
  • Millions of people every day are exposed to gasoline fumes while refueling their cars. (wired.com)
  • Each rat was dissected, and Kinawy discovered exposure to gasoline fumes had altered the animals' brains. (wired.com)
  • Are Gasoline Fumes Harmful? (reference.com)
  • Gasoline fumes are harmful in large amounts. (reference.com)
  • According to the National Institutes of Health, prolonged and intentional aspiration of gasoline fumes causes serious and potentially permanent lung damage. (reference.com)
  • The practice of aspirating gasoline fumes for a stimulant effect is a form of substance abuse and is extremely dangerous. (reference.com)
  • and reformulated gasoline, but excludes aviation gasoline. (everything2.com)
  • However, there is no evidence that exposure to gasoline causes cancer in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • However, there is little information available regarding the potential effects from long-term occupational exposure to gasoline itself. (ccohs.ca)
  • Considering the questions about the relevance of the various tumor types produced, as well as questions relating to the exposure conditions, it seems more appropriate to rely on data from gasoline vapor studies than the data from wholly vaporized gasoline for human health risk assessment. (europa.eu)
  • I've written before about Rick Nevin's research showing the startlingly strong correlation between the drop in childhood lead exposure (mostly thanks to the introduction of unleaded gasoline) and the drop in violent crime, but I've never mentioned the actual title of the original paper he wrote. (motherjones.com)
  • Although other social trends and government policies are often cited to explain the rise and fall in unwed pregnancy and crime rates over recent decades, the role of childhood lead exposure seems to be especially apparent in the best-fit lag structures for gasoline lead regressions. (motherjones.com)
  • The poisonous ingredients in gasoline leads to serious and potentially permanent lung damage. (reference.com)
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Consumer prices rose the most in 10 months in February as the cost of gasoline spiked, but there was little sign that underlying inflation pressures were building up. (reuters.com)
  • This prompted the state of California to order the removal of MTBE from California gasoline by 2003. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gasoline prices rise in California, U.S. (latimes.com)
  • Not only is California the largest car market in the U.S., it's also one of the nation's biggest gasoline consumers and the world's second-largest EV market, behind only China. (rigzone.com)
  • Key questions remain, including whether California will allow plug-in hybrid sales (used gasoline car sales will be allowed) -- and whether the rest of the U.S. will actually join. (rigzone.com)
  • At what pressure will regular gasoline spontaneously explode/ignite? (physicsforums.com)
  • In summer, conventional gasoline is used in most of these areas. (everything2.com)
  • The Clean Air Act has some exceptions and provisions for a small percentage of gasoline refiners and retailers. (intertek.com)
  • Refiners are producing low sulfur gasoline that is even cleaner than required under EPA's phase-in schedule. (epa.gov)
  • This allows refiners to generate sulfur allotments, a type of credit, which can be sold on the open market to gasoline importers, marketers or other refiners. (epa.gov)
  • With today's vote of the South Coast Air Quality Management District on its 20-year plan, and in light of new federal regulations on ozone-related gasoline volatility, the time for tough, fundamental decisions on motor fuels is long overdue. (latimes.com)
  • Eventually, these fuels could completely replace gasoline. (latimes.com)
  • it contains oxygen-rich chemicals in lesser concentrations than the winter oxygenated gasoline and is formulated to reduce certain toxic chemicals found in conventional and winter oxygenated fuels. (factbites.com)
  • Eighty-seven-octane gasoline is gasoline that contains 87-percent octane and 13-percent heptane (or some other combination of fuels that has the same performance of the 87/13 combination of octane/heptane). (howstuffworks.com)
  • The methods presented are simulation-supported testing under real-world conditions, use of specific worst-case fuels and accelerated ash loading in gasoline particulate filters. (springer.com)
  • The octane ratings of gasoline can be increased by the addition of small amounts of antiknock agents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Therefore, in some areas of the United States, such as the Rocky Mountain States, the octane ratings for the gasoline grades may be 2 or more octane points lower. (everything2.com)
  • What are the potential health effects of gasoline? (ccohs.ca)
  • Gasoline is rather volatile (meaning it readily evaporates), requiring that storage tanks on land and in vehicles be properly sealed. (factbites.com)
  • With respect to regulatory purposes, one important question relates to the relevance of data on "wholly vaporized gasoline" to humans who are exposed predominantly to the more volatile constituents. (europa.eu)
  • As the volatile fraction of gasoline has not been tested in chronic studies, the results of repeated dose and developmental and reproductive toxicity studies of gasoline 'light ends' should be used as the basis for risk assessment. (europa.eu)
  • In 1978 a Clean Air Act waiver allowed the use of 10 volume percent ethanol in gasoline, known as gasohol or E10. (epa.gov)
  • In June 2011, EPA approved blends of 15 volume percent ethanol in gasoline for use in model year 2001 and newer passenger cars, light-trucks and medium-duty vehicles. (epa.gov)
  • Brazil mandates 20 percent to 25 percent ethanol in its gasoline. (zdnet.com)
  • Atmospheric scientist Mark Jacobson ran computer models comparing air quality in 2020 based on use of both gasoline and E85, a blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline currently seeing a big old political and industrial push. (organicconsumers.org)
  • A Toxicological Profile for Gasoline was released on September 6, 1994. (cdc.gov)
  • The Obama administration is expected to propose new rules today that would slash the amount of sulfur in gasoline, one of the most significant steps the administration can take this term toward cutting air pollution, people with knowledge of the. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The CPI report showed gasoline prices soared 6 percent last month, the largest increase since December 2010. (reuters.com)
  • In 1980, a voluntary standards subcommittee, ASTM F15.10, was formed to look specifically at the safety of portable gasoline containers (gas cans). (cpsc.gov)
  • The ASTM F15.10 subcommittee issued a child-resistance standard using the provisional standard development procedures in February 2001 entitled ASTM PS 119-01 Provisional Standard Specifications for Child-resistant Portable Gasoline Containers for Consumer Use. (cpsc.gov)
  • The Children's Gasoline Burn Prevention Act (CGBPA or the Act) adopted the child-resistance requirements for closures on portable gasoline containers-found in the 2005 version of the applicable ASTM rule, F2517-05-as a consumer product safety rule. (federalregister.gov)
  • Under the Act, the consumer product standard for portable gasoline containers will, by operation of law, incorporate the 2015 revisions to the child-resistance requirements unless the Commission finds that the revisions do not carry out the purposes of the CGBPA's requirements. (federalregister.gov)
  • As a result, the 2015 revisions to the child-resistance requirements will be automatically incorporated and apply as the statutorily-mandated standard for closures on portable gasoline containers. (federalregister.gov)
  • The available gasoline cans did not meet the new regulations and major changes had to be incorporated in order to comply with the CARB requirements. (cpsc.gov)
  • The sulfur standard applies to convential and RFG gasoline, except for CARB regulated gasolines. (intertek.com)
  • Ranini, A. and Monnier, G., "Turbocharging a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0736, 2001, https://doi.org/10.4271/2001-01-0736 . (sae.org)
  • Gasoline (Italian: Benzina) is a 2001 Italian crime film directed by Monica Stambrini. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maya Sansa as Stella Regina Orioli as Lenni Mariella Valentini as Eleonora's mother Luigi Maria Burruano as Padre Gabriele (priest) Chiara Conti as Pippi Marco Quaglia as Sandro Pietro Ragusa as Filippo Gasoline was nominated for the Prize of the City of Torino at the 2001 Torino International Festival of Young Cinema and the Outstanding Film award at the 2004 GLAAD Media Awards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EPA has approved the use of E15 gasoline, even though it has only been approved for cars and light truck model years 2001 and newer. (dailytribune.com)
  • Surging gasoline prices put a small dent in consumer confidence early this month, other data showed on Friday. (reuters.com)
  • Consumer purchasing power, at least for the next few months, is going to remain pressured by rising gasoline prices," said Sam Bullard, a senior economist at Well Fargo Securities in Charlotte, North Carolina. (reuters.com)
  • Rising gasoline prices are casting a shadow over the summer tourism season, prompting many destinations that depend on Americans' willingness to drive to offer deals to ease the pain at the pump. (wsj.com)
  • The Travel Industry Association of America yesterday predicted high gasoline prices will limit travel growth this summer to less than 1%, compared with the summer of 2005. (wsj.com)
  • The third shoe is gasoline prices. (wnd.com)
  • We're not quite double that now, but certainly the cost of oil has gone into the stratosphere and it's dragging gasoline prices along with it. (npr.org)
  • Lower gasoline refining margins and prices in recent months have helped open the arbitrage out of Europe, particularly as exports to the U.S. East Coast, traditionally the main market for European sellers, have dropped. (reuters.com)
  • While gasoline prices rightly rose after the devastation following Hurricane Harvey, the shortages were very brief. (forbes.com)
  • Other than higher prices, there should not have been any significant issues with gasoline supply by the middle of the week of September 4. (forbes.com)
  • Ethanol strengthened against gasoline on speculation that plant shutdowns will help drain a glut of the biofuel and lift prices. (bloomberg.com)
  • If there was a no porked up tax on gasoline prices or gas taxes, just what would certainly things look like? (storify.com)
  • Yes, that suggests gas costs are visiting rise more than gasoline prices. (storify.com)
  • Gasoline prices are on the rise again, and analysts are predicting another round of hefty profits for oil companies. (latimes.com)
  • Analysts blamed the bounce back on global oil prices, adding that several outage-hampered refineries were returning to full production but not quickly enough to reduce retail gasoline prices. (latimes.com)
  • If anyone wants to find a culprit for rising gasoline prices, they should look to Iraq and other suppliers and not Annapolis. (baltimoresun.com)
  • This shouldn't be too difficult a stretch the way gasoline prices have been rising in recent months. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Because Wall Street speculators are driving up oil and gasoline prices again - just in time to dampen holiday cheer. (truthout.org)
  • WASHINGTON - U.S. consumer prices rose in December as households paid more for gasoline and rental accommodation, leading to the largest year-on-year increase in 2-1/2 years, a sign that inflation pressures could be building. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Last month, gasoline prices surged 3.0 percent after climbing 2.7 percent in November. (foxbusiness.com)
  • By raising commuting costs, an increase in gasoline prices should reduce the demand for housing in areas far from employment centers relative to locations closer to jobs. (repec.org)
  • The effect of gasoline prices on household location ," Working Papers 2010/28, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB). (repec.org)
  • The Effect of Gasoline Prices on Household Location ," The Review of Economics and Statistics , MIT Press, vol. 95(4), pages 1212-1221, October. (repec.org)
  • The effect of gasoline prices on household location ," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2010-36, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S. (repec.org)
  • Quite the contrary, odds are gasoline prices are heading considerably higher soon. (zealllc.com)
  • Understanding the historical relationship between oil and gasoline prices is the key. (zealllc.com)
  • The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early (which causes knocking and reduces efficiency in reciprocating engines) is measured by its octane rating . (wikipedia.org)
  • At a campaign rally in Iowa, President Trump indicated that he intends to support requiring a blend of 15% ethanol in the U.S. gasoline supply. (forbes.com)
  • He found that the ethanol blend would produce more ground-level ozone than gasoline, estimating that it could lead to a 4 percent increase in ozone-related deaths nationwide by 2020. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Gasoline used in internal combustion engines can have significant effects on the local environment, and is also a contributor to global human carbon dioxide emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • TAIPEI -- Investigators have found "gasoline components" in burnt plastic containers in the driver's booth and baggage compartment of the bus which caught fire in Taiwan on Tuesday, killing 26 people. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Investigators are trying to figure out if gasoline was stored in the bus and investigating the relationship between the fire, the gasoline components and the source of the gasoline containers. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Officials don't recommend leaving containers of gasoline stored in garages or sheds during the winter months. (dailyrecord.com)
  • The gasoline was divided into glass containers and gas cans to "enhance the thermal effect" of any explosion, the official said. (cnn.com)
  • Gasoline direct injection engine has a lower knocking sensitivity, which is a main advantage in supercharging applications which allow to pull down consumption levels by downsizing. (sae.org)
  • The Bush administration is calling for a vast expansion of this industry, as part of a plan to reduce gasoline consumption by 20 percent. (npr.org)
  • Gasoline production amounted to 10.1 million barrels a day last week, while implied consumption totaled just 9.1 million barrels a day. (usatoday.com)
  • Gasoline Middle Distillates USA 338.6 246.3 Canada 26.8 26.1 Western Europe 163.2 266.8 Japan 60.2 92.2 Total World 820.4 1029.0 The USA consumption of gasoline increased from 294.4 (1982) to 335.6 (1989) then dipped to 324.2 (1991), and has continued to rise since then to reach 338.6 million tonnes in 1994. (factbites.com)
  • As that wicked storm ripped through the heart of oil refining in the US, refineries responsible for 10% of national gasoline consumption went offline. (zealllc.com)
  • Gasoline may contain oxygen-containing chemicals such as ethanol , MTBE or ETBE to improve combustion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small amounts of the chemicals present in gasoline evaporate into the air when you fill the gas tank in your car or when gasoline is accidentally spilled onto surfaces and soils or into surface waters. (cdc.gov)
  • Other chemicals in gasoline dissolve in water after spills to surface waters or underground storage tank leaks into the groundwater. (cdc.gov)
  • MTBE provides high-octane quality along with low volatility and is readily soluble in gasoline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Using equipment that runs on gasoline, such as a lawn mower. (cdc.gov)
  • Trace amounts of olefins and diolefins found in gasoline are prone to reaction with oxygen dissolved in the gasoline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These ingredients are found in gasoline and other liquids, such as kerosene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Inhaling or swallowing large amounts of gasoline can cause death. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing in high levels of gasoline for short periods or swallowing large amounts of gasoline may also cause harmful effects on the nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • Demand for gasoline continues to fall, which led to an inventory buildup 5.7 million barrels of gasoline last week. (usatoday.com)
  • As long as demand for gasoline continues to weaken, gasoline inventories will continue growing and it'll be the gift that keeps on giving. (usatoday.com)
  • Gasoline in the U.S . is usually blended from straight run gasoline , reformate, alkylate , and some butane . (factbites.com)
  • Gasoline is produced in several grades of octane rating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each type of gasoline (conventional, oxygenated and reformulated) is classified by three grades - Regular, Midgrade, and Premium. (everything2.com)
  • Reformulated gasolines are clean grades of gasoline available in selected areas of the USA. (intertek.com)
  • Of note, all three grades of gasoline will contain the nitrogen-enriched detergents, with its V-Power premium grade containing five times the government-mandated amount. (cnet.com)
  • Gasoline exports from Europe to the Middle East are fairly regular, but a heavy maintenance schedule in the Middle East, which holds some of the world's largest and most advanced refineries, has pushed up demand on the route over the past few months. (reuters.com)
  • Chicago gasoline strengthened to the highest level versus futures in seven months on concern that Midwestern storms caused disruptions at local refineries and cut rates on product pipelines. (dailyherald.com)
  • The 2012 storm knocked out refineries, damaged terminals and left gasoline stations without power, leading to severe gasoline storages. (deseretnews.com)
  • The international, national, and state regulations and guidelines regarding gasoline in air, water, and other media are summarized in Table 7-l. (cdc.gov)
  • Regulations and guidelines pertaining specifically to gasoline emissions are not included in Table 7-l. (cdc.gov)
  • Regulations and guidelines for which it has not been explicitly stated if they apply to gasoline vapor and/or emissions have been included in Table 7-l. (cdc.gov)
  • EPA has established many regulations on gasoline to control air pollution (EPA 1990a, 1990b, 199Oc). (cdc.gov)
  • If gasoline gets into the lungs (aspiration), serious and possibly permanent lung damage can occur. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Buying gasoline a week in advance is panic and has led to motorists driving around for up to three hours to find gasoline, when daily life activities must still go on. (forbes.com)
  • As a student of the markets, I find gasoline fascinating. (zealllc.com)
  • Methyl t -butyl ether (MTBE) has been the antiknock agent of choice for unleaded gasoline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, leakage of gasoline from underground storage tanks has resulted in the detection of MTBE in the drinking water of several urban areas. (encyclopedia.com)
  • So automakers are trying to use gasoline or methanol, which would be reformed into hydrogen on board. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Today, almost all gasoline are E10 blends. (epa.gov)
  • Gasoline From Gut Bacteria? (wsj.com)
  • Technology Review has an article about a small biotech company in the Silicon Valley that has successfully produced renewable gasoline from genetically modified bacteria , including the nefarious E.Coli bacteria. (slashdot.org)
  • For instance, if they feed the bacteria corn syrup, the carbon that will go into the gasoline comes from the CO2 absorbed by the corn from the atmosphere. (slashdot.org)
  • Various species of the Clostridium bacteria naturally produce a chemical called n-butanol (normal butanol) that has been proposed as a greener substitute for diesel oil and gasoline. (enn.com)