Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms, forming the basis of classes such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons, which play a vital role in energy production and chemical synthesis.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Signs and symptoms of higher cortical dysfunction caused by organic conditions. These include certain behavioral alterations and impairments of skills involved in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of knowledge or information.
The application of pathology to questions of law.
'Tert-butyl alcohol' is a type of alcohol, specifically a secondary alcohol, with the chemical formula (CH3)3COH, used as a solvent and synthetic intermediate in organic chemistry and as an antifreeze in industrial applications.
A highly toxic compound used as a gasoline additive. It causes acute toxic psychosis or chronic poisoning if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
'Benzene derivatives' are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring as the core structure, with various functional groups attached to it, and can have diverse chemical properties and uses, including as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and pharmaceuticals.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
"Ethyl ethers, also known as diethyl ether, is a colorless, highly volatile, and flammable liquid that belongs to the class of organic compounds called ethers, used as an anesthetic in medicine."
A widely used industrial solvent.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
'Lead poisoning' is a type of heavy metal toxicity caused by increased levels of lead in the body, typically resulting from exposure to lead-containing substances or environments, and potentially leading to neurological issues, anemia, and developmental delays, especially in children.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Propane is a colorless, odorless, and chemically simple hydrocarbon (C3H8), commonly used as a fuel for heating, cooking, and engines, which exists as a gas at room temperature but can be liquefied under pressure and stored in cylinders or tanks.

Nested case-control study of leukaemia, multiple myeloma, and kidney cancer in a cohort of petroleum workers exposed to gasoline. (1/232)

OBJECTIVES: This nested case-control study was based on data in a cohort study of more than 18,000 petroleum distribution workers exposed to gasoline, which contains about 2%-3% benzene. Risks of leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, multiple myeloma, and kidney cancer were examined relative to exposure to gasoline. METHODS: For each case, up to five individually matched controls were selected. Analyses based on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure as well as univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression were performed for each disease category. Jobs with similar exposures were grouped into homogeneous categories for analysis. Several quantitative indices of exposure to gasoline were used in the analyses: duration of exposure, cumulative exposure, frequency of peak exposure, and time of first exposure. RESULTS: No increased risks for the four cancers were found for any job category. Analyses with logistic regression models based on duration of exposure, cumulative exposure, and frequency of peak exposure did not show any increased risk or exposure-effect relation. Time of first exposure to gasoline was also found to be unrelated to the four diseases under investigation. CONCLUSION: Exposure to gasoline or benzene at the concentrations experienced by this cohort of distribution workers is not a risk factor for leukaemia (all cell types), acute myeloid leukaemia, multiple myeloma, or kidney cancer.  (+info)

Analysis of chromosome loss and non-disjunction in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes of 24 male subjects. (2/232)

Chromosome malsegregation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 24 healthy male subjects was analysed by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromeric probes of chromosomes 7, 11, 18 and X. On the basis of the distribution of centromeric signals in cytokinesis-blocked cells, both loss (leading to centromere-positive micronuclei) and non-disjunction (resulting in an unbalanced distribution of signals in the main nuclei) of the hybridized chromosomes in vitro were identified. In addition, the incidence of binucleated cells with two hyperploid nuclei, possibly arising from mitotic division of trisomic types, was determined. In this way, the incidence of chromosome malsegregation in vivo and in vitro could be compared in the same cell samples. The results obtained show that ageing is positively correlated with the incidence of malsegregation of chromosome X in peripheral lymphocytes of male subjects and confirm the higher susceptibility of chromosome X to malsegregation in comparison with autosomes. A positive correlation between in vitro and in vivo malsegregation rates was observed for both chromosome X and for autosomes. Finally, relatively high frequencies of multiple malsegregation events, greater than expected for independent events, were recorded for both chromosome X and for autosomes, indicating that the abnormal segregation of chromosomes may be connected to a general dysfunction of the mitotic apparatus. The correlation observed between in vitro and in vivo malsegregation frequencies and the association of both parameters with ageing suggest that analysis of chromosome malsegregation in binucleated cells is a useful tool in the study of genomic instability in human populations.  (+info)

Physiologically based toxicokinetic modeling of inhaled ethyl tertiary-butyl ether in humans. (3/232)

A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed for evaluation of inhalation exposure in humans to the gasoline additive, ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE). PBTK models are useful tools to relate external exposure to internal doses and biological markers of exposure in humans. To describe the kinetics of ETBE, the following compartments were used: lungs (including arterial blood), liver, fat, rapidly perfused tissues, resting muscles, and working muscles. The same set of compartments and, in addition, a urinary excretion compartment were used for the metabolite tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA). First order metabolism was assumed in the model, since linear kinetics has been shown experimentally in humans after inhalation exposure up to 50 ppm ETBE. Organ volumes and blood flows were calculated from individual body composition based on published equations, and tissue/blood partition coefficients were calculated from liquid/air partition coefficients and tissue composition. Estimates of individual metabolite parameters of 8 subjects were obtained by fitting the PBTK model to experimental data from humans (5, 25, 50 ppm ETBE, 2-h exposure; Nihlen et al., Toxicol. Sci., 1998; 46, 1-10). The PBTK model was then used to predict levels of the biomarkers ETBE and TBA in blood, urine, and exhaled air after various scenarios, such as prolonged exposure, fluctuating exposure, and exposure during physical activity. In addition, the interindividual variability in biomarker levels was predicted, in the eight experimentally exposed subjects after a working week. According to the model, raising the work load from rest to heavy exercise increases all biomarker levels by approximately 2-fold at the end of the work shift, and by 3-fold the next morning. A small accumulation of all biomarkers was seen during one week of simulated exposure. Further predictions suggested that the interindividual variability in biomarker levels would be higher the next morning than at the end of the work shift, and higher for TBA than for ETBE. Monte Carlo simulations were used to describe fluctuating exposure scenarios. These simulations suggest that ETBE levels in blood and exhaled air at the end of the working day are highly sensitive to exposure fluctuations, whereas ETBE levels the next morning and TBA in urine and blood are less sensitive. Considering these simulations, data from the previous toxicokinetic study and practical issues, we suggest that TBA in urine is a suitable biomarker for exposure to ETBE and gasoline vapor.  (+info)

Mass psychogenic illness attributed to toxic exposure at a high school. (4/232)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Mass psychogenic illness may be difficult to differentiate from illness caused by bioterrorism, rapidly spreading infection, or toxic substances. We investigated symptoms attributed to exposure to toxic gas at a high school in Tennessee. In November 1998, a teacher noticed a 'gasoline-like' smell in her classroom, and soon thereafter she had a headache, nausea, shortness of breath, and dizziness. The school was evacuated, and 80 students and 19 staff members went to the emergency room at the local hospital; 38 persons were hospitalized overnight. Five days later, after the school had reopened, another 71 persons went to the emergency room. An extensive investigation was performed by several government agencies. RESULTS: We were unable to find a medical or environmental explanation for the reported illnesses. The persons who reported symptoms on the first day came from 36 classrooms scattered throughout the school. The most frequent symptoms (in this group and the group of people who reported symptoms five days later) were headache, dizziness, nausea, and drowsiness. Blood and urine specimens showed no evidence of carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, paraquat, or mercury. There was no evidence of toxic compounds in the environment. A questionnaire administered a month later showed that the reported symptoms were significantly associated with female sex, seeing another ill person, knowing that a classmate was ill, and reporting an unusual odor at the school. CONCLUSIONS: The illness attributed to toxic exposure had features of mass psychogenic illness - notably, widespread subjective symptoms thought to be associated with environmental exposure to a toxic substance in the absence of objective evidence of an environmental cause. Alleviation of the anxiety surrounding an episode of mass psychogenic illness requires prompt recognition and a detailed investigation.  (+info)

Analysis of a petrol plume over England: 18-19 January 1997. (5/232)

OBJECTIVES: About 7000 tonnes of unleaded petrol were discharged into the English Channel after a tanker collision off Ostend on Saturday 18 January 1997. The petrol evaporated and the vapour plume was carried across the central part of England to Wales, resulting in reports of unidentified odours, and irritation of the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory tract. This work uses this incident to show how marine and atmospheric dispersion modelling together with routine air quality monitoring can assist in identifying hazards to the population at risk from chemical incidents. METHODS: Public health surveillance and results from environmental sampling were compared with the behaviour of the plume as predicted by computer modelling. RESULTS: The predicted plume path and dispersion were shown to correlate well with the results from surveillance and environmental analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for public health professionals to interact with medical toxicologists, atmospheric and marine scientists and engineers, and other environmental experts in managing events of this nature.  (+info)

Analysis of incidence of childhood cancer in the West Midlands of the United Kingdom in relation to proximity to main roads and petrol stations. (6/232)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is an excess of leukaemias in 0-15 year old children among those living in close proximity (within 100 m) of a main road or petrol station. METHODS: Data for 0-15 year old children diagnosed between 1990 and 1994 in the United Kingdom West Midlands were used. Postcode addresses were used to locate the point of residence which was compared with proximity to main roads and petrol stations separately, and to both together. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with solid tumours as a control, and incidence ratios (IRs) with population density as a control. RESULTS: The method based on solid tumours as a control showed ORs of 1.61 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.90 to 2.87) and 1.99 (95% CI 0.73 to 5.43), for those living within 100 m of a main road or petrol station respectively. When population was used as a control, the estimated IRs for leukaemia were 1.16 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.72) and 1.48 (95% CI 0.65 to 2.93) for residence within 100 m of a main road or petrol station respectively, but neither reached significance at the 95% level. Results for residence in close proximity to both a main road and petrol station were inconsistent, but there were few. The influence of socioeconomic factors as represented by the Townsend deprivation index on leukaemia incidence was not significant and the results were not explicable on the basis of impact of social class. CONCLUSIONS: The results are suggestive of a small increase in risk of childhood leukaemia, but not solid tumours, for those living in close proximity to a main road or petrol station. This increase in risk is not, however, significant and a larger study is warranted to establish the true risk and causes of any increase in risk.  (+info)

Diesel exhaust particles up-regulate expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human bronchial epithelial cells. (7/232)

Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may play an active role in the increased respiratory mortality and morbidity. We have shown that DEP augmented the production of inflammatory cytokines by human airway epithelial cells in vitro. ICAM-1 has been shown to play an important role in the local accumulation of inflammatory cells. We studied the effect of DEP on ICAM-1 gene expression and surface expression in human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. DEP (5-50 microg/ml) showed a stimulatory effect on ICAM-1 mRNA levels as evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated an increased ICAM-1 expression on the epithelial cell surfaces. The soluble form of ICAM-1 molecules was also increased by the stimulation of DEP. In vitro neutrophil attachment onto DEP-stimulated epithelial cells was augmented, which was partially blocked by anti-ICAM-1 neutralizing antibody. Finally, these events were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with anti-oxidants pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and N-acetyl cysteine, and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580. These findings suggested that DEP induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 gene, and this process might be largely dependent on oxidant-mediated NF-kappaB activation and p38-MAPK pathways.  (+info)

A Mycobacterium strain with extended capacities for degradation of gasoline hydrocarbons. (8/232)

A bacterial strain (strain IFP 2173) was selected from a gasoline-polluted aquifer on the basis of its capacity to use 2,2, 4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) as a sole carbon and energy source. This isolate, the first isolate with this capacity to be characterized, was identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis, and 100% sequence identity with a reference strain of Mycobacterium austroafricanum was found. Mycobacterium sp. strain IFP 2173 used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as growth substrates, including n-alkanes and multimethyl-substituted isoalkanes with chains ranging from 5 to 16 carbon atoms long, as well as substituted monoaromatic hydrocarbons. It also attacked ethers, such as methyl t-butyl ether. During growth on gasoline, it degraded 86% of the substrate. Our results indicated that strain IFP 2173 was capable of degrading 3-methyl groups, possibly by a carboxylation and deacetylation mechanism. Evidence that it attacked the quaternary carbon atom structure by an as-yet-undefined mechanism during growth on 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and 2,2-dimethylpentane was also obtained.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "gasoline" is not a medical term. It is a petroleum-derived liquid used as fuel in internal combustion engines. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Xylenes are aromatic hydrocarbons that are often used as solvents in the industrial field. They are composed of two benzene rings with methyl side groups (-CH3) and can be found as a mixture of isomers: ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, and para-xylene.

In a medical context, xylenes may be relevant due to their potential for exposure in occupational settings or through environmental contamination. Short-term exposure to high levels of xylenes can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, as well as symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and nausea. Long-term exposure has been linked to neurological effects, including memory impairment, hearing loss, and changes in behavior and mood.

It is worth noting that xylenes are not typically considered a direct medical diagnosis, but rather a potential exposure hazard or environmental contaminant that may have health impacts.

Petroleum is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of geology and petrochemicals. It refers to a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations, which is composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, organic compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen.

Petroleum is not typically associated with medical definitions; however, it's worth noting that petroleum and its derivatives are widely used in the production of various medical supplies, equipment, and pharmaceuticals. Some examples include plastic syringes, disposable gloves, catheters, lubricants for medical devices, and many active ingredients in medications.

In a broader sense, environmental or occupational exposure to petroleum and its byproducts could lead to health issues, but these are not typically covered under medical definitions of petroleum itself.

'Vehicle Emissions' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in a broader context, it refers to the gases and particles released into the atmosphere by vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, and airplanes. The main pollutants found in vehicle emissions include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Exposure to these pollutants can have negative health effects, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, vehicle emissions are a significant public health concern.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrocarbons" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. They are primarily used in industry as fuel, lubricants, and as raw materials for the production of plastics, fibers, and other chemicals.

However, in a broader scientific context, hydrocarbons can be relevant to medical discussions. For instance, in toxicology, exposure to certain types of hydrocarbons (like those found in gasoline or solvents) can lead to poisoning and related health issues. In environmental medicine, the pollution of air, water, and soil with hydrocarbons is a concern due to potential health effects.

But in general clinical medicine, 'hydrocarbons' wouldn't have a specific definition.

Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. It has the molecular formula C6H6 and is composed of six carbon atoms arranged in a ring, bonded to six hydrogen atoms. Benzene is an important industrial solvent and is used as a starting material in the production of various chemicals, including plastics, rubber, resins, and dyes. It is also a natural component of crude oil and gasoline.

In terms of medical relevance, benzene is classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene can cause various health effects, including anemia, leukemia, and other blood disorders. Occupational exposure to benzene is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to protect workers from potential health hazards.

It's important to note that while benzene has legitimate uses in industry, it should be handled with care due to its known health risks. Exposure to benzene can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or accidental ingestion, so appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling this chemical.

Neurobehavioral manifestations refer to the observable behaviors and symptoms that result from an underlying neurological disorder or injury. These manifestations can include cognitive, emotional, and motor impairments, such as difficulties with attention, memory, mood regulation, communication, and coordination. The specific neurobehavioral manifestations exhibited can vary widely depending on the location and extent of the neurological damage or dysfunction. They are often assessed and diagnosed by healthcare professionals trained in neuropsychology, neurology, or related fields.

Forensic pathology is a subspecialty of pathology that focuses on determining the cause and manner of death by examining a corpse. It involves applying scientific knowledge and techniques to investigate criminal or suspicious deaths, often in conjunction with law enforcement agencies. A forensic pathologist performs autopsies (postmortem examinations) to evaluate internal and external injuries, diseases, and other conditions that may have contributed to the individual's death. They also collect evidence such as tissue samples, which can be used for toxicological, microbiological, or histological analysis. The information gathered by forensic pathologists is crucial in helping to establish the facts surrounding a person's death and assisting legal proceedings.

Tert-butyl alcohol, also known as t-butanol or 2-methylpropan-2-ol, is not a medication or a substance used in medical treatments. Therefore, it does not have a specific medical definition. However, I can provide you with a general chemical definition:

Tert-butyl alcohol is a primary alcohol with the molecular formula (CH3)3COH. It is a colorless and flammable liquid with a characteristic camphor-like odor. Tert-butyl alcohol is used as a solvent, denaturant for alcohols, and an intermediate in chemical synthesis. It is less toxic than other common alcohols like ethanol or methanol, but it can still cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract.

Tetraethyl lead (TEL) is not typically defined in a medical context as it is primarily an industrial chemical. However, it's important to note that Tetraethyl lead was used as an antiknock agent in gasoline but its use has been phased out in many countries due to its harmful health effects.

Tetraethyl lead is defined chemically as a colorless, volatile, and highly toxic liquid with a sweetish odor. Its chemical formula is (C2H5)4Pb or C8H20Pb. It's an organolead compound, which means it contains carbon-lead bonds. Exposure to tetraethyl lead can cause serious health problems, including damage to the nervous system, kidneys, and blood cells, as well as interference with the development of the brain in fetuses and young children.

Volatilization, in the context of pharmacology and medicine, refers to the process by which a substance (usually a medication or drug) transforms into a vapor state at room temperature or upon heating. This change in physical state allows the substance to evaporate and be transferred into the air, potentially leading to inhalation exposure.

In some medical applications, volatilization is used intentionally, such as with essential oils for aromatherapy or topical treatments that utilize a vapor action. However, it can also pose concerns when volatile substances are unintentionally released into the air, potentially leading to indoor air quality issues or exposure risks.

It's important to note that in clinical settings, volatilization is not typically used as a route of administration for medications, as other methods such as oral, intravenous, or inhalation via nebulizers are more common and controlled.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Benzene derivatives are chemical compounds that are derived from benzene, which is a simple aromatic hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C6H6. Benzene has a planar, hexagonal ring structure, and its derivatives are formed by replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the benzene molecule with other functional groups.

Benzene derivatives have a wide range of applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, and explosives. Some common examples of benzene derivatives include toluene, xylene, phenol, aniline, and nitrobenzene. These compounds can have different physical and chemical properties depending on the nature and position of the substituents attached to the benzene ring.

It is important to note that some benzene derivatives are known to be toxic or carcinogenic, and their production, use, and disposal must be carefully regulated to ensure safety and protect public health.

In the context of medicine, "lead" most commonly refers to lead exposure or lead poisoning. Lead is a heavy metal that can be harmful to the human body, even at low levels. It can enter the body through contaminated air, water, food, or soil, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body over time, causing damage to the brain, nervous system, red blood cells, and kidneys. Symptoms of lead poisoning may include abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue, headache, irritability, memory problems, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, or even death.

Lead exposure is particularly dangerous for children, as their developing bodies are more sensitive to the harmful effects of lead. Even low levels of lead exposure can cause learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and developmental delays in children. Therefore, it's important to minimize lead exposure and seek medical attention if lead poisoning is suspected.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question as "automobiles" is a general term used to describe wheeled motor vehicles for transportation, and it's not typically a medical term with its own specific definition. However, I can provide you with some automobile-related terms that have medical implications:

1. **Driving fitness**: This refers to the physical and mental abilities required to operate a vehicle safely. Various medical conditions or treatments can impact driving fitness, such as seizure disorders, sleep apnea, certain medications, or alcohol/substance use disorders.
2. **Driving simulator**: A device used in research and rehabilitation settings that presents a realistic driving environment for assessing and training individuals with various medical conditions or disabilities affecting their ability to drive.
3. **Adaptive automobile equipment**: Devices designed to assist people with disabilities in operating vehicles, such as hand controls, wheelchair lifts, or pedal extensions.
4. **Transportation disadvantage**: A situation where an individual's medical condition, disability, or lack of access to suitable transportation limits their ability to obtain necessary healthcare services.
5. **Motor vehicle crash (MVC) outcomes**: Medical consequences resulting from motor vehicle crashes, including injuries and fatalities. These outcomes are often studied in public health and injury prevention research.

If you have a specific medical term or concept related to automobiles that you would like me to define or explain, please provide more details, and I will be happy to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "octanes" is not a medical term. It is a term used in chemistry and physics, particularly in reference to fuel. Octane is a hydrocarbon molecule found in gasoline, and it is used as a measure of the fuel's ability to resist engine knocking or pinging during combustion.

The octane rating of gasoline typically ranges from 87 (regular) to 91-93 (premium). Higher-octane fuels are often recommended for high-performance vehicles that have higher compression ratios in their engines. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

Ethyl ether, also known as diethyl ether or simply ether, is a type of organic compound that is classified as a simple ether. It is a colorless and highly volatile liquid with a characteristic odor that is often described as sweet or fruity. In medical contexts, ethyl ether has been historically used as an anesthetic agent due to its ability to produce unconsciousness and insensitivity to pain when inhaled. However, its use as an anesthetic has largely been replaced by safer and more effective alternatives due to its flammability, explosiveness, and potential for causing serious adverse effects such as heart problems and liver damage.

Ethyl ether is a simple ether consisting of two ethyl groups (-C2H5) linked to an oxygen atom (O), with the molecular formula C4H10O. It is produced by the reaction of ethanol with sulfuric acid, followed by distillation to separate the resulting ethyl ether from other products.

In addition to its historical use as an anesthetic, ethyl ether has been used in various industrial and laboratory applications, such as a solvent for fats, oils, resins, and waxes, and as a starting material for the synthesis of other chemicals. However, due to its flammability and potential for causing harm, it is important to handle ethyl ether with care and follow appropriate safety precautions when using it.

Toluene is not a medical condition or disease, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. Medically, toluene can be relevant as a substance of abuse due to its intoxicating effects when inhaled or sniffed. It is a colorless liquid with a distinctive sweet aroma, and it is a common solvent found in many products such as paint thinners, adhesives, and rubber cement.

In the context of medical toxicology, toluene exposure can lead to various health issues, including neurological damage, cognitive impairment, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, and hearing and vision problems. Chronic exposure to toluene can also cause significant harm to the developing fetus during pregnancy, leading to developmental delays, behavioral problems, and physical abnormalities.

"Energy-generating resources" is a broad term that refers to various methods and technologies used to convert different forms of energy into electricity or other useful forms. While there isn't a specific medical definition for this term, it is often discussed in the context of public health and environmental medicine due to its impact on air quality, climate change, and human health. Here are some examples of energy-generating resources:

1. Fossil fuels: These include coal, oil, and natural gas, which are non-renewable resources. They are burned to produce heat, which is then converted into electricity. The combustion process releases greenhouse gases and pollutants, contributing to climate change and air pollution-related health issues.
2. Nuclear power: This energy source involves the fission of atomic nuclei to generate heat, which is used to produce steam and drive turbines for electricity generation. While nuclear power itself does not emit greenhouse gases, it poses potential risks associated with radioactive waste disposal, accidents, and proliferation.
3. Renewable resources: These are sustainable energy sources that can be replenished naturally over time. Examples include solar power (photovoltaic or concentrated), wind power, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, and biomass. These resources have lower environmental impacts and contribute less to air pollution and climate change compared to fossil fuels.
4. Hydrogen fuel cells: These devices convert chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity through an electrochemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. They are clean energy sources, as the only byproducts are water and heat. However, the production of hydrogen can have environmental impacts depending on the method used (e.g., steam methane reforming vs. electrolysis powered by renewable energy).
5. Energy storage systems: While not a primary source of energy generation, energy storage technologies like batteries and capacitors play an essential role in optimizing the use of energy-generating resources. They can store excess energy produced during periods of low demand or high resource availability (e.g., solar power during the day) and release it during peak demand or resource scarcity, improving overall system efficiency and reducing the need for backup generation from fossil fuels.

In summary, "energy-generating resources" refer to various methods used to convert different forms of energy into electricity or other useful forms. The environmental and health impacts of these resources vary significantly, with renewable sources generally having lower impacts compared to fossil fuel-based options.

Methyl ethers are a type of organic compound where a methyl group (CH3-) is attached to an oxygen atom, which in turn is connected to another carbon atom. They are formed by the process of methylation, where a methyl group replaces a hydrogen atom in another molecule.

Methyl ethers can be found in various natural and synthetic substances. For example, dimethyl ether (CH3-O-CH3) is a common fuel used in refrigeration systems and as a propellant in aerosol sprays. Anisole (CH3-O-C6H5), another methyl ether, is found in anise oil and is used as a flavoring agent and solvent.

It's worth noting that some methyl ethers have been associated with potential health risks, particularly when they are volatile and can be inhaled or ingested. For example, exposure to high levels of dimethyl ether can cause respiratory irritation, headaches, and dizziness. Therefore, it's important to handle these substances with care and follow appropriate safety guidelines.

Fossil fuels are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of earth science and energy production. They refer to fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes even hundreds of millions of years.

There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Coal is primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen, and it is formed from the remains of plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago in swamps and peat bogs. Petroleum, also known as crude oil, is a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds, formed from the remains of marine organisms such as algae and zooplankton. Natural gas is primarily composed of methane and other light hydrocarbons, and it is found in underground reservoirs, often in association with petroleum deposits.

Fossil fuels are a major source of energy for transportation, heating, and electricity generation, but their combustion also releases large amounts of carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change and air pollution.

Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by the accumulation of lead in the body, often over months or years. Even small amounts of lead can cause serious health problems. Children under the age of 6 are particularly vulnerable to lead poisoning, which can severely affect mental and physical development.

The primary source of lead exposure is lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust in older buildings. Lead can also be found in water supplied through lead pipes, soil contaminated by historical industrial activity, air (in certain industries and locations), and some consumer products such as toys, cosmetics, and traditional medicines.

Lead poisoning can cause a wide range of symptoms, including developmental delays, learning difficulties, abdominal pain, irritability, fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, constipation, vomiting, and memory or concentration problems. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, coma, and even death.

It's important to note that there is no safe level of lead exposure, and any amount of lead in the body is potentially harmful. If you suspect lead poisoning, consult a healthcare professional for evaluation and treatment options.

'Smog' is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a combination of the words "smoke" and "fog" and refers to a type of air pollution typically formed when vehicle emissions, industrial processes, and other sources release large amounts of fine particles and gases (such as nitrogen oxides or ground-level ozone) into the air. These pollutants then react in the presence of sunlight to form smog.

However, exposure to high levels of smog can have negative health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smog can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Long-term exposure to smog has been linked to more serious health problems, including heart disease, lung cancer, and premature death.

Aromatic hydrocarbons, also known as aromatic compounds or arenes, are a class of organic compounds characterized by a planar ring structure with delocalized electrons that give them unique chemical properties. The term "aromatic" was originally used to describe their distinctive odors, but it now refers to their characteristic molecular structure and stability.

Aromatic hydrocarbons contain one or more benzene rings, which are cyclic structures consisting of six carbon atoms arranged in a planar hexagonal shape. Each carbon atom in the benzene ring is bonded to two other carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom, forming alternating double and single bonds between the carbon atoms. However, the delocalized electrons in the benzene ring are evenly distributed around the ring, leading to a unique electronic structure that imparts stability and distinctive chemical properties to aromatic hydrocarbons.

Examples of aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene, toluene, xylene, and naphthalene. These compounds have important uses in industry, but they can also pose health risks if not handled properly. Exposure to high levels of aromatic hydrocarbons has been linked to various health effects, including cancer, neurological damage, and respiratory problems.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Motor Vehicles" is not a term that typically has a medical definition. It is a general term used to describe vehicles that are powered by a motor or engine and are designed for land transportation. This would include cars, trucks, motorcycles, buses, and other similar types of vehicles.

However, in a legal context, a "motor vehicle" may have a specific definition that varies by jurisdiction. For example, in some places, the definition might only include vehicles that are intended for use on public roads, excluding things like golf carts or construction equipment.

If you're looking for a medical term related to motor vehicles, there are many that could apply, such as "motor vehicle accident," "whiplash injury," or "traumatic brain injury due to motor vehicle collision." But the term "motor vehicles" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Propane" is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound commonly used as a fuel for heating, cooking, and engines. Propane is a gas at room temperature and pressure, but it can be liquefied under moderate pressure and stored in cylinders or tanks.

If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

A common ethanol-gasoline mix of 10 percent ethanol mixed with gasoline is called gasohol or E10, and an ethanol-gasoline mix ... For example, using gasoline-filled equipment, such as lawnmowers, drinking gasoline-contaminated water close to gasoline spills ... inhaling gasoline volatile gas when refueling at a gasoline station is the easiest way to be exposed to gasoline. The ... Gasoline is produced in oil refineries. Roughly 72 liters (19 U.S. gal) of gasoline is derived from a 160-liter (42 U.S. gal) ...
However, beginning in 1975, environmental legislation began to restrict the use of lead additives in automotive gasoline. It is ... gasoline led to the manufacture of high-octane fuels and became universally employed throughout the world after World War II. ... Other articles where leaded gasoline is discussed: petroleum refining: Octane rating: The advent of leaded, or ethyl, ... 1970s regarding the use of leaded gasoline has led to a fall in lead concentrations in ice laid down since that time.) Also, ...
Automotive gasoline has been found in at least 23 of the 1,430 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental ... At high levels, automotive gasoline is irritating to the lungs when breathed in and irritating to the lining of the stomach ... Exposure to automotive gasoline most likely occurs from breathing its vapor at a service station while filling a cars fuel ... What is automotive gasoline?. The gasoline discussed in this fact sheet is automotive used as a fuel for engines in cars. ...
... gasoline or a gasoline mixture such as ethanol) with ignition initiated by an electric spark. Gasoline engines can be built to ... Gasoline engine, any of a class of internal-combustion engines that generate power by burning a volatile liquid fuel ( ... gasoline or a gasoline mixture such as ethanol) with ignition initiated by an electric spark. Gasoline engines can be built to ... gasoline engines. Gasoline engine types include (A) opposed-piston engines, (B) Wankel rotary engines, (C) in-line engines, and ...
The U.S. alone consumes well over a hundred billion gallons of gasoline per year. Learn all about this vital fuel. ... Without gasoline, the world as we know it would grind to a screeching halt. ... What is it in gasoline that makes it so important? In this article, you will learn exactly what gasoline is and where it comes ... Without gasoline (and diesel fuel), the world as we know it would grind to a halt. The U.S. alone consumes something like 130 ...
Which states have the highest gasoline taxes? Due to state and local excise taxes and other fees, gas prices are higher in some ... Which states have the highest gasoline taxes? Due to state and local excise taxes and other fees, gas prices are higher in some ... States with highest gasoline taxes. It costs more to drive in these states. The federal gasoline excise tax rate is 18.4 cents ... The 10 states with the highest gasoline taxes. Taxes Advertiser Disclosure Advertiser Disclosure We are an independent, ...
... automotive gasoline has caused concern within the general aviation (GA) community because of possible legislated environmental ... or supply restrictions on TEL, an essential ingredient in existing high octane aviation gasolines (avgas). At the same time, t ... Developing a High Octane Unleaded Aviation Gasoline 971496. The removal of tetraethyl lead (TEL) from U.S. automotive gasoline ... Citation: Valentine, J., Dorn, P., Studzinski, W., Liiva, P. et al., "Developing a High Octane Unleaded Aviation Gasoline," SAE ...
Releasing Gasoline. Decisions to withdraw gasoline from the Reserve are made under the authorities of the Energy Policy and ... as well as one million barrels of gasoline stocks. Contracts were awarded in late summer 2014 and the gasoline was soon ... Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response ... The Northeast region of the U.S. is particularly vulnerable to gasoline disruptions as a result of hurricanes and other natural ...
Total gasoline inventories rose by 7.9 million barrels last week and have moved into the upper half of the five-year average ... Total motor gasoline supplied averaged 8.6 million barrels a day over the past four weeks - a rise of 0.1% compared with the ... The United States Gasoline ETF (NYSEMKT: UGA) is down about 0.8% at $56.33. The 52-week range is $45.13 to $62.13. ... Platts estimated a drawdown of 1.25 million barrels in crude inventories, a gain of 2 million barrels in gasoline stocks, and a ...
Gasoline prices jumped in January, leading overall consumer prices higher and offering a reminder of the risks energy costs ... Gasoline pushes inflation up in January. By Jason Lange 02/17/12 AT 2:32 PM EST. ... Even so, gasoline prices remain a threat to the economy, with oil hovering near $120 a barrel on Friday. Iran, which Western ... Gasoline prices jumped in January, leading overall consumer prices higher and offering a reminder of the risks energy costs ...
Shop Gasoline Stabilizer at AMSOIL. Find premium synthetic oil, filters and more online. Fast, free shipping available. ... Gasoline Stabilizer Improves Stability Gasoline Stabilizer provides fuel stability that Sea Foam Motor Treatment cant match, ... Gasoline Stabilizer Fights Corrosion Gasoline Stabilizer provides corrosion protection Sea Foam Motor Treatment* cant match, ... Gasoline Stabilizer. Keeps fuel from deteriorating during storage for up to 12 months, allowing easier startups. Resists the ...
At a rally in San Diego - where gasoline prices hit $2.13 this week - John Kerry blasted the White House for failing the nation ... "We expect additional increases in gasoline prices through the spring. We do expect prices to continue to rise through the mid ... In addition, requirements to get rid of polluting gasoline additives, such as MTBE in states like New York, Connecticut, and ... The combination of historically high gasoline prices and oil production cutbacks, announced Wednesday by OPEC, has created a ...
Surging gasoline prices are posing a tricky new problem for governments as they seek to nurse virus-hit economies back to ... Gasoline futures in the US jumped by almost a quarter over the same period, as have Asian benchmark prices for 92-RON gasoline ... Surging gasoline prices are posing a tricky new problem for governments as they seek to nurse virus-hit economies back to ... "Higher gasoline prices are the most straightforward way for the average guy on the street to feel the effects of inflation," ...
... March 12, 2012. July 24, 2023. By: Nick Kasprak Todays Monday Map shows the effective ...
... a whole list of countries received a deadline for how long gasoline car will still be available from dealerships. This includes ... Several EU nations and other countries around the globe have also signed a COP26 declaration on a gasoline car phase-out which ... Other European Union countries had already embraced the phase-out of gasoline cars. The Netherlands, Belgiums Flanders region ... issuing not just a phase-out of new gasoline car sales, but a full road ban for combustion engine cars, tuk-tuks and ...
The price of gasoline dropped to a national average of $2 a gallon, the Auto club said. ... 20 (UPI) -- The price of gasoline dropped to a national average of $2 a gallon on Sunday, the Auto club said. ...
Get ready for $4 gasoline With prices at record high, demand and refining problems could push them much higher. Any relief in ... When gasoline prices surge, a lack of refining capacity is often blamed. Whats being done, and is it enough? (more). ... The refinery shortage, cited by experts as a main culprit behind the recent record high gasoline prices of over $3 a gallon, ... NEW YORK (CNNMoney.com) -- Motorists must get tired of hearing how refinery problems are causing high gasoline prices. ...
In addition, the special relative index series for each type of gasoline, and the average price per gallon for gasoline (all ... Former CPI for Gasoline (survey data). New CPI for Gasoline (secondary source). ... Under the new CPI method for gasoline, an item-area is calculated using the weighted geometric mean of PSUs within a given area ... Chart 1 shows the comparison of the indexes between the secondary data source and the published index for gasoline (all types). ...
Notes: Crude oil and unfinished oils are reported by the PAD District in which they are processed; all other products are reported by the PAD District of entry. Crude oil includes imports for storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table ...
Big oil firms announce uniform gasoline, diesel price cuts. July 27, 2013 BY: Riza T. Olchondra ... Diesel and kerosene prices up, gasoline slightly down. July 10, 2023 BY: Meg J. Adonis ...
Intertek uses standardized ASTM test procedures for gasoline fired engine lubricant tests. ... Gasoline Fired Engine Lubricant Tests. Gasoline fired lubricant testing using standardized gasoline and diesel engine ... Intertek uses standardized ASTM test procedures for gasoline fired engine lubricant tests. The tests are used for evaluating ...
1 billion prize for 100-mpg gasoline car Republicans unhappy with incentives for hybrid and all-electric cars have proffered ... This one stands out because it focuses on gasoline and not next generation clean energy innovations. However, its not entirely ... incorporated auto company that can sell 60,000 gasoline-powered cars that get 100 miles per gallon, The Hill reported. ...
Tennessee environmental officials said the gasoline that leaked from a pipeline in Chattanooga has not reached the nearby ... Baker said the gasoline line remained shut down Tuesday as the company narrowed the suspected leak site to a small pipe section ... Colonial Pipeline spokesman Steve Baker said the Chattanooga Fire Department was notified of a gasoline smell near its pipeline ... Tennessee environmental officials said the gasoline that leaked from a pipeline in Chattanooga has not reached the nearby ...
Gasoline vapor recovery devices-Limitation on requiring.. (1) A gasoline vapor recovery device that captures vapors during ... a) The facility sells in excess of six hundred thousand gallons of gasoline per year and is located in a county, any part of ... b) The facility sells in excess of six hundred thousand gallons of gasoline per year and is located in a county where a ... d) After December 31, 1998, in any facility that sells in excess of eight hundred forty thousand gallons of gasoline per year ...
The rise of gasoline futures prices is an example of having adequate supplies of gasoline domestically, but in the wrong ... Want to drive gasoline prices down? Fire Lisa Jackson and impose a six-month moratorium on the EPA regulations hamstringing the ... The sudden increase in the supply of gasoline for delivery in New York and not Rotterdam would cause futures prices to drop ... In the case of NYMEX gasoline futures contracts, the basic contract calls for the delivery of 42,000 gallons of unleaded ...
Gaso.line. Back to INDEX. Go to RANDOM ENTRY See Quarter-Kit-Model Shop ...
Such an analysis often shows that the batteries are at least an order of magnitude behind fuels like gasoline. However this ... Such an analysis often shows that the batteries are at least an order of magnitude behind fuels like gasoline. However this ... Comparing the Powertrain Energy Densities of Electric and Gasoline Vehicles) 2016-01-0903. ... a fair comparison of technologies to report the real status of battery electric vehicles when compared to their gasoline- ...

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