The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Gases that irritate the eyes, throat, or skin. Severe lacrimation develops upon irritation of the eyes.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Stable xenon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element xenon, but differ in atomic weight. Xe-124, 126, 128-131, 134, and 136 are stable xenon isotopes.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.

Conformations of Gly(n)H+ and Ala(n)H+ peptides in the gas phase. (1/1495)

High-resolution ion mobility measurements and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the conformations of protonated polyglycine and polyalanine (Gly(n)H and Ala(n)H+, n = 3-20) in the gas phase. The measured collision integrals for both the polyglycine and the polyalanine peptides are consistent with a self-solvated globule conformation, where the peptide chain wraps around and solvates the charge located on the terminal amine. The conformations of the small peptides are governed entirely by self-solvation, whereas the larger ones have additional backbone hydrogen bonds. Helical conformations, which are stable for neutral Alan peptides, were not observed in the experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations for Ala(n)H+ peptides suggest that the charge destabilizes the helix, although several of the low energy conformations found in the simulations for the larger Ala(n)H+ peptides have small helical regions.  (+info)

Renal and hemodynamic effects of losartan in conscious dogs during controlled mechanical ventilation. (2/1495)

In 12 conscious dogs, we investigated whether the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist losartan increases renal sodium excretion and urine volume during controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with positive end-expiratory pressure. In four experimental protocols, the dogs were extracellular volume (ECV) expanded (electrolyte solution, 0.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not and received losartan (100 micrograms. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not. They breathed spontaneously during the 1st and 4th hour and received CMV with positive end-expiratory pressure (mean airway pressure 20 cmH2O) during the 2nd and 3rd hours. In the expansion group, dogs with losartan excreted approximately 18% more sodium (69 +/- 7 vs. 38 +/- 5 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and 15% more urine during the 2 h of CMV because of a higher glomerular filtration rate (5.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2 ml. min-1. kg-1) and the tubular effects of losartan. In the group without expansion, sodium excretion (2.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.0 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and glomerular filtration rate (3.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.4 ml. min-1. kg-1) did not change, and urine volume decreased similarly in both groups during CMV. Plasma vasopressin and aldosterone increased in both groups, and plasma renin activity increased from 4.9 +/- 0.7 to 7.8 +/- 1.3 ng ANG I. ml-1. h-1 during CMV in nonexpanded dogs without losartan. Mean arterial pressure decreased by 10 mmHg in nonexpanded dogs with losartan. In conclusion, losartan increases sodium excretion and urine volume during CMV if the ECV is expanded. If the ECV is not expanded, a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and/or an increase in aldosterone and vasopressin during CMV attenuates the renal effects of losartan.  (+info)

Spike generation from dorsal roots and cutaneous afferents by hypoxia or hypercapnia in the rat in vivo. (3/1495)

The present study aimed at investigating the responsiveness of different parts of the primary afferent neurones to a brief hypoxia, hypercapnia or ischaemia under in vivo conditions. Action potentials were recorded in separate groups of anaesthetized rats from (i) the peripheral end of the central stump of the cut L3, L4 or L5 dorsal root (dorsal root preparation); (ii) the central end of the peripheral stump of the cut saphenous nerve (saphenous-receptor preparation); (iii) the distal end of a segment of the saphenous nerve cut at both ends (axon preparation). In paralysed animals interruption of artificial ventilation for 20-60 s elicited or increased the frequency of action potentials in both the dorsal root and saphenous-receptor preparations. Activation of these preparations was also achieved by inspiration of gas mixtures containing 10-0% oxygen (mixed with nitrogen) or 20-50% carbon dioxide (mixed with oxygen) which elicited in the blood a decrease in PO2 or an increase in PCO2 with a fall in pH. Occlusion of the femoral artery for 3 min also caused spike generation in the saphenous-receptor preparations with little alteration in blood pressure. All these stimuli failed to evoke action potentials in the axon preparations. Systemic (300 mg kg-1 s.c.) or perineural (2%) capsaicin pretreatment failed to inhibit the effect of hypoxia, hypercapnia or ischaemia, indicating a significant contribution of capsaicin-insensitive neurones to the responses. It is concluded that central and peripheral terminals but not axons of primary afferent neurones are excited by a brief hypoxia or hypercapnia and the peripheral terminals by a short local ischaemia as well. Excitation of central terminals by hypoxia or hypercapnia revealed in this way an antidromic activation of dorsal roots in response to natural chemical stimuli.  (+info)

Exercise gas transport determinants in elderly normotensive and hypertensive humans. (4/1495)

This study examined the effect of the phenylalkylamine calcium channel blocker verapamil, on resting left ventricular (LV) function and O2 uptake rate (VO2) during exercise at maximal and submaximal work rates. Nine older hypertensive (71 years; OH), 10 older sedentary normotensive (69 years; OS), 10 older active (71 years; OA) and 10 young (24 years; Y) individuals volunteered. Studies were completed in the control condition and 4-6 h following 240 mg verapamil SR per os. Resting LV systolic (fractional shortening; FS) and diastolic (early: late (E/A) flow velocity ratio and isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) were measured by Doppler echocardiography. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2,max) and, on subsequent test days, four transitions to and from a 6 min square wave exercise perturbation at a sub-anaerobic threshold intensity of 40 W (OH, OS, OA) or 100 W (Y) for determination of VO2 kinetics were performed on a cycle ergometer. Breath-by-breath VO2 transients were fitted with a monoexponential equation, starting at phase 2 of the response, while heart rate (HR) was fitted from phase 1, for the determination of the time constant of VO2 (tau VO2) and HR (tau HR). Baseline left ventricular FS was significantly greater in the OS (32%), OA (34%) and Y (34%) than in the OH (23%) groups, while E/A was significantly greater in the OA (1.16) and Y (2.34) than in the OH (0.9) and OS (0.82) groups (P < 0.05). Baseline VO2,max was higher and tau VO2 faster in the young (41.4 ml kg-1 min-1; 25.2 s) than in the older groups and in the OA (28.8 ml kg-1 min-1; 44.3 s) than in both OH (20.8 ml kg-1 min-1; 71.3 s) and OS (22.0 ml kg-1 min-1; 59.5 s) groups (P < 0.05). Heart rate kinetics showed similar differences to VO2 kinetics among the groups. After verapamil, no significant changes in FS, E/A or IVRT were observed in the OA and Y groups. In the OH group, FS (32%) and E/A (1.15) increased while IVRT decreased significantly (from 0.103 to 0.07; P < 0.05). In the OS group, only E/A increased significantly (0.82 to 1.0; P < 0.05). None of the exercise variables (VO2,max, tau VO2 or tau HR) were altered for the OA or Y groups. VO2,max increased (from 20.8 to 22.8 ml kg-1 min-1) in the OH and (from 22.0 to 24.1 ml kg-1 min-1) in the OS (P < 0.05). tau VO2 was accelerated from 71.3 to 49.2 s in the OH group and from 59.5 to 48.2 s in the OS group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that VO2 responses at maximal and submaximal work rates may be dependent upon the initial cardiac pump function of the study population.  (+info)

Development of in-vitro-derived bovine embryos cultured in 5% CO2 in air or in 5% O2, 5% CO2 and 90% N2. (5/1495)

To evaluate the effects of a three gas mixture of 5% O2, 5% CO2 and 90% N2 (OCN) on preimplantation embryo development, bovine in-vitro fertilization (IVF) oocytes were cultured in a defined medium (mBECM) with various supplements either under 5% CO2 in air or under OCN. When cultured in mBECM alone, embryo development was significantly stimulated in OCN compared to 5% CO2 in air (experiment 1). In the OCN atmosphere, blastocyst formation was further increased after addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS; 10%) or FBS + cumulus granulosa cells (CGC) to mBECM. The ratio of blastocysts to 8-cell embryos, number of hatched blastocysts and embryo diameter were markedly increased, and zona thickness was decreased after FBS addition. However, development up to the morula stage was fully supported by mBECM alone. There was no significant effect of beta-mercaptoethanol (ME; 10 microM) in OCN. In the 5% CO2 atmosphere, embryo development was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced after addition of FBS + CGC + ME. In experiment 2, in OCN, FBS added at 60 h post-insemination was effective in stimulating blastocyst formation, but changes in medium volume per oocyte from 13.6 to 1.36 microliters had only a marginal effect. In conclusion, OCN gas mixture provides a suitable atmosphere for early embryo growth in vitro and mBECM + FBS in the optimal culture medium under this atmosphere.  (+info)

Theoretical calculations of glycine and alanine gas-phase acidities. (6/1495)

The gas-phase acidities of glycine and alanine were determined by using a variety of high level theoretical methods to establish which of these would give the best results with accessible computational efforts. MP2, MP4, QCISD, G2 ab initio procedures, hybrid Becke3-LYP (B3LYP) and gradient corrected Becke-Perdew (BP) and Perdew-Wang and Perdew (PWP) nonlocal density functionals were used for the calculations. A maximum deviation of approximately 13 and 18 kJ/mol from experimental data was observed for the computed delta Hacid and delta Gacid values, respectively. The best result was obtained at G2 level, but comparable reliability was reached when the considerably less time consuming B3LYP, BP, and PWP density functional approaches were employed.  (+info)

Elevation of blood pressure by genetic and pharmacological disruption of the ETB receptor in mice. (7/1495)

Exogenously administered endothelin (ET) elicits both pressor and depressor responses through the ETA and/or the ETB receptor on vascular smooth muscle cells and ETB on endothelial cells. To test whether ETB has pressor or depressor effects under basal physiological conditions, we determined arterial blood pressure (BP) in ETB-deficient mice obtained by crossing inbred mice heterozygous for targeted disruption of the ETB gene with mice homozygous for the piebald (s) mutation of the ETB gene (ETBs/s). F1 ETB-/s and ETB+/s progeny share an identical genetic background but have ETB levels that are approximately (1)/(8) and (5)/(8), respectively, of wild-type mice (ETB+/+). BP in ETB-/s mice was significantly higher, by approximately 20 mmHg, than that in ETB+/s or ETB+/+ mice. Immunoreactive ET-1 concentration in plasma as well as respiratory parameters was not different between ETB-/s and ETB+/s mice. A selective ETB antagonist, BQ-788, increased BP in ETB+/s and ETB+/+ but not in ETB-/s mice. Pretreatment with indomethacin, but not with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, can attenuate the observed pressor response to BQ-788. The selective ETA antagonist BQ-123 did not ameliorate the increased BP in ETB-/s mice. Moreover, BP in mice heterozygous for targeted disruption of the ETA gene was not different from that in wild-type controls. These results suggest that endogenous ET elicits a depressor effect through ETB under basal conditions, in part through tonic production of prostaglandins, and not through secondary mechanisms involving respiratory control or clearance of circulating ET.  (+info)

Delayed ischemic preconditioning is mediated by opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the rabbit heart. (8/1495)

Cardioprotection from preconditioning reappears 24 h after the initial stimulus. This phenomenon is called the second window of protection (SWOP). We hypothesized that opening of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel mediates the protective effect of SWOP. Rabbits were preconditioned (PC) with four cycles of 5-min regional ischemia each followed by 10 min of reperfusion. Twenty-four hours later, the animals were subjected to sustained ischemia for 30 min followed by 180 min of reperfusion (I/R). Glibenclamide (Glib, 0.3 mg/kg ip) or 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, 5 mg/kg iv) was used to block the KATP channel function. Infarct size was reduced from 41.2 +/- 2. 6% in sham-operated rabbits to 11.6 +/- 1.0% in PC rabbits, a 71% reduction (n = 11, P < 0.01). Treatment with Glib or 5-HD before I/R increased the infarct size to 43.4 +/- 2.6 and 37.8 +/- 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.01 vs. PC group, n = 12/group). Sham animals treated with either Glib or 5-HD had an infarct size of 39.0 +/- 3.4 and 37.8 +/- 1.5%, respectively, which was not different from control (40.0 +/- 3.8%) or sham (41.2 +/- 2.6%) I/R hearts. Monophasic action potential duration (APD) at 50% repolarization significantly shortened by 28.7, 26.6, and 23.3% in sham animals during 10, 20, and 30 min of ischemia. However, no further augmentation in the shortening of APD was observed in PC hearts. Glib and 5-HD significantly suppressed ischemia-induced epicardial APD shortening, suggesting that 5-HD may not be a selective blocker of the mitochondrial KATP channel in vivo. We conclude that SWOP is mediated by a KATP channel-sensitive mechanism that may have occurred because of the opening of the sarcolemmal KATP channel in vivo.  (+info)

The gas-phase acidities and proton affinities of analogs of protein amino acids were investigated. The gas-phase acidities of the lysine homologues were measured by the extended kinetic method in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Deprotonation entropy changes were also measured. For ornithine, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, and 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, the gas-phase acidities measured were 1416 ± 17 kJ/mol, 1420 ± 8 kJ/mol, and 1405 ± 24 kJ/mol. Their changes in entropy were measured to be -19 J/mol K, 1 J/mol k, and -24 J/mol K, respectively. The gas-phase acidities and entropies of two structural analogs of arginine, citrulline and canavanine, were measured by the extended kinetic method. The gas-phase acidity of citrulline was measured to be 1366 ± 11 kJ/mol, and the gas-phase acidity of canavanine was measured to be 1401 ± 13 kJ/mol. The proton affinity and protonation entropy change for citrulline was measured as well. The proton affinity was determined to be 984 ± 11 kJ/mol with an
Structural characterization of ions in the gas phase is facilitated by measurement of ion collision cross sections (CCS) using techniques such as ion mobility spectrometry. Further information is gained from CCS measurement when comparison is made between measurements and accurately predicted CCSs for model ion structures and the gas in which measurements are made. While diatomic gases, namely molecular nitrogen and air, are being used in CCS measurement with increasingly prevalency, the majority of studies in which measurements are compared to predictions use models in which gas molecules are spherical or non-rotating, which is not necessarily appropriate for diatomic gases. Here, we adapt a momentum transfer based CCS calculation approach to consider rotating, diatomic gas molecule collisions with polyatomic ions, and compare CCS predictions with a diatomic gas molecule to those made with a spherical gas molecular for model spherical ions, tetra-alkylammonium ions, and multiply charged ...
Male pattern baldness (MPB), an observable trait, has been reported to be associated with various diseases, such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Oral sulfur-containing gases have also been suggested to be useful as markers of systemic health condition. However, there are no known reports regarding the associations among MPB, and oral sulfur-containing gases, and systemic health conditions in males. We studied 170 male subjects aged either 60 or 65 years old. The degree of MPB was assessed using the Norwood-Hamilton Baldness scale. Oral sulfur-containing gases were measured using a compact-designed device. All subjects completed physical and laboratory blood examinations, a face-to-face medical questionnaire, and an oral examination. There were significant differences between the levels of CH3SCH3 and baldness patterns, independent of age. When we analyzed whether the association was linked to systemic health condition, a strong significant association was observed between the level of
This practical guide has been written by CoGDEM (the Council of Gas Detection and Environmental Monitoring) to assist users or specifiers of gas detection equipment. The book begins with a quick reference for selecting a gas detection system, which outlines the most salient points. There is more detail on this topic as well as on a variety of other areas such as gas detection requirements and training, sensor technologies, and instrument calibration and maintenance. There is also information on the science of gases and lists of relevant reference documents. The book covers UK, EU and global regulations and standards.. The chapters are written by key experts, providing comprehensive information for novice and experienced industry professionals in the gas detection field ...
The present invention provides gas-containing liposomes. In particular, the present invention provide methods of generating gas-containing liposomes where the gas is introduced under pressure, as well
Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is a rapid, gas-phase separation technique that has become an integral part of the analytical repertoire of techniques for the -omics. This method coupl
Autor: Manz, Christian; Genre: Hochschulschrift; Titel: Automated Analysis of Complex Carbohydrates via Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry
Fixed gas detection systems include a gas control panel which communicates with positioned wall mounted gas sensors to monitor and alarm for hazardous levels of toxic gases, oxygen deficiency/enrichment or flammable gases. a1-cbiss are one of the few UK gas detection companies that can supply the whole gas detection project - initial consultation, site survey, design, system installation and deliver ongoing service & support
We present a high-level theoretical study on the gas-phase reaction between formaldehyde and hydroperoxyl radical carried out using the DFT-B3LYP, QCISD, and CCSD(T) theoretical approaches in connection with the 6-311+G(d,p), 6-311+G(2df,2p), and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. The most favorable reaction path begins with the formation of a pre-reactive complex and produces the peroxy radical CH2(OO)OH in a process that is computed to be exothermic by 16.8 kcal/mol. This reaction involves a process in which the oxygen terminal of the HO2 moiety adds to the carbon of formaldehyde, and, simultaneously, the hydrogen of the hydroperoxyl group is transferred to the oxygen of the carbonyl in a proton-coupled electron-transfer mechanism. Our calculations show that this transition state lies below the sum of the energy of the reactants, and we computed a rate constant at 300 K of 9.29 × 10-14 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. Also of interest in combustion chemistry, ...
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The present invention relates to contrast agents comprising gas-containing or gas-generating polymer microparticles and/or microballoons, in which the polymer is a biodegradable polymer containing units of formula - --(O)m --CO--O--C(R1 R2)--O--CO--(O)n --!- . R1 and R2 each represent hydrogen or a carbon-attached monovalent organic group, or together form a carbon-attached divalent organic group, and m and n are each independently zero or one. The contrast agents may be used in diagnostic applications such as ultrasound and MR imaging.
Sensidyne Ammonia Gas Detection Tubes, (105SM) with 0.1-1.0% range. Contact Industrial Safety Equipment for the selection of Sensidyne colorimetric gas detection tubes to perform field screening tests for the presence of hazardous, toxic gases, and chemical vapors at a low cost.
Toxicity of Oxygen O2 Exposure. Recommended limits for oxygen gas exposure or usage Symptoms & effects of exposure to unusually high levels of oxygen Recommendations for gas measurement instruments, gas detector tubes, Draeger & Gastec tubes & pumps for detection of gases Questions & answers about Oxygen gas exposure limits and toxicity for humans Symptoms of oxygen poisoning,carbon dioxide poisoning,oxygen,oxygen gas,O2 Gas Exposure, Toxic Gas Testing, medical effects, symptoms of exposure, heart muscle damage risk, fatality or mortality risk, and common sources of these gases as well as advice on avoiding these hazards.
The determination of the gas-phase acidities of cysteine-containing oligopeptides is described. The experiments are performed using a...
DATE: October 15, 2019TIME: 8:00am PDTIon mobility-mass spectrometry (IM/MS) is a rapid, gas-phase separation technique that has become an integral part of the analytical repertoire of t
nitric oxide (gas Inhalation or releasing solution) for COVID-19 - results of living meta-analysis of clinical studies -
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best Formaldehyde gas detection equipment.Best Sellers in Gas Detectors #1. Gas Detector Alarm Combustible - LPG Natural Gas/Coal Gas Detector Sensor Plug-in Gas Leakage Detector Alarm with Sound Warning and LED Display for House Kitchen Restaurant Hotel School Warehouse (A) ... Riiai Indoor CO2 Monitor, Large Screen Air Quality Detector, Formaldehyde Detector Carbon Dioxide Tester ...
RC Systems provides complete ammonia (NH3) fixed gas detection and alarm control system solutions for any application. With both wired and wireless gas detection systems available, RC Systems is a trusted leader in ammonia (NH3) detection.
where can I buy Formaldehyde gas detection unit.Jan 04, 2016Natural gas (methane and ethane) Acid gases (HCl, HF, HN03, etc.) Non volatiles (PCBs, grease, etc.) With the use of a higher power 11.7 eV lamp (LiF2 window and Ar gas) we extend the number of detectable VOCs, to all of the following (but at the cost of a shorter lamp life): Acetylene; Methanol and formaldehyde
Indias gas sensors market is expected to grow to USD 0.12 billion by 2021 at a CAGR of 4.86% over the period 2016-2021. The proliferation of handheld devices has led to developments in the field of smart gas sensors considerably widening their application scope. The need for ensuring safety in workplaces is expected to be the key driving force for the market over the next six years. The growing incorporation of gas sensors in automobiles for the comfort and safety of passengers is mainly responsible for the growth of the automotive gas sensors market. Increasing use of gas sensors in breath analysis to check the health of patients is also driving the demand for gas sensors.. The major trend driving Indias gas sensors market is the development of wireless capabilities and miniaturization coupled with improved communication capabilities, which enables their integration into various devices and machines without compromising the detection of toxic or flammable gases at safe distances. India ...
The Global Gas Detection Equipment Market 2015-2019, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the Americas, and the APAC and EMEA regions; it also covers the Global Gas Detection Equipment market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. The report includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market ...
PCI Analytics Manufacturer and Exporter of Gas Detection System, We Export our products in Russia, South Africa, United Arab of Emirates and Saudi Arabia.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Stereochemical Approach toward the Structure of Gas-Phase Ions. AU - Green, Mark M.. AU - Moldowan, J. Michael. AU - McGrew, John G.. PY - 1974/7/1. Y1 - 1974/7/1. N2 - The stereoselectivities for hydrogen abstraction in the electron impact induced loss of acetic acid from three 1,2-disubstituted ethyl acetates as well as the loss of water from three acyclic secondary alcohols have been determined. This information was sought in an attempt to (1) help define the general limits for conformational analysis in the study of gas-phase ions and (2) determine the structural relationships, fundamental to conformation, among the various gas-phase ions and accessible phase molecules studied. In each case, i.e., elimination of acetic acid and loss of water, the results are stereochemically comparable to the analogous thermal reactions, i.e., formation of olefins from the pyrolysis of the subject acetates and 1,4-hydrogen abstraction by the alkoxy radicals derived from the alcohols ...
IMAGE: Left: The crystal structure of a porous iron carboxylate MOF (iron octahedra, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen atoms are in green, red, black and white, respectively); Center: Binding of a NO… view more Credit: Serre/Institut Lavoisier WASHINGTON D.C., December 30, 2014 - A grou... Gift-wrapped gas molecules
The retrospective study was carried out for patients who visited the ED at Ulsan University Hospital due to gas inhalation from March 2014 to February 2016. General demographics, mechanism of accident, critical symptoms, vital signs, blood lab test results, severity, and clinical manifestation were investigated. Patients were divided into a critical group and non-critical group, and predictors of critical cases were investigated by comparing both groups ...
High quality Formaldehyde gas detection.Main Products: Formaldehyde Detector,Air Quality Detector Total Employees: 51 - 100 People Total Annual Revenue: US$10 Million - US$50 Million Year Established: 2016 Verified Top 3 Markets: North America 18.00% Northern Europe 15.00% Domestic Market 10.00% Product Certifications: MSDS
Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecule Size = 0.124 Nanometers or 8.06451612903 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules = 1 Nanometer (1000 Nanometers = 1 Micron) (Oxygen = 0.0005 Micron in size) (Approximately 4 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.0005 microns). (Atmospheric Dust = 0.001-40 Microns in size) (Approx. 8 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.001 microns). (Viruses = 0.005 - 0.3 Microns in size) (Approximately 40 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.005 microns). (Tobacco Smoke = 0.01 - 4 Microns in size) (Approximately 80 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.01 microns). (Ozone = 0.1 - 0.2 Microns in size) (Approximately 800 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.1 microns). (Lead = 0.1-0.7 Microns in size) (Approximately 800 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.1 microns). (Bacteria = 0.3 - 60 Microns in size) (Approximately 2,400 Chlorine Dioxide Gas Molecules will fit inside 0.3 microns). (Insecticide Dusts = 0.5-10 Microns in ...
Author: Göth, Melanie et al.; Genre: Thesis; Keywords: native mass spectrometry; ion mobility; protein complexes; Title: Investigation of Protein-Ligand Complexes by Native Mass Spectrometry and Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry
Flue Gas Spill Switches: Guide to flue gas spill switches on gas fired heating equipment: What is a flue gas spill switch or gas spillage detector? How do flue gas or draft hood spill switches work? Where should spill switches be installed? How are spill switches tested? What causes nuisance or legitimate flue gas spill switches to trip? How do we correct un-wanted loss of heat due to flue gas spill detector switch operation or nuisance tripping? Here we explain the installation, function, & troubleshooting Flue Gas Spill Switches and we provide a Guide to inspecting Furnace or Boiler Flue Gas Spill Switches on gas fired equipment such as heating boilers, warm air furnaces, water heaters. We describe the Purpose, Inspection, Repair Troubleshooting Guide for flue gas spill switches which are installed at dampers or burners on gas fired equipment.
Due to the existence of numerous isomers, the in-depth analysis of glycans represents a major challenge. Currently, the majority of glycans are analysed using mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques, which can provide information on regioisomers but usually fail to differentiate stereoisomers. A promising approach to overcome this limitation is to implement ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as an additional gas-phase separation dimension. This review highlights recent developments in which IM-MS was used as a tool for comprehensive glycan analysis or as rapid screening method for glycan feature analysis. Furthermore, we summarize a series of very recent investigations in which gas-phase spectroscopy is applied to study glycans and discuss the potential of the hyphenation between IM-MS and infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a future tool for glycomics and glycoproteomics. ...
Handheld Formaldehyde gas detection australia.Toll-Free in Australia: 1800 106 210. International +65 6415 5353. search term. Part Number . All OMEGA ... Calculates and Displays Three Cumulative Formaldehyde Gas Metrics ... Handheld formaldehyde meter detector HHB400-AC Consult Sales ...
fixed carbon monoxide gas detection tubes.Carbon Monoxide Gas Monitors and Gas Detection. 66 products. Gas-detection monitors and tools check for gases in an area to find leaks and help prevent exposure to hazardous gases. Single-gas and multi-gas detectors are portable devices commonly used for inspecting tanks and pipelines. Single-gas detection tubes contain granules that change color when exposed to a specific compound, making …
In an article in the December 2003 issue of Gut, Eamonn Quigley, MD, discusses the role of intestinal gas in IBS and its relationship to IBS symptoms. Patients with IBS do not appear to produce more gas than do individuals not suffering from IBS. They do appear, however, to suffer from abnormal gas transit, which result in gas retention in the small intestine. This gas retention, combined with visceral hypersensitivity, is likely to cause symptoms (ie, gas retention causes bloating and distension, whereas hypersensitivity causes patients with IBS to experience greater discomfort than is experienced by persons without IBS at the same level of retention). Gas content and transit appear to conspire with the motor and sensory responses of the gut to produce gas-related symptoms in patients with IBS as well as in individuals not suffering from IBS, according to Dr. Quigley ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Activation of bio-defense system by radon inhalation and its applicable possibility for treatment of lifestyle diseases. AU - Kataoka, Takahiro. AU - Sakoda, Akihiro. AU - Ishimori, Yuu. AU - Mitsunobu, Fumihiro. AU - Yamaoka, Kiyonori. PY - 2012/1. Y1 - 2012/1. N2 - Adequate oxygen stress induced by radon inhalation activates chemical biological protective functions, such as induction of the synthesis of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. We studied the probability that activation of this function alleviated various oxidation injuries. The results showed that 1) Radon inhalation enhanced the antioxidative function and membrane fluidity in some mouse organs, and biogenic amine neurotransmitters in the rabbit brain; 2) To elucidate a more effective condition for radon inhalation, mice inhaled radon before carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. The results show that radon inhalation alleviates CCl4-induced hepatopathy; 3) Radon inhalation elevated antioxidant ...
[116 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Gas Detection Systems Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Gas Detection Systems market is...
In other instances, molecular interactions between gas molecules previously adsorbed on a solid surface form significant interactions with gas molecules in the gaseous phases. Hence, adsorption of gas molecules to the surface is more likely to occur around gas molecules that are already present on the solid surface, rendering the Langmuir adsorption isotherm ineffective for the purposes of modelling. This effect was studied in a system where nitrogen was the adsorbate and tungsten was the adsorbent by Paul Kisliuk (1922-2008) in 1957.[10] To compensate for the increased probability of adsorption occurring around molecules present on the substrate surface, Kisliuk developed the precursor state theory, whereby molecules would enter a precursor state at the interface between the solid adsorbent and adsorbate in the gaseous phase. From here, adsorbate molecules would either adsorb to the adsorbent or desorb into the gaseous phase. The probability of adsorption occurring from the precursor state is ...
Abstract: Samples of unfractionated forage, isolated NDF and residue insoluble in 90% Ethanol were fermented in vitro and gas production was monitored. The gas volume associated with the ethanol soluble (A fraction) was determined as the difference between the gas from the whole forage and from the ethanol residue.The gas yield associated with the fraction insoluble in 90% ethanol but soluble in neutral detergent soluble (B1 fraction) was determined by subtracting the isolated NDF gas curve from the corresponding ethanol residue curve. This experiment included untreated Corn Silage (CS) and chemically treated corn silage. The rate of gas formation from the A fraction was approximately rather than (p,0.05) the B1 fraction. The gas production of A fraction was less than (p,0.05) the B1 fraction. The CS was treated with urea (10g kg-1) or formaldehyde (4g kg-1). Cumulative gas production was recorded at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation and McDonald equation was used to ...
A variety of bacterias and archaea make gas vesicles as a way to facilitate flotation. genes necessary for gas vesicle development between microorganisms [1]. In varieties NRC-1 you can find present two gas vesicle gene clusters, on plasmids Carisoprodol pNRC100 (gas vesicle gene cluster includes five copies of and homologues of six additional gas vesicles genes [17, 18]. In sp. ATCC39006 the gas vesicle cluster can be made up of 19 genes in 2 operons, which 11 are crucial for gas vesicle creation [5, 19]. The gas vesicle gene clusters of sp. ATCC39006 and also have been indicated in and gas vesicle structures have been observed in the heterologous host [5, 6]. The functions of some gas vesicle genes are conserved between species and have been well characterized, such as and sp. ATCC 39006 cell. Gas vesicles increase the buoyancy of cells and, when present in sufficient quantity, facilitate upward flotation in static water columns [3]. Gas vesicles collapse when exposed to pressure that exceeds ...
An inert gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions. The noble gases often do not react with many substances, and were historically referred to as the inert gases. Inert gases are used generally to avoid unwanted chemical reactions degrading a sample. These undesirable chemical reactions are often oxidation and hydrolysis reactions with the oxygen and moisture in air. The term inert gas is context-dependent because several of the noble gases can be made to react under certain conditions. Purified argon and nitrogen gases are most commonly used as inert gases due to their high natural abundance (78% N2, 1% Ar in air) and low relative cost. Unlike noble gases, an inert gas is not necessarily elemental and is often a compound gas. Like the noble gases the tendency for non-reactivity is due to the valence, the outermost electron shell, being complete in all the inert gases. This is a tendency, not a rule, as noble gases and other inert gases can react to ...
Major ion chemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon system (DIC, mainly HCO3- and gaseous CO2) in the Luodingjiang River, a mountainous tributary of the Zhujiang (Pearl River), China, were examined based on a seasonal and spatial sampling scheme in 2005. The diverse distribution of lithology and anthropogenic impacts in the river basin provided the basic idea to assess the effects of lithology vs. human activities on water chemistry and carbon biogeochemistry in river systems. Major ions showed great spatial variations, with higher concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and DIC in the regions with carbonate rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks, while lower in the regions with metamorphic sandstones and schists as well as granites. pCO2 at all sampling sites was oversaturated in June, ranging with a factor from 1.6 to 18.8 of the atmospheric concentration, reflecting the enhanced contribution from baseflow and interflow influx as well as in situ oxidation of organic matter. However, in ...
CVD is a thermal process because a certain thermal energy is needed to decompose the gas precursors and reassemble them in the material to be deposited. Processing conditions in a CVD should avoid gas-phase reactions (homogenous deposition) and should favor that the deposited layer is assembled in the substrate as a surface process (heterogeneous deposition). This can be achieved at atmospheric pressure (APCVD) by heavily diluting the active gases. When these gaseous precursors are let to react in a rarefied the process is termed Low Pressure CVD (LPCVD). The partial vacuum avoids gas-phase reactions. The low pressure also favors larger diffusivity of the species so that an LPCVD process can decorate cavities and led to conformal coatings when a topography is present. The conformality is also spurred by the process temperature which favors movement of the species along the surface. Pressures are usually in the millitorr-torr range and temperatures range from 400-800C (depending on the energy ...
This is because the ignition systems are general purpose devices used in Class 1 Zone 2 areas. Traditionally, catalytic bead gas detection has been used for the detection of combustible methane and other hydrocarbon gases. This type of detector has drawbacks such as the requirement for oxygen to be present for operation, a need for periodic calibration, and need for periodic sensor replacement. ...
For some reason, reactor1 gets heated up once Tepco stops nitrogen gas injection.. In order to purge hydrogen gas that may cause hydrogen gas explosion, Tepco is injecting nitrogen gas into reactor1.. However, it also causes radioactive material to leak out of the vessel, so Tepco decreased the nitrogen gas volume to inject to reactor1 RPV by 20% on 10/9/2013 as an attempt.. 26 hours later, they observed the temperature rise by approx. 8℃. Having this increase, they increased the nitrogen gas volume to inject to PCV by 4%, but its still stably high.. Tepco announced they are not injecting liquid nitrogen as air-cooling, but the relationship between nitrogen gas injection and reactor temperature hasnt been identified.. ...
Inert gas is produced on board crude oil carriers (above 8,000 tonnes)(from Jan 1, 2016) by using either a flue gas system or by burning kerosene in a dedicated inert gas generator. The inert gas system is used to prevent the atmosphere in cargo tanks or bunkers from coming into the explosive range.[6] Inert gases keep the oxygen content of the tank atmosphere below 5% (on crude carriers, less for product carriers and gas tankers), thus making any air/hydrocarbon gas mixture in the tank too rich (too high a fuel to oxygen ratio) to ignite. Inert gases are most important during discharging and during the ballast voyage when more hydrocarbon vapor is likely to be present in the tank atmosphere. Inert gas can also be used to purge the tank of the volatile atmosphere in preparation for gas freeing - replacing the atmosphere with breathable air - or vice versa. The flue gas system uses the boiler exhaust as its source, so it is important that the fuel/air ratio in the boiler burners is properly ...
A hybrid structure gas sensor of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) decorated graphene (RGO-Gr) is designed for ultra-low concentration ammonia detection. The resistance value of the RGO-Gr hybrid is the indicator of the ammonia concentration and controlled by effective charge transport from RGO to graphene after ammonia molecule adsorption. In this hybrid material, RGO is the adsorbing layer to catch ammonia molecules and graphene is the conductive layer to effectively enhance charge/electron transport. Compared to a RGO gas sensor, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the RGO-Gr is increased from 22 to 1008. Meanwhile, the response of the RGO-Gr gas sensor is better than that of either a pristine graphene or RGO gas sensor. It is found that the RGO reduction time is related to the content of functional groups that directly reflect on the gas sensing properties of the sensor. The RGO-Gr gas sensor with 10 min reduction time has the best gas sensing properties in this type of sensor. The highest sensitivity is
As Chinese first listed company in sensor field, Winsen Electronics- Professional gas sensing solution supplier with over 30-year gas sensor manufacturing experience, offers carbon dioxide/CO2 sensors, methane/propane ects combustible gas sensors, PM2.5 sensors, air quality sensors, carbon monoxide/ CO sensors, PIR sensors, and flow sensors ects.. ...
Colorimetric / paper tape technology provides quick gas detection of isocyanates MDI, TDI & HDI but can also be used to measure toxic gases to meet the needs of health and safety professionals who require a portable / personal gas monitoring.
CMS hazardous gas detection CMSs electronic microchip-measurement system is currently one of the most accurate and reliable on-site detection systems for the measurement of gas concentrations. It comprises a substance specific microchip and an analyzer which takes measurements and displays the results on a digital screen. With one chip it is possible to take 10 different measurements of a known substance. Each measurement is carried out using the display menu operated by a single switch. Even new users will find its operation easy and trouble-free. 50 individual measurements can be stored in the integral data recorder at any one time.Type Trichloroethylene chip : Measuring range 5 - 100 ppm ...
Hydrocarbon gas in a sample is measured by a double beam detector responding to the transmission of absorption properties of the gas in response to applied radiation from a laser source. Monochromatic light from the laser source is split into two radiation beams, a sample path beam and a reference path beam, and directed to a radiation detector which sequentially responds to the reference energy and the sample energy. A difference in the absorption by the sample path energy with respect to the reference path energy produces two, different level, output signals from the detector. The sample energy signal and reference energy signal are respectively directed to a sample channel circuit and a reference channel circuit. Outputs from the individual circuits are amplified logarithmically and applied to inputs of a differential amplifier wherein the ratio of the sample signal to the reference signal produces a voltage for actuating a meter indicator. For a hydrocarbon gas content in a sample in excess of a
Gas type available: chemical, paint, explosive, alcohols, disinfectant, biocide, embalming agent, manufacturing, textile industry, resins, EPA, OSHA, TWA, STEL, NIOSH, gas detector, gas sensor, gas analyser, gas detection system, gas sensor transmitter, gas transmitter, automobile, nuclear, continuous monitoring, coal mines, food processing, bakery, oil & gas, toxic gas, combustible gas sensor, combustible gas detector, battery room, ripening chamber, cold room, building ventilation, parking ventilation, pharmaceutical, labs, clean rooms, filter monitoring, mine ventilation, bottling plant, gas reticulation, hospitals, steel, rolling mills, paint booth, level monitoring, leakage monitor, tunnel ventilation.. ...
Download AccuChrome - Model GC - Btu & Hydrocarbon Gas Analyzer Brochure. Galvanic’s third-generation Btu and hydrocarbon gas chromatograph, the ...
The ABCs of Industrial CO2 Gas Detection Part I: Refrigerant Leak Detection Part II: Process Leak Detection Regulatory concentrations of
Read reviews and compare manufacturers of Environmental Monitoring and Testing (Environmental) > Gas Detection products in the SelectScience products and suppliers directory
This review summarizes the fundamental principle of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). New progress is presented and commented in detail. Furthermore, the developmental trend of IMS is also discussed ...
IMPORTANT NOTICE: International Journal for Ion Mobility Spectrometry will cease publishing as a separate journal at the end of 2020.The journal will instead ...
Hydrocarbon gases, primarily methane but also the c2 through c5 paraffins, the c2 and c3 olefins, and possibly the c4 and c5 olefins, are byproducts of coal formation. Although it is generally believed that coal formation occurred at temperatures below 200 deg c, most experimental work on gas formation from coal has been performed at temperatures between 200 deg and 1,000 deg c. The objective of
We report here the generation of gas-phase complexes containing Pd(II), a ligand (deprotonated alanine, A-), and/or N-terminus derivatized peptides containing histidine as one of the amino acids. The species were produced by electrospray ionization, and their gas-phase reactions were investigated using ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry. Pd(II) forms a stable diaqua complex in the gas phase of the formula, [Pd(A-) (H(2)O)(2)]+, (where A- = deprotonated alanine) along with ternary complexes containing A- and peptide. The collision-induced dissociation (CID) patterns of the binary and ternary complexes were investigated, and the dissociation patterns for the ternary complexes suggest that: (a) the imidazole ring of the histidine side group may be the intrinsic binding site of the metal ion, and (b) the peptides fragment primarily by cleavage of the amide bond to the C-terminal side of the histidine residues. These observations are in accord with previous solution-state studies in which Pd(II) was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhalation of hydrogen gas suppresses hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion through reducing oxidative stress. AU - Fukuda, Keiichi. AU - Asoh, Sadamitsu. AU - Ishikawa, Masahiro. AU - Yamamoto, Yasuhiro. AU - Ohsawa, Ikuroh. AU - Ohta, Shigeo. PY - 2007/9/28. Y1 - 2007/9/28. N2 - We have recently showed that molecular hydrogen has great potential for selectively reducing cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radicals, and that inhalation of hydrogen gas decreases cerebral infarction volume by reducing oxidative stress [I. Ohsawa, M. Ishikawa, K. Takahashi, M. Watanabe, K. Nishimaki, K. Yamagata, K.-I. Katsura, Y. Katayama, S. Asoh, S. Ohta, Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals, Nat. Med., 13 (2007) 688-694]. Here we show that the inhalation of hydrogen gas is applicable for hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion, using mice. The portal triad to the left lobe and the left middle lobe of the liver ...
Recovery of hydrocarbon gas in micro-Darcy rock is now becoming more common-place for gas producers. As part of the reservoir characterization associated with these systems, it is required to understand parameters such as the total porosity and permeability of the system, but also the initial water saturation and the effective gas permeability at this connate water saturation. This is still under the realm of what is termed routine core analysis, but in these tight formations it is imperative to understand that these tests are actually very non-routine by nature. Current work presents a case study of core analysis that was run on plugs from a tight gas producing formation, and illustrates some of the pitfalls and corrections associated with measurements of this low permeability rock. The case study combines low field NMR measurements with core flooding measurements of porosity and permeability. Cores are initially tested at their connate water saturations: NMR measures the initial water ...
To date, no targeted therapeutic treatments for the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak have been identified. Antiviral combined with adjuvant therapies are currently under investigation. The clinical spectrum of the infection is wide, ranging from mild signs of upper respiratory tract infection to severe pneumonia and death.. In the patients who progress, the time period from symptoms onset to development of dyspnea is reported to be between 5 to 10 days, and that one to severe respiratory distress syndrome from 10 to 14 days. Globally, 15 to 18% of patients deteriorates to the need of mechanical ventilation, despite the use of non-invasive ventilatory support in the earliest phases of the disease. Probability of progression to end stage disease is unpredictable, with the majority of these patients dying from multi-organ failure. Preventing progression in spontaneously breathing patients with mild to moderate disease would translate in improved morbidity and mortality and in a lower use of limited ...
Among them, irritant gases include chlorine, phosgene, diphosgene, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, ammonia, and ozone. The action of irritating gases on the body is characterized by a strong irritant effect on the skin and mucous membranes, some of which also have a strong corrosive effect. The degree of damage to the body by irritating gases is related to its solubility in the water and the site of action. In general, water-soluble chemicals, such as chlorine, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide, rapidly stimulate the eyes and upper respiratory tract, causing eye and upper respiratory tract irritation; and water-soluble chemicals such as light. Gas, nitrogen dioxide, and other effects on the lower respiratory tract and alveoli are more obvious. The severity of lesions caused by irritant gases, in addition to the nature of the chemical itself, is most closely related to the concentration and timing of exposure to chemicals. Short-term exposure to high concentrations of irritating gases ...
Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath exhaled by patients with lung cancer, healthy controls, and patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery for resection of cancer were analyzed by gas condenser-equipped gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for development of an exhaled breath monitoring prototype system involving metal oxide gas sensors, a gas condenser, and gas chromatography columns. The gas condenser-GC/MS analysis identified concentrations of 56 VOCs in the breath exhaled by the test population of 136 volunteers (107 patients with lung cancer and 29 controls), and selected four target VOCs, nonanal, acetoin, acetic acid, and propanoic acid, for use with the condenser, GC, and sensor-type prototype system. The prototype system analyzed exhaled breath samples from 101 volunteers (74 patients with lung cancer and 27 controls). The prototype system exhibited a level of performance similar to that of the gas condenser-GC/MS system for breath analysis.
What is flatulence or intestinal gas? How much flatulence or gas does a person pass per day? What is excessive flatulence or intestinal gas?
8 Advantages Digital Video Surveillance Systems Provide Four Reasons Your Ministry Should Consider ThemObjectivesInfrastructureWhos Watching The FootageBenefits of Surveillance CamerasBalance Security with PrivacyRecording and Storing Video FootageData Security1. Reduce the potential for crime Criminals often look for less secure facilities, or facilities that offer the least chance of being caught. Theyll typically avoid buildings with alarm systems or surveillance cameras. In one study, security cameras were found to be an effective deterrent to burglary.* Security cameras may also deter other criminal acts.2. Resolve disputes Video surveillance can provide an account of what happened if there is a dispute about a situation. Did someone ignore c...See more on brotherhoodmutual.comThe Advantages Disadvantages of Using a Home Alarm … home alarm systems provide small lawn signs or placards for your window that indicate that your home is protected by a security company. In many cases, the ...
Introduction. Animal/Plant Gas Exchange Our planet is lively in many ways. Everything on Earth is part of one system, so Gas Exchange could be discussed under Cycles, Interliving, or under Balance. Everything really is connected to everything else. Every living organism must exchange gases to stay alive. We each take in a gas (breathing) we need from the atmosphere, use it to make food or transform food, and release the leftover part of the gas, which the living cells have chemically changed into a different gas. Animals take in oxygen gas, transfer it to their blood, and carry it to every cell, where it is used to transform food into energy, where carbon dioxide gas is created as a by-product or leftover. more. Middle. The diagram below show the circle of gas exchange between photosynthetic life and animal life. Giving/Receiving: Gas Exchange is a system of Giving. Plants give oxygen to animals (including you), and animals give carbon dioxide to plants. Gas Exchange is also a system of ...
MUCHACHAS experiments were carefully designed to separate initial SOA formation from subsequent exposure to OH radicals in an aging step, and to ensure that substantial concentrations of OH were produced during that step. The results confirm dramatic aging effects and strongly suggest that the major effect of gas-phase OH reactions is to enhance SOA concentrations by a factor of 2-4 (Fig. 1B). The fundamental result is that gas-phase reactions of semivolatile SOA vapors are clearly an important part of OA evolution, and these experiments substantially extend the timescale of the chamber studies.. Model-measurement agreement varies between experiments. It is best for the AIDA and PSI experiments, with the highest and most intense OH exposure relative to wall losses. The fresh SOA prediction (t ≤ 0 in Fig. 2) is based on the scavenger-free SOA mass yields in Fig. 1A (40). SOA production is known to vary with conditions [VOC∶NOx, UV light, etc. (4)] that were not kept constant in different ...
micro carbon monoxide Gas Concentration 160 Detector.Product description. Item Number: BWGAMIC3M The Gas Alert Micro 3 is perfect for home and building inspectors. It allows the advantage of protection without the liability of having to inspect and locate every potential gas leak. By approaching gas detection from a safety standpoint rather than leak detection, inspectors can reduce their liability without sacrificing safety.
The sum of these two frequencies is the cyclotron frequency, which depends only on the ratio of electric charge to mass and on the strength of the magnetic field. This frequency can be measured very accurately and can be used to measure the masses of charged particles. Many of the highest-precision mass measurements (masses of the electron, proton, 2H, 20Ne and 28Si) come from Penning traps. Buffer gas cooling, resistive cooling, and laser cooling are techniques to remove energy from ions in a Penning trap. Buffer gas cooling relies on collisions between the ions and neutral gas molecules that bring the ion energy closer to the energy of the gas molecules. In resistive cooling, moving image charges in the electrodes are made to do work through an external resistor, effectively removing energy from the ions. Laser cooling can be used to remove energy from some kinds of ions in Penning traps. This technique requires ions with an appropriate electronic structure. Radiative cooling is the process by ...
Intestinal gas is best explained by dividing the subject into upper intestinal gas and lower intestinal gas. Upper intestinal gas consists primarily of swallowed air & lower intestinal gas is produced normally by the fermentation of undigested complex sugars.
In order to ensure reliable operation, all fixed and portable gas detectors, monitors, controllers and transmitters must be calibrated to on-site environmental conditions. In addition, regular checks and calibrations ensure that these devices are ready to respond with the accuracy, speed and precision expected from these products.. Conspec Calibration Gas Kits and Calibration Gas Cylinders are manufactured and packaged by ISO/IEC 17025 accredited labs to provide the most consistent mixtures for your calibration gas needs. All gas mixtures are packaged and supplied in accordance with National and International Standards to ensure safe transportation and storage of pressurized gas cylinders.. All Conspec P1880 calibration test gas mixtures are designed specifically to meet the requirements of calibration of Conspec and most third party gas detection products. In addition, Conspec P1879 Calibration Kits come with the appropriate Zero Gas for the target gas of the target device to ensure the most ...
Intestinal gas is always present throughout the length of the digestive tract, from the stomach to the rectum. We notice intestinal gas only if it is excessive or causing pain.
Intestinal gas is always present throughout the length of the digestive tract, from the stomach to the rectum. We notice intestinal gas only if it is excessive or causing pain.
At the end of the 1970s, WITT pioneered the development of gas mixing systems and was the first company to offer a gas mixer for modified atmosphere packaging. For the first time, users were able to create the specific gas mixtures they required. The use of gas mixers offers several benefits compared to pre-mixed gases. Gas mixers create high quality gas mixtures without strata. Furthermore, they offer highest flexibility in terms of mixing ratios and flow rates at the point of use, and ensure the most economic use of the component gases. To this day, the heart of many WITT gas mixers is the mechanical proportional mixing valve. This enables the reliable creation of gas mixtures from almost all technical gases - precisely and stably. The valve has 2 gas inlets and one outlet for the mixture. Adjustment of the valve in turn engages the orifice and piston to proportionally regulate the flow rate of the individual gases to create the required gas mixture. Using all of its know-how, WITT offers the ...
Nitrogen gas springs use compressed nitrogen gas to exert force. Housed within a cylinder, our Nitrogen gas springs meet a wide variety of specifications, with variations on tonnage, stroke lengths, and mounting capabilities. They are used in automobile struts and hatchback doors, office chairs, press tooling, medical and aerospace applications, and other industrial manufacturing. At Precision Punch & Tooling we offer a full-line of nitrogen gas springs, from standard and fixed height cylinders to auto-return cylinders with height adjustment. The structural components of Special Springs gas springs are designed and built to withstand a minimum of 2,000,000 complete cycles at maximum pressure, temperature and for all types of fixings. We also offer a full line of Wire Die Springs.. ...
You may also wish to search for items by Lee, J. and Lee. 9 matching references were found. Beak, P.; Lee, J.K.; Ziegler, J.M., J. Org. Chem., 1978, 43, 1536. [all data] Kurinovich, M.A.; Phillips, L.M.; Sharma, S.; Lee, J.K., The gas phase proton affinity of uracil: Measuring multiple basic sites and implications for the enzyme mechanism or orotidin 5 - monophosphate decarboxylase, Chemical Communications, 2002, 20, 2354. [all data] Lee, J.K., Insights into nucleic acid reactivity through gas-phase experimental and computational studies, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 2005, 240, 3, 261-272, . [all data] Sun, X.J.; Lee, J.K., Acidity and proton affinity of hypoxanthine in the gas phase versus in solution: Intrinsic reactivity and biological implications, J. Org. Chem., 2007, 72, 17, 6548-6555, . [all data] Michelson, A.Z.; Petronico, A.; Lee, J.K., 2-Pyridone and Derivatives: Gas-Phase Acidity, Proton Affinity, Tautomer ...
A hydrogen gas halo three times the size of the Sun was detected by Skylab around Comet Kohoutek in the 1970s.[19] SOHO ... The four top gases in 67P's halo were water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and oxygen.[23] The ration of oxygen to water ... OAO-2 ('Stargazer') discovered large halos of hydrogen gas around comets.[14] Space probe Giotto detected hydrogen ions at ... At this distance the solar wind becomes strong enough to blow the gas and dust away from the coma, enlarging the tail.[9] ...
Greenhouse gas emissions[edit]. Some scientists have expressed concerns about land-use change in response to greater demand for ... Gas chromatograph studies were performed of ambient air in São Paulo, Brazil, and compared to Osaka, Japan, which does not burn ... Landfill gas, a less clean form of biogas, is produced in landfills through naturally occurring anaerobic digestion. If it ... This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. This new biomass can also be used directly for ...
Gas[edit]. Gases are compressible and change volume when placed under pressure, are heated or are cooled. A volume of gas under ... American Gas Association Report Number 3 *^ Endress+Hauser. "Best Gas Flow Measurement & Meter Types , E-direct". www. ... a property which is not dependent on thermal conductivity of gases, variations in gas flow or composition of gases. The ... For more aggressive gases, the meter may be made out of special alloys (e.g. Hastelloy), and pre-drying the gas also helps to ...
... with the seas around Greenland potentially holding large amounts of natural gas and lesser amounts of crude oil and natural-gas ... Oil and gas[edit]. Main article: Petroleum exploration in the Arctic. The US Geological Survey has estimated that at least 13% ... "90 Billion Barrels of Oil and 1,670 Trillion Cubic Feet of Natural Gas Assessed in the Arctic". US Geological Survey (USGS). 23 ... "Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland" (PDF). US Geological Survey (USGS). May 2008. Retrieved ...
where Ea is the activation energy, and R is the gas constant. Since at temperature T the molecules have energies according to a ... Plasma and gases[edit]. Calculation of rate constants of the processes of generation and relaxation of electronically and ...
Levels of blood gases[edit]. Main articles: Respiratory center and Gas exchange ... "Oil and Gas Journal. Retrieved 13 July 2018.. *^ Maxwell, James Clerk (1868). "On Governors". Proceedings of the Royal Society ... will result in a deeper breathing pattern and increased respiratory rate to bring the blood gases back to equilibrium. ...
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)[edit]. Main article: Liquefied petroleum gas. LP gas is a mixture of propane and butane, both of ... Natural gas[edit]. Main article: Compressed natural gas. Natural gas, composed chiefly of methane, can be compressed to a ... It offers many of the advantages of compressed natural gas (CNG), but does not burn as cleanly, is denser than air and is much ... A "heat valve" on the manifold would route the exhaust gases around the intake pipe, heating the kerosene to the point where it ...
Perturbed gas excitation[edit]. A collection of molecules forming a gas can be considered in an excited state if one or more ... This phenomenon has been studied in the case of a two-dimensional gas in some detail, analyzing the time taken to relax to ...
is often assumed to be negligible for gases since it is 0. {\displaystyle 0}. in a monoatomic ideal gas.[10] One situation in ... Elementary calculation of viscosity for a dilute gas Consider a dilute gas moving parallel to the x. {\displaystyle x}. -axis ... Pure gases[edit]. See also: Kinetic theory of gases. ... 8.1 Pure gases *8.1.1 Chapman-Enskog theory. *8.1.2 Bulk ... for a monatomic ideal gas, in which the internal energy of molecules in negligible, but is nonzero for a gas like carbon ...
... from natural gas and refinery process streams. They may also be used to remove CO2 from combustion gases and flue gases and may ... Gas treatment[edit]. Aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), diglycolamine (DGA), diethanolamine (DEA), diisopropanolamine (DIPA) and ... In the gas phase, amines exhibit the basicities predicted from the electron-releasing effects of the organic substituents. Thus ... Similarly aniline is more basic than ammonia in the gas phase, but ten thousand times less so in aqueous solution.[11] ...
... gas[edit]. Main article: Landfill gas. Gases are produced in landfills due to the anaerobic digestion by microbes. In ... Decomposition gases[edit]. Main article: Landfill gas. Rotting food and other decaying organic waste creates decomposition ... Landfill gases can seep out of the landfill and into the surrounding air and soil. Methane is a greenhouse gas, and is ... Landfill gas monitoring alerts workers to the presence of a build-up of gases to a harmful level. In some countries, landfill ...
Hypoxic breathing gases[edit]. Main articles: Inert gas asphyxiation and Asphyxiant gases ... Hypoxic breathing gases can be defined as mixtures with a lower oxygen fraction than air, though gases containing sufficient ... Martin, Lawrence (1999). All you really need to know to interpret arterial blood gases (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott ... Gases with as little as 2% oxygen by volume in a helium diluent are used for deep diving operations. The ambient pressure at ...
displaystyle T_{e}=T_{i}=T_{gas}}. ), non-thermal or "cold" plasma (. T. e. ≫. T. i. =. T. g. a. s. {\displaystyle T_{e}\gg T_{ ... Comparison of plasma and gas phases. Plasma is often called the fourth state of matter after solid, liquids and gases, despite ... Such ionized gases used in "plasma technology" ("technological" or "engineered" plasmas) are usually weakly ionized gases in ... 31] A kind of common nonthermal plasma is the mercury-vapor gas within a fluorescent lamp, where the "electrons gas" reaches a ...
New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme. References[edit]. *^ a b .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}. ... Quarterly Update of Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, December Quarter 2012 (PDF). The Department of Industry, ... Reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases[edit]. Because the Australian carbon tax did not apply to all fossil fuels usage, it ... Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions increased by 0.3% in the first six months of the Carbon Tax to December 2012 to ...
Petroleum and natural gas[edit]. For the offshore oil and gas industry, operational risk management is regulated by the safety ... oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings, information technology systems, aerospace projects, and defense ...
Resistance against shale gas[edit]. Main article: 2012-14 Romanian protests against shale gas ... "Highest Gas Prices: Countries". Bloomberg. 29 April 2014.. *^ Carla Dinu (9 December 2013). "Transportatorii rutieri de mărfuri ... Riot police used tear gas and flares to repel demonstrators who blocked traffic in the center of Bucharest.[18] According to ... Then, tens of thousands of Romanians abroad were attacked with batons and tear gas by law enforcers, while voters forced the ...
Natural gas (and similar gaseous fuels) are lightly pressurised into liquids known as Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs). Natural gas ... "Submarine Gas Pipe Line Taps Undersea Wealth" November 1951 article about first undersea gas pipeline constructed in the US and ... Oil and natural gas[edit]. See also: List of oil pipelines and List of natural gas pipelines ... Russian state-owned gas company Gazprom cut off natural gas supplies to Ukraine after talks between it and the Ukrainian ...
Propellant Gas[edit]. Products that are packaged in aerosol cans contain a chemical known as propellant gas.[11] Almost always ... this propellant gas is called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).[11] CFCs have been proven to damage the ozone layer and caused the ... aerosols are now filled with hydrocarbon or compressed gasses, which have been linked to cause VOCs, which are associated with ...
Noxious gases[edit]. See also: passive smoking. Noxious gases can be categorized as : Simple asphyxiants, chemical asphyxiants ... The irritant gases are sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, chlorine, phosgene, and fluorine and its compounds, which ... and irritant gases. The simple asphixiants are nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide. The chemical asphyxiants are carbon ...
is actually the volume of saturated gas according to the ideal gas law, and can be given a unique name v. i. d. {\displaystyle ... It is a simple matter to extend it to account for the gas-liquid- solid equilibrium: P. =. R. T. V. (. 1. +. B. V. +. C. V. 2. ... Gas-liquid-solid equilibrium[edit]. The cubic virial equation of state accurately represents the gas-liquid equilibrium of most ... The ideal gas law can be stated in terms of the compressibility factor Z: Z. =. P. v. R. T. =. 1. {\displaystyle Z={\frac {Pv}{ ...
Respired gas monitor[edit]. Mass spectrometers were used in hospitals for respiratory gas analysis beginning around 1975 ... Main article: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A common combination is gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS or GC- ... Trace gas analysis[edit]. Several techniques use ions created in a dedicated ion source injected into a flow tube or a drift ... It differs from GC-MS in that the mobile phase is liquid, usually a mixture of water and organic solvents, instead of gas. Most ...
Radon gas[edit]. Radon is a colorless and odorless gas generated by the breakdown of radioactive radium, which in turn is the ... Tobacco smoking, genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, air pollution[4][5]. Diagnostic method. Medical imaging, tissue biopsy[6 ... Silver has been mined there since 1470, and these mines are rich in uranium, with its accompanying radium and radon gas.[171] ... Some toxic gases (methyl ether (technical grade), Bis-(chloromethyl) ether, sulfur mustard, MOPP (vincristine-prednisone- ...
Natural gas pipeline[edit]. In early 2004 a private European natural gas company finished preliminary plans to lay a pipeline ...
Medical gases[edit]. *Oxygen[note 2]. Medicines for pain and palliative care[edit]. Non-opioids and non-steroidal anti- ... Anaesthetics, preoperative medicines and medical gases[edit]. General anaesthetics and oxygen[edit]. Inhalational medicines[ ... 1 Anaesthetics, preoperative medicines and medical gases *1.1 General anaesthetics and oxygen *1.1.1 Inhalational medicines ...
Heavy-duty gas engines[edit]. Lean-burn concepts are often used for the design of heavy-duty natural gas, biogas, and liquefied ... Heavy duty gas engines may employ precombustion chambers in the cylinder head. A lean gas and air mixture is first highly ... Manufacturers of heavy-duty lean-burn gas engines include MTU, Cummins Inc., Caterpillar, MWM, GE Jenbacher, MAN Diesel & Turbo ... Heavy-duty lean-burn gas engines admit twice as much[1] air as theoretically needed for complete combustion into the combustion ...
He gives the example of a patient in the infirmary who was sent to the gas chambers by Dr. Sigmund Rascher simply because he ... The women who stood against him and his experiments or were deemed as unfit test subjects were sent to be killed in the gas ... Mustard gas experiments. At various times between September 1939 and April 1945, many experiments were conducted at ... These women were often sick and underwent this experimentation before being sent to the gas chambers and killed.[36] ...
Oil and gas development. Oil and gas development in polar bear habitat can affect the bears in a variety of ways. An oil spill ... oil and gas exploration and development, and human-bear interactions including harvesting and possible stresses from ...
"Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act". Act No. S.C. 2018, c. 12, s. 186 of 21 June 2018. Parliament of Canada.. ... An Act to mitigate climate change through the pan-Canadian application of pricing mechanisms to a broad set of greenhouse gas ... The Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act[a] is a Canadian federal law establishing a set of minimum national standards for ... The Ontario Court of Appeal ruled by a four to one margin on 28 June 2019[1] that the Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act was ...
Hydrogen gas[edit]. Main article: Fermentative hydrogen production. Hydrogen gas is produced in many types of fermentation ( ... Electrons are transferred to ferredoxin, which in turn is oxidized by hydrogenase, producing H2.[13] Hydrogen gas is a ... and hydrogen gas:[24] The reaction leading to acetate is: C6H12O6 + 4 H2O → 2 CH3COO− + 2 HCO3− + 4 H+ + 4 H2. Glucose could ... and hydrogen gas (H2). However, more exotic compounds can be produced by fermentation, such as butyric acid and acetone. ...
Gas lasers[edit]. Major gas lasers used for biophotonics applications, and their most important wavelengths, are: - Argon Ion ... Major advantage of gas lasers in biophotonics is their fixed wavelength, their perfect beam quality and their low linewidth/ ... Other commercial gas lasers like carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide, nitrogen, oxygen, xenon-ion, excimer or metal vapor ...
Agricultures greenhouse gas emissions on the rise. Detailed assessments of both emissions data and mitigation options needed ... Greenhouse gases resulting from biological processes in rice paddies that generate methane make up 10 percent of total ... This is the first time that FAO has released its own global estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, ... Carbon dioxide equivalents, or CO2 eq, is a metric used to compare emissions from different greenhouse gases based on their ...
Argon may be used as the carrier gas in gas chromatography and in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry; it is the gas of ... It is in group 18 of the periodic table and is a noble gas.[5] Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earths atmosphere, ... Argon is used in some types of arc welding such as gas metal arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding, as well as in the ... This chemical property of this first noble gas to be discovered impressed the namers.[11][12] An unreactive gas was suspected ...
David Johnson of The Open University uses balloons to demonstrate the difference between the noble gases in this extract from ... Noble gases - the gases in Group 18 , The Chemistry Journey , The Fuse School - Duration: 4:12. FuseSchool - Global Education ... Lighting up Noble Gases with a Tesla Coil - Duration: 3:14. TESLASCIENCE HACKS 9,187 views ... Separation of noble gases (DEWARS METHOD)....Prayaag Educational Services(Prayaag Eduserv) - Duration: 1:59. Prayaag Eduserv ...
Industrial agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions - but what if there was a way to sustainably... ... Energy-generating artificial plants turn greenhouse gases into clean air. *by Lacy Cooke ...
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ChemistryThe Kinetic Molecular Theory of GasesWhat Are Gases?The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases: Why Gases Do What They ... DoWhy This Is Important: Ideal GasesImportant Terms and UnitsHow Fast Do Gas Molecules Move? ... The following are general properties of gases:. *Gases dont have a fixed shape. Gases fill the nooks and crannies of whatever ... Gases can be easily compressed. Because theres a lot of space between the molecules in a gas, you can easily squish them down ...
Rare Gases Discovery and isolation Properties Abundance and production Uses Resources Source for information on Rare Gases: The ... The rare gases, also known as the noble gases or the inert gases, are a group of six gaseous elements found in small amounts in ... Inert Gas , inert gas or noble gas, any of the elements in Group 18 of the periodic table. In order of increasing atomic number ... the rare gases were widely referred to as the inert gases. Because the rare gases are so unreactive, they are harmless to ...
A gas holder, or gasometer, is a large container in which natural gas or town gas is stored near atmospheric pressure at ... Gas is stored in the holder throughout the day, when little gas is being used. At about 5 pm there is a great demand for gas, ... A gas holder provided storage for the purified, metered gas. It acted as a buffer, removing the need for continuous gas ... The weight of the gas holder lift (cap) controlled the pressure of the gas in the mains, and provided back pressure for the gas ...
Ritter cites an unpublished study in which 80 percent of 27 users reported improvement in their symptoms (which include gas, ... which could then produce protective enzymes that would shield against excess gas. But forget company claims about calming the ...
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With regards to climate change, this commitment translates to actions aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the ... Greenhouse Gases. Vanderbilt has committed to striving to achieve the highest standards of sustainability through a process of ... Greenhouse Gases. Vanderbilt is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions at the university, departmental, and ... 2010 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Update, Published October 2011. *2005-2009 Updated Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory, ...
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... monatomic gases, with very low chemical reactivity. The six noble gases that occur naturally are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon ... is probably not a noble gas.[1] Instead, group 14 member ununquadium exhibits noble-gas-like properties.[2] ... and it has only been possible to prepare a few hundred noble gas compounds. The melting and boiling points for each noble gas ... The noble gases are a group of chemical elements with very similar properties: under standard conditions, they are all odorless ...
... most real gases behave qualitatively like an ideal gas. Many gases such as air, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, noble gases, and ... An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of a set of randomly-moving, non-interacting point particles. The ideal gas concept ... real gases undergo a phase transition, such as to a liquid or a solid. The model of an ideal gas, however, does not describe or ... "gas in a box"). The Ideal Gas model has also been used to model the behavior of electrons in a metal (in the Drude model and ...
Reliable-Ultra Plumbing and Heating, from its base in London, offers gas and heating services to private residents, landlords ... Our plumbing and heating engineers are Gas Safe™ registered and are fully equipped to deal with even the most challenging of ...
Natural gas was considered to be economically unimportant wherever gas-producing oil or gas fields were distant from gas ... Natural gas converted to liquid form for storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly ... Natural gas has far more volume than oil to transport, and most gas is transported by pipelines. There is a natural gas ... Main articles: List of LNG terminals and Liquefied natural gas terminal. Liquefied natural gas is used to transport natural gas ...
Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas 40. 0.14. $22.74. $47,290. Geographic profile for this occupation: Top. States and areas ... 47-5071 Roustabouts, Oil and Gas. Assemble or repair oil field equipment using hand and power tools. Perform other tasks as ...
Gas analysis -- Comparison methods for the determination of the composition of gas mixtures based on one- and two-point ... Gas analysis -- Preparation of calibration gas mixtures using dynamic volumetric methods -- Part 1: Methods of calibration ... Gas analysis -- Preparation of calibration gas mixtures -- Dynamic volumetric methods -- Part 3: Periodic injections into a ... Gas analysis -- Preparation of calibration gas mixtures using dynamic volumetric methods -- Part 7: Thermal mass-flow ...
Greenhouse Gases Emissions The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) seeks to recruit a Scientist - Greenhouse ... This is in light of increasing demands from the Livestock CRP and CCAFS to measure greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, ... Conduct agronomic, livestock productivity and greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements for different land use systems in sub-Saharan ... Considerable practical knowledge of techniques and experience with equipment used in the measurement of greenhouse gas ...
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... heating device in which natural gas is used for fuel. Gas may be supplied to the burner prior to combustion at a pressure ... Gas burner, heating device in which natural gas is used for fuel. Gas may be supplied to the burner prior to combustion at a ... Most ovens are heated by gas burned within the chamber, although oil or electricity may be used. Burners are sometimes isolated ... hollow iron flue containing iron baffles arranged to lengthen the travel of the escaping gases in order to… ...
Like Sylvia Grossman (Letters, April 11), I, too, have been wondering about the rising gasoline prices and I am surprised that more people have not questioned these increases.A month ago the price
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TERMOFISIKA TEORI KINETIK GAS Disusun oleh : Dita Puji Issriza (133224023) Intan Puji Lestari (133224033) Zulfi Tegar Reynaldi ... gas ideal) (b) proses isothermal gas nyata (gas sejati) Pada gas ideal setiap pemampatan (pengecilan volume) selalu diikuti ... 2. Teori Kinetik Gas Teori kinetik gas menghubungkan sifat-sifat makroskopik gas (misalnya, tekanan dan temperatur) dengan ... PERSAMAAN KEADAAN GAS NYATA * 17. Bidang p.V.T p p T4 T3 T2 T1 v (a) v (b) Gambar (a) proses isothermal gas sempurna ( ...
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  • The rare gases, also known as the noble gases or the inert gases, are a group of six gaseous elements found in small amounts in the atmosphere: helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn). (
  • The noble gases are a group of chemical elements with very similar properties: under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases, with very low chemical reactivity . (
  • The six noble gases that occur naturally are helium (He) , neon (Ne) , argon (Ar) , krypton (Kr) , xenon (Xe) , and the radioactive radon (Rn) . (
  • For the first six periods of the periodic table, the noble gases are exactly the members of group 18 of the periodic table . (
  • Noble gases have several important applications in industries such as lighting, welding, and space exploration. (
  • Many gases such as air , nitrogen , oxygen , hydrogen , noble gases , and some heavier gases like carbon dioxide can be treated like ideal gases within reasonable tolerances. (
  • Greenhouse gases resulting from biological processes in rice paddies that generate methane make up 10 percent of total agricultural emissions, while the burning of savannahs accounts for 5 percent. (
  • The main component of natural gas and cow farts, methane comes in as the number three worst offending greenhouse gas. (
  • Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is widely used for the mass production of synthesis gas and hydrogen. (
  • German researchers have "cracked" the code for breaking down methane from natural gas without creating carbon. (
  • Liquefied natural gas ( LNG ) is natural gas (predominantly methane , CH 4 , with some mixture of ethane , C 2 H 6 ) that has been cooled down to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport. (
  • The gas produced from hydrocarbon deposits typically contains a wide range of hydrocarbon products, which usually includes methane (CH 4 ), ethane (C 2 H 6 ), propane (C 3 H 8 ) and butane (C 4 H 10 ). (
  • The gas stream is typically separated into the Liquefied Petroleum fractions (butane and propane), which can be stored in liquid form at relatively low pressure, and the lighter ethane and methane fractions. (
  • The rapid growth of natural gas extraction sites, especially when they are near communities, has raised public concerns over water quality impacts, methane emissions, seismicity and other issues. (
  • Wetlands are unique ecosystems, which - under natural conditions - are the single largest natural source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) but at the same time an important sink for the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). (
  • Despite methane being 28 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (in a 100 year time span), the conversion of natural wetlands into agricultural or forested ecosystems and its associated decrease in methane emissions still leads to an overall warming effect. (
  • Methane -- or CH4 -- is a main component of natural gas. (
  • The law targets carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydroflurocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride, gases that are identified in the Kyoto Protocol, the international agreement on global warming. (
  • The heat caused by infrared radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and methane, which slows its escape from the atmosphere. (
  • Other natural soil gases are atmospheric methane and radon. (
  • Soil gases can diffuse into buildings, the chief concerns among these pollutants are radon which is radioactive and causes cancer and methane which can be flammable at only 4.4% concentration. (
  • 11 April 2014, Rome - New FAO estimates of greenhouse gas data show that emissions from agriculture, forestry and fisheries have nearly doubled over the past fifty years and could increase an additional 30 percent by 2050, without greater efforts to reduce them. (
  • This is the first time that FAO has released its own global estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU), contributing to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (
  • Industrial agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions - but what if there was a way to sustainably. (
  • Vanderbilt is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions at the university, departmental, and individual level. (
  • With regards to climate change, this commitment translates to actions aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the university, departmental, and individual level. (
  • Last week, NET Power officially began operations at its 50-megawatt, emissions-free natural gas power plant in. (
  • The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) seeks to recruit a Scientist - Greenhouse Gases Emissions to join the environmental research team in the Sustainable Livestock Program. (
  • This is in light of increasing demands from the Livestock CRP and CCAFS to measure greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture, predominantly but not exclusively smallholder livestock systems. (
  • If-or hopefully when-we cut our Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, we won't notice much difference in the climate. (
  • New study finds Aliso Canyon disaster's impact equivalent to annual greenhouse gas emissions from over half a million cars. (
  • Impact of greenhouse gases released since October measured over a 20-year time frame is equivalent to emissions from 7 million cars. (
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) calculates that substituting biofuels for gasoline and diesel will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 138 million metric tons by that time. (
  • They argue that the biofuels mandate is more likely to increase than reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector. (
  • The Minnesota researchers' study calculates that that is what will happen with the RFS-that it will backfire and result in more rather than less greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • The researchers first calculate what the effect on greenhouse gas emissions in 2022 would be if each gallon of biofuel fully replaced a gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel. (
  • After crunching the numbers this means that the biodiesel mandate in which the fuels are supposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 50 percent of the fossil fuel equivalent is a wash-no increase in emissions, but no reductions either. (
  • In any case, the researchers calculate that burning mandated conventional biofuels-those whose emissions of greenhouse gases are 20 percent lower than a gallon of gasoline-will backfire with respect to the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • The upshot is that rather than decreasing greenhouse gas emissions by 23 million metric tons annually as intended, this part of the biofuels mandate will actually boost emissions by extra 34 million metric tons each year. (
  • Solar panels like the ones on the Durham home of Darrell and Jo Edgley will help the Bull City cut its greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • In addition to car and truck emissions, electricity usage, much of it generated from coal, is Durham's main culprit in greenhouse gases. (
  • Beside the high power to weight ratio and the high cycle efficiency other advantages of gas turbines are the low emissions, the flexibility in operation and the applicability of the high grade waste heat either in a bottoming steam cycle or for industrial objectives. (
  • Due to the increasing focus on the reduction of carbon emissions in combination with the increasing share of renewable future land based gas turbine installations will run on other fuels like hydrogen or (waste) gases from biomass gasification. (
  • Pertaining to gas turbine combustion, hydrogen is a highly reactive fuel and presents challenges for existing combustors to switch between natural gas and hydrogen while remaining stable and with NOx emissions always below stringent limits. (
  • This indicator shows trends in man-made emissions of the 'Kyoto basket' of greenhouse gases. (
  • The aggregated greenhouse gas emissions are expressed in units of CO2 equivalents. (
  • CO2 emissions from biomass with energy recovery are reported as a Memorandum item according to UNFCCC Guidelines and not included in national greenhouse gas totals. (
  • The recent coming into force of the Kyoto protocol, aimed at reducing greenhouse-gas emissions, only adds to this pressure. (
  • TORONTO, Oct. 4 -- Canada's conservative government, groping for a new policy on climate change, is facing a dilemma over how to deal with greenhouse gas emissions from the hugely profitable Alberta oil fields in western Canada. (
  • The carbon dioxide released during oil production accounted for 28 percent of Canada's increase in greenhouse gas emissions since 1990, the report noted. (
  • Environmental groups say they believe the oil producers could greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions through such techniques as burying the carbon dioxide. (
  • This indicator tracks trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by agriculture, estimated and reported under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the Decision 525/2013/EC. (
  • 25 November 2008, Rome/Accra - Although Africa contributes significantly to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sources other than fossil fuels, it could be absorbing more carbon from the atmosphere than it puts back in, according to CarboAfrica, an international research project of 15 institutions from Africa and Europe that includes FAO. (
  • Those actions do not yet result in reduced emissions, but they signal that many businesses have begun scrutinizing their operations to function in a world where greenhouse gases are regulated like other pollutants. (
  • The obscure climate registry is a nonprofit entity created four years ago to help businesses quantify their greenhouse gas emissions and track changes. (
  • Under AB 32, companies must annually report emissions as regulators, led by the California Air Resources Board, set emissions limits to cut the state's greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a 25% reduction. (
  • Those gases differ from other regulated emissions that are covered in the ongoing effort to cut smog, soot and dust. (
  • In our 2019 Africa Oil and Gas review, many of the industry trend lines were heading towards positive territory for the first time in several years. (
  • As a group in year 2019, these unnatural man-made gases are responsible for about one-tenth of the direct radiative forcing from all long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gases. (
  • Many factories produce long-lasting industrial gases that do not occur naturally, yet contribute significantly to the enhanced greenhouse effect and global warming that is currently underway. (
  • formerly known as Malaysia Oxygen Berhad or MOX) was Malaysia's leading industrial gases company. (
  • It is in group 18 of the periodic table and is a noble gas . (
  • The rare gases form group 18 of the periodic table of elements. (
  • However, this no longer holds in the seventh period (due to relativistic effects): the next member of group 18, ununoctium , is probably not a noble gas. (
  • Chemical looping combustion (CLC) for power generation has the inherent potential of enriching CO 2 from flue gases with low energy penalty compared. (
  • The main challenge, next to prevention of condensation of water from the flue gases in the air inlet system, is the stability of combustion due the reduced oxygen concentration in the oxidizer (air mixed flue gas). (
  • They are also monatomic gases which means that they exist as individual atoms. (
  • [5] Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere , at 0.934% (9340 ppmv ). (
  • Although rare gases is used often to describe these elements, they are only rare in abundance relative to other gases found in the atmosphere of Earth. (
  • caption]There are different gases in the atmosphere. (
  • Scientists from BOC explain how gases are removed from the atmosphere, used in food packaging and transported around the world. (
  • Put simply, they argue that there is not enough carbon dioxide gas ( CO 2 ) that could practically be put back into Mars' atmosphere in order to warm Mars, a crucial step in any proposed terraforming process. (
  • These data have provided substantial new information on the history of easily vaporized (volatile) materials like CO 2 and H 2 O on the planet, the abundance of volatiles locked up on and below the surface, and the loss of gas from the atmosphere to space. (
  • The overall balance of these two differently active greenhouse gases and thus the climate footprint of a wetland over different time spans depend on the relative sign and magnitude of these ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes. (
  • When too many of these gases go into the Earth's atmosphere, it can result in an increase in global temperatures that is known as the greenhouse effect. (
  • Normally, CO2 gas emitted into the atmosphere is removed in roughly equal amounts by oceans and plants. (
  • Although greenhouse gases make up only about 1 percent of the Earth's atmosphere, they regulate our climate by trapping heat and holding it in a kind of warm-air blanket that surrounds the planet. (
  • The problems begin when human activities distort and accelerate the natural process by creating more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere than are necessary to warm the planet to an ideal temperature. (
  • Burning natural gas, coal, and oil, including gasoline for automobile engines, raises the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, upsetting a balance between the release and capture of the gas by plants and algae. (
  • Trees use carbon dioxide and give off oxygen in its place, which helps to create the optimal balance of gases in the atmosphere. (
  • As more farming occurs to feed millions of new people, more greenhouse gases enter the atmosphere. (
  • Ultimately, more greenhouse gases mean more infrared radiation trapped and held, which gradually increases the temperature of the Earth's surface , the air in the lower atmosphere, and ocean waters. (
  • Fluorinated gases (F-gases) are man-made gases that can stay in the atmosphere for centuries and contribute to a global greenhouse effect. (
  • Composition of air in soil and atmosphere: Nitrogen: Soil Air: 79.2% Atmosphere: 79.0% Oxygen: Soil Air: 20.6% Atmosphere: 20.9% Carbon Dioxide: Soil Air: 0.25% Atmosphere: 0.04% Gas molecules in soil are in continuous thermal motion according to the kinetic theory of gases, there is also collision between molecules - a random walk. (
  • Helium was the first of the rare gases to be discovered. (
  • Helium, neon, and argon do not combine with any other atoms to form compounds, and it has been only in the last few decades that compounds of the other rare gases have been prepared. (
  • Helium is typically separated from natural gas , and radon is usually isolated from the radioactive decay of dissolved radium compounds. (
  • A helium-oxygen breathing gas is often used by deep-sea divers at depths of seawater over 180 feet (55 m) to keep the diver from experiencing oxygen toxemia , the lethal effect of high-pressure oxygen, and nitrogen narcosis , the distracting narcotic effect of the nitrogen in air beyond this partial-pressure threshold. (
  • The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases , helium , water, and heavy hydrocarbons , which could cause difficulty downstream. (
  • With a minor exception, the resulting values of (T - T 90 ) are mutually consistent within 3 ×10 -1 T . These consistent measurements were obtained using helium and argon as thermometric gases inside cavities that had radii ranging from 40mm to 90 mm and that had walls made of copper or aluminium or stainless steel. (
  • However, those indulging in huffing and street racing should be aware that laughing gas ranks as the fourth leading caus of the greenhouse effect. (
  • To determine if Mars had enough gases for a greenhouse effect, Jakosky and Edwards analyzed data from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and Mars Odyssey spacecraft to determine the abundance of carbon-bearing minerals in Martian soil and CO 2 in polar ice caps. (
  • What Are Greenhouse Gases and the Greenhouse Effect? (
  • Water gas shift (WGS) and deep CO removal are critical for hydrogen production and low-temperature fuel cell applications. (
  • The "acidic" elements such as hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), together with oil, mud, water, and mercury, are removed from the gas to deliver a clean sweetened stream of gas. (
  • Gas turbine based power plants are very well positioned to convert the hydrogen back to power, because of their high efficiency (~60%), installed capacity and inherent flexibility. (
  • TU Delft cooperates in the HighHydrogen project with other companies on the development on a 100% premixed hydrogen gas turbine burner based upon the Flamesheet TM technology. (
  • Using this system, the researchers have demonstrated that they can detect gaseous ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and cyclohexanone, among other gases. (
  • The most common F-gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which contain hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon. (
  • Experiments on the properties of gases started early in the seventeenth century. (
  • To determine the climate impact of the conversion, we used the difference of the net ecosystem carbon balance between the site pairs as series of consecutive annual mass pulses and integrated their effect on tropospheric greenhouse gas concentrations" explains GFZ researcher Sachs. (
  • Current versions of the CARDs can each detect only one type of gas, but a phone can read multiple CARDs to get input on many different gases, down to concentrations of parts per million. (
  • The conventional wisdom in meteorology has been that certain factors such as the complete oceanic state and the exact concentrations of greenhouse gases are of minor importance for a normal weather forecast. (
  • Until now, it has been assumed that factors such as greenhouse gas concentrations play a minor role for the skill of the seasonal forecasts. (
  • The implications of these findings are quite subtle, but important: we are already feeling the climatic effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations. (
  • Impact of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in seasonal ensemble forecasts. (
  • A gas holder , or gasometer , is a large container in which natural gas or town gas is stored near atmospheric pressure at ambient temperatures . (
  • According to many proposals, this would be followed by the introduction of photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, which would slowly convert the atmospheric CO 2 into oxygen gas and elemental carbon. (
  • The different radiative efficiencies and atmospheric residence times of the greenhouse gases were accounted for when the radiative forcing was calculated for the period from 2000 - 2100. (
  • F-gases are used in a number of applications intended for climate change mitigation, that can generate further positive feedback for atmospheric heating. (
  • If recent trends of aggressive (5% and greater CAGR) annual growth for such types of F-gas production were to continue into the future without complimentary reductions in GWP and/or atmospheric leakage, their warming influence could soon rival those of CO2 and CH4 which are trending at less than about 2% annual growth. (
  • The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) deemed sulfur hexafluoride the world's most powerful greenhouse gas, with the chemical weighing in at a stout 22,200 times more heat trapping than CO2. (
  • The odor comes from bacteria in the large intestine that release small amounts of gases that contain sulfur. (
  • The most noticeable feature of the rare gases is their lack of chemical reactivity. (
  • Blood gases may also be used to monitor treatment for lung diseases and to evaluate the effectiveness of supplemental oxygen therapy. (
  • A blood gas analysis is ordered when someone has symptoms of an oxygen/carbon dioxide or pH imbalance, such as difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, nausea, or vomiting. (
  • When someone is "on oxygen" (ventilation), blood gases may be measured at intervals to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. (
  • The primary soil gases include nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen. (
  • [ 1 ] Generally, deviation from an ideal gas tends to decrease with higher temperature and lower density (i.e. lower pressure ), [ 1 ] as the work performed by intermolecular forces becomes less significant compared with the particles' kinetic energy , and the size of the molecules becomes less significant compared to the empty space between them. (
  • Conventional biofuels, such as corn ethanol, are supposed to emit 20 percent less greenhouse gases than gasoline. (
  • Because the molecules in a gas are so far apart from one another, gases are much less dense than liquids or solids. (
  • Unlike liquids, gases expand across an area until something physically stops them. (
  • Unlike liquids, which sometimes don't mix at all (e.g., oil and water), any combination of gases will always mix with one another. (
  • CHK ) on down started shifting their focus to more profitable oil and gas-liquids projects, shutting in unprofitable dry gas production. (
  • Carbonated liquids such as soda pop and beer can cause gas. (
  • Although argon is a noble gas , it can form some compounds under various extreme conditions. (
  • Because some rare gas compounds have powerful oxidizing properties (they can remove electrons from other substances) they have been used to synthesize other compounds. (
  • their outer shell of valence electrons is considered to be "full", giving them little tendency to participate in chemical reactions, and it has only been possible to prepare a few hundred noble gas compounds . (
  • Greenhouse gases are naturally-occurring and man-made compounds that trap heat around the Earth, making temperatures warm enough to sustain plant and animal life. (
  • Some environmental contaminants below ground produce gas which diffuses through the soil such as from landfill wastes, mining activities, and contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons which produce volatile organic compounds. (
  • Argon is the most abundant noble gas in Earth's crust, comprising 0.00015% of the crust. (
  • Distribute or process gas for utility companies and others by controlling compressors to maintain specified pressures on main pipelines. (
  • Our main goal is offering a comprehensive heating, gas safe, plumbing, emergency, fireplace services of first-class quality to our customers. (
  • These reserves of liquefied gas could be deployed at a moment's notice through regasification processes and today are the main means for networks to handle local peak shaving requirements. (
  • One of the main drivers of the recovery in natural gas has come from gas users like electricity-generating utilities switching from coal to gas. (
  • The NYMEX is tied to the Henry Hub spot price, which is the main United States benchmark for natural gas. (
  • What Are the Four Main Greenhouse Gases? (
  • They are powerful greenhouse gases that can have a significant impact on global warming. (
  • The method used to isolate these new gaseous elements involved liquefying air (by subjecting it to high pressure and low temperature) and allowing the various gases to boil off at different temperatures. (
  • At normal conditions such as standard temperature and pressure , most real gases behave qualitatively like an ideal gas. (
  • [ 1 ] At some point of low temperature and high pressure, real gases undergo a phase transition , such as to a liquid or a solid . (
  • It takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state (at standard conditions for temperature and pressure ). (
  • About the same time, Guillaume Amontons started looking into temperature effects on gas. (
  • The temperature forecasts are still Neutral at best and have consistently been calling for a combination of above normal and normal temps spread across the country with the highs and lows this time of the year not likely to result in any additional call on Nat Gas as a cooling or heating fuel over the next several weeks. (
  • The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that the domestic supply of natural gas will surpass demand by 2016. (
  • Although the Montreal Protocol regulates the phasing out of HCFCs, there was no international agreement on the regulation of HFCs until late 2016 when the Kigali Agreement under the Montreal Protocol was signed, which has put compulsory phase wise phasing out of CFC gases. (
  • Without these cuts, Durham is forecast to emit more than 10 million tons of greenhouse gases annually within the next two decades. (
  • Under this kind of trading, the country would swap the right to emit carbon dioxide gas in return for investing in carbon-absorbing projects. (
  • In this complete handbook of purified gases the physical foundations of purified gases and mixtures as well as their manufacturing, purification, analysis, storage, handling and transport are presented in a comprehensive way. (
  • In a troubling decision, California state regulators could allow the Aliso Canyon natural gas site near Los Angeles. (
  • The massive natural gas leak discovered in October at a Southern California Gas Company facility in Aliso Canyon. (
  • In California, where the environment is already endangered by severe drought, a natural gas leak has quietly released. (
  • After state lawmakers boosted the gas tax with a promise to improve California streets, some cities are upsetting drivers by spending millions on so-called 'road diet' projects that reduce the number of lanes for motor vehicles. (
  • Even if it averaged just 15 miles a gallon, she could have driven back and forth to California three times on the gas her campaign bought in 2005. (
  • Lower-income people are going to spend their gas savings because they have to," says Alec Levenson, professor of economics at the University of Southern California. (
  • California companies are rushing to voluntarily register their greenhouse gases before the launch of a major statewide program this year to address global warming. (
  • Argon is also used in incandescent , fluorescent lighting , and other gas-discharge tubes. (
  • Argon makes a distinctive blue-green gas laser . (
  • Neon, argon, krypton, and xenon are obtained from air using the methods of liquefaction of gases and fractional distillation . (
  • Primarily used in the electronics industry as an insulator, this inert gas moonlights as a tracer for experiments around the wind dispersal of toxic gases during terrorist attacks. (
  • New businesses and engineers with no previous history or those returning to the industry who have a history of complaints or a record of unsafe gas work will be subject to a time limited probationary period. (
  • However, a 2006 review of domestic gas safety involving industry stakeholders, including gas engineers and their representatives and consumer groups, identified no room for complacency and a strong case for change. (
  • The intent is to provide post-graduate education to qualified students and further prepare them with technical skills and commercial knowledge to fill the demand for professionals in the rapidly growing natural gas industry without interupting their current careers or their families. (
  • Must have a Bachelor's Degree in engineering and/or industry eperience in natural gas midstream or downstream sector. (
  • The Certificate in Natural Gas Technology program is designed to provide educational resources and tools for success in the technical aspects of the growing natural gas industry. (
  • Sectors such as the (petro)chemical industry that are highly dependent on the cost of oil or natural gas (naptha or ethane) are critically exposed. (
  • This is an advantage for rapidly developing the shale gas industry. (
  • Governments can actually move the development of shale gas forward, as they have in the past with other public works: the development of a massive railway system, the impressive nuclear industry in countries such as France. (
  • Technical gases are used in almost every field of industry, science and medicine and also as a means of control by government authorities and institutions and are regarded as indispensable means of assistance. (
  • Volga-Dnepr Airlines' latest transportation solution for the oil and gas industry has seen one of its Antonov An-124-100 freighters deliver over 90 tons of oilfield equipment from Calgary in Canada to the Russian city of Surgut. (
  • This session examined major pipeline projects and examined efforts from state policymakers, federal agencies and the natural gas industry to address challenges related to siting, permitting and financing upgrades to pipeline infrastructure. (
  • Communication Co-op Student and SCOY 2014 winner, Denisa Orlandea, never anticipated completing all 4 co-op terms in the oil and gas industry, much less considering a career in it. (
  • Here are her favorite parts of working for the Oil and Gas industry. (
  • In 2015, natural-gas industry leaders published ASTM F2897 , a 15-page collaborative document specifying how pipeline attributes should be identified via a standard, 16-digit barcode. (
  • ASTM F2879 is the standard that the gas utility industry is rallying around to address the requirements of tracking and traceability," said Tom Coolidge, Esri Director of Gas Utility and Pipeline Industry Solutions. (
  • The recent improvements to Collector can result in a simpler and more efficient tracking and traceability workflow, when combined with an ArcGIS 10.7 or higher enterprise geodatabase," said Tom DeWitte, Esri Natural Gas Industry Technical Lead. (
  • This transition however is causing unprecedented disruption to the global oil and gas industry with Africa proving to be particularly vulnerable. (
  • The oil and gas industry is recalibrating in response to an array of shifting market drivers. (
  • 2020 has rocked every sector, and the oil and gas industry was hit particularly hard - on numerous fronts. (
  • Stay on top of the oil and gas industry with these valuable insights and learn about opportunities to position payments, improve cash visibility and maintain financial control. (
  • The oil and gas industry presents challenges and risks, however, there is a variety of interesting and lucrative investing opportunities to explore. (
  • The chair is financially supported by the SGO (Stichting Gasturbine Onderwijs) and has excellent relationships with the Dutch and international gas turbine industry. (
  • The industrial gas industry as a whole is well positioned to deliver solid performance and investors looking for exposure to the sector may want to consider Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. (NYSE: APD), at least according to BMO. (
  • The rollout of smart meters , which automatically measure the amount of gas or electricity your business is using and send readings directly to your supplier, is the first step towards enabling the industry to manage energy flows throughout the day. (
  • Others in the industry are far more optimistic, saying LNG could account for as much as 20% of American gas consumption within 20 years. (
  • Ambrose's meeting with automakers sparked fierce criticism that Ontario's auto industry could face tougher greenhouse gas regulations than the western-based oil producers. (
  • The oil and gas industry is making billions of dollars. (
  • Photographs and video of the North Sea oil and gas industry. (
  • The rules will probably affect a wide range of emitters, including power plants, oil and gas operations and manufacturers, though the specific companies or industry groups have not been identified. (
  • Using a salt cavern (A) to store gas is growing in popularity, since 2001 salt cavern storage capacity has grown from 4% to 15% of overall capacity. (
  • Radon, which is radioactive, was first detected as a gas released from radium and, subsequently, identified in air. (
  • They were discovered by scientists near the end of the nineteenth century, and because they were so unreactive were initially called the inert gases. (
  • The new kid on the block, MIT scientists identified this chemical as a greenhouse gas on March 11th, 2009. (
  • Keith Nicholson and Sarah Martin-Law, scientists from BOC, explain how gases are removed from the air and how they are used in food packaging and processing. (
  • What Is a Natural Gas ETF? (
  • Rather than owning the natural gas directly, investors in a natural gas ETF own a small part of a large portfolio of natural gas futures contracts. (
  • The profitability of a natural gas ETF is therefore dependent on the overall price direction of natural gas, based on the trading that takes place on the commodities exchange. (
  • What this refers to is the fact that, each month, the manager of the natural gas ETF has to purchase new futures contracts to replace the old contracts that expire. (
  • One example of a widely traded natural gas ETF is the United States Natural Gas Fund, issued by the U.S. Commodity Fund. (
  • Prior to Bartlett ' s preparation of the first xenon compound, the rare gases were widely referred to as the inert gases. (
  • Additionally, legislators toured a facility that develops widely used thermoplastic resins derived from oil and natural gas as well as a combined heat and power facility located on the campus of Duquesne University. (
  • They are widely used in the electronics, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries, as well as in refrigeration when combined with other gases. (
  • The reason that gases ignore any intermolecular forces ( Solids ) that might normally exist between the atoms or molecules is that they have enough energy to overcome the strength of these forces. (
  • If natural gas is a bridge fuel to a clean energy future, as politicians from President Barack Obama to presidential. (
  • The (volume-based) energy density of LNG is approximately 2.4 times that of CNG which makes it economical to transport natural gas by ship in the form of LNG. (
  • Developing shale gas as a viable source of energy could help Europe out of the recession. (
  • There were also outright acquisitions: BHP Billiton's acquisition of Petrohawk Energy Corp. [vi] Europe, meanwhile, has only seen a modest number of explorations, primarily in Poland, though shale gas reserves on the continent are substantial. (
  • This new tax is being considered to make up for lost gas tax revenue as cars and drivers become more energy efficient. (
  • Call me a pragmatist, but if the Obama administration wants to make up lost revenue because people are being more energy efficient, why not just increase the gas tax? (
  • In some cases, the rebound is greater than the initial energy savings, so consumers end up using more energy and emitting more greenhouse gases than before. (
  • In the context of Russia's invasion of Ukraine and a still stagnant economy, President Obama faces two important questions on energy transmission: a decision on the construction of the Keystone XL oil pipeline and the question of increasing American natural gas exports. (
  • Natural gas usage is increasing and it is playing a larger role in state energy systems and economies. (
  • It also explored conclusions and recommendations related to natural gas infrastructure from the Department of Energy's Quadrennial Energy Review. (
  • In this tenth edition of PwC's Africa Oil and Gas Review, we continue to build on annual insights into the sector, as well as expand the focus on African economies and the renewable energy transition and the opportunities that this presents to the African continent. (
  • To achieve that, meaningful, permanent shifts in energy demand -- such as a big move toward natural gas-powered transportation -- will need to happen. (
  • Natural gas storage is a critical component in our energy infrastructure. (
  • Each week, the U.S. Energy Information Administration releases its natural gas storage report. (
  • According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, natural gas production from the Bakken shale has increased more than 20-fold between 2007 and 2010. (
  • Gas turbines are high tech, high efficiency engines that convert chemical energy into work. (
  • The Gas Turbine chair at the department of Process and Energy of Mechanical Engineering (3ME) at the TU Delft has a long history in delivering high level education and world class research in the field of gas turbines. (
  • The Gas Turbine chair has close cooperation with the other chairs within the Process and Energy Department, the Flight Performance and Propulsion department at Aerospace Engineering and the Materials Science and Engineering Department at 3ME. (
  • Carrizo Oil & Gas Inc (NASDAQ: CRZO) reported fourth-quarter results Monday that prompted KeyBanc Capital Markets to 'dramatically' lower its estimates and outlook for the Houston-based energy name. (
  • Ofgem , the UK gas and electricity regulator, published a report last year that found more than two-thirds of small businesses had gathered prices from energy suppliers, and half of those either switched supplier or negotiated a better price with their current one. (
  • Business energy, specifically gas and electricity, is not as complicated as many small businesses think. (
  • Our subsidiaries are invested in joint venture, energy-related businesses, including unregulated retail natural gas marketing, regulated interstate natural gas transportation and storage, and intrastate natural gas transportation businesses. (
  • A giant contract between Shell and the Gulf state of Qatar to supply liquefied natural gas to America and Europe is the latest in a series of deals that should lead to gas providing a far larger share of the world's energy needs. (
  • Besides the high cost of oil and the desire to seek new fuel sources to improve energy security, another important factor supporting the growing demand for gas has been the pressure on electricity generators to seek cleaner and less carbon-intensive inputs for their power stations. (
  • In 2002, gas accounted for 21.2% of the world's total energy supplies, a five-percentage-point increase since 1973, according to the International Energy Agency. (
  • By 2025, world consumption of gas could top 151 trillion cubic feet, 25% of the world's total energy consumption. (
  • F-gases are ozone-friendly, enable energy efficiency, and are relatively safe for use by the public due to their low levels of toxicity and flammability. (
  • Developments of production processes, cryogenic storage, and transportation effectively created the tools required to commercialize natural gas into a global market which now competes with other fuels. (
  • Natural gas plays a critical role in most state economies due to its use in many sectors, including electric power, heating, vehicle fuels and the manufacturing of industrial products. (
  • Unlike oil and other liquid fuels, natural gas isn't stored in tanks. (
  • Carbon dioxide, or CO2, is a greenhouse gas that is emitted by the natural carbon cycle and by human activities, such as burning fossil fuels, notes the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (
  • Population growth is another factor in global warming because as more people use fossil fuels for heat, transportation and manufacturing the levels of greenhouse gases continues to increase. (
  • And developing shale gas reserves is the most obvious. (
  • [i] The shale gas development in the US was already in full force by 2008 and led to a natural gas bonanza, with gas prices that are roughly a third of those in Europe. (
  • In Europe, it is the governments which own the resources below the surface, and the popular argument today opines this situation impedes fast development of shale gas production. (
  • With the necessary vision and willpower, governments can advance shale gas development and spur economic growth but it will entail using its legal power to expropriate land - and adequate compensation for landowners. (
  • They could also find, with concerted effort, solutions to the environmental challenges shale gas exploration generates. (
  • Pennsylvania's headlong plunge into drilling for natural gas from Marcellus shale formations has produced winners and losers. (
  • Yet even with gas fetching bargain-basement prices, many analysts were nevertheless skeptical that the market would recover anytime soon from the huge supplies that unconventional drilling techniques like hydraulic fracturing in shale gas areas have produced . (
  • China expects to start producing shale gas in the next month, while Australia is ramping up reserves. (
  • Africa has proved to be a potential bonanza for shale gas , and South America has its own reserves as well . (
  • If LNG gains traction, then the U.S. lead in shale gas production could lead to massive outflows of natural gas, sending prices higher. (
  • A vast majority of that storage is part of Dominion's gas transmission business, which serves the growing Marcellus and Utica shale producers. (
  • The reason: the area is home to the Bakken shale formation, a site where gas and oil production are booming. (
  • The Eagle Ford Shale is one of several gas and oil plays in North America that has taken on new life due to horizontal drilling technology and fracking. (
  • In order to combat the potential global warming effects of F-gases, and as part of the EU's Kyoto protocol commitments, in 2006 the European Union passed two pieces of legislation controlling their use: the F-gas Regulation (EC) No 842/2006 and the Mobile Air Conditioning Directive Directive 2006/40/EC. (
  • In the past this usually meant that natural gas produced was typically flared, especially since unlike oil no viable method for natural gas storage or transport existed other than pipelines which required the immediate use by end users of the same gas. (
  • He then adapted the gazomètre for coal gas storage. (
  • Before the mid-20th century, coal gas was produced in retorts by heating coal in the absence of air: the process being known as coal gasification . (
  • Many people had experimented with coal distillation to produce a flammable gas. (
  • He had joined Boulton and Watt , at the Soho manufactory, Birmingham, in 1777, and in 1792 he built a retort to heat coal that produced gas that illuminated his home and office in Redruth . (
  • Coal has also been beaten down lately, and with coal prices having fallen 10% this month, the incentives for utilities to switch to natural gas are less lucrative with every rise in gas prices compared to coal. (
  • Burning fossil fuel such as coal produces carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. (
  • 4:09) We're analyzing water, soil, and human tissue samples to get clearer information about the gas attack. (
  • It also fails for most heavy gases, such as water vapor or many refrigerants . (
  • These natural water reservoirs must be developed for natural gas storage, which is an expensive process. (
  • Gases fill soil pores in the soil structure as water drains or is removed from a soil pore by evaporation or root absorption. (
  • CAMBRIDGE, MA -- MIT chemists have devised a new way to wirelessly detect hazardous gases and environmental pollutants, using a simple sensor that can be read by a smartphone. (
  • Natural gas peaker plants step in when electricity demand is high, but their days could be numbered. (
  • UK households can now buy 15 percent green gas and 100 percent green electricity with one easy tariff. (
  • The growing use of natural gas for electricity generation has stretched pipeline capacity, causing competition between the electricity generation and heating markets. (
  • Gas prices were down this winter, but electricity prices were up," Goldstein says. (
  • It's important that you understand what this means in terms of monthly outgoings as you're effectively dealing with two separate costs that will appear on your gas or electricity bill. (
  • When carbon nanotubes bind to the target gas, their ability to conduct electricity changes, which shifts the radio frequencies at which power can be transferred to the device. (
  • With its corrupt politicians, bumbling criminals, and audacious schemers, Nicole Paolini's Swamp Gas is sometimes too evocative of Carl Hiassen. (
  • Under the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998 for a gas engineering business to legally undertake gas work that is within the scope of the Regulations they must be on the Gas Safe Register. (
  • As Congress prepares to reauthorize a six-year transportation bill worth close to $300 billion, a first ever investigation of metro area transportation spending by the Environmental Working Group found that commuters in 176 metropolitan areas paid a total of $20 billion more in federal gas taxes than they received in federal highway trust fund money for both transit and highways from 1998 through 2003. (
  • Established in 1960, MOX specializes in providing total gas solutions, namely manufacturing and distributing industrial, special and medical gases, installations of gas equipment, pipelines and engineering services. (