The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A 46-kD stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.
The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A 30 kDa stimulatory receptor found on resting and activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Surgical procedures performed through a natural opening in the body such as the mouth, nose, urethra, or anus, and along the natural body cavities with which they are continuous.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Gases that irritate the eyes, throat, or skin. Severe lacrimation develops upon irritation of the eyes.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A 44-kD stimulatory receptor found on activated NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It has specificity for VIRAL HEMAGGLUTININS that are expressed on infected cells.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Stable xenon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element xenon, but differ in atomic weight. Xe-124, 126, 128-131, 134, and 136 are stable xenon isotopes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A family of receptors found on NK CELLS that have specificity for a variety of HLA ANTIGENS. KIR receptors contain up to three different extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains referred to as D0, D1, and D2 and play an important role in blocking NK cell activation against cells expressing the appropriate HLA antigens thus preventing cell lysis. Although they are often referred to as being inhibitory receptors, a subset of KIR receptors may also play an activating role in NK cells.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.
An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.

Influence of the drilling mud formulation process on the bacterial communities in thermogenic natural gas wells of the Barnett Shale. (1/20)

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Natural gas and temperature structured a microbial community response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. (2/20)

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Modeling the relative GHG emissions of conventional and shale gas production. (3/20)

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Hierarchical leak detection and localization method in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. (4/20)

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Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health. (5/20)

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Occupational exposure to manganese-containing welding fumes and pulmonary function indices among natural gas transmission pipeline welders. (6/20)

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate manganese (Mn)-containing welding fumes' exposure, assess urinary Mn as a biomarker for Mn exposure and investigate the correlation of Mn in air, total fumes and urinary Mn with pulmonary function indices in 118 welders and 37 unexposed controls from two regions in Iran, Assaluyeh and Borujen. METHODS: Air samples were collected on mixed cellulose ester membrane filters in personal air samplers and then analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) (NIOSH Method 7300). For all participants, urine samples were collected during the entire work shift, and Mn in urine was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy according to NIOSH Method 8310. Spirometric measurements were also done for participants. RESULTS: The maximum exposures to airborne Mn and total fumes were 0.304 +/- 0.256 mg/m(3) and 21.52 +/- 9.40 mg/m(3), respectively. The urine Mn levels in the various groups ranged between 0.77 to 7.58 mug/l. The correlation between airborne Mn and urinary Mn was significant for total whole participants. Some values of spirometric indices were statistically lower in welders rather than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that many welders have been exposed to higher concentrations of Mn-containing welding fumes. Urinary Mn can be used as a biomarker for Mn exposure. There were weak inverse correlations between Mn-containing welding fumes and pulmonary function indices, and the inverse correlation between urinary Mn with forced vital capacities (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was significant.  (+info)

Two-year survey comparing earthquake activity and injection-well locations in the Barnett Shale, Texas. (7/20)

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Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas. (8/20)

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The recent boom in shale gas production and the subsequent decrease in the price of natural gas have put natural gas front and center in the national energy discussion. This abundant source of domestic fuel presents a great opportunity for the United States to increase our energy independence and reduce carbon emissions. The current low prices are likely to result in greater overall consumption of natural gas by the power, industry, transportation, and export sectors, which could expose our economy to renewed price volatility and potentially lead to premature depletion of our natural gas reserves.. Changes in the natural gas market represent challenges and opportunities for energy efficiency measures. Electric and natural gas efficiency help reduce consumption of natural gas. Some natural gas efficiency measures on the margin are not cost-effective with natural gas prices at $2 per million British thermal units (MMBtu) but the price of natural gas is already increasing and is projected to level ...
List of Tables and Figures Figure Liquid Natural Gas Product Picture Table Liquid Natural Gas Key Market Segments in This Study Table Key Manufacturers Liquid Natural Gas Covered in This Study Table Global Liquid Natural Gas Market Size Growth Rate by Type 2018-2025 (K MT) & (Million US$) Figure Global Liquid Natural Gas Production Market Share 2013-2025 Figure Methane Product Picture Table Major Manufacturers of Methane Figure Ethane Product Picture Table Major Manufacturers of Ethane Figure Propane Product Picture Table Major Manufacturers of Propane Figure Other Product Picture Table Major Manufacturers of Other Table Global Liquid Natural Gas Market Size Growth Rate by Application 2018-2025 (K MT) Figure Automotive Fuel Figure Marine Fuel Figure Industrial Power Generation Figure Living Fuel Figure Others Figure Liquid Natural Gas Report Years Considered Figure Global Liquid Natural Gas Revenue 2013-2025 (Million US$) Figure Global Liquid Natural Gas Production 2013-2025 (K MT) Figure Global ...
I / 13 hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and sulphur compounds. … Nitrogen Carbon dioxide Hydrogen sulphide Mercaptan Fraction 82 . Because of its sour nature and its corrosive components the gas must neither be fed into the gas pipeline nor combusted unconditioned.beginning from raw gas quality up to final natural gas quality for combustion and supply to the natural gas grid.% 0. which make the gas corrosive.% 3 . risk assessment and Hazop studies of the whole natural gas treatment process chain . salts. It also contains solid components like sand. drilling sludge and corrosion products and even liquid components.g.1 below: Component Methane / Higher hydrocarbons such as ethane.10 Vol.94 Vol. propane. inhibitor and condensate.1 - 1. Configuration and dimensioning of the gas conditioning system depend on the requirements such as raw gas composition. plant size and further use of the natural gas. butane.0 Vol.1 - Typical natural gas composition II / 13 . We are also experienced in sour gas conditioning ...
Natural gas is a fossil fuel that can be a byproduct of petroleum extraction and production (known as associated natural gas), extracted from separate natural gas fields (non-associated natural gas), or extracted from other areas such as coal-beds or shale (continuous or unconventional gas).[1] It consists of about 75% methane, and the rest is made up of ethane (15%) and other hydrocarbons,[2] but this varies by region and degree of refinement. It is naturally oderless, so odor is added to make a leak detectable. When burned for electricity production (its most common use), natural gas produces significantly less pollution than coal, the most popular source of energy in the United States for electricity production. Natural gas produces no sulfur dioxide (the main contributor to acid rain, and which coal produces, though in much smaller quantities after the 1990 amendment to the Clean Air Act). Natural gas also produces over 77% less nitrogen oxide air pollutants (important contributors to smog ...
Natural gas is a fossil fuel that can be a byproduct of petroleum extraction and production (known as associated natural gas), extracted from separate natural gas fields (non-associated natural gas), or extracted from other areas such as coal-beds or shale (continuous or unconventional gas).[1] It consists of about 75% methane, and the rest is made up of ethane (15%) and other hydrocarbons,[2] but this varies by region and degree of refinement. It is naturally oderless, so odor is added to make a leak detectible. When burned for electricity production (its most common use), natural gas produces significantly less pollution than coal, the most popular source of energy in the United States for electricity production. Natural gas produces no sulfur dioxide (the main contributor to acid rain, and which coal produces, though in much smaller quantities after the 1990 amendment to the Clean Air Act). Natural gas also produces over 77% less nitrogen oxide air pollutants (important contributors to smog ...
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|p class=MsoNormal>1.1*Scope.|br />A.1.1 Natural gas is a flammable gas. It is colorless, tasteless, and nontoxic. It is a light gas, weighing about two-thirds as much as air. As used in the systems covered by this standard, it tends to rise and diffuses rapidly in air when it escapes from the system.|br />Natural gas burns in air with a luminous flame. At atmospheric pressure, the ignition temperature of natural gas–air mixtures has been reported to be as low as 900°F (482°C). The flammable limits of natural gas–air mixtures at atmospheric pressure are about 5 percent to 15 percent by volume natural gas.|br />Natural gas is nontoxic but can cause anoxia (asphyxiation) when it displaces the normal 21 percent oxygen in air in a confined area without adequate ventilation.|br />The concentrations at which flammable or explosive mixtures form are much lower than the concentration at which asphyxiation risk is significant.|br />NFPA 704 rating is as follows:|br />(1) Health — 0|br
As natural gas has become more abundant and cheap in the United States, several companies have looked to it, instead of corn and other plant-based materials, to produce ethanol.. But a new study by an oil and gas industry-funded research group suggests that converting natural gas to ethanol may not offer any benefits over other feedstocks. According to the analysis released yesterday by the Institute for Energy Research, the conversion of natural gas to ethanol may increase carbon dioxide emissions and lose a substantial amount of energy in the process.. Producing ethanol from natural gas is expensive, emits significant amounts of additional carbon dioxide, and is wasteful of the energy content as well as the hydrogen content of the natural gas that can be used more efficiently in alternate applications, the study found.. The analysis, conducted by chemical engineer Lindsay Leveen, comes amid a push by some lawmakers to include ethanol from natural gas in the renewable fuel standard, through ...
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Shale gas is defined as natural gas occurring in shale formations. It is an unconventional energy resource, which has become an increasingly important source of natural gas globally and has the potential to grow as a major energy source in the next decade. However, production of shale gas remains technically and economically challenging.. Shale acts both as source rock and reservoir rock. Having high total organic content and falling in the gas window (302°F-392°F), shale has sufficient potential to generate huge amounts of natural gas. Generally, natural gas is stored in a shale matrix, which is highly porous but has very poor permeability. This makes it difficult for gas to move into the wellbore. Gas production in commercial quantities requires the presence of fractures to provide permeability. Some shale formations have natural fractures, which act both as storage space for natural gas and as a transport medium from the matrix interior to the wellbore. The recent boom in shale gas ...
HARRISBURG - A House vote last week approving bills providing millions of dollars of state tax credits to develop natural gas markets followed a debate over whether it would promote sound economic policies for Pennsylvania. The House approved three bills to authorize $25 million in tax credits for companies to convert their vehicle fleets to natural gas, $30 million in tax credits for individuals who purchase large natural gas vehicles and $5 million in tax credits to companies that build natural gas fueling stations along designated corridors, including interstates 80 and 81. Lawmakers debated whether state government should aid the development of the Marcellus Shale industry or let the industry invest in the infrastructure to make domestic use of the natural gas being produced in Pennsylvania.. House Majority Whip Stan Saylor, R-94, Red Lion, touted the bills as a way to create jobs, promote clean air and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. Rep. Phyllis Mundy, D-120, Kingston, called ...
24-02-14 14:51 , Our work , Introductions By all accounts, the level of carbon dioxide emissions is declining in the United States, namely because of the transition from coal to natural gas, as well as the weaker economic output in the country since the financial crises. The success story of natural gas is the result of certain technologies having been made much more widely applicable, which has enabled industry to unlock the shale gas that is held in rock formations a mile beneath the earths surface. The increased supply has reduced the price of natural gas significantly, making it competitive with coal, thus setting the energy sector on a whole new course.. Natural gas is perceived by many as the perfect bridge fuel during a transition to a decarbonized energy system. Surely, natural gas emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fuels, but whether it really is the favourable bridge fuel that we are looking for is still questionable. The reason for this can mainly be attributed ...
View more ,Natural gas commonly contains water as a contaminant that can condense to water or form gas hydrates, which causes a range of problems during gas production, transportation, and processing. Therefore, the removal of gas moisture is of great importance. A common and popular method for removing water contamination from natural gas is using solid dehydrators. Calcium chloride is a nonregenerative desiccant to dehydrate natural gas. With continual water adsorption, CaCl2 changes to consecutively higher states of hydration, finally producing a CaCl2 brine solution. This method does not require heating or moving parts. In addition, it does not react with H2S or CO2. These features make this method a popular one for drying natural gas. Nevertheless, precise and simple methods are needed to predict the water content of natural gas dried by calcium chloride dehydrator units. In this study, an intelligent method, called the radial basis function neural network, was incorporated to predict the ...
Posted on 03/24/2013 4:20:14 PM PDT by 2ndDivisionVet. Amid the nations shale gas boom, natural gas is being considered as an alternative to diesel to fuel heavy trucks. The Blueprint for a Clean and Secure Energy Future unveiled by U.S. President Barack Obama last week calls for putting in place new incentives for medium- and heavy-duty trucks that run on natural gas or other alternative fuels and providing a credit for 50 percent of the incremental cost of a dedicated alternative-fuel truck for a 5-year period. The natural gas vehicle market is already growing but the vehicle incentives the president calls for would help accelerate that growth and help displace foreign oil use even faster, Richard Kolodziej, president of Natural Gas Vehicles for America, an organization that promotes natural gas and biomethane as transportation fuels, said in a statement. Frederick W. Smith, chairman and chief executive of FedEx Corp., told The Wall Street Journal he expects 5-30 percent of the nations ...
The invention discloses a kind of natural gas power unit waste heats and carbon dioxide to utilize device, including natural gas power unit, gas fired-boiler, tail-gas after treatment apparatus, waste heat boiler, heat storage can, first electric T-shaped valve and the second electric T-shaped valve, natural gas input mouth A is divided into two-way by input channel, it is connected all the way with natural gas engine input terminal, another way is connected with gas fired-boiler input terminal, gas fired-boiler output channel is connected with port B and gas fired-boiler first input end respectively by the first electric T-shaped valve, heat storage can output end is connected by the second shut-off valve with port C.Natural gas engine exhaust emission pipeline is connected with the second input terminal of heat storage can and port D respectively by tail-gas after treatment apparatus, waste heat boiler, then by the second electric T-shaped valve, and waste heat boiler is additionally provided
From the well, the natural gas goes into gathering lines, which are like branches on a tree, getting larger as they get closer to the central collection point.. Gathering Systems. A gathering system may need one or more field compressors to move the gas to the pipeline or the processing plant. A compressor is a machine driven by an internal combustion engine or turbine that creates pressure to push the gas through the lines. Most compressors in the natural gas delivery system use a small amount of natural gas from their own lines as fuel.. The Transmission System. From the gathering system, the natural gas moves into the transmission system, which is composed of about 272,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe ranging from 20 inches to 42 inches in diameter.They move large amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from the producing regions to local distribution companies (LDCs). The pressure of gas in each section of line typically ranges from 200 pounds to 1,500 pounds per square inch, ...
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Its methane! LNG stands for Liquefied Natural Gas or Liquid Natural Gas and, as the name implies, it is traditional natural gas, which has been cooled to the point of liquefaction. Fun fact: liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th the space that the same amount of gaseous natural gas would take up ...
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How is Alaska Natural Gas Development Authority abbreviated? ANGDA stands for Alaska Natural Gas Development Authority. ANGDA is defined as Alaska Natural Gas Development Authority frequently.
This spatially random health survey of households with ground-fed water supply in a region with a large number of active natural gas wells is to our knowledge the largest study to date of the association of reported symptoms and natural gas drilling activities.We found an increased frequency of reported symptoms over the past year in households in closer proximity to active gas wells compared with households farther from gas wells. This association was also seen for certain categories of symptoms, including skin conditions and upper respiratory symptoms. This association persisted even after adjusting for age, sex, smokers in household, presence of animals in the household, education level, work type, and awareness of environmental risks. Other groups of reported symptoms, including cardiac, neurological, or gastrointestinal symptoms, did not show a similar association with gas well proximity. These results support the need for further investigation of whether natural gas extraction activities ...
Boston-based Xpress Natural Gas has landed a contract to truck compressed natural gas to FMC BioPolymer in Rockland, where the major regional employer is preparing to change its primary fuel source this fall to save on energy costs and reduce emissions.. FMC, a multinational company in Rockland that processes seaweed into carrageenan, is an anchor customer for the natural gas distributor that bills itself as a stepping stone and alternative to piped gas for industrial and commercial customers.. Thats our first large commercial customer in that area, Matt Smith, vice president for XNG, said. It goes without saying that its the largest single energy account in that portion of the coast.. The company delivers its gas out of distribution hubs in Eliot and Baileyville.. Smith said Rockland is a good market for the company because of the geological difficulties of installing natural gas pipelines.. They call it Rockland for a reason - its all granite. And laying pipe in granite is a challenge ...
WASHINGTON - In response to a court deadline, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has finalized standards to reduce harmful air pollution associated with oil and natural gas production. The updated standards, required by the Clean Air Act, were informed by the important feedback from a range of stakeholders including the public, public health groups, states and industry. As a result, the final standards reduce implementation costs while also ensuring they are achievable and can be met by relying on proven, cost-effective technologies as well as processes already in use at approximately half of the fractured natural gas wells in the United States. These technologies will not only reduce 95 percent of the harmful emissions from these wells that contribute to smog and lead to health impacts, they will also enable companies to collect additional natural gas that can be sold. Natural gas is a key component of the nations clean energy future and the standards released today make sure that ...
This Specialist - Expert Diploma presents fluid transfer operations of the earth; production of petroleum, natural gas, and water; and storage of natural gas. It explores the current problems related to technological and economic aspects of the... Specialist - Expert Diploma Petroleum & Natural Gas Production.
Natural gas condensate well. View across part of a production site where natural gas condensate is processed. The condensate is associated with natural gas deposits. The condensate is removed from the raw natural gas by cooling below the hydrocarbon dew point. The condensate typically contains hydrocarbons, such as short-chain alkanes and aromatic compounds such as benzene. They normally also contain impurities such as sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide and mercaptans. Photographed at the Yuzhno-Russkoye plant in the Yamal-Nenets region of Russia, where the gas reserve is estimated at 1 trillion cubic metres of gas. - Stock Image C007/5115
In 2007, the Barnett Shale in the Fort Worth basin of Texas produced 1.1 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) gas and ranked second in U.S gas production. Despite its importance, controls on Barnett Shale gas well performance are poorly understood. Regional and vertical variations of reservoir properties and their effects on well performances have not been assessed. Therefore, we conducted a study of Barnett Shale stratigraphy, petrophysics, and production, and we integrated these results to clarify the controls on well performance. Barnett Shale ranges from 50 to 1,100 ft thick; we divided the formation into 4 reservoir units that are significant to engineering decisions. All but Reservoir Unit 1 (the lower reservoir unit) are commonly perforated in gas wells. Reservoir Unit 1 appears to be clay-rich shale and ranges from 10 to 80 ft thick. Reservoir Unit 2 is laminated, siliceous mudstone and marly carbonate zone, 20 to 300 ft thick. Reservoir Unit 3 is composed of multiple, stacked, thin (~15-30 ft ...
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site on June 7 and 8, 2011. Natural gas sampling consists of collecting both gas samples and samples of produced water from gas production wells. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, analyzed water samples. Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois, analyzed natural gas samples.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management conducted annual natural gas sampling for the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site on June 20 and 21, 2012. This long-term monitoring of natural gas includes samples of produced water from gas production wells that are located near the site. Water samples from gas production wells were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, gross alpha, gross beta, and tritium. Natural gas samples were analyzed for tritium and carbon-14. ALS Laboratory Group in Fort Collins, Colorado, analyzed water samples. Isotech Laboratories in Champaign, Illinois, analyzed natural gas samples.
Consumers have already shown that theyre willing to pay a premium for certain certified environmentally-friendly products, such as low-carbon electricity and shade-grown coffee. Could these markets extend to fossil fuels?. A report by Alan Krupnick of Resources for the Future (RFF) and Clayton Munnings considers whether natural gas is a promising candidate for such product differentiation, where green in this paper indicates a lower rate of methane emissions associated with the natural gas supply chain. The authors examine the potential opportunities and issues related to the creation of a market for green gas, including emissions measurements, certification options, and more.. On April 24, 2020, RFF hosted the webinar, Greening Gas: Creating a Market for Low-Methane Natural Gas. This RFF Live event featured a discussion on the incentives-economic, regulatory, or otherwise-needed to encourage natural gas companies to produce greener gas, as well as the certification standards that would ...
Natural gas is produced through thermogenic and biogenic processing over millions of years and natural gas transmission plants and storage solutions can be as difficult to achieve as the recovery and processing activities. The gas can be partially processed before being piped to the refineries, were the natural gas is further processed to produce pipeline quality gas. Transmission is either by pipelines from the processing plants to the consumers or by conversion of the gas to liquid natural gas and transported in specialist LNG carriers. Storage can be in natural underground caverns or aquifers or depleted oil/gas reservoirs.
DALLAS (CBS.MW) -- Natural gas futures shrugged off the latest report of yet another increase in U.S. supplies Thursday to close higher on strength in demand.. July natural gas traded as high as $6.66 per million British thermal units to open the session and as low as $6.42. It settled at $6.582, up 9.3 cents.. The Energy Information Administration, the reporting arm of the Energy Department, said domestic natural gas supplies increased 94 billion cubic feet for the week ended June 11. Working gas in storage was 1.76 trillion cubic feet -- 322 billion cubic feet higher than last year at this time and 9 billion above the five-year average of 1.75 trillion cubic feet. At 1.76 trillion, total working gas is within the five-year historical range, the EIA said. The data were pretty much in line with expectations, said Phil Flynn, senior market analyst at Alaron.com, calling the numbers encouraging.. But, he said, recent economic data indicate that demand for natural gas is only going to improve. ...
Blackpak will use high-strength, high-surface-area carbon to develop a sorbent-based natural gas storage vessel in which the sorbent itself is the container, eliminating the external pressure vessel altogether. This design could store natural gas at comparable or lower weight and smaller size than conventional compressed gas tanks while reducing the pressure of the natural gas in the vehicle tank. By reducing tank pressure, the system will enable home vehicle refueling at greatly reduced complexity and cost, making these systems accessible to the general public. In addition, the container-less storage system can be easily formed into a range of shapes, allowing automobile designers to seamlessly integrate the natural gas storage into the vehicle design, without sacrificing passenger space ...
For Immediate Release, May 15, 2017. Contact: Emily Jeffers, (510) 844-7109, [email protected] Regulators Warned Not to Ignore Risks of Trains Full of Liquefied Natural Gas Lawsuit Threatened if Feds Rubber-stamp National LNG Shipping Plan WASHINGTON- The Center for Biological Diversity today threatened to sue federal regulators if they approve a railroad industry request to ship liquefied natural gas nationwide without carefully studying safety and environmental risks.. Todays letter to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration notes that the agency currently prohibits most railroad shipments of liquefied natural gas, or LNG. Transporting LNG by rail is inherently dangerous, and risks explosions, pool fires that are impossible to put out, and other accidents that can harm public health and the environment, todays letter points out.. Federal agencies cant turn a blind eye to the dangers of trains full of explosive liquid natural gas rolling through our ...
Data & statistics on us natural gas cumulative discovery and production: US natural gas cumulative discovery and production, North America natural gas cumulative discovery and production, US conventional natural gas cumulative discovery & production for U= 1250 Tcf...
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With the release of Producer Price Index (PPI) data for October 2016 on November 16, 2016, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) introduced indexes for natural gas distribution by region into the official PPI aggregation structures. Geographic PPIs for natural gas distribution are useful because prices in this industry tend to change based on local market conditions that result from differences in demand, infrastructure, and weather. The existing structure of PPIs for natural gas distribution to the ultimate consumer are subdivided into residential, commercial, and industrial users. With this release, PPIs have been added under each type of buyer to provide further detail of price changes by geographical region, as defined by U.S. Census Bureau Divisions (PDF).. The regional natural gas distribution PPIs were first published on this webpage as experimental with the release of PPI data for July 2014. Since they are now part of the official PPI aggregation structures, the previously available ...
Though a boon for businesses and homeowners, lower natural gas prices have eroded profit margins at major energy companies, prompting Chesapeake to change course. Between 2010 and 2011, the energy giant increased natural gas production 13.5 percent. In 2011, it spent more than $3.1 billion on natural gas regions. However, the cut in output will enable it to implement a business cost reduction program, as it intends to invest approximately $1 billion this year ...
Gas industry annually invests millions of dollars on corrosion inhibitors in order to minimize corrosion implications on flow assurance; however, attention has never been focused on possibilities of these chemicals to promote hydrate formation along deepwater pipelines, which would equally result in another flow assurance problem of high magnitude. This study investigated the possibilities of corrosion inhibitors to aid the formation of gas hydrate along offshore (or underwater) pipeline systems; developed a predictive model on corrosion rate for natural gas pipelines with gas hydrates as the corroding agent and finally investigated the ability of pure N2 and H2 gases to inhibit the formation of gas hydrates.All experiments in this thesis were conducted by forming various water-gas systems in a cylindrical cryogenic sapphire cell. The first investigative work on hydrate-corrosion relationship was conducted by allowing contacts between an industrial grade natural gas (with 20% CO2 content) and ...
Methane emissions from vast oil and gas operations in the densely populated Barnett Shale region of Texas are 50 percent higher than estimates based on the Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) greenhouse gas inventory, according to a series of 11 new papers published today in Environmental Science & Technology.. The majority of these emissions are from a small but widespread number of sources across the regions oil and gas supply chain. These emissions come from the sort of leaks and equipment malfunctions that are relatively easy to prevent with proper and frequent monitoring and repair practices.. The sprawling Barnett region, fanning out westward from the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth, contains about 30,000 oil and gas wells, 275 compressor stations, and 40 processing plants. It is one of the countrys largest production areas, responsible for 7 percent of total U.S. natural gas output.. Unpredictable, Widespread Sources Dominate. A finding from the research shows that at any given ...
By Yereth Rosen. ANCHORAGE, Alaska (Reuters) - Five companies, partnerships and entities have submitted proposals to build a massive pipeline from Alaskas North Slope to bring the regions vast but long-languishing natural gas reserves to markets thousands of miles away, state officials announced late on Friday.. The proposals, submitted under the Alaska Gasline Inducement Act passed by the legislature earlier this year, will vie against each other for state support. Friday was the deadline for applications to be submitted.. This is such an exciting day for Alaska and really an exciting day for America, Gov. Sarah Palin, who organized the competitive-bidding strategy, said at a news conference. Todays progress under AGIA demonstrates to the world that Alaska is well on our way to bringing this long sought-after infrastructure, a natural gas pipeline, to fruition.. !ADVERTISEMENT!. The applications came from the Alaska Gasline Port Authority, which proposes a liquefied natural gas project; ...
Photo (cc) Voxphoto While New Yorkers hotly debate the safety of hydraulic fracturing, a controversial method for extracting natural gas from upstate rock formations, a second natural gas issue has quietly started to simmer. Houston-based Spectra Energy filed a preliminary federal application to construct approximately 20 miles of new natural gas pipeline across northern Staten Island and southwestern New Jersey, under the Hudson River and into Manhattans trendy meatpacking district where it will connect to Con Edison lines around Gansevoort Street and the West Side Highway....
Southern Union and BG Group filed an application to build a U.S. natural gas export plant this week, the third such filing in a year as companies look to make the most of cheap domestic gas compared to higher-paying markets in Europe and Asia. Massive increases in North American gas production have eroded import needs and prompted companies to consider exporting domestically-produced gas overseas in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). LNG import terminals built on the expectation that the U.S. would soon be a major importer of LNG have sat largely idle since 2008 as shale gas production soared. Terminal developers are now hoping to build export facilities at their existing or planned import sites. LNG is natural gas cooled to a liquid for transport in specially designed tankers. In addition to the three terminals which have filed for permits in the United States, there are two proposals in Canada. Three other projects are being considered in North America. Below is a table showing the planned
The rapid expansion of natural gas development in the United States has been a double-edged sword. While natural gas supporters are quick to point out its economic benefits and green attributes-natural gas produces roughly half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal during combustion-this isnt the whole story. Natural gas comes with environmental consequences, including risks to air and water quality. One risk is [
Theres not a lot of natural gas drilling in Kentucky, but nearby West Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania have become hotbeds as the Marcellus Shale is tapped. Now, in response to a study, the Occupational Health and Safety Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are warning natural gas workers that they could be exposed to unhealthy levels of silica dust.. Silicosis is a lung disease caused by silica dust, and has long been associated with mining. But when natural gas workers fracture-or frack-the shale rock, they use large amounts of silica sand. As Elizabeth Grossman reports for public health blog The Pump Handle, that can cause major health problems too.. ...
Soybean oils are readily available bioresources composed of unsaturated fatty acids capable of binding sulfur compounds. Predictive models offer an opportunity to develop cost-effective methods using bio-based solvents to sweeten natural gas. While increases in fracking have increased availability of natural gas â a fuel that when combusted produces less greenhouse gases than coal or gasoline â natural gas is rich in hydrogen sulfide, rendering it sour gas. Hydrogen sulfide is corrosive to processing equipment and poses risks to human health and the environment. Predictive models such as COSMO-RS, the conductor-like screening model for real solvents, can be used to examine interactions at a molecular level, screen solvents, and choose process parameters. COSMO-RS was used to simulate the partitioning of hydrogen sulfide between soybean oil, high oleic soybean oil, free fatty acids, and gas phases. Predicted partition coefficient (K) values ranged from 0.16 to 0.70 for soybean and high oleic ...
Stakes Higher Than Ever for Big Trends in Natural Gas; As oil and gas production in the Permian reach all-time highs, natural gas prices hit a negative $3.38 per mmBtu, an all-time low. This of course is a significant threat to the viability of Permian oil and gas production, as producers are forced to flare natural gas or potentially shut-in production.
The government celebrated twenty years of independence in September 1991 with the start of phase one of the North Field development project. The gas project, in a 6000 km² field off Qatars northeast coast, is supervised by Bechtel based in the United States and by Technip in France. The project marks a major step in Qatars switch from a reliance on oil to gas for most of its revenues. The North Field is the worlds largest natural gas field, and its exploitation will place Qatar in the top ranks of the worlds gas producers. Natural gas from other fields provides fuel for power generation and raw materials for fertilizers, petrochemicals, and steel plants. With the expected depletion of oil reserves by about 2023, planners hope natural gas from the North Field will provide a significant underpinning for the countrys economic development. In the early 1970s, Qatar flared about 80% of the 16.8 hm³ of natural gas produced daily in association with crude oil liftings. In that decade, the ...
Turkmenistan increased natural gas production (including associated) by 107.5 percent during the first ten months of 2010, the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry said.
LDK Leak Detection Kit - Neptune Systems - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on LDK Leak Detection Kit - Neptune Systems. - Buy LDK Leak Detection Kit - Neptune Systems - Now Only $149.95 - LDK Leak Detection Kit - Neptune Systems Detecting a leak early can be the difference between saving a tank to an entire loss. Neptunes Leak Detection Kit is the perfect solution for anyone that uses an Apex Controller to monitor and control their aquarium. The LDK system will plug right into your current Apex through the Aquabus connections and includes two Leak Detection Sensors. The sensors can be placed in multiple areas around your tank and its equipment.  Pairing an Apex Controller with the LDK lets you monitor and control your aquarium in the event of a leak or an overflow. With Neptune Fusion, you can easily set up alarms that will notify you if a sensor ever detects moisture, and also control any equipment that is powered by an EnergyBar. One common example of common
East Coast (PADD 1) Distillate Fuel Oil, 0 to 15 ppm Sulfur Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels ...
New York Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater Than 500 ppm Sulfur Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels ...
HOUSTON - ConocoPhillips has begun producing natural gas at its Jasmine field in the North Sea, the company announced Wednesday morning.. The Houston-based company started production of its Jasmine field in the central North Sea on Tuesday, seven years after the field was discovered. Next year, the field is expected to produce approximately 40,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day.. The Jasmine facility has a gross capacity to produce 140,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day, making it a key part of Conocos plans to increase output, said Matt Fox, executive vice president of exploration and production for Conoco.. Jasmine is one of several major growth projects that will contribute to ConocoPhillips 3 to 5 percent production growth rate through 2017, Fox said in a written statement.. The Jasmine field news comes weeks after the Ekofisk South project began production, 200 miles southwest of Stavanger, Norway. Conoco has planned several startups in the North Sea, where it intends to increase ...
China National Petroleum Corporation, announced on Tuesday that it has agreed to import 30 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year for 30 years from Turkmenistan through a planned pipeline.
NEW YORK -- Exxon is teaming up with Russian oil giant Rosneft to develop oil and natural gas fields in Russia and North America. The deal is a major score for Exxon, granting the Irving, Texas compan...
Marquard & Bahls through its subsidiary Bomin, a leading provider of marine fuels, and technology company The Linde Group today announced that they will establish a joint venture company in order to build an infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the maritime sector in Europe.
Is there any deeper meaning behind these moves? At least two possibilities must be considered. The first is proxy-mercantilism by the United States to secure control of phosphate supplies. In 2004, the US entered into a bi-lateral free trade agreement with Morocco. This can be explained as a natural extension of the long history of economic and military cooperation between the US and Morocco, but in light of proposed biofuel programs, skyrocketing rock phosphate prices, potentially peaking phosphate production, and mercantilist moves by other great powers, the more nefarious possibilities must be considered. The second possibility is that Russia hopes to leverage increased influence with Algeria to exert greater influence in global natural gas markets. Because Algeria is one of Western Europes few true alternatives to Russian natural gas supplies, especially given the prospect of sharp increases in Algerian natural gas exports, Algeria represents either a threat to Russian natural gas leverage, ...
Natural gas and multiple chemical sensitivity information page by the Allergy and Environmental Health Association of Nova Scotia
Lookup HS Codes for Guadeloupe v 27.09.00 Natural gas condensates. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Guadeloupe.
Chart and table showing yearly production of natural gas liquids by country (Swaziland). Data obtained from the US Energy Information Administration.
Chart and table showing annual growth rate of dry natural gas exports for New Caledonia. Data obtained from the US Energy Information Administration.
Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Company Limited (RL I), Qatar - Latest News, Press Releases and Developments. Get up-to-date business information, contact details, latest news and press releases and people contacts on ZAWYA UAE Edition
Caught between a rock and a hard place: a monopoly on the one hand, and on the other a court case that could drag on for years, delaying the development of the natural gas fields
Faculty member Thomas Wood and Costas Maranas along with Greg Ferry in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) were awarded a Department of Engergy (DOE) $3 million ARPA-E grant, entitled Methane-to-Acetate Pathway for Liquid Fuel. Penn State will engineer a biocatalyst that makes use of methane as a co-reactant to generate chemical precursors of liquid fuels. Unlike other conversion approaches, this approach will explore reversing a naturally occurring sequence of reactions that produces methane from acetate. If successful, Penn States technology will enable cost-effective, energy-efficient, and carbon-efficient conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels. It is a disinct honor that Penn State was selected for this highly competitive program. This is a great opportunity to convert low cost natural gas from the Marcellus shale into a high value liquid transportation fuel. The research compliments some of the creative work that will likely be done through the new Institute for Natural Gas ...
The USA generates about 20% of its electricity from natural gas; 699.6 billion kWh [1] were produced from gas in 2004. This consumed 6,020,335 million ft^3 of gas [2] (roughly 6.2 quads) of our total consumption. The net efficiency was roughly 39%; the other 61% of the energy turned into heat. Only 31% of this gas-fired generation was in combined heat and power plants; the heat from the other 69% was discarded.. The 60.5 million households using natural gas for heating in 2001 used a total of 3.32 quadrillion BTU of gas for heating [3], or roughly 55 million BTU each. The 8.5 million households heating with fuel oil [3] used 0.58 quads, or 68 million BTU each. The 6.6 million households heating with LPG used 0.28 quads, or 42 million BTU each. Together, these 75.6 million households used a total of 4.18 quads of heating fuel in 2001, averaging 55 million BTU each.. Commercial buildings are similar. In 1999, commercial space used 1.76 quads of natural gas and .17 quads of fuel oil [4] for ...
Longtime Porter Ranch resident Ruben Samson said this is a Thanksgiving like no other.. For 15 years, hes hosted Thanksgiving dinner at his home. But today, he might have to cancel.. Ive been smelling it everywhere, he said. Rotten eggs.. The reason: a natural gas leak. A natural gas leak discovered on October 23 in a storage well in Aliso Canyon has been seeping into the homes and parks in and around the gated community where Samson lives.. This is the first year that Im not really excited, he said.. More than 60 homes have been relocated due to the smell, upon orders of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health. Nearly 200 more families have requested relocation, but have yet to be moved.. SoCalGas officials say the methane levels do not present a health risk. But residents have complained about headaches, dizziness, bloody noses and other ailments. Aliso Canyon is the largest natural gas storage site in the Western U.S., according to Tim OConnor, a senior attorney at the ...
11.6 EGYPT: Will Sisi Squander His Chance To Fix Egypts Economy?. 1: ISRAEL GOVERNMENT ACTIONS & STATEMENTS. 1.1 Natural Gas Deal Revived Due to Reworked Clause Previously Nixed by Court. The Israeli government officially approved an altered version of the natural gas deal, after the deals previous incarnation was controversially vetoed by the Supreme Court. Under the new agreement, a clause forbidding subsequent governments from changing the deal for 10 years has been scrapped. That clause has been replaced instead with a compromise text, which would mandate compensation to the US-led consortium purchasing the rights over the Leviathan natural gas field in the Mediterranean, in the event that the deal was indeed changed by any future Israeli government.. A breakthrough has been achieved in the negotiations over a deal that would regulate the exploration, harvesting and development of Israels offshore gas fields. The framework agreement was contested by multiple legal petitions seeking to ...
The California State Athletic Commission (CSAC) has denied a license to Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) fighter Josh Barnett after Barnett tested positive for a banned substance. Barnetts June 25 drug test came back positive for 2a-methyl-5a-androstan-3a-ol-17-one, an anabolic steroid. CSAC learned of the results July 21 and immediately denied a license for Barnett. CSAC also informed the promoter of Barnetts August 1 bout against Fedor Emelianenko that the bout would not be approved.
Wiebo Ludwig took his interpretations of Gods laws quite seriously. CALGARY, Canada-Oil and natural gas drilling in the province of Alberta has turned Calgary into a boomtown. Glittering skyscrapers, monuments to the obscene profits amassed by a fossil fuel industry that is exploiting the tar sands and the vast oil and natural gas fields in Alberta, have transformed Calgary into a mecca for money, dirty politics, greed and industry jobs. The city is as soulless and sterile as Houston. The death of the planet, for a few, is very good for business.
This course reviews oil and gas regulation, both up and down stream, in the United States and around the world. With an eye toward the hot issue of the day - Fracking, the proposed natural gas pipeline through, Middle East oil reserves and trade, and so forth - this course gives students a clearer understanding of the legal regime that makes the oil and gas exploration, extraction, refining, distribution and sale markets work around the world. This class is approved for JD Credit.
Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from | 1 to 100 μg/L, but total PAHs (the dominant compound...
Case Western Reserve University is applying nationally renowned research in polymer and materials science and harnessing partnerships with universities across the Tri-State Region (and beyond) to develop technologies to make oil and natural gas development, production and utilization efficient, safer, cleaner and more sustainable. Growth in the natural gas industry in the
Article Baseline groundwater quality in unconventional oil and gas fields. In recent years, expansion of unconventional oil and gas production has prompted ...
Hydraulic fracturing, or hydro-fracking is a technology used in West Virginia in which drillers inject huge amounts of water and chemicals into shale layers that hold natural gas and oil. The high pressure breaks the rock, and then silica sand and other chemicals are injected in the cracks to allow the natural gas to be piped to the surface.. Large quantities of silica sand are used during hydraulic fracturing (fracking) process. Silica particles are about one-twentieth of the width of a human hair and are a known carcinogenic. Hydraulic fracturing sand contains up to 99% silica. Workers who breathe silica day after day naturally have the highest risk for disease. Sand mover and blender operators, and workers downwind of these operations (especially during hot loading), had the highest silica exposures. Workers upwind and not in the immediate area of sand movers (sand delivery truck spotters) also had exposures above recommended safe levels.. Workers who breathe silica day after day are at ...
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The current ways in which the human population continues to utilise natural resources in order to satisfy their lifestyle remains unsustainable. One such activity is the use of biomass resources mainly for cooking, heating and boiling water which sustains an estimated 2.4 billion people living in developing countries. Biomass not only is the fourth largest energy source after coal, oil and natural gas, but it is currently the largest renewable energy option and yet it has received minimal attention especially from current energy debates in developing countries. Literature shows cases of cities that remain uncertain of their development agendas (regarding energy). The uncertainty is a result of most cities relying heavily on fossil fuel which is in most cases imported which minimises the possibilities of cities to come up with sustainable energy projects. As cities continue to grow the supply of this unsustainable energy puts cities in an uncertain position regarding the ...
Sabah Gas Industries Sdn Bhd was a state owned holding company based in Labuan, Malaysia. It was established in 1982 by the Government of Sabah for the downstream operations of Sabah natural gas resources. The company owned and operated a 660,000-tonne per year methanol plant, a 600,000-tonne per year sponge iron factory, and a 79 MW natural gas-fired power station, all commissioned in 1984 after the gas pipeline from the offshore gas fields became operational. The industries were supplied by natural gas from the Erb West and Samarang offshore fields. In the beginning of the 1990s, due to financial difficulties, the company was put for privatisation. In 1992, the methanol plant was sold to Petronas and operates today as Petronas Methanol (Labuan) Sdn Bhd. The power station was sold to Sabah Electricity. The sponge iron factory was bought by the affiliated companies of the todays Lion Group. The plant operates today as Antara Steel Mills Sdn Bhd. Malaysia portal Energy policy of Malaysia Lee, ...
Bolivian and Brazilian government officials continued negotiations with Guarani Indians who have threatened to seal a gas pipeline between the two countries. Guarani Indians are seeking to gain more control over previously promised investments in both South American countries.
By SANDY LONG. UPPER DELAWARE VALLEY - As the number of water contamination incidents related to the process of natural gas extraction increases across the country, so do attempts to regulate such impacts. A growing number of officials, agencies and organizations are calling for more protections of the nations water supply and implementing new regulations to mitigate those risks.. Several significant developments involving the Upper Delaware River region, where the Marcellus Shale play has prompted a rush of natural gas extraction activity, have occurred recently.. EPA confirms need for policy review. During a House Appropriations Subcommittee on Interior hearing on May 19, Congressman Maurice Hinchey (D-NY) elicited confirmation from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa Jackson that the EPA should conduct a review of its policy on the risk that hydraulic fracturing poses to drinking water supplies.. Jackson reportedly told Hinchey that she believed her agency should ...
Helium and inert hydrogen leak detection with United Leak Detection will work with petroleum distillation, bio-technology companies to locate leaks on bio-processes including fermentation vessels and equipment. We find leaks on plastic pipelines, including C900, HDPE and PVC. We work nationwide to locate even the smallest leaks and prevent waste save you money. Call today to find out more 888-422-5325. ...
Editors note: Research similar to that described below has not been conducted in Boulder or Weld counties as far as we can determine. But in our effort to continue to provide our readers with the most pertinent information regarding oil and gas drilling and fracking, we believe it is important to present these recent findings that we believe may affect the current debate in our region and nationally.. New research has concluded that salty, mineral-rich fluids deep beneath Pennsylvanias natural gas fields are likely seeping upward thousands of feet into drinking water supplies.. Though the fluids were natural and not the byproduct of drilling or hydraulic fracturing, the finding further stokes the red-hot controversy over fracking in the Marcellus Shale, suggesting that drilling waste and chemicals could migrate in ways previously thought to be impossible.. The study, conducted by scientists at Duke University and California State Polytechnic University at Pomona and released in the Proceedings ...
Published on Feb 17, 2013 George Feighner, wept today (2/16) as 70-year old white pines were clearcut less than 100 feet from his front door by pipeline contractors who started cutting yesterday morning after receiving a Notice to Proceed from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission on Thursday (2/4). George is an 86-year old man in Montague, NJ living just off the banks of the Delaware River, and had his 60-acre property condemned for eminent domain to be the path of the Tennessee Gas Pipeline Loop 323. The upgraded pipeline will transport Marcellus Shale gas to Mahwah, NJ giving enormous incentives for the industry to fully develop the shale and build new natural gas power plants, including the one proposed in Newark, NJ. George has been involved in a legal appeal for over a year of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commissions decision. FERC members have all been appointed or re-appointed by Barack Obama who spoke in favor of cutting the red tape for oil and gas permits during his State of ...
A new biomass gasification plant at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will burn wood waste from local sawmills to heat the complex, reducing fossil fuel use by 80 percent and greenhouse gas emissions by 23,000 metric tons a year.. The gasification plant built by Nexterra Systems converts waste biomass into a clean-burning syngas to produce 60,000 pounds an hour of saturated steam. The system replaces a natural gas steam plant and allows ORNL to shut down four fossil fuel-fired boilers. The plant, which has finished a 30-day endurance trial and third-party emissions tests, is now fully operational.. ORNL has been partially powered by steam since the 1940s. When the laboratory campus was first erected, steam was generated by coal and later shifted to natural gas.. The Nexterra plant uses three gasifiers to convert wood biomass to combustible syngas. The clean syngas is sent to an oxidizer, where its combined with oxygen, and then burned. The flue gas is directed to a boiler to produce steam, ...
Starting with Alan Levin who is the Director of Economic Development for Delaware. He sits on Governor Markells cabinet and he executed documents bringing the Bloom Energy BLOOMDOGGLE to Delaware. This gives him a title of Grand Wizard of Bloomdoggling as the Delaware deal is probably the most corrupt deal Al Gores company concocted. Natural Gas from shale in Pennsylvania is deemed renewable. The price paid for power to Bloom exceeds PV or wind power by 42% and exceeds the price of grid power by 300%. The Bloom Coffins use more natural gas than is permitted. And there are many tons a year of unpermitted solid waste with sulfur that is probably hazardous created in the protected coastal zone of Delaware. Markell and Levin as well as OMara who resigned his post as the head of the Delaware EPA need to be brought to justice. OMara is out of office the other two (Markell and Levin) need to be removed from office ...
Starting with Alan Levin who is the Director of Economic Development for Delaware. He sits on Governor Markells cabinet and he executed documents bringing the Bloom Energy BLOOMDOGGLE to Delaware. This gives him a title of Grand Wizard of Bloomdoggling as the Delaware deal is probably the most corrupt deal Al Gores company concocted. Natural Gas from shale in Pennsylvania is deemed renewable. The price paid for power to Bloom exceeds PV or wind power by 42% and exceeds the price of grid power by 300%. The Bloom Coffins use more natural gas than is permitted. And there are many tons a year of unpermitted solid waste with sulfur that is probably hazardous created in the protected coastal zone of Delaware. Markell and Levin as well as OMara who resigned his post as the head of the Delaware EPA need to be brought to justice. OMara is out of office the other two (Markell and Levin) need to be removed from office ...
Heres a couple of undeniable truths. Our nation needs coal. We need natural gas. Together, they power two-thirds of Americas grid and drive many manufacturing processes. In North Dakota, weve got a lot of both and will continue to produce them for decades.. We should also invest in technologies that reduce the environmental footprint of coal and natural gas while creating new economic development opportunities. One class of technologies, called carbon capture, can recycle carbon emissions generated from power plants and industrial facilities and repurpose them for domestic oil production. Scientists are even exploring how to use carbon emissions in the manufacturing of products, from shoes to building materials.. You cant find a better example of how public-private partnerships can spur innovation than Project Tundra, an effort involving Minnkota Power Cooperative, Allete, BNI Energy and the Energy and Environmental Research Center, or the EERC, at the University of North Dakota. Project ...
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported last week that, according to preliminary estimates, U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels decreased by 1.3 percent in 2006, from 5,955 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMTCO2) in 2005 to 5,877 MMTCO2 in 2006. Energy demand fell by 0.9%, resulting in a reduction of energy intensity (energy use per unit of GDP) by 4.2%, based on a GDP growth of 3.3%. Carbon dioxide intensity (CO2 emission per unit of GDP) fell by 4.5%. Emissions were driven lower by weather conditions that reduced the demand for heating and cooling services; higher energy prices for natural gas, motor gasoline, and electricity, that reduced energy demand; and the use of a less carbon-intensive fuel mix (more natural gas and non-carbon fuels) in the generation of electricity. Through 2006, total U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have grown by 17.9 percent since 1990. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions account for over 80 percent of U.S. greenhouse
From Duke University. Superior energy efficiency of South Korean plants, and choice of replacement fuels in US, are key to success. DURHAM, N.C. - Under the right scenario, exporting U.S. coal to power plants in South Korea could lead to a 21 percent drop in greenhouse gas emissions compared to burning the fossil fuel at plants in the United States, according to a new Duke University-led study.. Despite the large amount of emissions produced by shipping the coal such a long distance, our analysis shows that the total emissions would drop because of the superior energy efficiency of South Koreas newer coal-fired power plants, said Dalia Patiño-Echeverri, assistant professor of energy systems and public policy at Duke.. For the reduction to occur, U.S. plants would need to replace the exported coal with natural gas. And in South Korea, the imported coal must replace other coal as the power source. However, if imported U.S. coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in Korea, the ...
Iran Press TV. Thu Jun 22, 2017 3:46PM. Iran says it has started a much-awaited project to export natural gas to its western neighbor - Iraq. The National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC) announced that exports of around 7 million cubic meters per day (bcm/d) to Iraqs capital Baghdad had started from the late hours of Wednesday, June 21. NIGC Director for International Affairs Hamid-Reza Babazadeh told media that this would proceed on a trial basis. Babazadeh added that the exports would increase to as high as 35 mcm/d in the near future. Gas exports to Iraq - which are meant to address the countrys acute electricity shortfalls - started after two years of negotiations between Tehran and Baghdad. This was seen by the media as a sign that both sides had overcome disputes over the financial terms of the project - what was so far preventing the project. Iran and Iraq initially signed an agreement in 2013 based on which the Islamic Republic would export natural gas to power stations around Baghdad ...
see: Shale gas in Canada). *Gas hydrates consist of natural gas trapped in ice crystals in areas of permafrost and on the ocean ... Gas sausages[edit]. During the 1980s and 1990s the natural gas industry faced a new series of problems. As demand for gas grew ... Natural gas service began in Calgary somewhat later, when A.W. Dingman formed the Calgary Natural Gas Company. He drilled a ... Huge amounts of natural gas, natural gas liquids and sulphur were wasted through the disaster. This meant energy lost to ...
Natural gas[edit]. Main article: Compressed natural gas. Natural gas, composed chiefly of methane, can be compressed to a ... Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)[edit]. Main article: Liquefied petroleum gas. LP gas is a mixture of propane and butane, both of ... It offers many of the advantages of compressed natural gas (CNG), but does not burn as cleanly, is denser than air and is much ... Methanol is the lightest and simplest alcohol, produced from the natural gas component methane. Its application is limited ...
Petroleum and natural gas[edit]. For the offshore oil and gas industry, operational risk management is regulated by the safety ... Natural disasters[edit]. It is important to assess risk in regard to natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, and so on. ... oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings, information technology systems, aerospace projects, and defense ... 2002). Acceptable Risk Processes: Lifelines and Natural Hazards. Reston, VA: ASCE, TCLEE. ISBN 9780784406236. Archived from the ...
Petroleum and natural gas[edit]. Turkey is an oil and natural gas producer, but the level of production by the state-owned TPAO ... and delivers natural gas from Russia to Turkey. The Tabriz-Ankara pipeline is a 2,577-kilometre-long (1,601-mile) natural gas ... Share of natural gas decreased from 74% in 1980 to 30% in 1990 and 12% in 2005. Share of mid and high technology products has ... The planned Nabucco Pipeline will also pass from Turkey and provide the European Union member states with natural gas from the ...
Natural gas is traded through NYMEX in units of 10,000 mmBTU with the trading symbol of NG. Heating oil is traded through NYMEX ... Crude oil and natural gas[edit]. See also: Chronology of world oil market events (1970-2005) ... Energy commodities include crude oil particularly West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and Brent crude oil, natural gas, ... "No Gas: Barclays Halts Issuance of Natural Gas ETN". Index universe.com. Retrieved 3 October 2011 ...
Natural gas. Wellington and the Hutt Valley were two of the original nine towns and cities in New Zealand to be supplied with ... natural gas when the Kapuni gas field entered production in 1970, and a 260-kilometre-long (160 mi) high-pressure pipeline from ... "The New Zealand Gas Story". Gas Industry Company. December 2016. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 13 ... Wellington's scenic natural harbour and green hillsides adorned with tiered suburbs of colonial villas are popular with ...
Gas and natural resources[edit]. Romania has become a natural gas exporter.[100] Romanian Scientist, Lazar Edeleanu, had ... Natural resources[edit]. Main article: Mining industry in Romania. Romania is an oil and gas producer. The pipeline network in ... "Romania's Black Sea natural gas production to start in 2018 (official) - AGERPRES". www.AgerPres.ro. Archived from the original ... copper and natural gas. The country is a regional leader in multiple fields, such as IT and motor vehicle production.[28][29][ ...
Higher heating values of natural gases from various sources[edit]. The International Energy Agency reports the following ... This is particularly relevant for natural gas, whose high hydrogen content produces much water, when it is burned in condensing ... The lower heating value of natural gas is normally about 90 percent of its higher heating value. ... difference between the two methods for a power plant burning natural gas. For simply benchmarking part of a reaction the LHV ...
... from natural gas and refinery process streams. They may also be used to remove CO2 from combustion gases and flue gases and may ... "Natural Gas". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_073. ISBN 3527306730. Primary amine ... In the gas phase, amines exhibit the basicities predicted from the electron-releasing effects of the organic substituents. Thus ... Similarly aniline is more basic than ammonia in the gas phase, but ten thousand times less so in aqueous solution. In aprotic ...
Easton Utilities provides natural gas to over 4,500 customers, with natural gas purchased from the Eastern Shore Natural Gas ... but converted to natural gas in 1966. Easton Utilities is the only municipal natural gas utility in Maryland. Easton Utilities ... The town, which has owned the natural gas utility since 1923, formerly delivered gas to customers by burning coal at a plant on ... The town's natural gas supply is piped from the Gulf of Mexico via an interstate pipeline to Federalsburg, where 100 miles (160 ...
The most important commercial sources for alkanes are natural gas and oil. Natural gas contains primarily methane and ethane, ... Methane and ethane are the main components of natural gas; they are normally stored as gases under pressure. It is, however, ... It is probable that our current deposits of natural gas were formed in a similar way. Fungi and plants Alkanes also play a role ... Natural gas resulted thereby for example from the following reaction: C6H12O6 → 3 CH4 + 3 CO2 These hydrocarbon deposits, ...
Although it is widely speculated that this drill is in response to the presence of a natural gas well that is only several ... Also, the school is considering switching its oil-fired heating system to one that uses natural gas. In addition to these ... "Gas-lease , Pennsylvania Natural Gas Drilling". http://thetimes-tribune.com/news/elk-lake-holds-evacuation-drill-1.1046078 Elk ... The Times-Leader (July 2, 2008). "Gas leases lucrative for schools". Archived from the original on August 13, 2011. Retrieved ...
In 2016, the volume traded at the SPIMEX Natural Gas Section amounted to 16.812 bcm (+119.8% y-o-y). On 11 July 2014, SPIMEX ... SPIMEX offers a wide range of products in exchange-traded refined products, crude oil, natural gas, timber and construction ... In 2014, SPIMEX launched trading in its Natural Gas Section and Timber & Construction Materials Section. In 2016, the volume of ... On 24 October 2014, SPIMEX launched trading in natural gas. SPIMEX designated balancing points are as follows: Nadym, ...
A natural gas accumulation is present in the Permian dolomitic limestones at Eskdale. Natural gas from this field was used in ... Tiratsoo, E.N. (1972). Natural Gas. Beaconsfield: Scientific Press Ltd. p. 206. v t e. ... the 1960s and 1970s by the former North Eastern Gas Board to supply Whitby and other local towns. "Esk Valley Walk". www. ...
The pipeline will transport natural gas from the Galkynysh Gas Field in Turkmenistan through Afghanistan into Pakistan and then ... The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Pipeline (TAPI), also known as Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline, is a natural gas ... approved the agreement on a gas pipeline and the day after, the Indian Cabinet allowed state-run gas-firm GAIL to sign the Gas ... On 24 April 2008, Pakistan, India and Afghanistan signed a framework agreement to buy natural gas from Turkmenistan.[15] The ...
Natural gas. Power generation. Nameplate capacity. 125 MW. Sofia Thermal Power Plant (Bulgarian: ТЕЦ София) is a power plant ...
In 1994, it obtained the rights to sell Turkmeni natural gas as payment for its sugar transaction and started implementing gas- ... of natural gas, over 2 million tons of gas condensate and 7 million tons of crude oil. By 2011, more than 325 billion cubic ... of natural gas and 8.44 million tonnes of gas condensate.[11] In Sverdlovsk Oblast, the company operates through ZAO ... of natural gas and 92 billion cubic metres (3.2 trillion cubic feet) of associated gas. Together with Zarubezhneft and Rosneft ...
... natural gas: H, He, S; and from ores, as processing byproducts: Ge (zinc ores); As (copper and lead ores); Se, Te (copper ores ... Main article: Noble gas. Six nonmetals are categorised as noble gases: helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon ... The status of the period 7 congener of the noble gases, oganesson (Og), is not known-it may or may not be a noble gas. It was ... Some properties of metalloids, reactive nonmetals, and noble gases Physical property Metalloid Reactive nonmetal Noble gas ...
Natural gas - production. -energy.html Statistical Review of World Energy 2018 "The Glen Osmond Mines". South Australian ... Petroleum - In 2019 Australia was the thirty-third largest producer of petroleum.[citation needed] Natural gas - Australia is ... "Australia becomes the largest liquefied natural gas exporter in the world". The Canberra Times. 7 January 2020. Retrieved 29 ... In 2019, the country was the 22nd largest gas consumer (41.9 billion m3 per year) and was the 10th largest gas exporter in the ...
... a blowout at the Clearfield County well started a 16-hour natural gas leak. Natural gas and wastewaster "shot 75 feet into the ... Reserves of natural gas in the Marcellus Shale rock formation are valued at around $500 billion in Pennsylvania alone. While ... Fracking is a colloquial term for "horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing." During the 19th century natural gas was easy ... Appalachia#Logging Centralia Mine Fire Johnstown Flood List of natural gas and oil production accidents in the United States ...
Large reserves of petroleum and natural gas were discovered in the 1960s, which led to a boom in the economy. Norway has ... "Country Comparison :: Natural gas - production". CIA - The World Factbook. Retrieved 16 March 2016. "The World's Richest ... natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood, and fresh water. The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's ... Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East. The country has the fourth-highest ...
by Mori Kessler on November 21, 2013 "BLM Utah Lease Sale Proceeds Plunge". Natural Gas Intel. Richard Nemec May 20, 2015 " ... 40,000 campaign contribution to a member of the state panel that regulates oil and natural gas. Later, an explosion of two oil ... Utah oil, gas lease bids bring in millions for BLM; next auction slated for Southern Utah. St George News. ... The company operates about 2,500 oil and gas properties in nine states including Texas, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, Louisiana, ...
It has the world's largest proven natural gas reserves and is the largest exporter of natural gas. It is also the second- ... Country Comparison :: Natural gas - exports. CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 3 February 2014. "Country Comparison :: Natural gas ... The country is the world's leading natural gas exporter, the second-largest natural gas producer, the second-largest oil ... Russia is the 16th largest export economy in the world (2016) and is a leading exporter of oil and natural gas. In Russia, ...
Natural gas fired. 350 tons per hour. 1 hour heating time per slab. Blooming Mill Two high 41" diameter x 92" rolls. Built by ... Natural gas fired. Built by Amsler Morton and the Rust Furnace Company in 1948. Reheat Furnaces Two conventional three zone, ... Both furnaces used natural gas fuel. Two 2-high skin pass mills. Built by Continental in 1954. 1500 Horsepower motors. Maximum ... natural gas furnaces that were primarily used to reheat stainless and carbon slabs prior to the caster installation. 125 Net ...
"Gulf Coast Exporters Talk Up LNG, Ethane Sales to China". Natural Gas Intel. Murtaugh, Dan. "China's Appetite for U.S. Energy ... partner of several oil and gas holdings and investments with a multi-billion dollar investment strategy in the natural gas ... He is currently the CEO of an oil and gas export company, American Ethane and is the majority owner of the law firm of Gauthier ... He holds ownership in a 200,000 acre oil and gas production play in the Pearsall of South Texas.[citation needed] In 2014, he ...
... was natural gas liquids, and 43% was natural gas. The company also manages Sandridge Permian Trust, owner of royalty interests ... Natural Gas Intelligence. Wilmoth, Adam (October 4, 2016). "SandRidge Energy emerges from bankruptcy". The Oklahoman. Benny, ... On January 21, 2016, the company settled a dispute with Occidental Petroleum over a 30-year carbon dioxide gas treatment ...
Methane (CH 4) is the main component of what we commonly refer to as natural gas. But in addition to being an important energy ... Cold seeps can also be distinguished in detail, as follows: oil/gas seeps gas seeps: methane seeps gas hydrate seeps brine ... Also, gas chimneys have been reported, and exploratory wells have discovered subcommercial gas accumulations and pock marks ... Natural Gas Hydrates. Geophysical Monograph Series. 124. American Geophysical Union. pp. 145-161. Bibcode:2001GMS...124..145R. ...
Morehouse, David F. (July 1997). "The Intricate Puzzle of Oil & Gas "Reserve Growth"". Natural Gas Monthly. Energy Information ...
"Malaysia: first compressed natural gas tram in the world will be ready next year". Natural Gas Journal. 22 February 2011. ... naphtha gas or coal gas in particular. Gas trams are known to have operated between Alphington and Clifton Hill in the northern ... A tram system powered by compressed natural gas was due to open in Malaysia in 2012, but the news about the project appears to ... In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a number of systems in various parts of the world employed trams powered by gas, ...
Natural gas converted to liquid form for storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly ... Main articles: List of LNG terminals and Liquefied natural gas terminal. Liquefied natural gas is used to transport natural gas ... Natural gas has far more volume than oil to transport, and most gas is transported by pipelines. There is a natural gas ... Natural gas was considered to be economically unimportant wherever gas-producing oil or gas fields were distant from gas ...
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of ... including both minerals and gases such as carbon dioxide. These chemical reactions require energy, which mainly comes from the ... It is explicitly understood that natural systems are 'sloppy' and that food web trophic positions simplify the complexity of ...
As with many natural flora, it can become pathogenic under the right conditions, typically when the immune system of the host ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... "Addiction of Hypertransformable Pneumococcal Isolates to Natural Transformation for In Vivo Fitness and Virulence". Infect. ...
Krogh, David (2010), Biology: A Guide to the Natural World (5th ed.), Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company, p. 463, ISBN 978-0- ... The opening and closing of the stomatal aperture is controlled by the stomatal complex and regulates the exchange of gases and ... Arber, Agnes (1950). The Natural Philosophy of Plant Form. CUP Archive. GGKEY:HCBB8RZREL4.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ... Their surfaces are waterproofed by the plant cuticle and gas exchange between the mesophyll cells and the atmosphere is ...
They try to encourage them to create a natural habitat for threatened amphibians.[26] Another project is the Panama Amphibian ... Some terrestrial species lack both lungs and gills and perform gas exchange through their skin. Even some species with lungs ...
JEL: Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics Categoria:Agricultural and natural ... JEL: L95 - Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities. JEL: L96 - Telecommunications. JEL: L97 - Utilities: General. JEL: L98 - ... JEL: P28 - Natural Resources; Energy; Environment. JEL: P29 - Outros. JEL: P3 - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions ... JEL: Q34 - Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts. JEL: Q33 - Resource Booms. JEL: Q38 - Government Policy ...
Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical ... What is the difference between a wheel or a compass and cooking machines such as an oven or a gas stove? Can we consider all of ... Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of ...
At this temperature and pressure, water can be approximated as an ideal gas, which means we can use the ideal gas law (pV=nRT) ... This basically means that antibodies produced from natural infection are somewhere between 16% and 50% effective at ... Since the vapor pressure of water is temperature dependent, and temperature is also a variable in the ideal gas law, we can ...
... an Imtech manager was alleged to have given him bribes at a highway gas station in 2012.[135] Imtech built parts of the fire ... This required the natural rising behaviour of hot air in the shaft to be reversed. Achieving this on the scale necessary for ... 600 fire protection walls have to be replaced because they were built out of gas concrete blocks meaning they provide ...
... membrane that is permeable to select gases (i.e. gases necessary for metabolism) but impermeable to water and microbes. Other ... Thus by being outside their natural environment, the neurons are influenced in ways that are not biologically normal. Foremost ... solutions entail an incubator with an impermeable membrane that has a specific mix of gases (air with 5% CO2 is typical) sealed ...
It is a colorless, toxic gas with a pungent odor. The molecule is a pseudohalogen. Cyanogen molecules consist of two CN groups ... Cyanogen produces the second-hottest-known natural flame (after carbon subnitride) with a temperature of over 4,525 °C (8,177 ° ... Cyanogen gas is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory system. Inhalation can lead to headache, dizziness, rapid pulse, nausea ...
During telodiagenesis, organic matter undergoes cracking and dry gas is produced; semi-anthracite coals develop.[11] ... This is accomplished by the exchange of natural bone constituents, deposition in voids or defects, adsorption onto the bone ...
Natural gas. *Gravitational energy. *Nuclear fuel *Natural uranium. *Radiant energy. *Solar. *Wind ...
... scientists must determine exactly when anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions began to measurably alter natural atmospheric ... "American Museum of Natural History.. *^ MacPhee, Ross D.E.; Marx, Preston (1997). "The 40,000-year Plague: Humans, Hyperdisease ... "Dinosaur gases 'warmed the Earth'". BBC Nature News. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2012.. ... Hawkins, A. F. A.; Goodman, S. M. (2003). Goodman, S. M.; Benstead, J. P. (eds.). The Natural History of Madagascar. University ...
The territory's natural resources are limited to fish and crustaceans. Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological ... six liquefied gas carriers, 24 petroleum tankers, one refrigerated cargo ship, and ten roll-on-roll-off (RORO) carriers. This ...
This was a resort complete with the luxuries of the day: gas lights, steam heating, a string orchestra, a formal dining room, a ... Florida engineers have described the event as "the largest sinkhole event witnessed by man as a result of natural geological ...
... of natural potassium,[95] and thus natural potassium is weakly radioactive. This natural radioactivity became a basis for a ... This secondary hydrogen gas explosion produces the visible flame above the bowl of water, lake or other body of water, not the ... itself produced synthetically from the neutron irradiation of natural radium-226, one of the daughters of natural uranium-238.[ ... Nitrogen is an unreactive gas because breaking the strong triple bond in the dinitrogen molecule (N2) requires a lot of energy ...
"Natural-Wonder-Pets.com. Retrieved 24 May 2019.. *^ a b Pullman.com Archived 17 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine Dog Longevity ... causes or is caused by excess gas. Symptoms include restlessness, inability to get comfortable, pacing, or retching without ... While clear colors are preferred by registries, such natural variation in the shading of the coat is not to be considered a ...
... oil or natural gas drilling offshore, or pipelines that need federal approval.[55][56]. In opposition, the federal government ... Regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act. References[edit]. *^ a b Ellison, Katherine (2012-05-09). "An ... For example, an attempt to sue public utilities for greenhouse gas emissions under a "public nuisance" theory invoking the ... that greenhouse gases were air pollutants, and that the EPA was authorized to regulate them.[7]. The majority opinion stated ...
4.63/mil BTU while gas is still at $5.189).[3][5] (Natural gas is used as an alternative to thermal coal in electricity ... Alpha Natural Resources, Inc[edit]. 2002[edit]. Alpha Natural Resources was established in 2002 by management (original CEO ... Alpha Natural Resources does not produce all of the coal it sells; much of the coal sold by Alpha Natural Resources is ... "Alpha Natural Resources 2010 Year End Results". 2011-02-09.. *^ a b Dina Cappiello (March 5, 2014). "Coal firm to pay record ...
Young, Thomas (1807). A course of lectures on natural philosophy and the mechanical arts. J. Johnson. p. 413.. ... For air, n − 1 is proportional to the density of the gas as long as the chemical composition does not change.[42] This means ... Refractive index is used to measure solids, liquids, and gases. Most commonly it is used to measure the concentration of a ... Gases at atmospheric pressure have refractive indices close to 1 because of their low density. Almost all solids and liquids ...
... ability to store natural gas[1][2] and hydrogen gas.[1][2] The porous material acts like a sponge for different types of gases ... Gas storage in activated carbons is an appealing gas storage method because the gas can be stored in a low pressure, low mass, ... Gas purification[edit]. Filters with activated carbon are usually used in compressed air and gas purification to remove oil ... and from natural gas at the wellhead. This carbon is a special product costing more than US$4.00 per kg.[citation needed] ...
List of natural gas fields. *List of oil fields. *Caspian Sea. *East Midlands Oil Province ...
"Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya.". (abstraktist). juuni 1990. ... Carol Freedenthal (jaanuar 2010). LIQUID FUELS FROM ALGAE SHOW MANY ADVANTAGES Pipeline and Gas Journal, Vol. 237 No. 1, ...
Edited by) Bauchot, Roland (1994). Snakes: A Natural History. Sterling Publishing. pp. 194-209. ISBN 978-1-4027-3181-5. .. CS1 ... The chorion (6) aids in gas exchange between the inside and outside of the egg. It allows carbon dioxide to exit the egg and ... Lydekker, Richard (1896). The Royal Natural History: Reptiles and Fishes. London: Frederick Warne & Son. pp. 2-3. Retrieved ... Aquatic turtles have developed more permeable skin, and some species have modified their cloaca to increase the area for gas ...
Natural gas processing. *Nuclear reprocessing. *Oil exploration. *Oil refinery. *Petroleum engineering. *Pharmaceutical ...
Initially lit by gas, the Hall contained a special system where its thousands of gas jets were lit within ten seconds. Though ... British Museum of Natural History and the Royal College of Music.[66] ...
Nasr, G. G.; Connor, N. E. (2014). "5.3 Gas Flow Measurement". Natural Gas Engineering and Safety Challenges: Downstream ... Venturi scrubbers used to clean flue gas emissions. *Injectors (also called ejectors) used to add chlorine gas to water ... Inspirators that mix air and flammable gas in grills, gas stoves, Bunsen burners and airbrushes ... or low speed flow of gas) along a streamline, the theoretical pressure drop at the constriction is given by: p. 1. −. p. 2. =. ...
... the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, the Natural History Museum, London, and the private Mim Mineral Museum in ... sublimation from volcanic gases. *deposition from aqueous solutions and hydrothermal brines. *crystallization from an igneous ... such as the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Hall of Geology, Gems, and Minerals, ...
Natural disaster * sw:Natural disaster. Nature * sw:Nature. Nazi Germany * sw:Nazi Germany. Neil Armstrong * sw:Neil Armstrong ... Gas * sw:Gas. Gastroenteritis * sw:Gastroenteritis. General relativity * sw:General relativity. Genghis Khan * sw:Genghis Khan ...
See also: List of natural gas fields, List of countries by natural gas proven reserves, and List of countries by natural gas ... The United States is preparing to export natural gas.[53] Floating liquefied natural gas[edit]. Floating liquefied natural gas ... Natural gas is also supplied by independent natural gas suppliers through Natural Gas Choice programs throughout the United ... other end uses for natural gas include export as liquefied natural gas (LNG) or conversion of natural gas into other liquid ...
The massive natural gas leak discovered in October at a Southern California Gas Company facility in Aliso Canyon... ... Huge natural gas leak in CA has the impact of burning 300 million gallons of gasoline. *by Cat DiStasio ... Aliso Canyon natural gas facility could reopen despite unresolved issues over leak. *by Julie M. Rodriguez ... If natural gas is a bridge fuel to a clean energy future, as politicians from President Barack Obama to presidential... ...
Natural gas converted to liquid form for storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly ... Main articles: List of LNG terminals and Liquefied natural gas terminal. Liquefied natural gas is used to transport natural gas ... Natural gas has far more volume than oil to transport, and most gas is transported by pipelines. There is a natural gas ... Natural gas was considered to be economically unimportant wherever gas-producing oil or gas fields were distant from gas ...
Ecotricity proposes green gas mills at every UK fracking site Income for farmers, or fracked natural gas-will communities be ... Netherlands to ban natural gas by 2050 Its part of a much bigger energy transition, and sounds a lot like wishful thinking. ... Why are we wasting such a valuable resource? Where will it come from if we dont drill for natural gas? ... Australian study finds gas stoves increase rate of childhood asthma Perhaps having kids cooking with gas is not such a good ...
PE 5613 Natural Gas Engineering. PE 5623 Natural Gas Processing. PE 5663 Natural Gas Utilization. PE 5643 Natural Gas Finance ... M.S. Natural Gas Engineering and Management (online) The M.S. Natural Gas Engineering and Management (NGEM) online program is ... Certificate in Natural Gas Technology (online) The Certificate in Natural Gas Technology program is designed to provide ... Q: Where can I find information about the Graduate Certificate in Natural Gas Technology? ...
As far as the rest of the drivers of Nat Gas prices are concerned nothing has changed since Tuesday or over the last week or so ... spread across the country with the highs and lows this time of the year not likely to result in any additional call on Nat Gas ...
A swath of the Millhill neighborhood of Southwest Baltimore lost natural gas and water service early Tuesday - and gas outages ... there will be enough natural gas produced in America that we can export some of the surplus with minimal impact on natural gas ... Natural gas company, the third deal in the past year that helps expand the Baltimore companys retail business. ... A new study predicts that exporting the nations cheap, seemingly abundant supplies of natural gas will boost the U.S. economy ...
The 2015 Natural Gas Policy Institute explored the natural gas revolution in the U.S.and discussed the short and long-term ... Exporting Natural Gas. As natural gas supplies have surpassed demand, many are interested in exporting natural gas to take ... promoting natural gas vehicles and using natural gas for combined heat and power. Natural gas plays a critical role in most ... The North American Natural Gas Revolution. This session examined the driving forces behind the natural gas revolution in the U. ...
Yet in the past month, even as many commodities have fallen sharply, natural gas has bounced significantly -- and it could be ... Investors have tried unsuccessfully to call a bottom in the natural gas market for years. ... Yet natural gas prices have become very strong, with the United States Natural Gas ETF (ASE: UNG) rising by nearly a third in ... When natural gas prices went below the $2 mark last month, they touched a decade low. Yet even with gas fetching bargain- ...
Thankfully, with natural gas prices just off record lows, its a lot easier ... Its a natural gas field thats produced all its economically recoverable gas. This is the most common way natural gas is ... A final option is PAA Natural Gas Storage which is a pure-play natural gas storage company. Structured as an MLP, it owns three ... the Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America is one of the largest owners of natural gas storage in the nation. The company, ...
... invests in natural gas futures in an effort to closely track the market price of natural gas. ... Natural gas ETFs, however, do not own any physical natural gas. Instead, they own natural gas indirectly by purchasing natural ... Real World Example of a Natural Gas ETF One example of a widely traded natural gas ETF is the United States Natural Gas Fund, ... Rather than owning the natural gas directly, investors in a natural gas ETF own a small part of a large portfolio of natural ...
Natural Gas at Reason.com, the leading libertarian magazine and video website covering news, politics, culture, science, ... Natural Gas. No Such Thing As a Perfect Route for a Gas Pipeline If America wants to wean off coal, it needs natural gas, and ... Natural Gas. Congressional Deregulation Effort Stalls at Methane Rule Repeal States and industry will seek to roll back BLMs " ... Natural Gas Drives Energy Costs to Record Lows The U.S. has successfully decoupled economic growth and energy demand. ...
... AmeriScan ILLINOIS: Lawmakers Consider Bill to Phase Out Coal, Natural Gas May 4, 2021 News Editor ... Oil and Gas Firms Take Initiative on Methane Emissions December 7, 2020 News Editor Comments Off on Oil and Gas Firms Take ... ILLINOIS: Lawmakers Consider Bill to Phase Out Coal, Natural Gas May 4, 2021 Comments Off on ILLINOIS: Lawmakers Consider Bill ... NEW YORK, New York, December 6, 2020 (ENS) - Major players in the oil and gas industry such as Shell, BP and Total have agreed ...
... Customer Choice Edition - An Update on Customer Choice for Residential Natural Gas Users August 1999 ... Natural Gas Unbundling in New Jersey - Implementation of Full Natural Gas Unbundling in New Jersey ... Consumer Advisory of Increased Natural Gas Prices - Natural Gas Edition October 2000 ... Natural Gas Company, NUI Utilities, Inc. d/b/a Elizabethtown Gas Company, and South Jersey Gas Company. (BPU Docket Numbers Not ...
Piedmont Natural Gas (NYSE: PNY) today announced the declaration of a... ... About Piedmont Natural Gas. Piedmont Natural Gas is an energy services company primarily engaged in the distribution of natural ... and intrastate natural gas transportation businesses. More information about Piedmont Natural Gas is available on the Internet ... including unregulated retail natural gas marketing, regulated interstate natural gas transportation and storage, ...
... state of Qatar to supply liquefied natural gas to America and Europe is the latest in a series of deals that should lead to gas ... Since the worlds gas reserves are more widely spread than is its oil, the growth in facilities for handling LNG should also ... The natural-gas explosion. A giant contract between Shell and the Gulf state of Qatar to supply liquefied natural gas to ... On board was a cargo of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The pioneering transatlantic voyage proved that gas in this state could be ...
Carbon Natural Gas Company. is an independent oil and gas exploration and production company which owns, operates and develops ... Carbon Natural Gas Company. ("Carbon" or the "Company")(OTCQB:CRBO), through its subsidiary Carbon California Company, LLC. ... Carbon Natural Gas Company. Kevin D. Struzeski, 720-407-7030. Chief Financial Officer. ... Carbon Natural Gas Company Announces Acquisition of Oil Producing Assets In Ventura Basin, California. ...
... natural gas that contains an appreciable proportion of hydrocarbon compounds heavier than methane (e.g., ethane, propane, and ... natural gas. Natural gas. , colourless highly flammable gaseous hydrocarbon consisting primarily of methane and ethane. It is a ... natural gas: The biological stage. …2,900 metres (9,500 feet), primarily wet gas (gas containing liquid hydrocarbons) is formed ... Wet gas, natural gas that contains an appreciable proportion of hydrocarbon compounds heavier than methane (e.g., ethane, ...
Its Time for the Green Cloak to Come Off of Natural Gas. Casey Sheahan, CEO of Patagonia, shares his thoughts on natural gas ... Bloomberg has taken a look at how much tax natural gas giant Chesapeake has paid over its history, and why its so amazingly ... Pro-Fracking University Studies Funded by Natural Gas Industry You may have already suspected this was the case, but now ... In this guest post, Sandra Steingraber warns of the dangers to Colorados water supply if natural gas fracking is allowed to ...
... and explore three tactical trading ideas relating to natural gas ETFs. ... Learn what factors have fueled the three-month natural gas rally, ... United States Natural Gas ETF (UNG) Formed in April 2007, the United States Natural Gas ETF holds natural gas front-month ... VelocityShares 3x Long Natural Gas ETN (UGAZ) The VelocityShares 3x Long Natural Gas ETN, created in February 2012, attempts to ...
Natural Gas. Natural gas can power vehicles in the form of compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG). Natural ... Current: Natural Gas and Propane. Natural Gas and Propane. The use of natural gas and propane vehicles is an important way to ... Learn more about natural gas here.. *Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) stays in a gaseous form and is stored on a vehicle in high ... Tax Credits for Natural Gas Vehicles and Fueling Equipment State Natural Gas Tax Credit: Effective January 1, 2014, a carrier ...
Gas is getting cheaper, and the price of CNG was just raised another 25 cents. it used to be 63 cents per gallon to fill up ... Id like to continue running compressed natural gas, or CNG, but its getting increasingly hard. ... Id like to continue running compressed natural gas, or CNG, but its getting increasingly hard. Gas is getting cheaper, and ... West Valley Citys trash and recycling services now features a new fleet of 19 compressed natural gas trucks. The city and ...
Natural-gas fuel tanks must be four times larger than gasoline tanks for equivalent vehicles to have the same driving range. ... Vehicle fleets fueled by natural gas have been in operation for several years. Carbon monoxide and particulate emissions are ... Other articles where Compressed natural gas is discussed: automobile: Fuel: ... www.britannica.com/technology/compressed-natural-gas", "title": "Compressed natural gas", "documentGroup": "TOPIC PAGINATED ...
... Gas Drilling in NYC Watershed is an unacceptable risk to New Yorks water supply. Such ... DEP would like to send you information and updates regarding Natural Gas Drilling in the Watershed. To subscribe to periodic ... EPA is concerned with natural gas drilling and issues involving water supply, water quality, wastewater treatment operations, ... As of October 1, 2012, all non-emergency shale gas and energy extraction tips and complaints can be entered into the national ...
Source for information on Liquified Natural Gas: Environmental Encyclopedia dictionary. ... Liquified natural gas Natural gas is a highly desirable fuel in many respects. It burns with the release of a large amount of ... Natural Gas , Natural gas is a fossil fuel. Most scientists believe natural gas was created by the same forces that formed oil ... Liquified natural gas. Natural gas is a highly desirable fuel in many respects. It burns with the release of a large amount of ...
... will deliver power from large utility-scale solar plants will be selling at below the price of electricity from natural gas by ... of natural gas-fired generation, and can therefore potentially serve as a "fuel saver" alongside existing gas-fired generation ... of natural gas-fired generation, and can therefore potentially serve as a "fuel saver" alongside existing gas-fired generation ... Still, this is the projected pricing for real contracts, and they arent even counting in the cost of the natural gas plants, ...
This is my video footage of the gas pipeline explosion in Edison NJ (March 1994). This was taken while trying to evacuate the ... Huge Natural Gas Explosion Across Highway 77 in Sissonville West Virginia - Duration: 9:49. Chris McDade 2,390,832 views ... This is my video footage of the gas pipeline explosion in Edison NJ (March 1994). This was taken while trying to evacuate the ...
... natural gas industry achieved a new milestone last week as a ship sailed from Louisiana with the first export of gas from ... The U.S. natural gas industry achieved a new milestone last week as a ship sailed from Louisiana with the first export of gas ... The tanker Asia Vision set off for Brazil with liquefied natural gas from Cheniere Energys Sabine Pass terminal, marking a ... promising outlets for the burgeoning supplies of shale gas in the U.S. and new jobs at a time when the oil and gas industry is ...
Wholesale natural gas prices have doubled during the last year, and thats bringing sighs of relief from an unusual variety of ... Natural gas is a perfect backup for renewables, Simeone said.. Natural gas suddenly became cheap last year because of a surge ... But natural gas is now just over $4 per thousand cubic feet. Energy experts say prices in the $4 or $5 range wont affect the ... PITTSBURGH (AP) -- Wholesale natural gas prices have doubled during the last year, and thats bringing sighs of relief from an ...
  • They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to boil salt water to extract the salt , [8] [9] in the Ziliujing District of Sichuan . (wikipedia.org)
  • In regions with a high natural gas demand (such as the US), pipelines are constructed when it is economically feasible to transport gas from a wellsite to an end consumer . (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to transporting gas via pipelines for use in power generation, other end uses for natural gas include export as liquefied natural gas (LNG) or conversion of natural gas into other liquid products via gas to liquids (GTL) technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural gas was considered to be economically unimportant wherever gas-producing oil or gas fields were distant from gas pipelines or located in offshore locations where pipelines were not viable. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past this usually meant that natural gas produced was typically flared, especially since unlike oil no viable method for natural gas storage or transport existed other than pipelines which required the immediate use by end users of the same gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Policymakers are also working to ensure that natural gas infrastructure is adequate and reliable through the replacement of old and aging pipelines and other efforts. (ncsl.org)
  • If America wants to wean off coal, it needs natural gas, and the pipelines that carry it. (reason.com)
  • According to America's Gas Technology Institute, liquefying gas, shipping and then regasifying it is cheaper than sending it by undersea pipeline over distances of more than 700 miles, or 2,200 miles in the case of overland pipelines. (economist.com)
  • Transporting natural gas through transcontinental pipelines is inexpensive and efficient where topography allows the laying of pipes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These import dependent states should be doing more to produce what they can, namely gas-based New York since the state is blessed with its own Marcellus reserves, yet all the while even blocks pipelines carrying more Pennsylvanian gas into The Empire State. (forbes.com)
  • Even with booming production, Pennsylvania's role as a gas giant continues to be constrained by a lack of pipelines that ship gas out of the state. (forbes.com)
  • Reverse use of existing gas pipelines and trans- Caspian project have been identified as Ukraine's major ways to diversify sources of gas supply. (prnewswire.com)
  • Naftogaz, reportedly, plans to sign a short-term contract with the German company RWE for the supply of spot gas purchased in Europe via Slovakian pipelines. (prnewswire.com)
  • Just a few weeks ago Gazprom requested Ukraine to increased its daily transit capacity of Russian gas to the EU by 17.3 million cubic meters or about 7 percent, reported the Ukrainian state gas pipelines and gas depots operator - Ukrtransgas. (prnewswire.com)
  • In 1963 HNG acquired the Valley Gas Production Company and its pipelines, with the president, Robert R. Herring, joining the company as vice-president. (wikipedia.org)
  • California pipelines transport natural gas, biogas, petroleum and petroleum products. (ca.gov)
  • Gordon van Welie, the grid operator's CEO, testified recently before a U.S. Senate committee that the key natural gas supply issue is the limited capacity of pipelines carrying the fuel into New England. (yahoo.com)
  • Russian natural gas accounted for slightly over a quarter of the total amount consumed in the EU last year, with about half of that flowing via pipelines through Ukraine. (yahoo.com)
  • Much of the information regarding Safety & Inspections of Natural Gas Pipelines is classified as Critical Energy Infrastructure Information (CEII) . (ferc.gov)
  • Pipelines and liquefied natural gas (LNG) remain the primary gas-transportation means, with shares of 66.6 and 33.4% in 2014, respectively. (spe.org)
  • The following papers and additional readings focus on LNG front-end design, safety topics associated with natural-gas transportation through LNG and pipelines, new improvements around the well-known Fischer-Tropsch process for enhanced gas-to-diesel conversion, flare-gas management, and -carbon-adsorbed natural gas as an option for automotive fuel. (spe.org)
  • A leaking natural gas pipeline in Cook Inlet, Alaska won't be fixed until the ice melts - continuing to flow. (inhabitat.com)
  • The advent of a commercial market for LNG mainly transport over the seas from locations where gas deposits are in excess of local pipeline demand, led to a huge commercial opportunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • LNG is principally used for transporting natural gas to markets, where it is regasified and distributed as pipeline natural gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of Russia's invasion of Ukraine and a still stagnant economy, President Obama faces two important questions on energy transmission: a decision on the construction of the Keystone XL oil pipeline and the question of increasing American natural gas exports. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The tremendous increase in U.S. natural gas supplies is beginning to strain the capabilities of existing pipeline infrastructure. (ncsl.org)
  • This session examined major pipeline projects and examined efforts from state policymakers, federal agencies and the natural gas industry to address challenges related to siting, permitting and financing upgrades to pipeline infrastructure. (ncsl.org)
  • The growing use of natural gas for electricity generation has stretched pipeline capacity, causing competition between the electricity generation and heating markets. (ncsl.org)
  • This session examined the federal regulatory role when it comes to natural gas production, distribution, exports and pipeline safety. (ncsl.org)
  • Several companies are actively engaged in the ownership of natural gas storage facilities, including utilities, pipeline operators, and dedicated storage owners. (aol.com)
  • With 275 Bfc of working gas storage capacity, the Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America is one of the largest owners of natural gas storage in the nation. (aol.com)
  • Over the intervening years, there has been much talk of LNG being a "fuel of the future" but the amount of gas transported by this means (as opposed to being sent by pipeline) has remained fairly modest, due to the expense of liquefying, transporting and regasifying it. (economist.com)
  • Currently some 95% of the gas the world consumes is delivered by pipeline. (economist.com)
  • It can then be transported by sea in specially built tankers (see picture) and reconverted to gas at the point where it enters an importer's pipeline system. (economist.com)
  • The large volumes produced could not be utilized until relatively expensive pipeline and storage facilities were constructed to deliver the gas to consumer markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is my video footage of the gas pipeline explosion in Edison NJ (March 1994). (youtube.com)
  • Pennsylvania's gas production increased nearly 15% in 2018, bolstered by the rush in summer and early-fall to fill new capacity on the Atlantic Sunrise pipeline system. (forbes.com)
  • Recently, official Kyiv informed about its intention to invest up to EUR 790 million into the trans- Caspian gas pipeline project. (prnewswire.com)
  • The request was associated with temporary repairs at the Russian North Stream gas pipeline. (prnewswire.com)
  • Accordingly a critical component of a sound national energy policy should be lowering barriers to developing new natural gas fields and the expanding and modernizing of the natural gas pipeline network. (washingtontimes.com)
  • These reserves are not being used because there is no pipeline to transport the natural gas to market. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Accordingly, the national energy plan has a provision to encourage development of a natural gas pipeline from Alaska to the Lower 48 states. (washingtontimes.com)
  • For more than 20 years, two potential routes for a Trans-North American natural gas pipeline have vied for approval: the northern and southern routes. (washingtontimes.com)
  • China National Petroleum Corporation, announced on Tuesday that it has agreed to import 30 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year for 30 years from Turkmenistan through a planned pipeline. (ibtimes.com)
  • Along with the implementation of the natural pipeline plan, China is also negotiating to get natural gas from Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan through the same pipeline. (ibtimes.com)
  • China's biggest oil company, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), said it would import 30 billion cubic meters of natural gas annually for 30 years through a planned Central Asian pipeline. (rferl.org)
  • CNPC did not say when deliveries would start, but Turkmenistan's official press has said construction of a gas pipeline between the two nations would begin in 2009. (rferl.org)
  • Eventually pipeline s were installed to homes, and electricity became more popular for lighting, so the use of natural gas shifted to heating and cooking. (everything2.com)
  • Russia's main Asian gas pipeline projects are the Altai gas pipeline and the Sakhalin-Khabarovsk-Vladivostok gas pipeline which shall link Gazprom with China and India. (pravda.ru)
  • Currently, natural gas travels primarily by pipeline. (api.org)
  • Meanwhile, the Conservation Law Foundation, whose affiliate CLF Ventures was an active partner in a gas-fired power plant in Londonderry, N.H., that went fully operational in 2002, now is trying to block Vermont Gas Systems from extending a gas pipeline from the area of northwestern Vermont that it currently serves southward along the western side of the state. (yahoo.com)
  • But in Vermont Public Service Board proceedings on Vermont Gas Systems' Addison Pipeline project, a CLF expert, Elizabeth Stanton of Cambridge, Mass.-based Synapse Energy Economics, rebutted Vermont Gas Systems' claim that the project would reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (yahoo.com)
  • On the contrary, Stanton testified, any savings from using cleaner-burning gas over heating oil in homes and businesses along the route would be more than offset by pipeline leaks of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. (yahoo.com)
  • Proposals have been made to link the gas producing and consuming regions of the Pacific Rim region of Asia by pipeline, with the South China Sea geographically central to these regions. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The natural gas produced from the Tamar field travels through existing onshore facilities at Ashdod via a pipeline that links to existing infrastructure at the Mari-B development site. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • Once Natural Gas pipeline projects become operational, safety is regulated, monitored and enforced by the Department of Transportation. (ferc.gov)
  • The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that the domestic supply of natural gas will surpass demand by 2016. (baltimoresun.com)
  • From 2016-2018, Pennsylvania saw some 16 new gas plants being built worth $15 billion. (forbes.com)
  • Tonilconrad posted video to Instagram on April 29, 2016 of a gas explosion in Pennsylvania. (go.com)
  • China's gas consumption is expected to rise to 300 billion cubic meters (BCM) in 2020 from 206 BCM in 2016, and surge to 600 BCM by 2040. (usatoday.com)
  • By 2035, Chinese gas demand will be treble the 2016 levels, according to Wood Mackenzie. (usatoday.com)
  • In May 2016, it was announced that the Hatrurim oil and gas exploration license in the Dead Sea had uncovered an oil reservoir containing 7-11 million barrels of oil. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • The Israeli government approved the development of the Leviathan natural gas field on June 2, 2016. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • New study finds Aliso Canyon disaster's impact equivalent to annual greenhouse gas emissions from over half a million cars. (treehugger.com)
  • The recent coming into force of the Kyoto protocol, aimed at reducing greenhouse-gas emissions, only adds to this pressure. (economist.com)
  • But natural gas has the advantage of burning cleaner than gasoline, producing few greenhouse gas emissions. (cnn.com)
  • Natural gas, which is mainly methane, may generate less carbon dioxide than oil and coal when burned, but as recent research has found, there's more to greenhouse gas emissions than just combustion. (newscientist.com)
  • By switching to natural gas, companies can reduce fuel bills and cut greenhouse gas emissions by up to 20 percent, according to Encana and Prometheus. (ibtimes.com)
  • DENVER --(BUSINESS WIRE)--May 2, 2018-- On May 1, 2018 , Carbon Natural Gas Company (" Carbon " or the " Company ")(OTCQB:CRBO), through its subsidiary Carbon California Company, LLC , (" Carbon California ") completed the acquisition of oil and gas producing properties and related facilities located in the Ventura Basin of California for $43 million subject to normal and customary post-closing adjustments. (corporate-ir.net)
  • This amendment was introduced by The Gas Safety (Installation and Use) (Amendment) Regulations 2018 and brings these sites in line with other industrial premises. (hse.gov.uk)
  • While once Israel was almost entirely dependent on importing oil and gas, it now gained the capacity to become more independent by shifting more of its economy (70 percent of electricity production in 2018) to a reliance on its own natural gas. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane , but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes , and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide , nitrogen , hydrogen sulfide , or helium . (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • German researchers have "cracked" the code for breaking down methane from natural gas without creating carbon. (inhabitat.com)
  • Liquefied natural gas ( LNG ) is natural gas (predominantly methane , CH 4 , with some mixture of ethane , C 2 H 6 ) that has been cooled down to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gas produced from hydrocarbon deposits typically contains a wide range of hydrocarbon products, which usually includes methane (CH 4 ), ethane (C 2 H 6 ), propane (C 3 H 8 ) and butane (C 4 H 10 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The gas stream is typically separated into the Liquefied Petroleum fractions (butane and propane), which can be stored in liquid form at relatively low pressure, and the lighter ethane and methane fractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rapid growth of natural gas extraction sites, especially when they are near communities, has raised public concerns over water quality impacts, methane emissions, seismicity and other issues. (ncsl.org)
  • Wet gas , natural gas that contains an appreciable proportion of hydrocarbon compounds heavier than methane (e.g., ethane , propane , and butane ). (britannica.com)
  • The gas produced from hydrocarbon deposits typically contains a wide range of hydrocarbon products, which usually includes methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the removal of methane (CH 4 ), nitric oxide (NO), and carbon monoxide (CO) from simulated natural gas vehicle (NGV) exhaust over a palladium catalyst. (sae.org)
  • Methane can get into the atmosphere when it leaks from oil and gas drilling operations. (nrdc.org)
  • We should definitely capture any leaking methane from the fossil natural gas system, but let's do so without creating incentives for more fossil natural gas, since in the next decades we will need to get off fossil fuels entirely if we are to preserve our climate's stability. (nrdc.org)
  • Natural gas is usually at least 90% methane , but can also contain propane , ethane , and other lightweight hydrocarbons, in small concentrations. (everything2.com)
  • Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and valuable energy resource. (energy.gov)
  • In order to help modernize the nation's natural gas transmission and distribution systems and reduce methane emissions through common-sense standards, smart investments, and innovative research to advance the state of the art in natural gas system performance, the Department of Energy has launched several new initiatives and enhanced existing programs. (energy.gov)
  • Two federal agencies this month took steps that would allow the oil and gas industry to release more methane, a greenhouse gas, into the environment. (factcheck.org)
  • In my judgment, the president should reject Keystone and step up natural gas exports. (baltimoresun.com)
  • In other words, higher taxes and/or more regulations in gas giant Pennsylvania could have a negative ripple effect across the country (and really even the world as U.S. LNG exports ramp up). (forbes.com)
  • The prospect of a major expansion of U.S. gas exports has tantalized business groups and lawmakers from both parties, and they're urging the Obama administration to move faster to approve the projects as a way to create thousands of jobs and spur economic growth. (businessinsider.com)
  • But consumer groups and some manufacturers that use natural gas oppose expanded exports, saying they could drive up domestic prices and make manufacturing more expensive. (businessinsider.com)
  • LNG exports are a huge opportunity for the United States economy, our workers and our geopolitical relationships" with countries such as Japan that are seeking to import natural gas, Cooper said. (businessinsider.com)
  • Russia's key role in global gas markets, is also explored, both in terms of the geopolitics of Russia-EU gas relations and the prospects for expanded Russian exports to the Asia-Pacific region. (wiley-vch.de)
  • But in Moscow, Gazprom's Deputy Director Alexander Medvedev, who heads gas exports, denies the Kremlin is using energy to apply political pressure. (npr.org)
  • Transforming export ventures starts with assessing potential markets and identifying the attractiveness of incremental natural gas and LNG exports to different segments within potential receiving markets. (bcg.com)
  • Natural gas is often informally referred to simply as "gas", especially when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the main drivers of the recovery in natural gas has come from gas users like electricity-generating utilities switching from coal to gas. (aol.com)
  • Coal has also been beaten down lately, and with coal prices having fallen 10% this month, the incentives for utilities to switch to natural gas are less lucrative with every rise in gas prices compared to coal. (aol.com)
  • Coal as 'Clean' as Natural Gas? (reason.com)
  • Soaring production and an unusually warm winter sent prices plunging to under $2 per thousand cubic feet last spring, prompting some to wonder whether the natural gas boom would kill demand for both coal and new renewable energy. (yahoo.com)
  • But the coal industry and renewable energy advocates are cheering the news, too, since gas no longer has a huge price advantage over those other energy sources. (yahoo.com)
  • The American Coal Council, an industry group based in Washington, D.C., welcomed the rise in gas prices and said orders for coal are rebounding. (yahoo.com)
  • And as more coal and nuclear plants get pulled offline (e.g., infamous Three Mile Island will be retired this year), and intermittent renewables remain limited, even more gas will be required. (forbes.com)
  • Natural gas has replaced coal in PA and is now the state's main source of power. (forbes.com)
  • Bill Cooper, president of the Center for Liquefied Natural Gas, an industry group, called natural gas a safe, clean-burning alternative to coal and oil. (businessinsider.com)
  • If it replaces coal in the power industry and develops as an alternative transportation fuel, natural gas has the potential to play a greater role in the current low carbon energy transition. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Yet, as the authors ably show, gas will not realise its potential unless it can displace coal in future energy demand growth in Asia and overcome the many geopolitical challenges that will shape its ongoing role in the global energy system. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Estimates of the resource potential of natural gas hydrates vary, but most estimates place the resource potential as greater than the known reserves of all oil, natural gas and coal in the world. (api.org)
  • The biggest risk to the expected natural gas demand surge is renewables rising more than currently projected and therefore narrowing the timeframe in which gas will serve as the 'bridge fuel' between coal and clean energy. (usatoday.com)
  • According to industry observers, China needs further gas market reforms in order to reach the full gas potential and make gas for industrial use cheaper - and thus more competitive - than coal and oil. (usatoday.com)
  • CLF senior attorney Sandra Levine said in an interview that even at the height of its support for natural gas in the late 1990s, CLF considered it a "transitional fuel," useful for getting New England to use less coal and oil. (yahoo.com)
  • Gas has already helped us as a region move away from coal," Levine said. (yahoo.com)
  • Indeed, natural gas emits less air pollution than coal or oil when burned, leading some states, such as California, to source growing amounts of their electricity from gas-fired power plants instead of coal plants. (nwf.org)
  • A quarter of U.S. electricity is now generated with natural gas, and global warming legislation could spur even more demand, because gas emits 50 percent less carbon dioxide than coal when burned. (nwf.org)
  • That is true in some pockets of the country, but the national average for coal and gas prices is still less. (factcheck.org)
  • Last week, NET Power officially began operations at its 50-megawatt, emissions-free natural gas power plant in. (inhabitat.com)
  • Impact of greenhouse gases released since October measured over a 20-year time frame is equivalent to emissions from 7 million cars. (treehugger.com)
  • However, gas venting and flaring, along with unintended fugitive emissions throughout the supply chain, can result in a similar carbon footprint overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you look over the long term, demand for LNG continues to be there, especially in light of the fact that gas is becoming the hydrocarbon of choice going forward," he said, referring to growing concerns over air pollution in China and India, and the recent agreement by the U.S. and nearly 200 other countries to curb their carbon emissions. (usatoday.com)
  • At a Senate hearing last month, he called the "stunning increase" in natural gas production a "revolution" that has led to reduced emissions of carbon dioxide and other gases that cause global warming. (businessinsider.com)
  • The idea was, perhaps unsurprisingly, that natural gas will solve the supply problem of "peak oil" - when global oil production starts to decline - and dramatically cut US emissions of greenhouse gases, making it a perfect bridging fuel to a low-carbon future. (newscientist.com)
  • The dilution effect of residual gas trapping is hence reduced, resulting in higher NOx emissions for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation as compared to gasoline. (sae.org)
  • The U.S. and worldwide shift to natural gas is reducing carbon emissions that are said to contribute to global warming. (washingtontimes.com)
  • In petroleum production gas is often burnt as flare gas . (wikipedia.org)
  • This meant that natural gas markets were historically entirely local and any production had to be consumed within the local network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developments of production processes, cryogenic storage, and transportation effectively created the tools required to commercialize natural gas into a global market which now competes with other fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Natural Gas Policy Institute provided legislators with the rare opportunity to spend an extended amount of time exploring the economic and regulatory issues related to the production, distribution and resulting end use of natural gas resources. (ncsl.org)
  • CHK ) on down started shifting their focus to more profitable oil and gas-liquids projects, shutting in unprofitable dry gas production. (aol.com)
  • North American production will be the primary driver of local gas prices. (aol.com)
  • If LNG gains traction, then the U.S. lead in shale gas production could lead to massive outflows of natural gas, sending prices higher. (aol.com)
  • But if international production catches up, then the arbitrage opportunities could disappear, making LNG transport less profitable for any markets that have their own gas production. (aol.com)
  • Gas venting and production flaring are still practised in modern times, but efforts are ongoing around the world to retire them, and to replace them with other commercially viable and useful alternatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon Natural Gas Company is an independent oil and gas exploration and production company which owns, operates and develops oil and gas properties in the Appalachian, Illinois and Ventura Basin areas of the United States . (corporate-ir.net)
  • Some data and tools for practicing engineers are provided on the stability and properties of natural gas hydrates, as well as their transformation in the production and transport of petroleum and gas in real geological formations, with references to literature to find more data. (astm.org)
  • Natural gas suddenly became cheap last year because of a surge in production from the drilling technique known as fracking. (yahoo.com)
  • Also helping, " Hedging Helps Ensure Surging Appalachia Natural Gas Production . (forbes.com)
  • This is why the region is at the heart of EIA's 1-2% projected annual increase for U.S. gas production for decades to come. (forbes.com)
  • The drilling boom has helped boost U.S. natural gas production by one-third since 2005, with production reaching an all-time high of 25.3 trillion cubic feet last year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. (businessinsider.com)
  • In recent months, however, production has begun to level off as the glut of natural gas keeps U.S. prices down. (businessinsider.com)
  • Approval of all the projects currently under review by the Energy Department could result in the export of more than 40 percent of current U.S. production of liquefied natural gas, or LNG, which is gas that's been converted to liquid form to make it easier to store or transport. (businessinsider.com)
  • The problem is that, while demand for natural gas is increasing, U.S. production is falling and government policies hinder the search for and production of new natural gas fields. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The National Petroleum Council has estimated that increased access to U.S. natural gas resources in the Rocky Mountains, off the East and West Coasts and in the Gulf of Mexico could offset areas where production has plateaued and save consumers about $300 billion in natural gas costs during the next two decades. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The Cowboy State is experiencing a boom in natural gas production, which is creating jobs and keeping taxes low. (npr.org)
  • Natural gas is used as a fuel for heating , cooking , production of electricity , and even for powering certain vehicle s. (everything2.com)
  • Natural gas production is planned for 2014. (pravda.ru)
  • Condensing natural gas into a liquid, nonflammable form through natural gas upgrading is key to expanding natural gas production. (aiche.org)
  • Explore the journey of oil and natural gas from Exploration and Production to the final products that benefit consumers. (api.org)
  • The exploitation of unconventional gas reserves and the expansion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) production capacity has indeed heralded a new age of plentiful and affordable natural gas. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Economic and industrial production growth, coupled with efforts to reduce stifling pollution levels, will lead China's surging natural gas demand over the next couple of decades, according to analysts and international projections. (usatoday.com)
  • In addition, China's domestic production is seen growing by around 65 BCM to 200 BCM by 2022, with annual growth of 6.6%, which would make the country the world's fourth-largest natural gas producer by 2022. (usatoday.com)
  • The Energy Policy Act of 2005 excluded hydraulic fracturing, except when diesel fuels are used, for oil, natural gas or geothermal production from regulation under the UIC program. (epa.gov)
  • Global natural-gas production is set to increase by 46% in the years to 2040, according to the International Energy Agency. (economist.com)
  • The rise in shale production from 2008-23 is likely to represent the biggest jump by a single source in the history of gas markets. (economist.com)
  • San Francisco start-up Siluria Technologies today announced that it has secured funding to commercialize its process to transform natural gas into chemicals and materials for large-scale production - with far less an environmental impact than oil. (zdnet.com)
  • Malaysia is not only the biggest oil producer in the region, it is also the dominant natural gas producer as well, and until recently has been the primary source of growth in regional gas production. (globalsecurity.org)
  • To back up the argument for natural gas decontrol, the API (which includes natural gas producers) cites statistics showing that deregulation has led to an increased crude oil production in the lower-48 states for the first time in over 10 years. (csmonitor.com)
  • Transportation Secretary Drew Lewis took the same line, explaining that the Reagan administration policy is ''to remove any unreasonable obstacles'' to the oil industry's efforts to increase US oil and gas production. (csmonitor.com)
  • For starters, U.S. natural gas production has fallen for the first time since August, probably due to reduced rig count. (cnbc.com)
  • The World Market for Natural Gas - Implications for Europe analyses the main issues for the gas industry: reserves, production, demand, infrastructures, prices, market leaders and regulation. (springer.com)
  • After an introductory chapter, the book analyses the evolution of gas reserves and production from world and regional perspectives with a focus on rising and declining countries. (springer.com)
  • the largest U.S. company focused solely on oil and gas exploration and production, is in the process of converting its first rig to run on power generated by liquefied natural gas (LNG). (ibtimes.com)
  • ANGA, a group of independent natural gas exploration and production companies, was formed in March and launched a review in June, with initial consideration of 17 shops. (adweek.com)
  • WASHINGTON (MarketWatch) -- The American Gas Association said Tuesday it expects utilities to meet basic U.S. natural gas demand this winter, despite the potential loss of between 1 billion and 3 billion cubic feet of production a day through March due to damage from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. (marketwatch.com)
  • While weather always has the biggest bearing on winter heating costs, the recent hurricanes that damaged oil and natural gas production facilities in the Gulf of Mexico will play a significant role this year, said Paul Wilkinson, the group's vice president of policy analysis. (marketwatch.com)
  • Hurricane Katrina cut off close to 9 billion cubic feet a day of natural gas production and less than a month later hurricane Rita shut in 8 billion cubic feet a day at its peak. (marketwatch.com)
  • Australia gave the green light today to Chevron Corp.'s plans for a major natural gas production and liquefication project off the country's northwest coast. (latimes.com)
  • Israel began commercial production of natural gas from the Tamar field (located offshore, near Haifa) in March 2013. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • Wang also had 8 years of operational experience with BP, specializing in oil and natural-gas production, completion, and sand control. (spe.org)
  • As far as the rest of the drivers of Nat Gas prices are concerned nothing has changed since Tuesday or over the last week or so. (nasdaq.com)
  • The EIA also says there will be enough natural gas produced in America that we can export some of the surplus with minimal impact on natural gas prices. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Low prices and government regulations are likely to drive natural gas demand for many years, so new delivery infrastructure is needed. (ncsl.org)
  • When natural gas prices went below the $2 mark last month, they touched a decade low. (aol.com)
  • Yet even with gas fetching bargain-basement prices, many analysts were nevertheless skeptical that the market would recover anytime soon from the huge supplies that unconventional drilling techniques like hydraulic fracturing in shale gas areas have produced . (aol.com)
  • But lately, the relationship between oil prices and gas prices has been turned on its head . (aol.com)
  • Let's look at some of the factors affecting natural gas prices. (aol.com)
  • At record low prices, gas became highly attractive as a clean-burning power source for electrical generation plants. (aol.com)
  • Natural gas prices may have a bit more room to run, but eventually, it will need to find other demand drivers to keep rising. (aol.com)
  • The big decline in natural gas prices came largely from big U.S. discoveries. (aol.com)
  • One key, though, is that natural gas prices differ greatly from market to market. (aol.com)
  • But the big push for liquefied natural gas, which seeks to capitalize on arbitrage opportunities, could reduce foreign premiums on natural gas prices abroad and push U.S. prices higher by taking supply out of the local market. (aol.com)
  • Natural gas prices have clearly bounced from their record low levels. (aol.com)
  • Thankfully, with natural gas prices just off record lows, it's a lot easier to turn up that heat and not worry too much about the monthly heating bill. (aol.com)
  • By tuning into the storage numbers, investors can see one of the driving forces behind natural gas prices. (aol.com)
  • Natural gas ETFs are investment vehicles that allow exposure to natural gas prices. (investopedia.com)
  • Natural gas prices have recently reached some of their lowest prices in decades, making it a difficult period for investors in natural gas ETFs. (investopedia.com)
  • Because of contango risk, an investor could incur significant costs from the ongoing roll-over of futures contracts, meaning that even if natural gas prices do rise over their investment period, they might not rise enough to make the overall investment profitable. (investopedia.com)
  • The United States Natural Gas Fund is very sensitive to fluctuations in natural gas prices, so investors need to watch market prices closely to try to yield a profit. (investopedia.com)
  • Natural gas prices have been on fire over the past three months due to a stockpile shortage, an unseasonably warm fall that has led to higher-than-usual power demand and nuclear power plant outages in the Carolinas caused by Hurricane Florence. (investopedia.com)
  • A substantial portion of these power plants are located in the Southwest, gas prices are difficult to predict and some of these plants haven't fully come online. (forbes.com)
  • At these low levels - which appear to be robust, given the strong response to recent utility solicitations - PV compares favorably to just the fuel costs (i.e., ignoring fixed capital costs) of natural gas-fired generation, and can therefore potentially serve as a "fuel saver" alongside existing gas-fired generation (and can also provide a hedge against possible future increases in fuel prices)," the authors wrote. (forbes.com)
  • The event attracted widespread attention, especially in the Gulf Coast region, where several LNG export facilities are under construction, promising outlets for the burgeoning supplies of shale gas in the U.S. and new jobs at a time when the oil and gas industry is otherwise struggling from low prices for the commodities. (usatoday.com)
  • All this comes at a time when Australia and other countries are ramping up their LNG export capabilities, even as demand for gas tapers off in Asia and other regions of the world, and prices for the commodity plummet. (usatoday.com)
  • PITTSBURGH (AP) -- Wholesale natural gas prices have doubled during the last year, and that's bringing sighs of relief from an unusual variety of interests. (yahoo.com)
  • Some even suggest that at current prices both natural gas and renewables win. (yahoo.com)
  • With so much gas being produced and transacted in the region, some have even suggested that Dominion South hub 40 miles northeast of Pittsburgh should become the new benchmark for U.S. gas prices, taking over for Henry Hub in Louisiana. (forbes.com)
  • Thanks to evolving technologies and practices, numerous Marcellus gas producers can breakeven when gas prices are just $2.15 per MMBtu or even below. (forbes.com)
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - A domestic natural gas boom already has lowered U.S. energy prices while stoking fears of environmental disaster. (businessinsider.com)
  • A recent study commissioned by the department concluded that exporting natural gas would benefit the U.S. economy even if it leads to higher domestic prices for the fuel, as is likely. (businessinsider.com)
  • J uly natural gas prices traded slightly higher during the early morning hours, seemingly in an attempt to correct Thursday's negative reversal. (nasdaq.com)
  • U.S. natural gas prices fell to their lowest point in more than two years, underscoring how the nation's booming energy business is becoming a victim of its own success. (wsj.com)
  • Prices for the commodity have been under pressure over the last couple of years, as new drilling techniques unlocked vast new stores of natural gas from shale formations and other so-called unconventional reservoirs. (wsj.com)
  • The downgrade "reflects the company's continuing inability to meaningfully deliver during an extended period of unusually high oil and gas prices," said Standard & Poor's credit analyst Brian Janiak. (marketwatch.com)
  • And after that you would've thought that gas prices would've [gone] down. (npr.org)
  • The level of inventories helps determine prices for natural gas products. (cmegroup.com)
  • Natural gas product prices are determined by supply and demand - just like any other good and service. (cmegroup.com)
  • The current prices paid for gas in Asia are about 600 dollars for 1000 cubic metres, while the Europeans pay only 400 dollars for the same amount of gas. (pravda.ru)
  • CAIRO, July 5 (Reuters) - Egypt slashed its natural gas subsidies to several industries increasing gas prices by 30-75 percent, part of a broad government strategy to cut back subsidies that eat up to a fifth of its annual budget. (reuters.com)
  • With gas prices approaching record highs at the time, I was sceptical to say the least. (newscientist.com)
  • For the past two weeks, natural gas prices have been above the $4 mark and prices have remained resilient despite this week's broad commodity sell-off. (yahoo.com)
  • Decontrol natural gas prices now - rather than in 1985 - say the oilmen, and see a revitalization which will both spur new gas drilling and benefit the US economy as a whole. (csmonitor.com)
  • Gazprom cut deliveries to Ukraine in mid-June after nearly doubling prices in a crisis that has seen Russia support separatists fighting in the east of the country, but so far gas has mostly been flowing normally to EU customers. (yahoo.com)
  • Natural gas prices are examined with respect to the oil linkage, the role of speculation, and the impact of taxation. (springer.com)
  • North American oil and gas companies are trying to take the sting out of low natural gas prices by using it instead of costlier diesel fuel to drive their drilling rigs. (ibtimes.com)
  • Oilfield technology such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have unlocked record supplies of natural gas in North America, pushing prices to a 10-year low and cutting profits. (ibtimes.com)
  • And because it costs $1 million to $1.5 million to convert a rig, smaller exploration companies might find the process too costly in the current environment where natural gas prices are hurting profitability. (ibtimes.com)
  • This means 'higher gas prices are bad for utilities and bad for customers,' Cooper said. (marketwatch.com)
  • But natural gas is increasingly used to generate electricity, which means that higher demand for air conditioning use in the summer can keep prices high year round. (marketwatch.com)
  • Natural gas prices began a steady ascent around August 2004. (marketwatch.com)
  • The Wall Street Journal reported last week that natural gas prices "in Europe and Asia have plummeted this year to historic lows. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The chart below shows that this means natural gas prices have fallen by 80 percent since 2005 and the advent of the shale gas revolution. (washingtontimes.com)
  • As we move from a tight market to a period of oversupply and increasing liquidity, prices and margins for liquefied natural gas are decreasing. (bcg.com)
  • In the 19th century, natural gas was usually obtained as a by-product of producing oil , since the small, light gas carbon chains came out of solution as the extracted fluids underwent pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a soft drink bottle where the carbon dioxide effervesces . (wikipedia.org)
  • The "acidic" elements such as hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), together with oil, mud, water, and mercury, are removed from the gas to deliver a clean sweetened stream of gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • A"green" natural gas plan gives Marylanders the option of paying a little more to shrink their carbon footprint while heating their homes. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Besides the high cost of oil and the desire to seek new fuel sources to improve energy security, another important factor supporting the growing demand for gas has been the pressure on electricity generators to seek cleaner and less carbon-intensive inputs for their power stations. (economist.com)
  • It is a potent greenhouse gas itself when released into the atmosphere, and creates carbon dioxide when burnt. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small, light gas carbon chains came out of solution as the extracted fluids underwent pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a soft drink bottle where the carbon dioxide effervesces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is natural gas the 'bridge' to our low carbon future? (wiley-vch.de)
  • Prior to this, no one ever came up with a commercially viable catalyst to transform natural gas into larger molecules of carbon that can be used to produce chemicals, Tkachenko claimed. (zdnet.com)
  • Natural gas is a non-renewable hydrocarbon used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • I recalled reading a National Geographic story about the enormous infrastructure cost of importing liquefied natural gas (LNG) into the United States once domestic stocks are depleted, and asked whether reliance on another hydrocarbon was nothing more than a stay of execution. (zdnet.com)
  • Though sometimes overlooked, natural gas might be the most abundant hydrocarbon resource in the South China Sea. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Most of the hydrocarbon fields explored in the South China Sea regions of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and the Philippines contain natural gas, not oil. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Estimates by the USGS and others indicate that about 60% -70% of the region's hydrocarbon resources are gas. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The search for oil and natural gas is seen by some as a driving factor in rival claims to the South China Sea, but really it isn't. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The Long Beach City Council decided Wednesday to continue talks with the developer of a proposed liquefied natural gas terminal at the city's harbor, although none of the nine council members appears to decisively favor the plan. (latimes.com)
  • The Long Beach City Council is poised to vote earlier than planned on a proposed liquefied natural gas terminal, spurred on by criticism that council members have avoided taking a stand on the plan for more than two years. (latimes.com)
  • Dan Whitten, spokesman for the Washington-based America's Natural Gas Alliance, said it appears that New England's real problem with natural gas is that it can't get enough. (yahoo.com)
  • NEW YORK Grey here is preparing to launch its first work for America's Natural Gas Alliance this weekend. (adweek.com)
  • A natural gas exchange-traded fund (ETF) is a type of investment product that allows investors to easily invest in natural gas futures contracts . (investopedia.com)
  • Rather than owning the natural gas directly, investors in a natural gas ETF own a small part of a large portfolio of natural gas futures contracts. (investopedia.com)
  • They are structured as commodity pools which hold natural gas futures contracts. (investopedia.com)
  • Instead, they own natural gas indirectly by purchasing natural gas futures contracts that trade on a commodities exchange . (investopedia.com)
  • Moreover, because natural gas ETFs hold futures contracts, they are exposed to a special type of risk called contango . (investopedia.com)
  • What this refers to is the fact that, each month, the manager of the natural gas ETF has to purchase new futures contracts to replace the old contracts that expire. (investopedia.com)
  • This fund is composed of natural gas futures contracts and swaps and trades on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) as UNG. (investopedia.com)
  • The United States Natural Gas Fund (UNG) is an exchange traded fund designed to track the percentage changes in the price of natural gas futures. (investopedia.com)
  • The tracked index reflects the price performance of natural gas futures contracts . (investopedia.com)
  • Formed in April 2007, the United States Natural Gas ETF holds natural gas front-month futures and swaps . (investopedia.com)
  • NEW YORK (CBS.MW) -- Natural gas futures climbed as high as $4.28 per million British thermal units Monday -- their highest level in almost three weeks -- lifted by concerns about supplies following this weekend's ice storm in the Northeastern U.S. (marketwatch.com)
  • Natural gas futures (New York Mercantile Exchange: @NG.1) surged nearly 3 percent on bullish supplies data Thursday to reach an intraday high of $4.335 per million BTUs, the highest price for a front-month contract since July 2011. (yahoo.com)
  • Tim Evans, energy futures specialist at CitiFutures, said that the natural gas supply data "was supportive relative to consensus expectations, suggesting a slower tapering off of heating demand than had been anticipated. (yahoo.com)
  • On April 26, natural gas June futures rose 1.1% due to the bullish inventory data. (yahoo.com)
  • On Tuesday, natural-gas futures for November delivery were up 36.5 cents at $13.34 per million British thermal units. (marketwatch.com)
  • Natural gas futures gained 3% Thursday despite inventory levels that rose beyond expectations last week. (thestreet.com)
  • July natural gas futures pared some of their earlier gains following the report but finished 3% higher, gaining 12 cents, to settle at $4.29 per million British thermal units. (thestreet.com)
  • Natural gas is a fossil fuel used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural gas peaker plants step in when electricity demand is high, but their days could be numbered. (inhabitat.com)
  • UK households can now buy 15 percent green gas and 100 percent green electricity with one easy tariff. (treehugger.com)
  • Natural gas can be efficiently burned to generate heat and electricity, emitting less waste and toxins at the point of use relative to other fossil and biomass fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under power purchase agreements signed this year, developers will deliver power from large utility-scale solar plants will be selling at below the price of electricity from natural gas by 2021, according to a new report from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory . (forbes.com)
  • There is opportunity," spokesman Jason Hayes said, though he agreed that gas has made "serious inroads" into the electricity market. (yahoo.com)
  • This is critical since the Energy Department estimates electricity demand will rise more than 45 percent over the next 20 years, with natural gas accounting for as much as 95 percent of new generation capacity. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Gas leaks are very dangerous, because if the concentration gets high enough, a spark from flicking a switch -- or even static electricity -- can cause an explosion . (everything2.com)
  • The Energy Commission's Energy Consumption Data Management System provides online searching of natural gas and electricity consumption data. (ca.gov)
  • But did you know that oil and natural gas also help generate the electricity that powers our daily lives? (api.org)
  • SANTIAGO, Oct 30 (Reuters) - Argentina has begun exporting natural gas to Chile after a 12 year interlude, Chilean President Sebastian Pinera said on Tuesday, as the two South American neighbors seek to increasingly integrate their energy supply and electricity grids. (reuters.com)
  • In 2000, about 15 percent of New England's electricity was produced at generating stations that burned natural gas. (yahoo.com)
  • Residential single family or multifamily customers who also have electricity distributed by PG&E to the installation address in climate zones 11, 12, or 13 can apply for a rebate when the central natural gas forced-air furnace has a built-in variable speed motor (VSM). (pge.com)
  • Natural gas purchased by a public transportation is exempt from the state gross retail tax until December 31, 2017. (in.gov)
  • Between 2017 and 2040, the lifetime of the solar plants, the average levelized cost of power from these solar plants will come to $42.1 per megawatt hour, wrote Mark Bolinger and Joachim Seel, versus $48.1 for the cost of gas alone. (forbes.com)
  • In this guest post, Sandra Steingraber warns of the dangers to Colorado's water supply if natural gas fracking is allowed to continue. (treehugger.com)
  • New natural resources minister Martine Ouellet says she doesn't think fracking can ever be done safely. (treehugger.com)
  • Now U.S. producers are poised to ship vast quantities of gas overseas as energy companies seek permits for proposed export projects that could set off a renewed frenzy of fracking. (businessinsider.com)
  • The vehicles attempt to take advantage of the U.S. shale gas boom unleashed by hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. (cnn.com)
  • Levine also noted concern about hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, a hotly debated method for gas extraction that many environmentalists blame for contaminating water supplies. (yahoo.com)
  • Vermont banned fracking last year, a move widely seen as symbolic since the state has no known natural gas deposits within its borders. (yahoo.com)
  • In 2010 alone, oil and gas development utilizing fracking contributed more than $11 billion to Pennsylvania's economy. (philly.com)
  • As government revenues have fallen because of the economic downturn, oil and gas development utilizing fracking has been critical to state and local budgets, producing revenues that help pay for teachers, police officers, and other public employees. (philly.com)
  • Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a practice used to coax natural gas and petroleum from rock formations like shale. (chron.com)
  • [12] Based on an estimated 2015 world consumption rate of about 3400 km³ of gas per year, the total estimated remaining economically recoverable reserves of natural gas would last 250 years at current consumption rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • This session examined the driving forces behind the natural gas revolution in the U.S. and investigated the short- and long-term outlook for supply and consumption. (ncsl.org)
  • By 2025, world consumption of gas could top 151 trillion cubic feet, 25% of the world's total energy consumption. (economist.com)
  • Others in the industry are far more optimistic, saying LNG could account for as much as 20% of American gas consumption within 20 years. (economist.com)
  • The extraction and consumption of natural gas is a major and growing driver of climate change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effective January 1, 2014, a carrier operating a commercial natural gas vehicle (NGV) in Indiana may claim a credit equal to 12% of the road taxes imposed on its consumption of compressed natural gas in the previous year. (in.gov)
  • After that, China is seen outstripping the U.S. in natural gas consumption to become the biggest user of the fuel in the world, according to Bernstein. (usatoday.com)
  • Gas consumption could increase even faster if additional infrastructure is built. (globalsecurity.org)
  • State-owned MVM said it was receiving deliveries normally and that more than 4 billion cubic metres of gas are in storage, or two-thirds of Hungary's winter consumption. (yahoo.com)
  • Global gas consumption is set to grow," the urbane Italian executive added. (wsj.com)
  • Unlike Israel's petroleum consumption-which Israel meets with imports-much of the natural gas consumed in Israel came from domestic sources. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • On the consumption side, the total global -natural-gas consumption was 3393 billion m 3 and accounted for 23.7% of the total world energy makeup. (spe.org)
  • Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found in close proximity to and with natural gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not to be confused with Natural-gas processing or Liquefied petroleum gas . (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, the propane and other lighter compounds may be marketed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and heavier hydrocarbons may be made into gasoline (petrol). (britannica.com)
  • Propane becomes liquid when pressurized and is then known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)is stored on a vehicle in a tank pressurized to around 150 pounds per square inch. (in.gov)
  • These fields contain more than 213 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, according to National Petroleum Council estimates. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Natural gas formed millions of years ago, underground , as a result of the same processes that formed petroleum. (everything2.com)
  • Did you know that compressed natural gas vehicles are just as safe-if not safer-than petroleum-powered vehicles? (pge.com)
  • Fossil fuel based natural gas is a non-renewable resource . (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, most, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • If natural gas is a bridge fuel to a clean energy future, as politicians from President Barack Obama to presidential. (inhabitat.com)
  • [1] LNG achieves a higher reduction in volume than compressed natural gas (CNG) so that the (volumetric) energy density of LNG is 1.4 times greater than (2.4 times as great as) that of CNG (at 200 bar) or 60 percent that of diesel fuel . (wikipedia.org)
  • The temperature forecasts are still Neutral at best and have consistently been calling for a combination of above normal and normal temps spread across the country with the highs and lows this time of the year not likely to result in any additional call on Nat Gas as a cooling or heating fuel over the next several weeks. (nasdaq.com)
  • Yet in the past month, even as many commodities have fallen sharply, natural gas has bounced significantly -- and it could be just the beginning of a long bull trend for the clean-burning fuel. (aol.com)
  • But with several factors that could push gas in either direction in the future, there's no guarantee that the recent rise is the long-anticipated beginning of a much more powerful move up for the clean-burning fuel. (aol.com)
  • Natural gas is a fossil fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rupert, shale gas is absolutely not a climate-friendly fuel, nor is climate change happening slowly. (treehugger.com)
  • The use of natural gas and propane vehicles is an important way to diversify U.S. transportation fuel supply and reduce U.S. reliance on foreign oil. (in.gov)
  • Natural-gas fuel tanks must be four times larger than gasoline tanks for equivalent vehicles to have the same driving range. (britannica.com)
  • Natural gas is a highly desirable fuel in many respects. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Still, this is the projected pricing for real contracts, and they aren't even counting in the cost of the natural gas plants, just the fuel. (forbes.com)
  • Now industry analysts expect new natural gas fields, such as the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia, to provide fuel for decades. (yahoo.com)
  • HNG was founded in 1940 as a company to sell the gas produced by the Houston Pipe Line Company, after negotiations with Houston Gas and Fuel fell through. (wikipedia.org)
  • A big hurdle for bi-fuel vehicles is the scarcity of compressed-natural-gas stations in the U.S. There are about 1,200 nationwide, only half of which are open to the public, Akerson said, compared with over 168,000 retail gasoline stations. (cnn.com)
  • Clean-burning natural gas is the fuel of choice for new power plants. (washingtontimes.com)
  • At a recent meeting with the Commission for Strategic Development of the Fuel and Energy Sector and Environment Security, President Vladimir Putin said, "The forecasts all predict that global demand for gas will grow over the coming years, above all in Asia. (pravda.ru)
  • Last year, China's gas demand accounted for just 6% of its fuel mix, but the government aims to increase this to around 15% by 2030, WoodMac's Kerry-Anne Shanks, Vice President, Gas & Power Asia-Pacific, said in the five takeaways from a recent Gas and LNG Summit. (usatoday.com)
  • Natural gas - a fuel too far? (newscientist.com)
  • New England's love affair with natural gas appears to be showing strain as the regional power grid operator voices worries about too much demand on limited supplies and a leading environmental group criticizes the fuel it once supported. (yahoo.com)
  • Eventually, natural gas, a fossil fuel that produces greenhouse gases, should be replaced by renewable energy sources, and CLF is pushing in that direction, she said. (yahoo.com)
  • Meanwhile, natural gas usage in the region is projected to grow by 5% per year over the next two decades, faster than any other fuel, reaching as much as 20 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) per year. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Flying over the Piceance dispels one of the great energy myths of our time: that natural gas is a "clean" fossil fuel. (nwf.org)
  • With just a few changes in how gas is extracted, and a higher concern for long-term environmental and conservation interests on the part of the fossil-fuel industry, we can have clean natural gas that actually is clean," says Steve Torbit, director of NWF's Rocky Mountain Regional Center. (nwf.org)
  • The oversupply has prompted gas producers to actively promote the fuel as a low-cost, cleaner burning means of fueling vehicles and other equipment. (ibtimes.com)
  • U.S. natural gas producers including Chesapeake Energy Corp and Apache have long touted compressed natural gas as a fuel for truck and vehicle fleets. (ibtimes.com)
  • Natural gas is the dominant fuel used to heat homes in the U.S. with roughly 52% of U.S. homes using the fuel. (marketwatch.com)
  • A lot of oil companies agree on the fact that natural gas is the fuel of the future. (wsj.com)
  • As a PG&E Compressed Natural Gas account holder, you may be eligible to receive the Clean Fuel Rebate for your use of a clean transportation fuel. (pge.com)
  • CNG station for Gazprom Gas Engine Fuel LLC in St.Petersburg by Kirovsky Zavod. (xing.com)
  • China is already setting the stage for a natural gas import boom, with imports running at record rates as Beijing pushes on with its cleaner energy agenda that should see the country satisfy 10% of its energy needs with gas in 2020, from 5.9% in 2015. (usatoday.com)
  • The Marcellus Shale has the potential to provide a quarter of America's natural gas by 2020, driving down energy costs and creating and sustaining tens of thousands of jobs. (philly.com)
  • In 2009, a large natural gas reservoir of 311 billion cubic meters (BCM) was discovered off Israel's coast. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • California utility regulators approved sweeping rules Thursday for the state's natural gas industry, clearing the way for the importation of liquefied natural gas over objections from air quality officials, environmentalists and community groups. (latimes.com)
  • The South Pars Iranian gas field (file photo) (epa) February 25, 2007 -- Iran warned Turkey today not to reexport the Islamic state's natural gas to other countries. (rferl.org)
  • With more than 947 Bcf of storage capacity Dominion operates the nation's largest natural gas storage system. (aol.com)
  • The San Diego company owns Southern California Gas Co., the nation's largest natural gas distribution company, and San Diego Gas & Electric, one of the largest publicly owned power companies in the country. (latimes.com)
  • The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The (volume-based) energy density of LNG is approximately 2.4 times that of CNG which makes it economical to transport natural gas by ship in the form of LNG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural gas usage is increasing and it is playing a larger role in state energy systems and economies. (ncsl.org)
  • It also explored conclusions and recommendations related to natural gas infrastructure from the Department of Energy's Quadrennial Energy Review. (ncsl.org)
  • To achieve that, meaningful, permanent shifts in energy demand -- such as a big move toward natural gas-powered transportation -- will need to happen. (aol.com)
  • Natural gas storage is a critical component in our energy infrastructure. (aol.com)
  • Each week, the U.S. Energy Information Administration releases its natural gas storage report. (aol.com)
  • Our subsidiaries are invested in joint venture, energy-related businesses, including unregulated retail natural gas marketing, regulated interstate natural gas transportation and storage, and intrastate natural gas transportation businesses. (prnewswire.com)
  • A giant contract between Shell and the Gulf state of Qatar to supply liquefied natural gas to America and Europe is the latest in a series of deals that should lead to gas providing a far larger share of the world's energy needs. (economist.com)
  • In 2002, gas accounted for 21.2% of the world's total energy supplies, a five-percentage-point increase since 1973, according to the International Energy Agency. (economist.com)
  • Both natural gas and propane are primarily produced in the U.S., which increases U.S. energy security and creates job opportunities. (in.gov)
  • Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) allows more energy to be stored on board in a small volume, so it is suited for long distance or heavy duty trucks. (in.gov)
  • As of October 1, 2012, all non-emergency shale gas and energy extraction tips and complaints can be entered into the national Report a Violation systems tip intake form rather than through Eyes-on-Drilling. (nyc.gov)
  • Report a Violation replaces Eyes-on-Drilling and will enable faster, more accurate tracking and resolution of tips and complaints related to shale gas and energy extraction throughout the Region. (nyc.gov)
  • I don't think anyone in their right mind" thought $2 or $3 natural gas was here to stay, said Manuj Nikhanj, the head of Energy Research at ITG Investment Research, a worldwide financial firm based in New York. (yahoo.com)
  • Ultimately in the long term, gas and renewables are really well paired," said Christina Simeone, the director of PennFuture Energy Center, which is run by an environmental group. (yahoo.com)
  • Mark Brownstein, an associate vice president at the Environmental Defense Fund, noted that the price of renewable energy has declined substantially in recent years, and that's expected to continue, making them even more competitive with natural gas. (yahoo.com)
  • Gas provides an abundant and (potentially) cheap source of energy to be used while renewables continue to gain in competitiveness," the report said. (yahoo.com)
  • For its own part, with massive low cost local supply, Pennsylvania has been turning more to natural gas to meet energy demand. (forbes.com)
  • Expanded drilling is unlocking enormous reserves of crude oil and natural gas, offering the potential of moving the country closer to its decades-long quest for energy independence. (businessinsider.com)
  • Companies such as Exxon Mobil and Sempra Energy are seeking federal permits for more than 20 export projects that could handle as much as 29 billion cubic feet of natural gas a day. (businessinsider.com)
  • Unfortunately, the energy bill's natural gas provisions at present do nothing to improve the situation. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Unfortunately, "green" members of the House, more concerned about keeping environmental lobbyists happy than keeping the average American's energy bill affordable, stripped language from the energy bill that would have required an accurate inventory of America's offshore oil and natural gas reserves. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Under the Public Utilities Commission's plan, Pacific Gas & Electric would remain a state-regulated utility, but a plan of reorganization from PG&E Corp. would split the utility into four entities, three of which would fall under federal energy regulators jurisdiction. (marketwatch.com)
  • For Sempra Energy, natural gas is big business. (latimes.com)
  • The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides weekly information on natural gas stocks in underground storage for the U.S. and three regions of the country. (cmegroup.com)
  • The Energy Policy Act of 2005 added a new 4(f) to the Natural Gas Act, stating that the Commission may authorize natural gas companies to provide storage and storage-related services at market-based rates for new storage capacity (placed into service after the date of enactment of the Act), even though the company can't demonstrate it lacks market power. (ferc.gov)
  • You'll also find useful tips on how to conserve energy and use oil and natural gas products in ways that protect you, your family and our environment. (api.org)
  • The International Energy Agency (IEA) sees global gas demand growing 1.6% annually until 2022, with China making up 40% of this growth. (usatoday.com)
  • Whether these projections will materialize will depend on Chinese economic growth, urbanization, energy policies, global gas supply, and last but not least - the pace of renewable energy and storage solution technology and adoption. (usatoday.com)
  • Replacing oil imports with domestically produced gas may promise better energy security and economic benefits. (newscientist.com)
  • Unconventional oil and natural gas play a key role in our nation's clean energy future. (epa.gov)
  • Responsible development of America's shale gas resources offers important economic, energy security, and environmental benefits. (epa.gov)
  • And we were very close to the edge of reliability in very poor weather circumstances," van Welie said at a May 14 hearing of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee. (yahoo.com)
  • The US Energy Information Agency estimates 11 billion barrels worth of oil under the sea and 190 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Nearly 120,000 wells (mostly natural gas) were drilled West-wide during the past decade, and 44 million acres of federal public lands are now leased to energy companies out of 256 million acres overseen by BLM. (nwf.org)
  • The U.S. Energy Department reported natural gas supplies rose by 31 billion cubic feet last week, the first increase in storage so far this year. (yahoo.com)
  • Energy Secretary James B. Edwards denied that natural gas decontrol would mean steep price hikes. (csmonitor.com)
  • In the week ending April 20, natural gas inventories declined by 18 Bcf (billion cubic feet) to 1,281 Bcf-based on the EIA's (U.S. Energy Information Administration) data announced on April 26. (yahoo.com)
  • Extremely cold weather over much of the United States last week forced storage operators to pull a record amount of natural gas from inventory, according to data released Thursday by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. (cnbc.com)
  • Budapest (AFP) - Russia's Gazprom will store 700 million cubic metres of natural gas in Hungary to help ensure deliveries over the winter in case disruptions, Hungary's state-owned energy firm MVM said Friday. (yahoo.com)
  • But that success is dependent on imported energy: More than 40 percent of its natural gas comes from Russia. (npr.org)
  • Russia's natural gas shutoff to Ukraine has once again drawn attention to Europe's growing dependence on Russian energy. (npr.org)
  • Now, more energy companies are looking to natural gas as a means of powering their drilling rigs. (ibtimes.com)
  • In public opinion research conducted earlier this year, ANGA found that natural gas wasn't well understood by Americans and wasn't part of the nation's energy conversation. (adweek.com)
  • A day ahead of the planned release of the Energy Department's winter fuels outlook, the industry group said it anticipates the average U.S. natural gas bill will rise about 50% this winter. (marketwatch.com)
  • Tuesday, at the IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates'annual conference in Houston, Eni SpA Chief Executive Paolo Scaroni put it in Winston Churchill's words: "The future of the gas market," he said,"has become a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma. (wsj.com)
  • It weighs heavily on the investment decisions of giants like Exxon Mobil Corp., which bought XTO Energy in 2010 for $25 billion, and Chevron Corp., which is embarking on one of the costliest energy projects in history in its bid to tap Australian natural gas. (wsj.com)
  • The United States may have as much as a century's worth of natural gas under its feet, and developing that energy should be a big part of our economic future. (philly.com)
  • The other policy lesson of the new era of cheap, abundant, clean and made-in-America natural gas is that we do not need another penny of taxpayer subsidies for any alternative energy sources. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Natural gas is the energy source that delivers without a penny of taxpayer cost. (washingtontimes.com)
  • If America is using energy from natural gas that is one-half to one-third as expensive as green energy, this is one of the best ways to make American manufacturing, technology, steel and agriculture the cheapest and most productive in the world. (washingtontimes.com)
  • DAVID SMITH/Associated Press A natural gas well operated by Northeast Natural Energy on Saturday, Aug. 6, 2011. (chron.com)
  • President Donald Trump clearly supports the oil and gas industry, but he made several false and misleading boasts about his impact on the energy sector. (factcheck.org)
  • Sen. Jim Inhofe scoffed at the suggestion that China could shift 20 percent of its energy to non-fossil fuels by 2030, in part, he said, because China "has no known reserves of natural gas. (factcheck.org)
  • Given the global focus on decarbonization, gas is increasingly becoming a key source in the future energy mix. (bcg.com)
  • We used to be able to justify burning a bit of fossil gas, but we cannot anymore. (treehugger.com)
  • It takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state (at standard conditions for temperature and pressure ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Compressed Natural Gas ( CNG) stays in a gaseous form and is stored on a vehicle in high pressure tanks-up to 3,600 pounds per square inch. (in.gov)
  • Pennsylvania's headlong plunge into drilling for natural gas from Marcellus shale formations has produced winners and losers. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The Marcellus Shale formation - the second-largest natural-gas field in the world - has been a blessing for Pennsylvania's workers and our economy. (philly.com)
  • Almost a quarter-million people in Pennsylvania work to produce natural gas from the Marcellus Shale or in related industries. (philly.com)
  • On Sunday February 27th, Royal Dutch/Shell signed a deal with Qatar's state-owned gas company for a 30% stake in a $7 billion project, in which 7.5m tonnes a year of LNG will be produced for the American and European markets, starting in 2010. (economist.com)
  • Natural gas plays a critical role in most state economies due to its use in many sectors, including electric power, heating, vehicle fuels and the manufacturing of industrial products. (ncsl.org)
  • Unlike oil and other liquid fuels, natural gas isn't stored in tanks. (aol.com)
  • Gas and renewables could in fact be the making of each other in the short term," the report noted, since renewables will cost about the same as conventional fuels in many parts of the world "in the very near term. (yahoo.com)
  • We have developed revised UIC Class II permitting guidance specific to oil and natural gas hydraulic fracturing activities using diesel fuels. (epa.gov)
  • The Weymouth Compressor Station will enable three local gas utilities in Maine and one in Canada to benefit from additional access to natural gas, helping homes and businesses switch from higher-emitting fuels to cleaner-burning natural gas," an Enbridge spokesperson said in an email. (boston.com)
  • Compressed natural gas is one of the cleanest burning fuels available, making it a smart and environmentally friendly choice. (pge.com)
  • Learn how much you can save by using compressed natural gas instead of traditional fuels for your personal vehicle or commercial fleet. (pge.com)
  • The U.S. natural gas industry achieved a new milestone last week as a ship sailed from Louisiana with the first export of gas from America's abundant shale fields. (usatoday.com)
  • For example, North America has abundant potential natural gas fields, but many are on public lands or offshore and closed to development. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Natural pride aside, natural gas is the only feedstock abundant enough and widely distributed enough to replace oil, he noted. (zdnet.com)
  • Natural gas inventories remain abundant compared to historical figures, the report continued. (thestreet.com)
  • A Citibank research report noted that much has been said about the potential for the natural gas boom to derail growth in renewables, but they believe "the opposite is true. (yahoo.com)
  • Natural gas boom a blessing for Pa. (philly.com)
  • Williamsport has been the center of our natural-gas boom, with an economic growth rate of 7.8 percent. (philly.com)
  • In addition, exploration and development have been banned of another 52 TCF of natural gas off of the East and West Coasts. (washingtontimes.com)
  • However, it is not to be confused with gasoline , especially in North America, where the term gasoline is often shortened in colloquial usage to gas . (wikipedia.org)
  • They examine the emergence of shale gas in North America and assesses the prospects for a wider shale gas revolution. (wiley-vch.de)
  • In a troubling decision, California state regulators could allow the Aliso Canyon natural gas site near Los Angeles. (inhabitat.com)
  • The massive natural gas leak discovered in October at a Southern California Gas Company facility in Aliso Canyon. (inhabitat.com)
  • In California, where the environment is already endangered by severe drought, a natural gas leak has quietly released. (inhabitat.com)
  • Confirmation hearings on the viability of California power regulators' plan of reorganization for PG&E Corp.'s PCG, -0.50% Pacific Gas & Electric unit began in U.S. bankruptcy court Monday. (marketwatch.com)
  • California officials and environmental groups are gearing up to battle the federal government over who has the authority to approve the construction of liquefied natural gas terminals in the state. (latimes.com)
  • These links provide resources about natural gas demand in California. (ca.gov)
  • Another public health risk associated with unconventional gas and oil drilling. (treehugger.com)
  • The unconventional gas is being piped from Argentina's oil- and gas-rich Vaca Muerta shale field in the Neuquen basin, then sent over the Andes mountain range to Chile's southern province of Biobio. (reuters.com)
  • Currently, Ukraine imports up to 70 percent of natural gas from Russia at a price exceeding USD 500 per thousand cubic meters. (prnewswire.com)
  • Ukraine considers the option of the reverse use of GTS, allowing it to import gas not only from Russia , but from the European Union as well. (prnewswire.com)
  • According to information on the Gazprom website, "the initial aggregate gas resources of Eastern Russia account for 52.4 trillion cubic metres onshore and 14.9 trillion cubic metres offshore. (pravda.ru)
  • The state-run Eastern Gas Programme serves as basic document for the development of the gas industry in Eastern Russia, as implemented by Gazprom. (pravda.ru)
  • Russia leads the world in natural gas reserves with 5,085 trillion cubic feet. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Ukraine, which depends on Russia to supply it with about 77 percent of its gas, will pay $130 per 1,000 cubic meters of a Turkmen-Russian gas mix. (rferl.org)
  • Moldova, which depends on Russia for 100 percent of its gas, will pay $170 per 1,000 cubic meters, with the price rising to European-level market price by 2011. (rferl.org)
  • Hungary came under fire at the end of September after it unexpectedly and indefinitely suspended gas deliveries to Ukraine, amid threats by Russia that it could cut off European countries helping Kiev. (yahoo.com)
  • Some worry that Russia is using its natural resources as a political weapon, but others say the influence goes both ways. (npr.org)
  • Russia, the World War II enemy that split Germany in half, now supplies the country with more than 40 percent of its natural gas. (npr.org)
  • Russia supplies a quarter of Europe's gas supplies. (npr.org)
  • We could just as easily talk about Russia being under financial pressure from European customers paying for our gas. (npr.org)
  • Ben Carson said the United States has more oil and natural gas than Russia. (factcheck.org)
  • Most natural gas and propane vehicles in Indiana are used by government or commercial fleets, and natural gas and propane filling stations are spreading quickly across Indiana. (in.gov)
  • Vehicle fleets fueled by natural gas have been in operation for several years. (britannica.com)
  • Michigan-based Dow Chemical Co. and other manufacturers have criticized that study, saying it relied on 2-year-old data that doesn't account for increased demand for natural gas by manufacturers, trucking fleets and power plants. (businessinsider.com)
  • [11] By 2009, 66 000 km³ (or 8%) had been used out of the total 850 000 km³ of estimated remaining recoverable reserves of natural gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's a natural gas field that's produced all its economically recoverable gas. (aol.com)
  • of estimated remaining recoverable reserves of natural gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assessments of the Leviathan field indicate that there could be as much as 19 Tcf of recoverable natural gas in place. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • Natural gas is mainly found in underground rock formations, but it can also be derived from renewable biomass resources, such as the break down of plant or animal waste in landfills or anaerobic digesters. (in.gov)
  • These technologies enable greater access to oil and natural gas in shale formations. (epa.gov)
  • To free the gas, companies pump chemicals, sand and water into the ground under high pressure to fracture, or frac, the rock formations. (nwf.org)
  • The fractured formations are then dewatered to release the gas. (nwf.org)
  • Properly constructed wells leave a very small environmental imprint, and about 99.5 percent of the solution used to free natural gas from shale formations is just water and sand. (philly.com)
  • Hydraulic fracturing is a method of removing oil and gas from rock formations such as the Eagle Ford shale formation in south central Texas. (chron.com)
  • The field is expected to be operational by 2019, and contains an estimated 622 cubic meters of natural gas reserves. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • The intent is to provide post-graduate education to qualified students and further prepare them with technical skills and commercial knowledge to fill the demand for professionals in the rapidly growing natural gas industry without interupting their current careers or their families. (ou.edu)
  • Must have a Bachelor's Degree in engineering and/or industry eperience in natural gas midstream or downstream sector. (ou.edu)
  • The Certificate in Natural Gas Technology program is designed to provide educational resources and tools for success in the technical aspects of the growing natural gas industry. (ou.edu)
  • Pennsylvania's legislature, however, has refused to approve the tax over the past few years because it could disrupt a booming shale gas industry. (forbes.com)
  • Moniz, a physics professor and former top officials at the department in the Clinton administration, is widely seen as sympathetic to the natural gas industry. (businessinsider.com)
  • API has assembled informational primers to show the integral role the oil and natural gas industry plays in the American economy and quality of life. (api.org)
  • Safety is important to everyone and is a core value for the natural gas and oil industry. (api.org)
  • In this timely volume, Mike Bradshaw and Tim Boersma offer a sober and balanced assessment of a global gas industry whose fortunes hang in the balance. (wiley-vch.de)
  • We have played a lead role in convening stakeholders and conducting outreach to individual citizens, communities, tribes, state and federal partners, industry, trade associations and environmental organizations that have a strong interest in the agency's work and policies related to unconventional oil and natural gas extraction. (epa.gov)
  • Natural gas industry leaders say they are poised for continued rapid growth despite the warning bells being rung in other quarters. (yahoo.com)
  • No other industry could get away with this, but in 2005 Congress exempted gas drillers from provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act by passing the "Halliburton loophole," inserted into the law at the request of a former Halliburton executive, then vice president Dick Cheney. (nwf.org)
  • The industry estimates that immediate natural gas price decontrol could raise the wellhead price from an average $1.80 per thousand cubic feet to $4.10. (csmonitor.com)
  • Still, industry 'feels confident' that there will be sufficient natural gas to meet basic customer demand this winter, Wilkinson said. (marketwatch.com)
  • The utility industry has been on the offensive lately trying to explain that it receives no benefit from natural gas price spikes. (marketwatch.com)
  • The industry places about 30% of the natural gas it estimates it will need during the peak winter months into storage. (marketwatch.com)
  • The industry is on target to tuck 3.2 trillion cubic feet of natural gas into storage ahead of the key heating months this year, more than it has placed in storage two out of the last three winters, Wilkinson said. (marketwatch.com)
  • Before that gas arrives by pipe to heat your home, it's typically been stored in vast underground storage facilities until it's used for peak winter demand. (aol.com)
  • That would allow a surge in demand for renewables, "which in turn will drive demand for more gas-fired" power plants to be used as backup. (yahoo.com)
  • During a period of sluggish economic activity, demand for natural gas may not be as strong. (cmegroup.com)
  • In the coming two to three decades, China is expected to become the leading determinant in global natural gas demand as well, outpacing the U.S. as the biggest natural gas consumer at some point between 2040 and 2050. (usatoday.com)
  • Presenters showed forecasts for China's gas demand increasing to 450-600 BCM by 2030," Shanks noted. (usatoday.com)
  • BP sees Chinese demand for oil surging 61%, and gas demand soaring 186% by 2035. (usatoday.com)
  • Almost everyone expects China to become for the natural gas market what it is for the oil market now - the leading consumer with the largest demand growth. (usatoday.com)
  • Twice this past winter, during a cold snap in late January and a blizzard in early February, competing demand for gas for other uses, including home heating, meant power generators had difficulty getting the supplies they needed, van Welie said. (yahoo.com)
  • Past and future trends of world and regional gas demand are explained with a focus on the European power sector. (springer.com)
  • What we need to do is increase the amount of natural gas demand in this country, Steve Farris, chief executive of Apache, said in a recent interview in New Orleans. (ibtimes.com)
  • This means that an ever increasing supply base is needed to feed natural gas demand, according to the American Gas Association, adding that this is the one area where the federal government has failed consumers. (marketwatch.com)
  • In January 2014, the Oil & Gas Journal estimated Israel's proved reserves of oil at 11.5 million barrels and its proved reserves of natural gas at 10.1 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • In December 2019, we temporarily expanded the voluntary self-audit and disclosure program for upstream oil and natural gas facilities by giving existing owners the opportunity to find, correct, and self-disclose Clean Air Act violations. (epa.gov)
  • The World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of natural gas are flared or vented annually. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain statements, including those regarding the estimates of oil and gas reserves and the availability of complementary acquisitions, contained in this communication regarding matters that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements (as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995). (corporate-ir.net)
  • Because of a lack of exploratory drilling, there are no proven oil reserve estimates for the Spratly or Paracel Islands, and no commercial oil or gas has been discovered there. (globalsecurity.org)
  • A vast majority of that storage is part of Dominion's gas transmission business, which serves the growing Marcellus and Utica shale producers. (aol.com)
  • The fund invests in natural gas producers in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. (investopedia.com)
  • As natural gas infrastructure develops, we will look at similar pilot programs in other areas, a Baker Hughes spokeswoman said. (ibtimes.com)
  • The liquefaction process involves removal of certain components, such as dust, acid gases , helium , water, and heavy hydrocarbons , which could cause difficulty downstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • General Motors announced plans Wednesday to produce a new Chevy Impala sedan powered by both gasoline and natural gas. (cnn.com)
  • Another approach utilizes the trapping of internal residual gas (as used before in gasoline controlled auto ignition engines), to lower the thermal requirements for the auto ignition process in natural gas. (sae.org)
  • Significant differences in the degree of valve overlap were necessary when compared to gasoline operation at the same speeds and loads, resulting in lower amounts of residual gas observed. (sae.org)
  • We studied the relationship between hydraulic fracturing for oil and natural gas and drinking water resources. (epa.gov)
  • The small Gulf emirate has the world's third-largest reserves of natural gas and the world's largest single gas field. (economist.com)
  • Gazprom, Russia's giant gas monopoly, is the world's largest producer of natural gas. (npr.org)
  • China's dominant offshore oil and natural gas producer, CNOOC CEO, (883), said Monday it has appointed Professor Kenneth Courtis and Erwin Schurtenberger as non-executive directors of the company. (marketwatch.com)
  • Ventura County's air quality board on Tuesday dealt a setback to a proposed $800-million liquefied natural gas processing plant that would be moored about 14 miles offshore between Oxnard and Malibu. (latimes.com)
  • An Australian company announced Thursday it had suspended its plan to build a controversial offshore liquid natural gas terminal 27 miles from Los Angeles International Airport, citing the downturn in the world economy. (latimes.com)
  • The group is calling on lawmakers to expand access to natural gas supplies located on federal lands both onshore and offshore. (marketwatch.com)
  • the heavier hydrocarbons are condensable when brought to the surface and are frequently separated as natural gas liquids (NGLs). (britannica.com)
  • With the advent of large scale cryogenic storage, it was possible to create long term gas storage reserves. (wikipedia.org)
  • These reserves of liquefied gas could be deployed at a moment's notice through regasification processes and today are the main means for networks to handle local peak shaving requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • China expects to start producing shale gas in the next month, while Australia is ramping up reserves. (aol.com)
  • Africa has proved to be a potential bonanza for shale gas , and South America has its own reserves as well . (aol.com)
  • The pioneering transatlantic voyage proved that gas in this state could be transported safely from producer to consumer and from remote areas where reserves are large to the places where there is a market for natural gas. (economist.com)
  • But some consuming countries, such as America, are fast depleting those gas reserves that can easily be reached by pipe. (economist.com)
  • and it will be assured by fully and safely exploiting our shale gas reserves. (cnn.com)
  • Estimated potential natural gas reserves in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic top 160 TCF, more than all current U.S. reserves combined. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Turkmenistan ranks fifth in the world in natural gas reserves. (ibtimes.com)
  • Five of the 50 states ( New Mexico , Texas , Oklahoma , Louisiana , and Alaska ) contain more than half of the natural gas reserves in the US . (everything2.com)
  • Argentina, which sits atop the world's No. 2 shale gas reserves, was once a major supplier of natural gas to Chile, but triggered a diplomatic crisis in the mid-2000s by cutting off shipments when its own supplies ran low. (reuters.com)
  • We are above the Piceance Basin, a 4.5-million-acre geological formation that holds one of the largest natural gas reserves in the Intermountain West. (nwf.org)
  • Russia's natural gas wealth is being developed mainly by Gazprom, a relatively young firm. (pravda.ru)
  • In 1993, the state-owned gas company was transformed into a Russian stock company with the name of Gazprom. (pravda.ru)
  • With Gazprom negotiating new contracts, many states will be paying more for Russian natural gas in 2007. (rferl.org)
  • Georgia has agreed to pay Gazprom $235 per 1,000 cubic meters of gas. (rferl.org)
  • While MVM has been filling up its reservoirs with gas it has bought, it is unusual for the company to store gas still owned by Gazprom, which is locked in a dispute with Kiev that some fear could see transit through Ukraine halted for the third time in a decade. (yahoo.com)
  • It wasn't specified it the gas was destined for Hungary, or whether Gazprom could ship it other customers. (yahoo.com)
  • Germany is the biggest customer of Russia's state natural gas monopoly, Gazprom. (npr.org)
  • Germany is the biggest customer of the Russian state natural gas monopoly, Gazprom. (npr.org)
  • Natural gas extraction by countries in cubic meters per year around 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] The world's first industrial extraction of natural gas started at Fredonia, New York , United States, in 1825. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, unwanted gas (or stranded gas without a market) associated with oil extraction often is returned to the reservoir with 'injection' wells while awaiting a possible future market or to repressurize the formation, which can enhance extraction rates from other wells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include efforts to manage the local and regional impacts of natural gas extraction and to ensure that the process is properly regulated. (ncsl.org)
  • This session examined how states are working to address environmental and public health risks associated with increased natural gas extraction. (ncsl.org)
  • We work with states and other key stakeholders to help ensure that the economic prosperity from unconventional oil and natural gas extraction does not come at the expense of public health and the environment. (epa.gov)
  • As the number of oil and gas wells increased in New York by roughly 1000 in the first decade of this century, inspections fell by a similar amount. (treehugger.com)
  • But in contrast to the 37.7 percent increase in domestic oil wells drilled during the first nine months of 1981 compared with last year, the number of gas wells drilled is up only 6.5 percent for the same period. (csmonitor.com)
  • If you live in the northeast there are no abandoned natural gas wells' where companies can storage supplies, Cooper said. (marketwatch.com)
  • Gas company workers stand on what used to be buildings on Worthington Street in downtown Springfield, where a natural gas explosion leveled buildings. (baltimoresun.com)
  • A natural gas explosion erupted into a massive ball of fire near Salem Township, Pennsylvania, this morning. (go.com)
  • On the 17th of February 2013, it celebrated its 20th birthday, but Russia's gas wealth is very old. (pravda.ru)
  • Among its myriad assets are the Bear Creek Storage Company in Louisiana and Young Gas Storage in Colorado. (aol.com)
  • The company owns a total of 30 Bcf of working gas capacity with another 16.6 Bcf of capacity projects pending approval. (aol.com)
  • A final option is PAA Natural Gas Storage which is a pure-play natural gas storage company. (aol.com)
  • I/M/O the Joint Petition of Public Service Electric and Gas Company and Exelon Corporation for Approval of a Change in Control of Public Service Electric and Gas Company and Other Related Authorizations. (nj.gov)
  • Public Hearing Statement In the Matter of the Petition of New Jersey Natural Gas Company for the Annual Review and Revision of its Basic Gas Supply Service (BGSS) Factor for F/Y 2006, BPU Docket No. GR05060488. (nj.gov)
  • In 1821, William Hart successfully dug the first natural gas well at Fredonia, New York, United States, which led to the formation of the Fredonia Gas Light Company. (wikipedia.org)
  • That's not to say that Cheniere is backing off from its ambitious plans as the first U.S. company to obtain government approval to send some of the nation's shale gas abroad. (usatoday.com)
  • The agency lowered its rating on the independent oil and natural gas company to "BB-" from "BB" and removed the rating from "creditwatch," where it had been placed in September. (marketwatch.com)
  • A spokeswoman for Woodside Natural Gas said the company planned to bring the project back when conditions changed. (latimes.com)
  • San Francisco start-up Siluria Technologies has devised a chemical process that will transform natural gas into petrochemicals, significantly reducing both cost and pollution, the company says. (zdnet.com)
  • The company so far has natural gas rigs in south Texas, Louisiana and Rocky Mountain states and is working to expand in other areas, Bertasi said. (ibtimes.com)
  • These storage facilities not only serve to keep the gas ready for winter usage but also provide us with enough gas to ensure we can get through any natural disaster or other supply disruption. (aol.com)
  • Gas chart listing recently approved Board of Public Utilities interim rates for Basic Gas Supply Service (BGSS) effective. (nj.gov)
  • Gas Drilling in NYC Watershed is an unacceptable risk to New York's water supply. (nyc.gov)
  • EPA is concerned with natural gas drilling and issues involving water supply, water quality, wastewater treatment operations, local and regional air quality, management of naturally occurring radioactive materials disturbed during drilling, cumulative environmental impacts, and the New York City watershed. (nyc.gov)
  • Over that time, Pennsylvania has been responsible for 6 Tcf of the entire nation's 11.6 Tcf of new gas supply. (forbes.com)
  • FILE - In this Jan. 25, 2001 file photo, a gas supply line is seen in St. Albans, Vt. (yahoo.com)
  • U.S. natural gas supplies are so vast, converting drilling rigs to run on LNG is not likely to make a huge dent in supply or price. (ibtimes.com)
  • Considering the current oil and gas market conditions and that processing and handling are part of the natural-gas supply chain, ensuring that gas processing and handling are cost efficient and safe becomes even more imperative. (spe.org)
  • A BP oil and gas well in Alaska blew out late last week, uncontrollably spilling crude oil and gas just around. (inhabitat.com)
  • The global natural gas trade in 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason for price discrepancies in the global gas market is that it's tough to transport natural gas. (aol.com)
  • So many moving parts are changing in the global gas dynamic that it seems impossible to settle on any one vision of the future, he said. (wsj.com)