Gardnerella vaginalis: A species in the genus GARDNERELLA previously classified as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Haemophilus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gardnerella: A genus of bacteria found in the human genital and urinary tract. It is considered to be a major cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).Trichomonas Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.Mycoplasma hominis: A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Leukorrhea: A clear or white discharge from the VAGINA, consisting mainly of MUCUS.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Mobiluncus: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are found in the human vagina, particularly in association with Gardnerella vaginalis in cases of bacterial vaginosis.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Vaginal Diseases: Pathological processes of the VAGINA.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal: Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.Bacteria, AnaerobicSulfacetamide: An anti-infective agent that is used topically to treat skin infections and orally for urinary tract infections.Polyanetholesulfonate: A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Trichomonas Infections: Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.Balanitis: Inflammation of the head of the PENIS, glans penis.PhenazinesHippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.SulfathiazolesUreaplasma urealyticum: A species of gram-negative bacteria found in the human genitourinary tract (UROGENITAL SYSTEM), oropharynx, and anal canal. Serovars 1, 3, 6, and 14 have been reclassed into a separate species UREAPLASMA parvum.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Urethritis: Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.Bacteria, AerobicBacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Trichomonas: A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Antitrichomonal Agents: Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.

Activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression by Gardnerella vaginalis. (1/222)

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with an increased rate of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, and Gardnerella vaginalis is frequently isolated from the genital tracts of women with BV. G. vaginalis lysates were found to significantly stimulate HIV expression in monocytoid cells. Stimulation was significantly higher when lysates were heated at 100 degrees C for 5 min but was reduced by treatment with lysozyme or protease. G. vaginalis lysates also activated HIV expression in certain T cell lines. G. vaginalis lysates activated HIV long-terminal repeat transcription in HIV-infected cells and increased NF-kappaB binding activity, indicating an effect by G. vaginalis on HIV transcription. The activation of HIV production by G. vaginalis suggests that genital tract infection with G. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by increasing HIV expression in the genital tract. This may explain, at least in part, the increased rate of HIV transmission in women with BV.  (+info)

The effects of three nonoxynol-9 preparations on vaginal flora and epithelium. (2/222)

To evaluate the effects of nonoxynol-9 (N-9) on the vaginal flora and epithelium, 48 women (16 in each group) were evaluated by use of quantitative vaginal cultures and colposcopy. at baseline and at 0.5, 4, 24, 48, and 72 h after insertion of one of three N-9 preparations (4% gel [Conceptrol], 3.5% gel [Advantage-24], or a 28% vaginal contraceptive film). The proportion positive for H2O2+ or H2O2- lactobacilli did not change significantly with any of the preparations, but lactobacilli concentrations decreased transiently. Both the proportion of women with Gardnerella vaginalis and the concentration of G. vaginalis decreased transiently. The proportion of women with Escherichia coli increased with the 4% gel, and the concentration increased with all preparations. The number with anaerobic gram-negative rods increased, although the concentrations decreased. Symptoms and colposcopic abnormalities were rare. Changes in levels of vaginal bacteria were transient after single applications of N-9, but adverse effects may be enhanced with frequent, chronic use.  (+info)

Obligately anaerobic strains of Corynebacterium vaginale (Haemophilus vaginalis). (3/222)

Six obligately anaerobic strains of Corynebacterium vaginale (Haemophilus vaginalis) have been isolated and their characteristics studied. The reactions of the anaerobic strains, as well as of facultative strains tested under anaerobic conditions, are similar to the reactions previously reported for this species.  (+info)

Identification of a human lactoferrin-binding protein in Gardnerella vaginalis. (4/222)

Previous studies have shown that Gardnerella vaginalis can utilize iron-loaded human lactoferrin as a sole source of iron. In this study, G. vaginalis cells were shown to bind digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled human lactoferrin in a dot blot assay. Using the DIG-labeled human lactoferrin, a 120-kDa human lactoferrin-binding protein was detected by Western blot analysis of G. vaginalis proteins. The lactoferrin-binding activity of this protein was found to be heat stable. Competition studies indicated that this binding activity was specific for human lactoferrin. Treatment of G. vaginalis cells with proteases suggested that this protein was surface exposed. An increase in lactoferrin binding by the 120-kDa protein was observed in G. vaginalis cells grown under iron-restrictive conditions, suggesting that this activity may be iron regulated.  (+info)

Characterisation and selection of a Lactobacillus species to re-colonise the vagina of women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis. (5/222)

This paper reports the results of characterising and selecting a strain of Lactobacillus for potential use as a probiotic in regenerating the vaginal flora of women with recurrent episodes of bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV is a condition characterised by a depletion of vaginal lactobacilli accompanied by an overgrowth of a mixed vaginal flora of aerobic, anaerobic and micro-aerophilic species in very large numbers. BV has been associated with various gynaecological and obstetric complications and has an extremely high recurrence rate, due in part to the failure to establish a normal vaginal flora after antimicrobial therapy. A total of 60 vaginal isolates of lactobacilli was assessed for characteristics considered important for vaginal re-colonisation. The characteristics studied were the in-vitro inhibitory activity of the lactobacilli against bacterial species isolated from women with recurrent BV, acid production after growth of the lactobacilli in liquid culture, production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and adhesiveness of the lactobacilli to exfoliated vaginal epithelial cells (VEC). Four strains of lactobacilli, L. acidophilus (61701 and 61880), L. crispatus (55730) and L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii (65407), demonstrated the greatest inhibitory activity against the BV-associated bacterial species. Two of these isolates (55730 and 61880) produced H2O2. All four isolates produced a highly acidic environment after growth in liquid medium (pH <4). Only one of these (strain 61701) was strongly adherent to VEC (>100 bacteria/VEC). A further isolate (L. acidophilus 48101) did not demonstrate maximum inhibitory activity against BV-associated bacteria, but was found to be a strong producer of H2O2 and was also highly adherent to VEC. Isolates 61701 and 48101 could be candidates for use as probiotics for vaginal re-colonisation.  (+info)

Comparison of isolation of Haemophilus vaginalis (Corynebacterium vaginale) from peptone-starch-dextrose agar and Columbia colistin-nalidoxic acid agar. (6/222)

A total of 447 cervical or vaginal specimens were inoculated in parallel onto peptone-starch-dextrose (PSD) and Columbia colistin (10 mg/ml)-nalidixic acid (15 mug/ml) (CNA) agar and were incubated for 48 h at 35 degrees C in an atmosphere with 2 to 10% CO2. One hundred (22.4%) of the cultures were positive for Haemophilus vaginalis. Forty-eight of the isolates were recovered from both PSD and Columbia CNA agar, five from PSD only, and 47 from Columbia CNA agar only (P less than 0.001). On Columbia CNA agar, 76 of the isolates were detected after 24 h of incubation, and the remainder were detected within 4 days of incubation.  (+info)

Incidence of Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp and human papilloma virus in cytological smears. (7/222)

CONTEXT: In spite of the wide-ranging literature on the microbiology of normal and abnormal flora of the vagina, there are few studies on the relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and other vaginal microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of infection by human papilloma virus (HPV) and other agents like Candida sp., Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis in cytological smears. DESIGN STUDY: Retrospective study SETTING: A public tertiary referral center. SAMPLE: An analysis of 17,391 cytologies from outpatients seen between January 1997 and August 1998. The control group was made up of patients in the same age group and same period with no cytological evidence of HPV infection. Patients with a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II or III were excluded from this analysis. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The diagnosis of HPV infection was made in accordance with the criteria of Schneider et al. and the diagnosis of Gardnerella vaginalis was made with a finding of clue cells. RESULTS: 390 (2. 24%) had alterations consistent with infection by HPV, sometimes associated with CIN I. The results showed that Gardnerella vaginalis was the most frequent agent in women with HPV infection (23.6% versus 17.4%; P <0.05), while in the control group the most frequent agent was Candida sp. (23.9% versus 13.8%; p <0.001). CONCLUSION: In spite of this study being based solely on cytological criteria, in which specific HPV and Gardnerella diagnostic tests were not used, the cytological smear is widely used in clinical practice and the data presented in this investigation show that there is an association between Gardnerella vaginalis and HPV infection. It remains to be established whether the microorganisms favor each other.  (+info)

The role of fomites in the transmission of vaginitis. (8/222)

A role for fomites such as toilet seats in the transmission of vaginitis has never been proved or disproved. A compilation of clinical data from a university community showed that the organisms found in vaginal cultures of patients with vaginitis were, in order of frequency. Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Hemophilus vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. In a concurrent bacteriologic survey of washroom fixtures, staphylococci and other micrococci were isolated most frequently. The overt pathogens associated with vaginitis were never found, and gram-negative organisms appeared to be suppressed by the disinfectant used by the cleaning staff. It is clear that fomites are not an important mode of transmission in vaginitis, although a search for specific pathogens on toilets is to be continued.  (+info)

  • BV was detected with the Nugent scoring system, and A. vaginae and G. vaginalis DNA was quantified with a multiplex quantitative real-time PCR assay. (
  • An A. vaginae DNA concentration of ≥10 7 copies/mL together with a positive G. vaginalis result (≥10 0 copies/mL) best discriminated between BV-positive (39/220) and non-BV categories (181/220) with a sensitivity of 85% (95% CI 0.70 to 0.94) and a specificity of 82% (95% CI 0.76 to 0.88). (
  • Conclusions A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were present in high numbers and concentrations in this pregnant cohort. (
  • In an effort to better understand the differences between G. vaginalis isolated from women with a positive (BV) versus a negative (non-BV) diagnosis of BV, we compared the virulence potential of 7 BV and 7 non-BV G. vaginalis isolates and assessed the virulence factors related to biofilm formation, namely: initial adhesion and cytotoxic effect, biofilm accumulation, susceptibility to antibiotics, and transcript levels of the known vaginolysin, and sialidase genes. (
  • G. vaginalis isolates should be incubated in a 5-10% CO 2 enriched atmosphere for best results. (
  • The genetic characterisation of T. vaginalis isolates reveals significant genetic diversity in this organism. (
  • One clone producing IgG1 was selected and characterized by indirect ELISA , dot blot, and Western blot , and we also tested clinical isolates and HeLa cells infected with G. vaginalis. (
  • Finally, a clinical Lactobacillus crispatus isolate (24-9-7) produces lactic acid and inhibits growth of both G. vaginalis and N. gonorrhoeae on PVM. (
  • We observed that Eubacterium eligens (mOR = 11.5, 95% CI 1.31~101.4), Gardnerella vaginalis (mOR = 17.0, 95% CI 2.18-131.8), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (mOR = 7.42, 95% CI 1.3-42.46) had the strongest associations with HPV clearance, and Lactobacillus johnsonii (mOR = 16.4, 95% CI 1.77-152.2) with HPV persistence. (
  • Therefore, we quantified adherence of G. vaginalis and other BV-associated bacteria to an inert surface pre-coated with Lactobacillus crispatus using a new Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) methodology. (
  • 23 Based on the mean log concentration, Lactobacillus was present at a concentration 10 times greater, at log 10 7 levels, than the concentration of the next microorganism, Gardnerella vaginalis , present at log 10 6 levels in about one half the patients. (
  • The Affirm VP Microbial Identification System is a rapid, objective, and automated test for the detection of T. vaginalis and clinically significant levels of G. vaginalis that is comparable to wet mount examination for clue cells and is superior to wet mount examination for the detection of trichomonads. (
  • The present invention relates to nucleic acid amplification assays for the detection of nucleic acid sequences of Gardnerella vaginalis. (
  • Molecular testing is obviously more sensitive and specific than culture method and microscopic research, especially for the detection of Gardnerella. (
  • Each strain has significant virulence potential, although genomic and metabolic differences, such as the ability to degrade mucin, indicate that the detection of G. vaginalis in the vaginal tract provides only partial information on the physiological potential of the organism. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BV in Bulgarian pregnant and nonpregnant women from several age ranges and to compare three different laboratory methods for Gardnerella vaginalis detection in patents suffering from BV. (
  • Comparison of conventional testing to polymerase chain reaction in detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in indigenous women living in remote areas. (
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of G. vaginalis 16S rRNA, vaginolysin, sialidase and phospholipase genes. (
  • Of the 28 positive samples, 23 were concomitant with Gardnerella vaginalis detection. (
  • Gardnerella vaginalis (ATCC ® 14018) colonies growing on Starch Agar with Bromcresol Purple (Cat. (
  • T. vaginalis was detected using the TaqMan assay using commercially available primers and probes specific for this protozoan (Pr04646256_s1). (
  • Increasing levels of G. vaginalis and M. hominis and decreasing levels of lactobacilli were significantly associated with BV by Nugent score. (
  • Of the group with Nugent scores of 7 to 10, 83% and 81% had log 10 G. vaginalis counts and log 10 M. hominis counts greater than 6.81 and 4.82, respectively, while only 30% and 31% of the group with Nugent scores of 0 to 3 were above these thresholds, respectively. (
  • PCR quantification of G. vaginalis and M. hominis from CVL is significantly more sensitive than Amsel criteria for diagnosing BV. (
  • Colonies of diphtheroidlike organisms found in urine cultures should not be ignored as insignificant but should be further investigated to determine whether G. vaginalis is present. (
  • Gardnerella vaginalis hemolysin: Isolation, characterization and in vitro effects on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (
  • There appeared to be a relationship between patients who presented with vaginal discharge with isolation of G. vaginalis. (
  • Microbiology of vaginal discharge with emphasis on gardnerella vaginalis. (
  • The probe system detected G. vaginalis in 57 (90%) of 63 vaginal specimens from women having clue cells on wet mount examination, and in only 3 (3%) of 113 women without clue cells, suggesting that the Affirm probe for G. vaginalis could be used as a surrogate for wet mount examination for clue cells. (
  • Vaginal wet smear microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 29% and "clue" cells in 41,3% of smears. (
  • To support further studies aimed at understanding the role of G. vaginalis in BV, we sequenced the genomes of 15 G. vaginalis strains (including JCP8151B) that were isolated from the vaginal swabs from 12 women enrolled in the institutional review board (IRB)-approved Washington University Contraceptive CHOICE Project ( 13 ). (