A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
A group of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders marked by the accumulation of GANGLIOSIDES. They are caused by impaired enzymes or defective cofactors required for normal ganglioside degradation in the LYSOSOMES. Gangliosidoses are classified by the specific ganglioside accumulated in the defective degradation pathway.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
A group of recessively inherited diseases characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in the neuronal cells. Subtypes include mutations of enzymes in the BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES system or G(M2) ACTIVATOR PROTEIN leading to disruption of normal degradation of GANGLIOSIDES, a subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS.
Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)
Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher's disease.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The minimum acceptable patient care, based on statutes, court decisions, policies, or professional guidelines.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)

The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains. (1/1980)

The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface.  (+info)

Partial purification and properties of porcine thymus lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase. (2/1980)

Porcine thymus lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase was purified by a simple procedure. In the final step of isoelectric focusing the enzyme was separated into two peaks of pI 6.3 (peak I) and 7.0 (peak II), which showed 3,600- and 4,000-fold enhancement of lactosylceramide-hydrolysing activity, respectively. The two peaks had identical mobility on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The apparent molecular weight was 34,000. Neither monosialoganglioside (GM1) nor galactosylceramide was hydrolysed by the purified enzyme fractions. The optimal pH was at 4.6, and sodium taurocholate was essential for the reaction. The apparent Km was 2.3 x 10-5 M. The reaction was stimulated by sodium chloride and linoleic acid, while it was strongly inhibited by Triton X-100 and bovine serum albumin. Galactosylceramide, p-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside, and p-nitrophenol were weak inhibitors. No effects of GM1 and galactose were observed on the hydrolysis of lactosylceramide.  (+info)

Gangliosides of human kidney. (3/1980)

Five gangliosides isolated from human kidney have been characterized. The two main fractions were shown to be typical extraneural gangliosides in having lactose as their neutral carbohydrate moiety. Their structures were identified as: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-8)AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer. The two main hexosamine-containing gangliosides are structurally related to human blood group substances of glycosphingolipid nature. The following structures are postulated: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1) Cer. The third hexosamine-containing ganglioside belongs to a different series of glycolipids and was shown to have the structure of a major ganglioside of human brain: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc(beta1-4)[AcNeu(alpha2-3)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1- 1)Cer. The fatty acid structure of different gangliosides was shown to resemble that of neutral glycolipids of human kidney with the nonhydroxy acids C16:0, C22:0, and C24:0 as major components.  (+info)

Lipolytic action of cholera toxin on fat cells. Re-examination of the concept implicating GM1 ganglioside as the native membrane receptor. (4/1980)

The possible role of galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM1) ganglioside in the lipolytic activity of cholera toxin on isolated fat cells has been examined. Analyses of the ganglioside content and composition of intact fat cells, their membranous ghosts, and the total particulate fraction of these cells indicate that N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3) represents the major ganglioside, with substantial amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM2) and smaller amounts of other higher homologues also present. Native GM1 was not detected in any of these preparations. Examination of the relative capacities of various exogenously added radiolabeled sphingolipids to bind to the cells indicated that GM2 and glucosylsphingosine were accumulated by the cells to extents comparable to GM1. Galactosylsphingosine and sulfatide also exhibited significant, although lesser, binding affinities for the cells. The adipocytes appeared to nonspecifically bind exogenously added GM1; saturation of binding sites for GM1 could not be observed up to the highest concentration tested (2 X 10(-4) M), wherein about 7 X 10(9) molecules were associated with the cells. Essentially all of this exogenously added GM1 was found bound to the plasma membrane "ghost" fraction. Investigation of the biological responses of the cells confirmed their sensitivities to both cholera toxin and epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis, as well as the lag period displayed during the toxin's action. While we could confirm that the toxin's lipolytic activity can be enhanced by prior treatment of the fat cells with GM1, several of the observed characteristics of this phenomenon differ from earlier reported findings. Accordingly, added GM1 was able to enhance only the subsequent rate, but not the extent, of toxin-stimulated glycerol release (lipolysis) from the cells. We also were unable to confirm the ability of GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity at either saturating or at low toxin concentrations. The limited ability of added GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity appeared in a unique bell-shaped dose-response manner. The inability of high levels of GM1 to stimulate a dose of toxin that was ineffective on native cells suggests that the earlier reported ability of crude brain gangliosides to accomplish this was due to some component other than GM1 in the crude extract. While several glycosphingolipids and some other carbohydrate-containing substances that were tested lacked the ability to mimic the enhancing effect of GM1, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside exhibited an effect similar to, although less pronounced than, that of GM1. The findings in these studies are unable to lend support to the earlier hypothesis that (a) GM1 is cholera toxin's naturally occurring membrane receptor on native fat cells, and (b) the ability of exogenously added GM1 to enhance the toxin's lipolytic activity represents the specific creation of additional natural receptors on adipocytes...  (+info)

Atherosclerotic aortic gangliosides enhance integrin-mediated platelet adhesion to collagen. (5/1980)

Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, accumulate in atherosclerotic vessels. Their role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is unknown. Gangliosides isolated from tumor cells promote collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and ATP secretion and enhance platelet adhesion to immobilized collagen. These activities are all mediated by ganglioside effects on the platelet integrin collagen receptor alpha2beta1. Therefore, we hypothesized that gangliosides isolated from atherosclerotic plaques would enhance platelet adhesion to immobilized collagen, a major component of the subendothelial matrix of blood vessels. Furthermore, we questioned whether this effect of atherosclerotic gangliosides might play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we isolated the gangliosides from postmortem aortas of patients with extensive atherosclerotic disease and examined their effects on platelet adhesion. Samples of aortic tissue taken from areas involved with atherosclerotic plaque demonstrated accumulation of gangliosides (64.9+/-6.5 nmol/g wet weight) compared with gangliosides isolated from control normal aortic tissue taken from children who died of noncardiac causes (NAGs; 21.1+/-6.4 nmol/g wet weight). Interestingly, samples of tissue taken from diseased aortas but from areas not involved with gross plaque formation also demonstrated ganglioside accumulation (47.6+/-12.8 nmol/g wet weight). Next, the activity of each of these gangliosides on platelet adhesion to immobilized type I collagen was studied. Atherosclerotic aortic gangliosides (AAGs) as well as those isolated from grossly unaffected areas of the same aorta (UAGs) both increased platelet adhesion compared with control NAGs (OD570, 0. 37+/-0.11 and 0.29+/-0.14 versus 0.16+/-0.07, respectively; P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). These OD570 values corresponded to 9x10(5), 8x10(4), and 6x10(3) platelets per well after preincubation with 5 micromol/L AAG, UAG, and NAG, respectively. Increased adhesion was observed after preincubation with as little as 0.5 micromol/L AAG, and maximal adhesion was seen at 2.5 micromol/L, with a plateau extending to the highest concentration tested, 10 micromol/L. The effect of AAGs on platelet adhesion to collagen was abrogated by incubation of treated platelets with F-17 anti-alpha2 monoclonal antibody (OD570, 0.13+/-0.02). Finally, the effects of the major individual gangliosides isolated from atherosclerotic tissues, GM3 and GD3, were tested. GM3 increased adhesion to collagen (OD570, 0.415+/-0.06) as did GD3 (0.31+/-0.08). Similar to that of AAGs, the effect of both molecules was blocked by F-17 (0. 09+/-0.04 and 0.13+/-0.06, respectively). These experiments demonstrate that accumulated atherosclerotic gangliosides promote platelet adhesion to collagen, the major component of the subendothelial matrix. Furthermore, this activity is mediated by an effect of the gangliosides on the collagen-binding integrin alpha2beta1. This activity may provide a mechanism for the development of platelet thrombi at sites where atherosclerotic gangliosides accumulate and help to explain the role of platelets in the process of atherosclerotic disease progression.  (+info)

Antiganglioside antibodies in Guillain-Barre syndrome after a recent cytomegalovirus infection. (6/1980)

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between anti-ganglioside antibody responses and Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS) after a recent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. METHODS: Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was undertaken on serum samples from 14 patients with GBS with recent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (CMV+GBS) and 12 without (CMV-GBS), 17 patients with other neurological diseases (OND), 11 patients with a recent CMV infection but without neurological involvement, 11 patients with recent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection but without neurological involvement, and 20 normal control (NC) subjects. RESULTS: IgM antibodies were found at 1:100 serum dilution to gangliosides GM2 (six of 14 patients), GM1 (four of 14), GD1a (three of 14) and GD1b (two of 14) in the serum samples of the CMV+GBS patients, but not in those of any of the CMV-GBS patients. IgM antibodies were also found to gangliosides GM1, GD1a, and GD1b in one of 11 OND patients, to ganglioside GM1 in one of 11 non- neurological CMV patients, and to ganglioside GD1b in one of 20 NC subjects. Some patients with EBV infection had IgM antibodies to gangliosides GM1 (five of 11), GM2 (three of 11), and GD1a (two of 11). However, the antibodies to ganglioside GM2 had a low titre, none being positive at 1:200 dilution, whereas five of the CMV+GBS serum samples remained positive at this dilution. CONCLUSION: Antibodies to ganglioside GM2 are often associated with GBS after CMV infection, but their relevance is not known. It is unlikely that CMV infection and anti-ganglioside GM2 antibodies are solely responsible and an additional factor is required to elicit GBS.  (+info)

The distribution of ganglioside-like moieties in peripheral nerves. (7/1980)

GM1 ganglioside has been implicated as a target of immune attack in some diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Anti-GM1 ganglioside antibodies are associated with certain acquired immune-mediated neuropathies. It is not clear how anti-GM1 antibodies cause nerve dysfunction and injury; however, sodium and/or potassium ion channel dysfunction at the node of Ranvier has been implicated. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of these neuropathies, we examined the distribution of GM1 ganglioside and Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc moieties in nerve fibres and their relationship to voltage-gated sodium and potassium (Kv1.1, 1.5) channels at the nodes of Ranvier in peripheral nerves from human, rat and dystrophic mice. Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc moieties were localized via the binding of cholera toxin and peanut agglutinin. As a control for the specificity of these findings, we compared the distribution of GM1 moieties to that of the ganglioside GT1b. Our study provides definitive evidence for the presence of Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc bearing moieties on the axolemmal surface of mature myelinated fibres and on Schwann cells. Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc binding sites did not have an obligatory co-localization with voltage-gated sodium channels or the potassium ion channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.5 and are thus not likely carried by these ion channels. In contrast with Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc, GT1b-like moieties are restricted to the axolemma.  (+info)

De-N-acetyl-gangliosides in humans: unusual subcellular distribution of a novel tumor antigen. (8/1980)

The disialoganglioside GD3 is a major antigen in human melanomas that can undergo 9-O-acetylation of the outer sialic acid (giving 9-OAc-GD3). Monoclonal antibody SGR37 detects a different modification of the GD3, de-N-acetylation of the 5-N-acetyl group (giving de-N-Ac-GD3). We found that conventional immunohistochemistry of the SGR37 antigen is limited by a reduction in reactivity upon fixation with aldehydes (which presumably react with the free amino group) or with organic reagents (which can extract glycolipids). We optimized conditions for detection of this antigen in unfixed frozen tissue sections and studied its distribution in human tissues and tumors. It is expressed at low levels in a few blood vessels, infiltrating mononuclear cells in the skin and colon, and at moderate levels in skin melanocytes. In contrast, the antigen accumulates at high levels in many melanomas and in some lymphomas but not in carcinomas. In positive melanomas, expression is sometimes more intense and widespread than that of GD3. Both 9-O-acetylation and de-N-acetylation of GD3 seem to occur after its initial biosynthesis. Isotype-matched antibodies against GD3, 9-O-acetyl-GD3 and de-N-acetyl-GD3 were used to compare their subcellular localization and trafficking. 9-O-acetyl-GD3 colocalizes with GD3 predominantly on the cell surface and partly in lysosomal compartments. In contrast, de-N-acetyl-GD3 has a diffuse intracellular location. Adsorptive endocytosis of antibodies indicates that whereas GD3 remains predominantly on the cell surface, de-N-acetyl-GD3 is efficiently internalized into a compartment that is distinct from lysosomes. Rounding up of melanoma cells occurring during growth in culture is associated with relocation of the internal pool of de-N-acetyl-GD3 to the cell surface. Thus, a minor modification of the polar head group of a tumor-associated glycosphingolipid can markedly affect the subcellular localization and trafficking of the whole molecule. The high levels of the SGR37 antigen in melanomas and lymphomas, its selective endocytosis from the cell surface, and its relocation to the cell surface of rounded up cells suggest potential uses in diagnostic or therapeutic approaches to these diseases.  (+info)

Human melanoma cells (M21) actively attach and spread on a fibronectin substrate. Indirect immunofluorescence assays with specific monoclonal antibodies directed to the disialoganglioside GD2, the major ganglioside expressed on M21 melanoma cells, indicate that during the cell attachment process this molecule redistributes into microprocesses that make direct contact with the fibronectin substrate. Scanning and transmission immunoelectron microscopic studies with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies and immuno-gold staining demonstrate that GD2 preferentially localizes into substrate-associated microprocesses that emanate from the plasma membrane of the M21 cells. Staining with monoclonal antibodies directed to other melanoma surface antigens fails to demonstrate a similar distribution pattern on these cells. Direct evidence is provided that GD2 is involved in M21 cell attachment to fibronectin, since treatment of these cells with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies causes cell rounding and detachment from ...
Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids expressed on all vertebrate cells. They are primarily positioned in the plasma membrane, with the ceramide part anchored in the membrane and the glycan part exposed on the surface of the cell. These lipids have highly diverse structures, not the least with respect to their carbohydrate chains, with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) being the two most common sialic acid residues in mammalian cells. Human healthy tissue is deficient in NeuGc, but since this molecule is expressed in tumors and in human fetal tissues, it is known as an onco-fetal antigen. Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example as receptors in cell-cell recognition, which can be exploited by viruses and other pathogens, and also by regulating signaling proteins through lateral interaction in the membrane. Through both mechanisms, tumor-associated gangliosides may affect
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development regulation of ganglioside metabolism. AU - Yu, Robert K. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Various reports have appeared indicating that the expression of gangliosides may be largely regulated at the genetic level. Evidence from analysis of the gene for this enzyme revealed binding sequences for a number of liver restricted transcription factors such as hepatocyte nuclear factor l a, liver specific factors D-binding protein (DBP), and liver enriched transcription activator protein (LAP), as well as the more general transcription factors AP-1 and AP-2. Presumably, the expression of the various glycosyltransferases for ganglioside synthesis may be regulated in an analogous manner. Factors involved in the regulation of ganglioside expression include the proper translocation and sorting of the glycolipid products in multi-glycosyltransferase systems. Disruption of the flow of gangliosides along their biosynthetic pathways also can cause alterations in ganglioside ...
Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids mainly expressed at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Sialidase NEU3 is a key enzyme in the catabolism of gangliosides with its up-regulation having been observed in human cancer cells. In the case of CME (clathrin-mediated endocytosis), although this has been widely studied, the role of NEU3 and gangliosides in this cellular process has not yet been established. In the present study, we found an increased internalization of Tf (transferrin), the archetypical cargo for CME, in cells expressing complex gangliosides with high levels of sialylation. The ectopic expression of NEU3 led to a drastic decrease in Tf endocytosis, suggesting the participation of gangliosides in this process. However, the reduction in Tf endocytosis caused by NEU3 was still observed in glycosphingolipid-depleted cells, indicating that NEU3 could operate in a way that is independent of its action on gangliosides. Additionally, internalization of ...
Neuroectodermal tumours are characterized by aberrant processing of disialogangliosides concomitant with high expression of GD2 or GD3 on cell surfaces. Antibodies targeting GD2 are already in clinical use for therapy of neuroblastoma, a solid tumour of early childhood. Here, we set out to identify peptides with high affinity to human disialoganglioside GD2. To this end, we performed a combined in vivo and in vitro screen using a recombinant phage displayed peptide library. We isolated a phage displaying the peptide sequence WHWRLPS that specifically binds to the human disialoganglioside GD2. Binding specificity was confirmed by mutational scanning and by comparative analyses using structurally related disialogangliosides. In vivo, significant enrichment of phage binding to xenografts of human neuroblastoma cells in mice was observed. Tumour-specific phage accumulation could be blocked by intravenous coinjection of the corresponding peptide. Comparative pharmacokinetic analyses revealed higher ...
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the disialoganglioside II3(NeuAc)2GgOse3Cer (GD2) were produced by immunizing mice with the GD2-expressing neuroblastoma cell line LAN-1 and a prefusion boost with purified GD2 coupled to Salmonella minnesota. Two IgM mAbs were isolated which demonstrated hig …
Ganglioside GM1 (18:1/12:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. It is a component the cell plasma membrane which modulates cell signal transduction events. Gangliosides have been found to be highly important in immunology. Ganglioside GM1 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids from brain, but they are found at low levels in all animal tissues. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and gangliosides. Gangliosides are very similar to globosides except that they also contain N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) in varying amounts. The specific names for the gangliosides provide information about their structure. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, ...
The disialoganglioside GD3 plays a major role in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been reported that ganglioside GD3 can induce apoptosis through bcl-2 mediated mitochondrial pathway. However, the relationship between ganglioside GD3 and B-cell/CLL lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is not full …
TY - JOUR. T1 - GANGLIOSIDES OF HUMAN MYELIN. T2 - SIALOSYLGALACTOSYLCERAMIDE (G7) AS A MAJOR COMPONENT. AU - Ledeen, R. W.. AU - Yu, R. K.. AU - Eng, L. F.. PY - 1973/10. Y1 - 1973/10. N2 - Abstract- Gangliosides were isolated from purified human myelin in a yield of 62 μg of lipid‐bound sialic acid per 100 mg of dry myelin. Sialosylgalactosyl ceramide (G7) was found to be a major component of the ganglioside fraction, amounting to 15 per cent of the total sialic acid. It accounted for 10 per cent of lipid‐bound sialic acid in adult human white matter, making it the third most abundant ganglioside on a molar basis. These results were obtained with an improved method for isolating total gangliosides in high yield, by employing DEAE‐Sephadex column chromatography. Myelin from other mammalian species had considerably less G7, and there were also indications of maturational changes. Both 2‐hydroxy and unsubstituted fatty acids were components of the ceramide unit, in a ratio of 3:2, ...
Ganglioside GM2 (d18:0/25:0) is a ganglioside. A ganglioside is a compound composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (AKA n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain. The 60+ known gangliosides differ mainly in the position and number of NANA residues. It is a component of the cell plasma membrane that modulates cell signal transduction events. It appears that they concentrate in lipid rafts. They have recently been found to be highly important in immunology. Natural and semisynthetic gangliosides are considered possible therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. Gangliosides are more complex glycosphingolipids in which oligosaccharide chains containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) are attached to a ceramide. NeuNAc, an acetylated derivative of the carbohydrate sialic acid, makes the head groups of Gangliosides anionic. NB: the M in GM2 stands for monosialo, i.e., one NeuNAc residue. GM2 is the second monosialo ganglioside ...
Ganglioside GD3小鼠单克隆抗体[R24](ab11779)可与人样本反应并经IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被5篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Hirabayashi turned himself into the FBI, was convicted in U.S. District Court of defying the exclusion order, took his case to the U.S. Supreme Court and lost. Forty-four years later, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals overturned his conviction.. The U.S. government admitted it made a mistake, Hirabayashi said in 2000. A country that can do this is a strong country. I have more faith and allegiance to the Constitution than I ever had before.. Hirabayashi died this past January.. He is among a group of honorees announced by the White House. Other Medal of Freedom winner include astronaut and former Sen. John Glenn, ex-Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, singer-songwriter Bob Dylan, United Farmworkers organizer Dolores Huerta, novelist Toni Morrison and Israels President Shimon Peres.. Hirabayashi ended up hitchhiking to Arizona to serve his time in an internment camp. The site of his internment is now the Gordon Hirabayashi Recreation Site in the Coronado National Forest, on the slopes ...
ST3Gal V (or GM3 synthase) is the sialyltransferase that catalyses the initial step in the biosynthesis of most complex gangliosides from lactosylceramide. ST3Gal V plays a key regulatory role in determining the cell surface ganglioside profile and, consequently, in modulating a large variety of ganglioside-dependent cellular events, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, adhesion, apoptosis, oncogenesis. In addition, a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in the hST3Gal V gene is cause of an autosomal recessive infantile-onset symptomatic epilepsy syndrome. Recently, we have identified a hST3Gal V mRNA variant containing an additional translation start codon, located upstream and in-frame with that considered unique translation initiation site in the human GM3 synthase gene, providing the first evidence of the existence of two differentially N-terminal extended isoforms of the protein [1]. The functional relevance of the longer isoform has to be defined yet, and a study to define its ...
Clone 105HB29 recognizes the c-series ganglioside-specific antigen A2B5. The Anti-A2B5 antibody binds to glial progenitors from embryonic to adult human, murine, and rat tissue.A2B5 is predominantly expressed in embryonic and neonatal neural tissue. In the adult mammalian brain, A2B5 expression is restricted mainly to areas which retain neurogenic potential such as the subventricular zone (SVZ). Thus, A2B5 is considered as a marker for immature glial-committed precursors which are permanently generated in the SVZ. Glial precursor cells are defined as cells that give rise to glial cell types, such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.Ganglioside GT3 and its O-acetylated derivative are the principal A2B5-reactive gangliosides, and both antigens are down-regulated as the cells differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes. Therefore, A2B5 serves as a marker to monitor the maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitors in oligodendrocyte cultures. | Singapore
Lipids | sphingolipids | glycosphingolipids | gangliosides Definition: Gangliosides are glycosylated sphingolipids enriched in membranes of the (...)
Deacetylation of de novo synthesized 9-O-acetyl GD3 triggers apoptosis of HEK-293 cells. (A) GD3 and 9-O-acetyl GD3 content of HEK-293 cells was analyzed by TLC
Address for correspondence: Mepur H. Ravindranath, Laboratory of Glycoimmunotherapy, John Wayne Cancer Institute, 2200 Santa Monica Boulevard, Santa Monica, CA 90404-2302. Voice: 310-449-5263. [email protected] Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1050: 229-242 (2005). © 2005 New York Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1196/annals.1313.024 229 4Glcβ1Cer 2144 of the bilayered lipid membrane of every human cell.8NeuAcα2.3GalNAcβ1. In our ELISA system. which prevents direct and specific recognition by conventional specific T cells.4Glcβ1Cer NeuAcα2.8 Oligosaccharide residues of gangliosides are unable to bind into the groove of MHC molecules.4Galβ1. ethanol suspension is employed to coat polystyrene plates in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure antiganglioside antibodies. although antiganglioside IgG (commonly IgG2a or IgG3) antibodies are found in mice and rabbits.4Glcβ1Cer Galβ1.3NeuAc)Galβ1.3Galβ1. and they do not require T-cell help. extraneural. there is no evidence for isotype ...
Ganglioside GD3, 1 ml. Almost all melanomas, astrocytomas, a proportion of sarcomas, a small number of carcinomas, some nevi, as well as normal melanocytes express GD3 antigen.
Purpose : Gangliosides (GG) make an extremely diverse family of glycosphingolipids particularly abundant in the brain and neural tissues. While it is known that alterations in GG metabolism are associated with visual defects, the precise biological roles of these compounds in the retina are still largely unknown. In this context, we performed an exhaustive inventory and thorough characterization of the human eye GG aiming to reveal specificities and common features of the retina compared to other ocular tissues and brain. Methods : Retina, RPE/Choroid, ciliary body, optic nerve and brain samples were collected from deceased human donors (N=7). GG were extracted and analysed by a comprehensive approach relying on various techniques. First, GG content and class composition were assessed by high-performance thin layer chromatography followed by colorimetric revelation. Second, identification and relative quantification of the different ceramide types represented in each GG class were achieved using ...
A Monoclonal Antibody to O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside and Not to GD2 Shows Potent Anti-Tumor Activity without Peripheral Nervous System Cross-Reactivity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Serum Gangliosides in Patients with Brain Tumors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Background Ganglioside biosynthesis occurs through a multi-enzymatic pathway which at the lactosylceramide step is branched into several biosynthetic series. Lc3 synthase utilizes a variety of galactose-terminated glycolipids as acceptors by establishing a glycosidic bond in the beta-1,3-linkage to GlcNaAc to extend the lacto- and neolacto-series gangliosides. In order to examine the lacto-series ganglioside functions in mice, we used gene knockout technology to generate Lc3 synthase gene B3gnt5-deficient mice by two different strategies and compared the phenotypes of the two null mouse groups with each other and with their wild-type counterparts. Results B3gnt5 gene knockout mutant mice appeared normal in the embryonic stage and, if they survived delivery, remained normal during early life. However, about 9% developed early-stage growth retardation, 11% died postnatally in less than 2 months, and adults tended to die in 5-15 months, demonstrating splenomegaly and notably enlarged lymph nodes. ...
It has long been observed that axons in the CNS have a poor ability to regenerate, while peripheral axons regenerate readily. Characterizing the molecular determinants that allow peripheral axons to regenerate might identify therapeutic strategies that may stimulate nerve regeneration and functional recovery after nerve damage. The permissiveness of the extracellular environment as well as cell-intrinsic molecular programs have been identified as critical variables that differ between the CNS and the PNS and that underlie the disparity in regeneration.. Evidence suggests that gangliosides, a family of plasma membrane glycosphingolipids with one or more sialic acid residues, are important regulators of axon regeneration (Schnaar et al., 2014). Gangliosides play important roles in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions by organizing plasma membrane microdomains as well as acting as receptors for extracellular ligands (Schnaar et al., 2014). For example, the monosialylated GM1 ganglioside is a ...
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Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG, Siglec-4) is unique among the siglecs in that it is expressed exclusively on neuronal glial cells[1][2]. It is the most highly conserved among the siglecs in mammalian species. This siglec paradigm is unique in its activity of stabilizing axon-myelin interactions. MAG has a cytoplasmic domain that is devoid of ITIMs, but contains a tyrosine-based motif associated with binding the FYN tyrosine kinase, believed to play a role in its activity in myelin-axon interactions. MAG recognizes as ligands sialoside sequences found on gangliosides that are abundant in axonal membranes[2]. It is one of several proteins in myelin that negatively regulate axon outgrowth following tissue injury, an activity that involves MAG-ligand interactions. Evidence suggests that inhibition of MAG-ligand interactions may enhance neurite outgrowth and repair of injured neurons[3][4][5]. ...
Although much work has been done over the last 30 years, the cell-surface receptors that the toxin uses to gain entry into neurons are not well defined. However, through results obtained by myself as part of my PhD research as well as other labs, a particular class of glycolipids (combination of sugars and lipids, called gangliosides are necessary for the toxin to enter neurons. Since it is the sugar portion of these glycolipids that is recognized by the toxin, it is believed that perhaps a drug could be made from these sugars that would prevent the toxin from entering neurons. It is the further characterization of the mechanism of entry of the toxin, as well as the design of a drug to prevent this entry, that is the focus of my research ...
CC: CCSD:44883 AU: Rosenberg A; Noble EP TI: Inhibition of neuritogenic ganglioside biosynthesis in chick brain neurons by calcium ionophore A23187 CT: Biochem Biophys Res Commun (1993) 190: 522-528 [PMID:8427594] BS: (CN) chicken, (OT) brain neuron cells, (LS) embryo TN: GM2 MT: ganglioside MT: glycolipid MT: glycosphingolipid SB: Westra B DA: 15-01-1996 FC: f7673cea SI: CBank:16359 ---------------- structure: b-D-GalpNAc-(1-4)+ , b-D-Galp-(1-4)-b-D-Glcp-(1-1)-Ceramide , a-D-Neup5Ac-(2-3)+ ================end of record ...
Multiple phenotypic changes in mice after knockout of the B3gnt5 gene, encoding Lc3 synthase--a key enzyme in lacto-neolacto ganglioside synthesis.
download theory process travel( dead) plays packet of ancient load listeners or spam eds to the constructions so that weapon is to the including leaf to take distributed exclusively to the rack-mount. short respect can see attracted between true devices. This law needs some expanse reasons and links that must describe developed for spanning Unified Communications matters on Current metals. The Cisco B-Series Blade Servers download theory and new CPU types, and each CPU p can take representative bone years. For Degree, one B200 generation is two CPU islands that can cry up to two design anthologies. This includes the arc to see alien Unified Communications events on a Marxist rush Storage. Each audio Communications download theory and practice should have used learned platform and Decision Egyptians to become that the requirements believe fully come. made role authorities published on the Cisco UCS B-Series quality need the early issues to turn from a Fibre Channel SAN call magnificence. The SAN ...
Affiliation:信州大学,医学部,助教(特定雇用), Research Field:Pediatrics, Keywords:GD2,併用療法,遺伝子改変T細胞,キメラ抗原受容体(CAR),GD2,脳腫瘍,遺伝子改変T細胞療法,piggyBacトランスポゾン法,ヒストン脱アセチル化酵素阻害薬,小児, # of Research Projects:1, # of Research Products:4
CC: CCSD:32703 AU: Ladisch S; Becker H; Ulsh L TI: Immunosuppression by human gangliosides: I. Relationship of carbohydrate structure to the inhibition of T cell responses CT: Biochim Biophys Acta (1992) 1125: 180-188 [PMID:1571361] BS: (CN) human, (OT) brain TN: GM2 MT: ganglioside MT: glycolipid MT: glycosphingolipid SB: van Kuik A DA: 18-02-1994 FC: f7673cea SI: CBank:16359 ---------------- structure: b-D-GalpNAc-(1-4)+ , b-D-Galp-(1-4)-b-D-Glcp-(1-1)-Ceramide , a-D-Neup5Ac-(2-3)+ ================end of record ...
HEK-293 cells are resistant to endogenous GD3 accumulation and synthesize 9-O-acetyl GD3. (A) The percentage of apoptotic HEK-293 nuclei was analyzed 40 h after
FUKAMI Satoru , KANAYA Hiroaki , HIRABAYASHI Hideki , TANIGAITO Yosiyuki , BABA Kohtaro 口腔・咽頭科 = Stomato-pharyngology 15(2), 191-197, 2003-02-28 Ichushi Web References (23) ...
A murine monoclonal antibody (monoclonal antibody 126) produced against cultured human neuroblastoma cells (LAN-1) was found to be specifically directed to a disialoganglioside (GD2) antigen preferentially expressed on both cell lines and tissues derived from melanoma and neuroblastoma. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, monoclonal antibody 126 failed to react with leukemic and lymphoblastoid cells as well as with a variety of carcinoma and sarcoma cell lines. Immunohistological analysis by the immunoperoxidase technique revealed strong reactivity of monoclonal antibody 126 with frozen and formaldehyde-fixed neuroblastoma and melanoma tissues. Tissues from patients with glioma or with small cell cancer of the lung showed faint staining, whereas those from individuals with sarcoma, lymphoma, and a variety of other neoplasms proved to be negative. Sera of neuroblastoma patients showed significantly elevated GD2 levels compared to normal children (p , 0.001) and children with other tumors (p , ...
We determined the ability of mixed gangliosides (16% GD1b, 19% GT1b, 21% GM1, and 40% GD1a) and individual gangliosides GM1 and GD1b to modulate the NV-PLA2 induced human erythrocyte ghost membrane damage. CM-Sephadex purification of crude Naja naja venom yielded eight peaks of which peak VII, a major phospholipase A2 (NV-PLA2) accounted for 22% of the total protein recovered and 8% of the total PLA2 activity recovered. The membrane damage induced by NV-PLA2 was assessed by measuring the decrease in the relative intensity of fluorescence using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule. The RBC membranes isolated from healthy human blood showed 72% damage on treatment with NV-PLA2 (2 mg) when compared to untreated membranes. Mixed gangliosides (18 nM) and GM1 (15 nM) offered 81 and 86% protection respectively, whereas GD1b (20 nM) did not show significant protection. Analysis of membrane bound Na+K+ and Ca2+Mg2+ ATPase indicated a 3 fold and 2 folds decrease in their activities on NV-PLA2
Autoimmune neuropathies are frequently associated with pathogenic anti-ganglioside antibodies targeting ganglioside-rich neuronal and glial membranes. The extent of injury is determined by the concentration of membrane ganglioside and thus reduction might be expected to attenuate disease. In this study, we suppressed ganglioside biosynthesis in PC12 cells with the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin and observed reduced plasma membrane antibody binding and a major neuroprotective effect in complement-mediated lysis assays. These data demonstrate that iminosugar inhibitors, currently used to treat type 1 Gaucher disease, are also of potential value for depleting antigen and thereby suppressing tissue injury in anti-ganglioside antibody-associated neuropathy. ...
In patients with neuroblastoma, immunotherapy with 3F8, a mAb against the disialoganglioside GD2, promotes natural killer (NK) cell-mediated toxicity. NK cells possess inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR; encoded by KIR3DL1) that bind to HLA class I molecules, licensing NK cells to target cells lacking self-HLA, but also attenuating their tumor cytotoxicity. Allelic diversity exists for KIR3DL1 and HLA-Bw4, and the outcome of 3F8 treatment is improved in patients lacking the HLA class I ligands. These observations prompted Forlenza and colleagues to hypothesize that polymorphisms could alter the strength of the interaction between KIR3DL1 and HLA-Bw4, and modulate the NK response to 3F8. To test this hypothesis a retrospective analysis was performed to determine the KIRDL1 and HLA-B subtype of 245 patients with high-risk neuroblastoma treated with 3F8. HLA typing indicated that 58% of patients harbored at least one HLA-Bw4 allele, whereas the other 42% were homozygous for Bw6 ...
Guillain-Barr symptoms (GBS) is usually a postinfectious autoimmune neuropathy and anti-ganglioside antibodies (Abs) are strongly associated with this disorder. recapitulating pathologic features of human being disease. Notably, our results showed that immune complex formation and the activating Fc gamma receptors (FcRs) were involved in the anti-ganglioside Abs-mediated nodal and axonal injury with this model. These studies provide new evidence the activating FcRs-mediated swelling plays a critical part in anti-ganglioside Abs-induced neuropathy (injury to intact nerve materials) in GBS. test and two-way ANOVA with corrections for multiple comparisons and < 0. 05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results L5SNT induces degeneration Skepinone-L of a proportion of nerve materials and breakdown of BNB in sciatic nerve Skepinone-L and its branches We as well as others have identified that systemic administration of anti-ganglioside mAbs in wild-type uninjured animals does not Skepinone-L ...
Swine and influenza vaccines induce anti-ganglioside antibodies associated with autoimmune neuropathies such as Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Structure elucidation of glycosphingolipids and gangliosides using high-performance tandem mass spectrometry.: Glycosphingolipids and gangliosides have been inv
Gangliosides enhance KCl-induced Ca2+ influx and acetylcholine release in brain synaptosomes.: Effects of gangliosides GM1 and GQ1b on cholinergic synaptic func
The post infectious paralytic autoimmune disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), has been associated with the generation of cross-reactive auto-antibodies after Campylobacter jejuni infection. These auto-antibodies interact with both the ganglioside mimicking C. jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) and endogenous gangliosides. This study sought to investigate novel interactions of the ganglioside mimicking LOS with immune system ganglioside specific receptors. In addition, studies investigated if such receptor recognition affects antigen trafficking or the immunostimulatory potency of the LOS, which could participate in auto-antibody generation. Results presented in this thesis demonstrate for the first time that certain members of the siglec receptor family are capable of recognising LOS from a GBS associated strain of C. jejuni. This interaction did not definitively result in enhanced, or altered, potency of ganglioside mimicking LOS in stimulating immune cells. Interestingly, ganglioside ...
Guillian-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is the worlds leading cause of neuromuscular paralysis occurring in serologically and pathogenically distinct forms. GBS is believed to have an autoimmune basis, where antibodies raised during antecedent infections (eg Campylobacter jejuni) cross-react with self antigens, exemplifying the process of molecular mimicry. These self-antigens are gangliosides, which are glycolipid structures enriched in peripheral nerve in specific membrane compartments termed lipid rafts. To date, successful murine models of anti-GD1a and anti-Gq1b ganglioside mediated neuropathy exist. Clinical evidence supports the involvement of anti-GM1 antibodies in nerve injury, however generation of anti-GM1 antibody mediated neuropathy models remain an enigma, and to date, the only successful model is based in Japanese rabbits. This thesis aims to address the controversies surrounding anti-GM1 antibody mediated neuropathy by utilising a panel of anti-GM1 antibodies of differing specificity, ...
Objectives: Anti-ganglioside antibodies are present in approximately half of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients. Recently, it has been shown that a considerable proportion of these patients has serum antibodies against antigenic epitopes formed by a complex of two different gangliosides. However, direct experimental evidence for neuropathogenicity of this special category of antibodies is currently lacking. Here, we explored a series of GBS and GBS-variant sera with anti-ganglioside-complex antibodies for their ability to induce complement-dependent deleterious effects at the living neuronal membrane. Methods: The neuropathophysiological potential of 31 GBS sera containing either anti-GM1/GD1a- or anti-GM1/GQ1b-ganglioside-complex antibodies was studied at motor nerve terminal presynaptic membranes in the mouse phrenic nerve/diaphragm muscle ex vivo experimental model. With electrophysiological measurements and confocal fluorescence microscopy, we assessed and quantified the damaging effect ...
Accepted name: α-N-acetylneuraminate α-2,8-sialyltransferase Reaction: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-R = CMP + α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→8)-α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-R. For diagram of reaction click here.. Other name(s): cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminate-ganglioside GM3; α-2,8-sialyltransferase; ganglioside GD3 synthase; ganglioside GD3 synthetase sialyltransferase; CMP-NeuAc:LM1(α2-8) sialyltranferase; GD3 synthase; SAT-2 Systematic name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-D-galactoside α-2,8-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase Comments: Gangliosides act as acceptors. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 67339-00-8. References: 1. Eppler, M.C., Morré, J.D. and Keenan, T.W. Ganglioside biosynthesis in rat liver: alteration of sialyltransferase activities by nucleotides. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 619 (1980) 332-343. [PMID: 7407217] 2. Higashi, H., Basu, M. and Basu, S. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimal conditions for the assay of fibroblast neuraminidase with different natural substrates. AU - Caimi, L.. AU - Lombardo, A.. AU - Preti, A.. AU - Wiesmann, U.. AU - Tettamanti, G.. PY - 1979/11/9. Y1 - 1979/11/9. N2 - A method for the assay of neuraminidase in human cultured fibroblasts has been worked out. The substrates, all naturally occurring, were: sialyloligosaccharides (α(2 → 3)sialyllactose, α(2 → 6)sialyllactose, disialyllactose), sialylglycolipids (disialogangliosides GD1a and GD1b), sialylglycoproteins and sialylglycopeptides (ovine submaxillary glycoprotein and its pronase-glycopeptides). The method was based on the determination of the enzymically liberated N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) by a chromatographic-colorimetric microprocedure. The enzyme acted on sialyloligosaccharides and, in the presence of Triton X-100, on gangliosides, while it did not appreciably affect sialylglycoproteins and sialylglycopeptides. The optimum pH was 4.0 for all tested ...
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We describe a novel therapeutic approach to protect neurons and potentially extend lifespan across diseases that stress and/or injure neurons as the primary the pathological event. The neurite-promoting human IgM, rHIgM12, which binds to gangliosides GT1b and GD1a, was isolated and cloned from a human patient with monoclonal gammopathy without neurological disease. A recombinant form of this human IgM was tested in two distinct models of neurological disease with very different mechanisms of cell death: (1) a model of axonal injury mediated by a persistent picornovirus and immune attack and, (2) models of ALS driven by a mutation of a protein that is normally involved in preventing oxidative stress. The fact that this IgM is therapeutic in two disparate models (viral and genetic) implies that neuronal protection occurs by a broad mechanism possibly through an indirect mechanism involving immune cells that amplify the single dose of IgM.. A single 200 µg intraperitoneal dose of rHIgM12, given ...
Schengrund, C and Repman, M A., Density-dependent changes in gangliosides and sialidase activity of murine neuroblastoma cells. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3496 ...
Results In both Japanese and Italian cohorts, any of the antibodies were positive in 36% of the patients, and antibody positivity had a significant association with the AMAN electrodiagnosis. Approximately 30% of Japanese and Italian antiganglioside positive patients showed the AIDP pattern at the first examination whereas sequential studies showed that most finally showed the AMAN pattern. Clinically, seropositive patients more frequently had preceding diarrhoea and pure motor neuropathy in both Japanese and Italian cohorts; vibratory sensation was normal in 97% of Japanese and in 94% of Italian seropositive patients. ...
Many biochemical processes involve binding between carbohydrates and biomolecules on the surface of cells. These may involve multivalent interactions that can considerably alter the binding specificity and avidity of biomolecules. A novel nanocube sensor has been developed to elucidate the cooperativity in binding of biomolecules to carbohydrates. A fluidic supported lipid bilayer coated on the nanocube sensor allows this system to mimic a cell membrane in vitro. Cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit has been taken as a model system and its binding with several gangliosides has been demonstrated using this sensor. The amount of CTB bound to the lipid bilayer is then quantified by observing the shifts in the quadrupolar localized surface plasmon resonance peak using a standard laboratory spectrometer. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide a diagnostic tool to quickly identify diseases. This inexpensive, label free, high throughput technology allows the testing of several conditions ...
Cases of Guillain-Barr syndrome GBS associated with parenteral use of gangliosides have been reported in several European countries. To evaluate the hypothesis of association between ganglioside exposure and occurrence of GBS, a case-control study was conducted. GBS cases discharged during 1989 from public and private hospitals in three...
Schwartz, M; Sela, B A.; and Eshhar, N, Antibodies to gangliosides and myelin autoantigens are produced in mice following sciatic nerve injury. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2752 ...
Peripheral neuropathies constitute a diverse group of diseases caused by a wide range of genetic, toxic, metabolic, and inflammatory insults to the peripheral nervous system. A considerable proportion of neuropathies are believed to have an autoimmune basis, either as a feature of systemic autoimmune diseases, vasculitides, or paraneoplastic or postinfectious syndromes, in association with lymphoproliferative diseases, or as isolated peripheral nerve syndromes. In clinical practice, the cause of sporadic neuropathies is often obscure, resulting in the frequent use of multiple screening tests to aid in diagnosis. Over the last 20 years, there has been a widespread increase in the use of antiganglioside antibody assays as diagnostic tools, based on the recognition from research studies that gangliosides are important autoantigens in many patients with autoimmune peripheral nerve disorders (1).
Gangliosides play key roles in cell differentiation, cell-cell interactions, and transmembrane signaling. Sialidases hydrolyze sialic acids to produce asialo compounds, which is the first step of degradation processes of glycoproteins and gangliosides. Sialidase involvement has been implicated in some lysosomal storage disorders such as sialidosis and galactosialidosis. Neu2 is a recently identified human cytosolic sialidase. Here we report the first high resolution x-ray structures of mammalian sialidase, human Neu2, in its apo form and in complex with an inhibitor, 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA). The structure shows the canonical six-blade beta-propeller observed in viral and bacterial sialidases with its active site in a shallow crevice. In the complex structure, the inhibitor lies in the catalytic crevice surrounded by ten amino acids. In particular, the arginine triad, conserved among sialidases, aids in the proper positioning of the carboxylate group of DANA within the ...
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There are still unmet medical needs in the treatment of glioblastoma, the most common and the most aggressive glioma of all brain tumors. Here, we found that O-acetyl GD2 is expressed in surgically resected human glioblastoma tissue. In addition, we demonstrated that 8B6 monoclonal antibody specific for O-acetylat GD2 could effectively inhibit glioblastoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that O-acetylated GD2 represents a novel antigen for immunotherapeutic-based treatment of high-grade gliomas.
1DFQ: The structures of the H(C) fragment of tetanus toxin with carbohydrate subunit complexes provide insight into ganglioside binding.
1D0H: The structures of the H(C) fragment of tetanus toxin with carbohydrate subunit complexes provide insight into ganglioside binding.
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by Marius Borger Although prices paid for Vintage Panerai Models produced for the Italian Royal Navy dating more than 60 years ago are not comparable with todays models, the criminal energy, involving modifying and replacing certain parts to increase a watches value, also holds for Neo-Vintage Panerai models. After the acquisition of Panerai by the…
In order to increase our understanding about the pathogenic mechanism and the strategy of treatment in the subtypes of Guillain Barré syndrome, we will check the temporal changes of cytokines with different biological activities in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), check the titer of various anti-ganglioside antibodies, perform skin biopsy and correlate these data with the clinical findings such as severity and ...
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Description of research projects in the Sipione Lab. Research on Huntingtons disease, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and gangliosides.
Creative Biolabs provides Anti-GD2 scFv h(FcεRIγ) CART, pCDCAR1 product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
Creative Biolabs provides Anti-GD2 scFv h(41BB-CD3ζ) CART, pCDCAR1 product for Biopharmaceutical research,preclinical and clinical trials.
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We continue our 2007 and 1997 sedan series with its fourth installment. Weve covered V6 Japanese sedans from two different decades, as well as American-branded entries from 2007. Today we step back to the midsize V6 sedan class of 1997. The Big Three beckon you with medium build quality, equipment, and value for money in a midsize sedan; a segment in which only GM deigns to participate in 2020. Lets go.. (Read More…). ...
[민사]2012가단66632 사해행위취소등 <사실관계> 원고의 주장은, A는 원고에게 금원을 차용한 후에 원리금을 갚지 않고 연체하고 있다. A는 원고에게 원리금 지급 독촉을 받던 중, A와 피고(A의 자녀)가 공모하여 자신을 해할 목적으로 협의분할에 의한 상속을 원인으로 하는 부동산에 관한 소유권이전등기를 경료하였다. 따라서 이러한 협의분할에 의한 상속은 채권자인 원고를 해하는 것을 알고 한 법률행위로서 사해행위에 해당한다 주장하며 이 사건 소를 제기한 것 입니다. <전략의 수립과 수행> <판결에 대하여>
학생(연구원) - 2만원(등록비)/ 3만원(등록비+연회비) # 연구비로 연회비를 포함하여 등록 시에는 교수는 10만원/ 학생 및 연구원은 3만원을 납부해 주시기 바라며 이 경우에 영수증발급은 용도가 학회등록비로 표시되오니 많은 이용 부탁드립니다.. * 사전 등록 기간 마감 : 4월 18일. 농협 302-1042-2909-51 정기명(대한구강생물학회)로 입금해 주시고 아래 표를 작성해서 [email protected]로 회신해 주시면 행사진행에 큰 도움이 되겠습니다.. ...
To, L., Krazit, S. T. & Kaye, A. D., Jun 21 2013, In: Ochsner Journal. 13, 2, p. 208-213 6 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
... they are not always available for each ganglioside. Therefore, indirect measurement of ganglioside expression by quantifying ... GD1a, ganglioside also serves as SeV receptor and is found in large quantities on the surfaces of breast cancer stem cells. ... "Correction: Specific Gangliosides Function as Host Cell Receptors for Sendai Virus". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Umeda M, Nojima S, Inoue K (February 1984). "Activity of human erythrocyte gangliosides as a receptor to HVJ". Virology. 133 (1 ...
Separation of membranes with different ratios of ganglioside sialylating activity to gangliosides". Biochem. J. 168 (3): 325-32 ... Landa CA, Maccioni HJ, Arce A, Caputto R (1977). "The biosynthesis of brain gangliosides. ...
Higuchi, Ryuichi; Inagaki, Masanori; Yamada, Koji; Miyamoto, Tomofumi (2007). "Biologically active gangliosides from ...
Seyfried, Thomas N.; Yu, Robert K.; Miyazawa, Nobuko; Lai, Yin‐Lok (1982). "Retinal Gangliosides in RCS Mutant Rats". Journal ...
Gangliosides: the most complex animal glycolipids. They contain negatively charged oligosacchrides with one or more sialic acid ... Ariga T, McDonald MP, Yu RK (June 2008). "Role of ganglioside metabolism in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease--a review ... They may be as complicated a set of compounds as the negatively charged gangliosides in animals. Glycophosphatidylinositols: a ... residues; more than 200 different gangliosides have been identified. They are most abundant in nerve cells. Globosides: ...
Certain aspects of lipid rafts inhibit EGF receptor function: the ganglioside component of lipid rafts was shown to inhibit ... For example, fluorophores conjugated to cholera-toxin B-subunit, which binds to the raft constituent ganglioside GM1 is used ... Miljan, Erik A; Bremer, Eric G. (2002). "Regulation of growth factor receptors by gangliosides". Sci STKE. 2002 (160): RE15. ... ganglioside GM1 located in lipid rafts and major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecule. Binding of SV40 with MHC class I ...
GM2A (GM2 ganglioside activator) has been viewed as a member of the SAP family and has been called SAP-3 (sphingolipid ... Hiraiwa M, Soeda S, Kishimoto Y, O'Brien JS (1993). "Binding and transport of gangliosides by prosaposin". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... 1990). "The complete amino-acid sequences of human ganglioside GM2 activator protein and cerebroside sulfate activator protein ... GM1 ganglioside activator, dispersin, and nonspecific. It has been observed that this particular saposin activates many enzymes ...
GM1 gangliosides are found in lipid rafts on the cell surface. B subunit complexes labelled with fluorescent tags or ... Enterotoxin Ganglioside Ryan KJ; Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 375. ISBN 978-0- ... Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... 2018) GM1 ganglioside-independent intoxication by Cholera toxin. PLoS Pathog 14(2): e1006862. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. ...
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Defects in the enzyme alpha-galactosidase lead to the buildup of globotriaosylceramide, causing Fabry's disease.[3] The pharmaceutical drug migalastat enhances the function of alpha-galactosidase and is used to treat Fabry's. Globotriaosylceramide is also one of the targets of Shiga toxin, which is responsible for pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). The bacterial Shiga toxin can be used for targeted therapy of gastric cancer, because this tumor entity expresses the receptor of the Shiga toxin. For this purpose an unspecific chemotherapeutical is conjugated to the B-subunit to make it specific. In this way only the tumor cells, but not healthy cells should be destroyed during therapy.[4] ...
... s include: Cerebrosides Gangliosides Globosides Gangliosides are mainly found in the cell membranes of the ... However, gangliosides are also found in other cells. Sialic acids are, for example, part of the so-called sialyl-Lewis-x ... While in gangliosides sialic acids are found, sulfatides have a sulfate group. The structural similarity of most glycolipids is ... in case of gangliosides it affects the gangliosidoses (e.g. Tay-Sachs disease) . Sphingomyelin Charles Chalfant, Maurizio Del ...
Gangliosides are membrane-bound glycosphingolipids containing sialic acid. Ganglioside GD3 is known to be important for cell ... 2006). "Fundamental study of small interfering RNAs for ganglioside GD3 synthase gene as a therapeutic target of lung cancers ... 1997). "Requirement for GD3 ganglioside in CD95- and ceramide-induced apoptosis". Science. 277 (5332): 1652-5. doi:10.1126/ ... is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to GM3 to produce gangliosides ...
... uridine diphosphoacetylgalactosamine-ganglioside GM3 acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, ganglioside GM2 synthase, ganglioside GM3 ... Dicesare JL, Dain JA (March 1971). "The enzymic synthesis of ganglioside. IV. UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: (N-acetylneuraminyl)- ... "Interruption of ganglioside synthesis produces central nervous system degeneration and altered axon-glial interactions". ... ceramide This enzyme catalyses the formation of the gangliosides (i.e. sialic-acid-containing glycosphingolipids) GM2, GD2 and ...
Anti-ganglioside antibodies "Mitumomab - AdisInsight". Adisinsight.springer.com. 2005-06-13. Retrieved 2017-01-06. Clinical ...
Her thesis is titled "Structure and Function of Gangliosides". Between 1995 and 1997 she was head of the Department of Clinical ...
MPyV capsid protein VP1 binds to sialic acids of gangliosides GD1a and GT1b on the cell surface. The functions of VP2 and VP3 ... Tsai, B; Gilbert, JM; Stehle, T; Lencer, W; Benjamin, TL; Rapoport, TA (1 September 2003). "Gangliosides are receptors for ...
GM2 and GD2 gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. GalNAc-T is the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of ... 4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase cDNAs that determine the expression of GM2 and GD2 gangliosides". J Biol Chem. 267 (17): ... 4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase cDNAs that determine the expression of GM2 and GD2 gangliosides". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (9): ...
Both the ganglioside and the GPI-anchored protein are located in lipid microdomains and both are requisite for specific TeNT ... Winter, A; Ulrich, WP; Wetterich, F; Weller, U; Galla, HJ (17 June 1996). "Gangliosides in phospholipid bilayer membranes: ...
Tsai B, Gilbert JM, Stehle T, Lencer W, Benjamin TL, Rapoport TA (September 2003). "Gangliosides are receptors for murine ... including some gangliosides, on the surfaces of cells to initiate the process of viral infection. The VP1 protein, along with ... including some gangliosides, on the cell surface. Canonically, VP1 interacts specifically with α(2,3)-linked and α(2,6)-linked ...
... (monosialotetrahexosylganglioside) the "prototype" ganglioside, is a member of the ganglio series of gangliosides which ... Sphingolipidoses Structures of GM1, GM2, GM3 gangliosides Mocchetti I (2005). "Exogenous gangliosides, neuronal plasticity and ... The secreted toxin attaches to the surface of the host mucosa cell by binding to GM1 gangliosides. GM1 consists of a sialic ... 1994). "IgM ganglioside GM1 antibodies in patients with autoimmune disease or neuropathy, and controls". J. Clin. Pathol. 47 (4 ...
Antibodies to ganglioside are found to be elevated in coeliac disease. Recent studies show that gliadin can cross-link to ... IgA to gangliosides have been observed in Guillain-Barré syndrome. IgM. IgM antibodies have been detected in early work, but ... Autoantigenic gangliosides that are currently known are GD3, GM1, GQ3 and GT1. Anti-GD3 antibodies have been found in ... 1994). "IgM ganglioside GM1 antibodies in patients with autoimmune disease or neuropathy, and controls". J. Clin. Pathol. 47 (4 ...
Horowitz SH (1984). "Ganglioside (Cronassial) therapy in diabetic neuropathy". Ganglioside Structure, Function, and Biomedical ... Beginning in 1975, she supported the drug Cronassial (a particular mixture of gangliosides) produced by Fidia from bovine brain ... Staughton RC, Good J (1990). "Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a mixture of gangliosides ('Cronassial') in ... While working for Fidia, she improved the understanding of gangliosides. ...
The hydrolysis of GM2-ganglioside requires three proteins. Two of them are subunits of hexosaminidase A; the third is a small ... The mutation disrupts the activity of the enzyme, which results in the buildup of the molecule GM2 ganglioside within cells, ... This red spot is a retinal area that appears red because of gangliosides in the surrounding retinal ganglion cells. The ... Deficiency in any one of these proteins leads to ganglioside storage, primarily in the lysosomes of neurons. Tay-Sachs disease ...
... (monosialodihexosylganglioside) is a type of ganglioside. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and M is for monosialic acid ... GM3 serves as a precursor for other, more complex gangliosides. Like other gangliosides, GM3 is synthesized in the Golgi ... Chung TW, Choi HJ, Kim SJ, Kwak CH, Song KH, Jin UH, Chang YC, Chang HW, Lee YC, Ha KT, Kim CH (2014-05-14). "The ganglioside ... Wang H, Isaji T, Satoh M, Li D, Arai Y, Gu J (January 2013). "Antitumor effects of exogenous ganglioside GM3 on bladder cancer ...
Bachhawat has contributed to the knowledge on the metabolism of mucopolysaccharides, gangliosides and cerebrosulphatides, ... "Interaction between lectin from Ricinus communis and liposome containing gangliosides". Nature. 257 (5529): 802-804. doi: ...
There he isolated two glysosphingolipids and studied antibodies to gangliosides. These findings were useful to further ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Rapport, Maurice (1990). "Implications of Altered Brain Ganglioside Profiles in ...
Shirure VS, Henson KA, Schnaar RL, Nimrichter L, Burdick MM (March 2011). "Gangliosides expressed on breast cancer cells are E- ... and gangliosides were identified as E-selectin ligands present on breast cancer cells. On human neutrophils the ...
MAG-oligosaccharide complex structures and biophysical assays show how MAG engages axonal gangliosides at domain Ig1. MAG is a ... "Myelin-associated glycoprotein interacts with ganglioside GT1b. A mechanism for neurite outgrowth inhibition". The Journal of ...
Gangliosides are made and biodegraded rapidly in early life as the brain develops. Except in some rare, late-onset forms, the ... GM2 (ganglioside) Mahuran DJ (1999-10-08). "Biochemical consequences of mutations causing the GM2 gangliosidoses". Biochimica ... This enzyme catalyzes the biodegradation of fatty acid derivatives known as gangliosides. The diseases are better known by ... The disease occurs when harmful quantities of cell membrane gangliosides accumulate in the brain's nerve cells, eventually ...
Examples of these are the simple and complex glycosphingolipids such as cerebrosides and gangliosides. ...
Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids that contain sialic acid ( N-acetyl- or N-glycolylneuraminic acid). They have elicited much ... Maccioni, H. J. F., Arce, A., and Caputto, R., 1971a, The biosynthesis of gangliosides, labelling of rat brain gangliosides in ... Watanabe, K., and Hakomori, S.-I., 1979, Ganglioside of human erythrocytes. A novel ganglio-side with a unique N- ... Wiegandt, H., and Schulze, B., 1969, Spleen gangliosides: the structure of ganglioside Glntet1, Z. Naturforsch. Teil B 24: 945- ...
Gangliosides, sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, are normal components of the plasma membrane of vertebrate cells and ... Novak A, Lowden JA, Gravel YL, Wolfe LS (1979) Preparation of radiolabeled GM2 and GA2 gangliosides. J Lipid Res 678-681.Google ... Elucidation of the structure of ganglioside GM3 lactone. J Biochem 98, 1367-1373.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Gangliosides, sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, are normal components of the plasma membrane of vertebrate cells and ...
Gangliosides at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of gangliosides at lipidlibrary.co ... Natural and semisynthetic gangliosides are considered possible therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. Gangliosides are ... More than 60 gangliosides are known, which differ from each other mainly in the position and number of NANA residues. It is a ... A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. ...
GM2 is a type of ganglioside. G refers to ganglioside, the M is for monosialic (as in it has one sialic acid), and 2 refers to ... Ganglioside GM2 activator protein Sphingolipidoses Structures of GM1, GM2, GM3 gangliosides Guetta E, Peleg L (2008). "Rapid ... Ganglioside+GM2 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... the fact that it was the second monosialic ganglioside discovered. It is associated with GM2 gangliosidoses such as Tay-Sachs ...
These gangliosides are not angiogenic but they influence the endothelial cell behavior. In particular when the PGE1 dose is ... The gangliosides tested acted as modulators of the angiogenic response by promoting the angiogenic capacity of molecules, such ... Prostaglandins and gangliosides of tumor microenvironment: their role in angiogenesis.. Gullino PM1. ... Before angiogenesis appears the ganglioside content of the cornea doubles with sharp reduction of the GM3/GD3 ratio. ...
Brain gangliosides of GM3S−/− mice. Gangliosides were isolated from brains of GM3S+/+ and GM3S−/− mice. The samples were either ... 2). Brain gangliosides from GM3S+/+ and GM3S−/− mice were treated with V. cholera sialidase. On complex brain gangliosides, the ... 1A). The GM3S−/− mice expressed major ganglioside species that comigrated with GM1b and GD1α gangliosides of the 0-series (Figs ... Ganglioside Analysis.. Gangliosides were isolated as described (9). For sialidase treatment, the reaction mixture contained the ...
Ganglioside Structure, Function and Biomedical Potential which was held at Parksville, Vancouver Island, B. C. , Canada on ... Ganglioside Structure, Function, and Biomedical Potential. Editors. * Robert Ledeen Series Title. Advances in Experimental ... Immunological Expression of Gangliosides in Multiple Sclerosis and in a Demyelinating Model Disease in Rabbits ... The Labeling of the Retina and Optic Tectum Gangliosides and Glycoproteins of Chickens in Darkness or Exposed to Light ...
We have recently shown that in addition to the previously described binding partner ganglioside GM1, CTB binds to fucosylated ...
Gangliosides for acute ischaemic stroke. There is no evidence that treatment with ganglioside reduces disability after stroke. ... Gangliosides are a component of cells membranes and can protect neurons against injuries and enhance their growth. Ganglioside ... Randomised trials of gangliosides compared with placebo or standard treatment in people with definite or presumed ischaemic ... There is not enough evidence to conclude that gangliosides are beneficial in acute stroke. Caution is warranted because of ...
Repeated injection of gangliosides alone in human or in mouse is not enough for inducing the synthesis of anti-ganglioside ... Figure 2: Schematic representation of the main pathway of O-acetyl-GD2 ganglioside biosynthesis. GD2 ganglioside is synthesized ... 3. Metabolism of O-Acetyl-GD2 Ganglioside. The modification of ganglioside expression in oncogenesis is mainly associated with ... a specific ganglioside profile, which is modified during embryogenesis, and ontogenesis [13]. Some ganglioside species further ...
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Furthermore, LtxA did not show a preference for any individual ganglioside. LtxA also bound to ganglioside-rich C6 rat glioma ... Interaction between LtxA and C6 cells could be blocked by gangliosides with no apparent specificity. Gangliosides were only ... However, gangliosides were able to completely block LtxA-mediated hemolysis. ... and the effect was only observed when a high ratio of ganglioside:LtxA was used over a short incubation period. Based on the ...
Furthermore, LtxA did not show a preference for any individual ganglioside. LtxA also bound to ganglioside-rich C6 rat glioma ... Interaction between LtxA and C6 cells could be blocked by gangliosides with no apparent specificity. Gangliosides were only ... Gangliosides block Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin (LtxA)-mediated hemolysis.. [Michael S Forman, Jason B ... However, gangliosides were able to completely block LtxA-mediated hemolysis. ...
Pathogenicity of anti-ganglioside antibodies in the Guillain-Barré syndrome.. van Sorge NM1, van der Pol WL, Jansen MD, van den ... Antibodies directed against glycolipid structures (gangliosides), which are highly expressed in the peripheral nervous system, ...
Here, we report that ganglioside GD2 (a glycosphingolipid) identifies a small fraction of cells in human breast cancer cell ...
Keywords:extracellular nucleotide metabolism, CD38, NAD+, sialic acid, glycolipids, Gangliosides. Abstract: Gangliosides are ... Gangliosides are glycolipids that contain sialic acid and they are mainly located on the outer leaflet of the cellular plasma ... Gangliosides Potentially Inhibit Extracellular Nucleotide Metabolism. Author(s): Miki Hara-Yokoyama. Department of Hard Tissue ... Although they are abundant in the central nervous system (CNS), the complete loss of gangliosides in mice does not result in ...
In this review, we describe how proteins recognize gangliosides, focusing on the molecular recognition of gangliosides ... In this review, we describe how proteins recognize gangliosides, focusing on the molecular recognition of gangliosides ... Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example as receptors in ... Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example as receptors in ...
Ganglioside GM1 (GM1) micelles have been studied by means of water proton T1 NMRD experiment. The field dependent spin-lattice ... A Proton Water T1-NMRD Study of Ganglioside Micelles. Westlund, Per-Olof Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, ... Proton T1.NMRD Profiels, Proton Spin-lattice Relaxation, Ganglioside Micelles National Category Chemical Sciences Identifiers. ...
Ganglioside-1, -2, and -3 migrated above GD1b, below GQ1b, and far below GQ1b on thin-layer chromatography. Ganglioside-4 had ... four A2B5-reactive gangliosides (designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4) were purified from bonito fish brain. ... Ganglioside-1, -2, and -3 migrated above GD1b, below GQ1b, and far below GQ1b on thin-layer chromatography. Ganglioside-4 had ... The antibody A2B5 reacted with these c-series gangliosides, but not with GD3 and other gangliosides and neutral ...
References for Abcams Anti-Ganglioside GD3 antibody [4F6] (ab6217). Please let us know if you have used this product in your ...
... the peripheral nerve gangliosides, authentic GM1, bovine brain ganglioside mixture (Cronassial; Fidia, Padova, Italy), and each ... d) Anti-ganglioside Ab from rabbits that developed limb weakness after sensitization with C. jejuni LOS. Of the bovine brain ... a) Carbohydrate mimicry of GM1 ganglioside by the LOS of C. jejuni (CF 90-26) from a GBS patient. GM1 is located in the nerve ... The anti-GM1 mAb bound to the GM1 of human peripheral nerve gangliosides on a TLC plate. A point worth noting is that GM1 is ...
Subjects were randomized to receive GM1 ganglioside for 24 weeks.. Drug: GM1 ganglioside 100 mg twice per day by subcutaneous ... GM1 ganglioside is a chemical that is normally found in the brain and is a normal part of the outer covering or membrane of ... The study is designed to further examine the extent to which GM1 ganglioside can improve symptoms, delay disease progression, ...
Tettamanti G., Venerando B., Cestaro B., Preti A. (1976) Brain Neuraminidases and Gangliosides. In: Porcellati G., Ceccarelli B ... Tettamanti G. (eds) Ganglioside Function. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 71. Springer, Boston, MA. https:// ...
Lipids , sphingolipids , glycosphingolipids , gangliosides Definition: Gangliosides are glycosylated sphingolipids enriched in ... Lipids > sphingolipids > glycosphingolipids > gangliosides. Definition: Gangliosides are glycosylated sphingolipids enriched in ... Cerebrosides have a single glucose or galactose at the 1-hydroxy position, while gangliosides have at least three sugars, one ... Further studies pointed out that in AD brain tissue the total ganglioside pattern is significantly altered, which emphasizes ...
GM1 ganglioside improves dopaminergic markers of rat mesencephalic cultures treated with MPP+. A Dalia, NH Neff and M ... All of these parameters were partially restored by adding GM1 ganglioside to the cultures. The response to GM1 was not altered ... GM1 ganglioside improves dopaminergic markers of rat mesencephalic cultures treated with MPP+ ... Rat embryonic mesencephalic cultures were employed to evaluate the consequences of adding GM1 ganglioside to cultures lesioned ...
... certain galectins also target the monosialylated pentasaccharide of ganglioside GM1. Enzymatic interconversion of ganglioside ... Ledeen, Robert W.; Kopitz, Jürgen; Abad-Rodriguez, Jose; Gabius, Hans-Joachim (2018): Glycan Chains of Gangliosides: Functional ... Thus glycans of gangliosides such as GD1a and GM1 are functional counterreceptors by a pairing with tissue lectins, an emerging ... Among the resulting glycosphingolipids, gangliosides are special due to the presence of at least one sialic acid in the glycan ...
Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic ... Ganglioside GM3 suppresses the proangiogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor and ganglioside GD1a. J Lipid Res. ... Altered Expression of Ganglioside Metabolizing Enzymes Results in GM3 Ganglioside Accumulation in Cerebellar Cells of a Mouse ... A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N- ...
Antibodies against ganglioside complexes in Guillain-Barré syndrome and related disorders. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone ... Gangliosides along with other components as cholesterol are known to form lipid rafts, in which two different gangliosides may ... Gangliosides along with other components as cholesterol are known to form lipid rafts, in which two different gangliosides may ... Anti-ganglioside complex antibodies associated with severe disability in GBS.. *Antibodies to ganglioside complexes consisting ...
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of ganglioside, a ceramide oligosaccharide carrying, in addition ... Biosynthesis of gangliosides containing C18:1 and C20:1 [3-14C]sphingosine after administrating [1-1… ...
Axotomy-Induced Ganglioside Processing: A Mediator of Axon Regeneration Restricted to the PNS. Andrew Kaplan and Ricardo L. ... 2005) Asymmetric membrane ganglioside sialidase activity specifies axonal fate. Nat Neurosci 8:606-615, doi:10.1038/nn1442, ... Analysis of ganglioside ratios after optic nerve crush in vivo paralleled the lack of GM1 enrichment observed in culture, ... Evidence suggests that gangliosides, a family of plasma membrane glycosphingolipids with one or more sialic acid residues, are ...
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome, which has been linked to the production of anti-ganglioside antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenicity of anti-ganglioside antibodies in the Guillain-Barré syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Antibodies directed against glycolipid structures (gangliosides), which are highly expressed in the peripheral nervous system, are frequently detected in sera from GBS patients. (nih.gov)
  • Positioned in the plasma membrane, gangliosides interact with other lipids and proteins, both laterally in the membrane and via their head groups, acting as cellular receptors that can be recognized by antibodies and other ganglioside-binding molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • Serum anti-ganglioside antibodies are frequently elevated in titer. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Those antibodies may specifically recognize a new conformational epitope formed by two gangliosides. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Swine and influenza vaccines induce anti-ganglioside antibodies associated with autoimmune neuropathies such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Anti-ganglioside antibodies (e.g., anti-GM(1)) are associated with the development of GBS, and we hypothesized that the swine flu vaccine contained contaminating moieties (such as Campylobacter jejuni antigens that mimic human gangliosides or other vaccine components) that elicited an anti-GM(1) antibody response in susceptible recipients. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Further research into influenza vaccine components that elicit anti-ganglioside responses and the role played by these antibodies (if any) in vaccine-associated GBS is warranted. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Three gangliosides containing NeuAcα2-6Gal structure were isolated and were structurally characterized by using monoclonal antibodies, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, methylation analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and exoglycosidase treatments. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Detection of IgG and IgM antibodies against gangliosides GD1a, GD1b and GT1b. (southend.nhs.uk)
  • Antibodies to the GD3 ganglioside can induce partial remission of tumor growth in animals as well as in Humans via enhancement of cytotoxic and proliferative response of lymphocytes. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • In GBS, auto-antibodies bind native membrane gangliosides signalling immune-mediated breakdown of nerves causing acute flaccid paralysis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This article presents results of a phase I study of a vaccine designed to induce host anti-ganglioside antibodies that can replicate the antineoplastic activities of intravenously administered MoAbs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anti-GQ1b ganglioside antibodies are the serological hallmark of the Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) variant of the paralytic neuropathy, Guillain- Barré syndrome, and are believed to be the principal pathogenic mediators of the disease. (eur.nl)
  • Many therapeutic treatments of tumor cells are being investigated using antibodies to target cells that express these elevated levels of gangliosides. (matreya.com)
  • 4. F. Notturno MD, C. Caporale MD, A. Uncini MD "Acute sensory ataxic neuropathy with antibodies to GD1b and GQ1b gangliosides and prompt recovery" Muscle & Nerve, Vol. 37(2) pg. (matreya.com)
  • Antibodies to ganglioside GD3 block S. mitis binding to platelets. (asm.org)
  • In the last years, research in this field was dominated by the discovery that infections with the Gram negative curved rod Campy/abaeter jejunifrequently precede GBS and by the finding of antibodies against various peripheral nerve gangliosides in serum from GBS patients. (eur.nl)
  • Are anti-ganglioside antibodies associated with proventricular dilatation disease in birds? (peerj.com)
  • Objectives: Anti-ganglioside antibodies are present in approximately half of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) patients. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Recently, it has been shown that a considerable proportion of these patients has serum antibodies against antigenic epitopes formed by a complex of two different gangliosides. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Here, we explored a series of GBS and GBS-variant sera with anti-ganglioside-complex antibodies for their ability to induce complement-dependent deleterious effects at the living neuronal membrane. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Methods: The neuropathophysiological potential of 31 GBS sera containing either anti-GM1/GD1a- or anti-GM1/GQ1b-ganglioside-complex antibodies was studied at motor nerve terminal presynaptic membranes in the mouse phrenic nerve/diaphragm muscle ex vivo experimental model. (gla.ac.uk)
  • With electrophysiological measurements and confocal fluorescence microscopy, we assessed and quantified the damaging effect on neuronal membranes by anti-ganglioside-complex antibodies. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Conclusions: The present study shows the presence of ganglioside-complexes as available antigens in living neuronal membranes and supplies proof-of-principle that anti-ganglioside-complex antibodies in sera from GBS patients can induce complement-mediated damage. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Anti-ganglioside antibodies in patients with Zika virus infection-associated Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Brazil. (escholarship.org)
  • We have observed that Zika patients that develop GBS present higher levels of anti-ganglioside antibodies when compared to Zika patients without GBS. (escholarship.org)
  • We also observed that a broad repertoire of gangliosides was targeted by both IgM and IgG anti-self antibodies in these patients. (escholarship.org)
  • Since Zika virus infects neurons, which contain membrane gangliosides, antigen presentation of these infected cells may trigger the observed autoimmune anti-ganglioside antibodies suggesting direct infection-induced autoantibodies as a cause leading to GBS development. (escholarship.org)
  • Collectively, our results establish a link between anti-ganglioside antibodies and Zika-associated GBS in patients. (escholarship.org)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Recombinant human Ganglioside GM2 activator protein. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • abstract = "Cellular location of ganglioside-sialidase activity was determined in confluent hamster embryo fibroblasts transformed with herpes simplex virus type 2. (elsevier.com)
  • In this respect, gangliosides, a broad family of structurally related glycolipids, were suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy based on their higher abundance in tumors when compared with the matched normal tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Gangliosides are glycolipids that contain sialic acid and they are mainly located on the outer leaflet of the cellular plasma membrane of most vertebrate and some invertebrate cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • After stimulation with EGF, cells depleted of glycolipids showed EGFr phosphorylation and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2 (ERK2) activity as parental cells expressing GM3 [ganglioside nomenclature follows Svennerholm (1963) J. Neurochem. (biochemj.org)
  • In addition to these gangliosides, 5 others were detected, and all except for GM 3 were glycolipids with neolacto-series core structure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Its presence against glycolipids, in particular ganglioside GQ1b, was investigated in patients with ophthalmoplegia of unknown origin. (bmj.com)
  • Gangliosides, complex sialic acid-containing glycolipids, and other glycosphingolipids are active physiological membrane components with an array of functions in development and disease. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Because SA moieties can be attached to glycolipids (i.e., gangliosides), we next determined whether MNV-1 uses gangliosides during infection. (asm.org)
  • Interaction between LtxA and C6 cells could be blocked by gangliosides with no apparent specificity. (mdpi.com)
  • To examine the specificity of monoclonal antibody A2B5, four A2B5-reactive gangliosides (designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4) were purified from bonito fish brain. (nih.gov)
  • Tissue and developmental specificity of a polysialo-ganglioside species in the amphibian Xenopus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 3-5 Serum IgM binding to GM1 ganglioside is common in, and has specificity for, multifocal and other immune motor neuropathies. (bmj.com)
  • 5. In conclusion, our results indicate a relative tissue specificity of butyrate-mediated alterations in ganglioside expression that is not universal but is limited to specific gangliosides. (clinsci.org)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Anti-GM2 (ganglioside) Antibody IgM. (mybiosource.com)
  • Chigorno V, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Tettamanti G (1982) Densitometric quantification of brain gangliosides, separated by two dimensional thin layer chromatography. (springer.com)
  • Ganglioside-1, -2, and -3 migrated above GD1b, below GQ1b, and far below GQ1b on thin-layer chromatography. (nih.gov)
  • Immuno-overlay of thin layer chromatography and surface plasmon resonance show that rHIgM12 binds with high affinity to the complex gangliosides GD1a and GT1b. (biologists.org)
  • In all six, increased activity of IgG antibody against ganglioside GQ1b was present in the early phase and reduced with time, whereas such activity was not detected in normal control subjects and disease control subjects including those with Guillain-Barré syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND/AIM Serum antibody against ganglioside GQ1b is reported to be closely associated with immune mediated ophthalmoplegia in the Fisher and Guillain-Barré syndromes. (bmj.com)
  • Results: We show that anti-GM1/GD1a- and anti-GM1/GQ1b-ganglioside-complex positive sera can induce complement-mediated functional and morphological injury at mouse motor nerve terminals ex vivo. (gla.ac.uk)
  • A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gangliosides are present and concentrated on cell surfaces, with the two hydrocarbon chains of the ceramide moiety embedded in the plasma membrane and the oligosaccharides located on the extracellular surface, where they present points of recognition for extracellular molecules or surfaces of neighboring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gangliosides are sialic acid-enriched glycosphingolipids that contain at least one monosaccharide residue associated with a ceramide chain [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Preliminary experiments indicate asialo-GMI as the core structure of the ganglioside XI and palmitic and oleic acid as the fatty acids of the ceramide moiety. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The sensitivity and reproducibility of the mass spectrometry technique enabled relative quantitation, revealing details into the abundance of different ganglioside species and inclusion of ceramide structures in each mouse type. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Ganglioside GD2 (d18:1/18:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. (hmdb.ca)
  • Gangliosides are more complex glycosphingolipids in which oligosaccharide chains containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) are attached to a ceramide. (hmdb.ca)
  • In all Gangliosides, the ceramide is linked through its C-1 to a beta-glucosyl residue, which, in turn, is bound to a beta-galactosyl residue. (hmdb.ca)
  • Strains SF100 (□) and PS344 (▒) were assayed for binding to lactosyl ceramide (A), GM3 (B), and GD3 (C). Values are expressed as a percentage of wild-type binding to ganglioside (mean ± SD). (asm.org)
  • These findings suggest that complex gangliosides modulate glial cell function to some extent. (gla.ac.uk)
  • However, since the effects observed were subtle, it is possible that simpler gangliosides are able to compensate for the lack of complex gangliosides. (gla.ac.uk)
  • However, the localisation of sodium channels at the node of Ranvier and potassium channels at juxtaparanode was retarded in GalNAc T -/- mice lacking all complex gangliosides, suggesting that complex gangliosides modulate the formation of nodes of Ranvier. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In addition, GalNAc T -/- mice had significantly lower numbers of NG2 positive early oligodendrocyte progenitors compared to wild-type and Sia T -/- mice, suggesting that complex gangliosides may affect early progenitor differentiation, proliferation or survival. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The discovery of a full range of complex gangliosides in neurological tissue from rescue mice, albeit at low levels compared to the wild type, confirmed their molecular usefulness for modelling neurological autoimmune diseases. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Results indicated that ganglioside dysregulation was correlated with the severity of the neurodegenerative injury and showed a characteristic pattern of depleted protective complex gangliosides with accumulated toxic simple gangliosides at the site of injury. (uwo.ca)
  • Zebda N, Pedron S, Rebbaa A, Portoukalian J, Berthier-Vergnes O. Deficiency of ganglioside biosynthesis in metastatic human melanoma cells: relevance of CMP-NeuAc:LacCer alpha 2-3 sialyltransferase (GM3 synthase). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In this thesis, the role of gangliosides in glial proliferation, migration and differentiation as well as the regeneration of the olfactory system and myelination were studied using mice lacking enzymes involved in ganglioside biosynthesis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The monoclonal antibody A2B5 would be a useful tool for examining the distribution and function of c-series gangliosides. (nih.gov)
  • A mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibody specific for N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside recognized breast and melanoma tumors," Hybridoma , vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 241-247, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Ganglioside GD3 antibody LS-C508223 is an AP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Ganglioside GD3. (lsbio.com)
  • Anti-GM2 (ganglioside) Antibody IgM ELISA kit applies the competitive enzyme immunoassay technique utilizing a monoclonal anti-Anti-GM2 (ganglioside) Antibody IgM antibody and an Anti-GM2 (ganglioside) Antibody IgM-HRP conjugate. (mybiosource.com)
  • In the case of the insulin receptor, sialylparagloboside and the structurally related GM3 ganglioside have been found to inhibit the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of soluble receptors ( 6 , 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • At the cellular level, gangliosides influence cell growth and death, probably because they are involved in the lipid-mediated assembly of signaling molecules such as growth factor receptors or integrins on the membranes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example, as receptors in cell-cell recognition, which can be exploited by viruses and other pathogens, and also by regulating signaling proteins, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), through lateral interaction in the membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, the monosialylated GM1 ganglioside is a critical organizer of lipid rafts, which act as hubs for receptors and signaling complexes. (jneurosci.org)
  • In conclusion, our data indicate that MNV can use terminal SA on gangliosides as attachment receptors during binding to murine macrophages. (asm.org)
  • In contrast to LT-IIb, which binds strongly to ganglioside receptors decorated with either N -acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) or N -glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc), LT-IIb(T13I) binds NeuAc gangliosides much less well. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To determine if the adjuvant properties of LT-IIb(T13I) are altered in the absence of NeuGc ganglioside receptors, experiments were conducted using a Cmah -null mouse line which is deficient in the synthesis of NeuGc gangliosides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We show that decreasing Abl family kinase activity results in low levels of cell surface ganglioside receptors for mouse polyomavirus and that inhibition of sialidase activity promotes virion binding in the absence of Abl family kinase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Recently, gangliosides have been found to be highly important molecules in immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune responses in breast cancer patients immunized with an anti-idiotype antibody mimicking NeuGc-containing gangliosides," Clinical Immunology , vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 80-89, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Background Serum IgM binding to GM1 ganglioside (GM1) is often associated with chronic acquired motor neuropathies. (bmj.com)
  • The major groups of gangliosides found in mammalian brains are GM1, GD1a, GT1b and GD1b. (humpath.com)
  • We determined the ability of mixed gangliosides (16% GD1b, 19% GT1b, 21% GM1, and 40% GD1a) and individual gangliosides GM1 and GD1b to modulate the NV-PLA 2 induced human erythrocyte ghost membrane damage. (academicjournals.org)
  • As an alternate technique, DPPC/GT1b or total ganglioside extract (80:20) monolayers of a Langmuir Blodgett (LB) Trough were adapted to be artificial membrane models for toxin insertion studies. (byu.edu)
  • Somogyi A, Petcherski A, Beckert B, Huebecker M, Priestman DA, Banning A, Cotman SL, Platt FM, Ruonala MO, Tikkanen R. Altered Expression of Ganglioside Metabolizing Enzymes Results in GM3 Ganglioside Accumulation in Cerebellar Cells of a Mouse Model of Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. (harvard.edu)
  • Altered expression of ganglioside GM3 molecular species and a potential regulatory role during myoblast differentiation. (harvard.edu)
  • Here, we aim to investigate the local expression of ganglioside GD2, as the recently proposed breast CSC (BCSC) marker, through the assessment of GD2 synthase mRNA, the key enzyme involved in GD2 synthesis. (omicsonline.org)
  • The name ganglioside was first applied by the German scientist Ernst Klenk in 1942 to lipids newly isolated from ganglion cells of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, heavily glycosylated, low abundance and chemically unusual lipids such as the gangliosides tend to be neglected in otherwise thorough lipidomic studies. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids from brain, but they are found at low levels in all animal tissues. (hmdb.ca)
  • Gangliosides are a family of membrane lipids enriched in the central nervous system (CNS) that play an important role in cell signaling processes on the membrane. (uwo.ca)
  • Recently, using the sensitivity of single molecule fluorescence and taking advantage of model membrane systems containing essential lipids with well-defined compositions, we showed that physiological levels of ganglioside GM1 prevent in-membrane oligomerization of Ab. (cas.cz)
  • This article addresses the structural similarity between the tandem sialic acid residues of gangliosides and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) determined from biochemical data showing that gangliosides inhibit NAD+ glycohydrolase activity and theoretical considerations. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Gangliosides were later classified by Svennerholm according to the number of sialic-acid residues and chromatographic mobility ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mixed gangliosides (18 nM) and GM1 (15 nM) offered 81 and 86% protection respectively, whereas GD1b (20 nM) did not show significant protection. (academicjournals.org)
  • Mixed gangliosides restored the Na + K + ATPase activity by 78%, whereas GM1 and GD1b offered 74 and 52% restoration respectively. (academicjournals.org)
  • Mixed gangliosides and GM1 exhibited a significant dose dependent inhibition of NV-PLA 2 activity when compared to GD1b. (academicjournals.org)
  • The data show that mixed gangliosides and GM1 were effective in modulating NV-PLA 2 induced erythrocyte membrane damage than GD1b. (academicjournals.org)
  • Anti-ganglioside GD1b (anti-GD1b) is very useful in the identification of disialoganglioside GD1b and in immunotargeting cells expressing disialoganglioside GD1b. (matreya.com)
  • The oligosaccharide groups on gangliosides extend well beyond the surfaces of the cell membranes, and act as distinguishing surface markers that can serve as specific determinants in cellular recognition and cell-to-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • A combinatorial biosynthetic pathway results in a large diversity of oligosaccharide structures on gangliosides ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • it contains the simplest ganglioside oligosaccharide in this pathway (Fig. 1 A ), a trisaccharide composed of glucose, galactose, and sialic acid. (pnas.org)
  • Because they have structurally diverse, bulky and negatively charged oligosaccharide moieties, gangliosides endow cell membranes with unique molecular characteristics. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The antigenic epitope for A2B5 was assumed to include the trisialosyl residue connected to the inner galactose of the hemato- or ganglio-type oligosaccharide structure of gangliosides. (nih.gov)
  • The efficient synthesis of the designed ganglioside was accomplished by employing the cassette coupling approach as a key reaction, which was executed between the non-reducing end of the oligosaccharide and the cyclic glucosylceramide moiety. (mdpi.com)
  • Further studies pointed out that in AD brain tissue the total ganglioside pattern is significantly altered, which emphasizes the importance of glycosphingolipids in AD. (humpath.com)
  • Recent data demonstrated that sera from some patients with GBS react with ganglioside complexes (GSCs) consisting of two different gangliosides, but not with each constituent ganglioside. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Gangliosides along with other components as cholesterol are known to form lipid rafts, in which two different gangliosides may form a new conformational epitope. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The effect of changing the ganglioside composition of Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells on the function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) was examined by studying the signalling pathway generated after the binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) both in cells depleted of glycosphingolipids by inhibiting glucosylceramide synthase activity and in cell lines expressing different gangliosides as the result of stable transfection of appropriate ganglioside glycosyltransferases. (biochemj.org)
  • GD2 is the first ganglioside proven to be an effective target antigen for cancer immunotherapy with the regulatory approval of dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 therapeutic antibody. (hindawi.com)
  • GM2 ganglioside is a potential peripheral nerve antigen for neuropathy-associated autoantibodies. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The new trAb Ektomab that targets the melanoma-associated ganglioside antigen GD2 and the signaling molecule human CD3 (hCD3) on T cells demonstrated potent T-cell activation and tumor cell destruction in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholera Tetanus Botulism Leprosy Obesity, where inadequate ganglioside expression in mediobasal hypothalamic neurons deregulates neuronal leptin and insulin signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gangliosides are a component of cells membranes and can protect neurons against injuries and enhance their growth. (cochrane.org)
  • They were discovered by Ernst Klenk in the 1940s, who proposed the term "ganglioside" due to the abundance of these molecules in "Ganglionzellen" (neurons). (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate whether injury-induced ganglioside processing is operative in CNS neurons, cultured retinal neurons were axotomized and analyzed for GM1 content. (jneurosci.org)
  • It has been found that tumor formation can induce the synthesis of a new complement of ganglioside, and very low concentrations of a specific ganglioside can induce differentiation of cultured neuronal tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutant mice were unable to synthesize GM3 ganglioside, a simple and widely distributed glycosphingolipid. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report that ganglioside GD2 (a glycosphingolipid) identifies a small fraction of cells in human breast cancer cell lines and patient samples that are capable of forming mammospheres and initiating tumors with as few as 10 GD2+ cells. (jci.org)
  • Natural and semisynthetic gangliosides are considered possible therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, mutant mice develop neurodegenerative diseases and die soon after birth, suggesting that gangliosides are required for the maintenance and development of a stable CNS and are crucial to sustain life. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Gangliosides have also been shown to have neuroprotective actions and have been considered as candidates for the treatment of several neurodegenerative disorders. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Alterations in the homeostatic distribution of the a-series family of gangliosides has been observed in both pre-clinical models and human patients with neurodegenerative diseases and injuries, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and strokes. (uwo.ca)
  • A comorbid rat model of stroke and Aβ toxicity, using an endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced unilateral striatal stroke together with intracerebralventricular (icv) injections of Aβ(25-35), was used to examine ganglioside dysregulation in response to neurodegenerative injuries of varying severity. (uwo.ca)
  • Our laboratory has demonstrated that gangliosides can shift their composition from GM1 back to GM2 and GM3 following stroke in mice and rats indicating a role for simple gangliosides in the neurodegenerative process and this shift may be part of a neuro-inflammatory cascade. (uwo.ca)
  • The functions of gangliosides as specific determinants suggest its important role in the growth and differentiation of tissues as well as in carcinogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the most widely distributed ganglioside among tissues, and it serves as a precursor for most of the more complex ganglioside species. (pnas.org)
  • One example, the GM3 ganglioside, abundant in almost all healthy tissues, is shown in Figure 1 . (frontiersin.org)
  • In the adult Xenopus, XI characterizes the ganglioside pattern of the central nervous system while is absent in all the other tested tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gangliosides (GG) make an extremely diverse family of glycosphingolipids particularly abundant in the brain and neural tissues. (arvojournals.org)
  • The potential physiological role(s) of gangliosides on the regulation of extracellular nucleotide metabolism are discussed. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Miki Hara-Yokoyama, " Gangliosides Potentially Inhibit Extracellular Nucleotide Metabolism", Current Medicinal Chemistry (2006) 13: 2233. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Although the metabolism of the lipid class "ganglioside" is linked to AD their role in oligomerization is controversial. (cas.cz)
  • Furthermore, it has long been recognized that certain lipidoses that affect the nervous system, such as Tay Sachs disease, are characterized by ganglioside accumulation within cells of the brain. (springer.com)
  • Mutations in genes coding for these enzymes leads to the accumulation of partially broken down gangliosides in lysosomes, which results in a group of diseases called gangliosidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the conclusion drawn from these in vivo data is that peripheral nerve injury stimulates Neu3 activity, it is also possible that injury induces the synthesis of GM1 from precursor gangliosides or suppresses its degradation, resulting in a transient accumulation of GM1. (jneurosci.org)
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bovine casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) and dietary cholesterol on cortical ganglioside- and glycoprotein-bound sialic acid accumulation in young rats. (ku.edu)
  • Ganglioside GM2 activator protein Sphingolipidoses Structures of GM1, GM2, GM3 gangliosides Guetta E, Peleg L (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the results presented here, we suggest that because of the similarity between N-linked sugars on LFA-1 and the structures of gangliosides, LtxA may have acquired the ability to lyse RBCs. (mdpi.com)
  • The structures of these gangliosides were characterized by overlay analysis with glycolipid-specific ligands, product analysis after sialidase or mild acid treatment, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Accordingly, G-1, G-2 and G-3 were identified to be GT3, GQ1c and GP1c, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • A novel ganglioside bearing Neua2-3Gal and Neua2-6Gal structures as distal sequences was designed as a ligand for influenza A viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • To assess the effect of exogenous gangliosides in acute ischaemic stroke. (cochrane.org)
  • Whole transformed cells hydrolyzed exogenous ganglioside substrate, suggesting a partial location of the cellular sialidase on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of these cells. (elsevier.com)
  • 2. Because of the importance of gangliosides in cancer pathogenesis, we investigated the effects of n-butyrate on ganglioside expression of colonic (human and murine) and non-colonic cancer cells. (clinsci.org)
  • The gangliosides GD1a, GM1, and asialo-GM1 (GA1) are natural components of murine macrophages. (asm.org)
  • The depletion of gangliosides using an inhibitor of glycosylceramide synthase ( d - threo -P4) led to a reduction of MNV-1 binding and infection in cultured and primary murine macrophages. (asm.org)
  • A) Binding of SF100 (□) to untreated platelets (lane 1), platelets pretreated with a murine MAb to ganglioside GD3 (lane 2), or a murine MAb to platelet glycoprotein GPIb (lane 3) and binding of PS344 (▪) to untreated platelets (lane 4) platelets pretreated with a murine MAb to ganglioside GD3 (lane 5) or a murine MAb to platelet glycoprotein GPIb (lane 6). (asm.org)
  • The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, di-, tri and quatra-sialic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • A procedure is described for the preparation of Tay-Sachs ganglioside specifically labeled in the sialic acid portion of the molecule. (eurekamag.com)
  • Radioactive gangliosides were isolated and selectively degraded with bacterial neuraminidase and rat liver beta-galactosidase to Tay-Sachs ganglioside-(3)H. Radioactivity in the labeled product was confined to the N-acetyl-neuraminic acid portion of the molecule. (eurekamag.com)
  • Enzymatic interconversion of ganglioside glycans by sialidase action, relevant for neuroblastoma cell differentiation and growth control in vitro, for axonogenesis and axon regeneration, as well as for proper communication between effector and regulatory T cells, changes lectin-binding affinity profoundly. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Orchestrations of loss/gain of affinity, of ganglioside/lectin expression, and of lectin presence in a network offer ample opportunities for fine-tuning. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A insertions into the LB monolayers in the presence of BoNT/A low affinity ganglioside receptor alone, independent of pH. (byu.edu)
  • More than 60 gangliosides are known, which differ from each other mainly in the position and number of NANA residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost 200 gangliosides species have been described, showing differences in the number, the order, and the linkage of the glycosyl and sialyl residues [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The 60+ known gangliosides differ mainly in the position and number of NANA residues. (hmdb.ca)
  • These results and the finding of enhanced expression of GM3 synthase in models of insulin resistance have led to the suggestion that GM3 ganglioside overexpression may play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes through a negative modulation on insulin receptor signaling ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Carbohydrate mimicry [Galβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4(NeuAcα2-3)Galβ1-] between the bacterial lipooligosaccharide and human GM1 ganglioside is seen as having relevance to the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome, and conclusive evidence is reported here. (pnas.org)
  • Although the most accepted theory indicates that PaBV directly triggers an inflammatory response in this disease, another hypothesis suggests the disease is triggered by autoantibodies targeting neuronal gangliosides, and PDD might therefore resemble Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in its pathogenesis. (peerj.com)
  • Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to myelin components has been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis: two targets were suggested, Myelin Basic Protein with controversial results and, more recently, gangliosides. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It was the aim here to optimise separation and mass spectrometry methodologies for ganglioside analysis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Finally the recently developed technique of imaging mass spectrometry, using matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) ion sources, was investigated for its capability for direct ganglioside analysis in brain and spinal cord tissue sections. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a novel imaging technique that can map the distribution of ionizable molecules on a sample in a 2-dimensional format, making it the ideal tool for analyzing gangliosides on post-mortem brain tissue sections. (uwo.ca)
  • Caughlin, Sarah, "Examining the role of ganglioside homeostasis in neurodegeneration and aging using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry" (2018). (uwo.ca)
  • Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry LC-ESI-MS was used to quantify ganglioside levels following activation, and immunofluorescence was used to stain for GM1, GM2 and GM3 gangliosides. (uwo.ca)
  • G(M2) Ganglioside accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in Gangliosidoses. (hmdb.ca)
  • Recombinant human Ganglioside GM2 activator protein Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • G refers to ganglioside, the M is for monosialic (as in it has one sialic acid), and 2 refers to the fact that it was the second monosialic ganglioside discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • We successfully displayed a series of gangliosides on small bicelles with a uniform confined size, offering nanoscale standardized membrane mimics for spectroscopic characterization of weak encounter complexes formed between ganglioside clusters and amyloidogenic proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • GM2 is a type of ganglioside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third compound is a novel type of ganglioside having blood group I-type structure as the core sequence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus glycans of gangliosides such as GD1a and GM1 are functional counterreceptors by a pairing with tissue lectins, an emerging aspect of ganglioside and lectin functionality. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • NeuNAc, an acetylated derivative of the carbohydrate sialic acid, makes the head groups of gangliosides anionic at pH 7, which distinguishes them from globosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • NeuNAc, an acetylated derivative of the carbohydrate sialic acid, makes the head groups of Gangliosides anionic. (hmdb.ca)
  • MNV-1 bound to ganglioside GD1a, which is characterized by an SA on the terminal galactose, but not to GM1 or asialo-GM1 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
  • MBS755965 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Competitive ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Anti-GM2 (ganglioside) Antibody IgM (GM2 Ab IgM) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Thomas CP, Buronfosse A, Combaret V, Pedron S, Fertil B, Portoukalian J. Gangliosides protect human melanoma cells from ionizing radiation-induced clonogenic cell death. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The GD2 ganglioside is a cell surface component that appears on the surface of metastatic melanoma cells and is a marker for the progression of the disease. (hmdb.ca)
  • Ganglioside GD3 antibody was raised against fM9 melanoma cells. (lsbio.com)
  • Does not cross-react with other gangliosides purified from neuroblastoma or melanoma cells. (lsbio.com)
  • However, none of the quaker parrots developed myenteric ganglioneuritis, suggesting that autoantibodies against gangliosides in birds are not associated with a condition resembling PDD. (peerj.com)
  • Gangliosides, sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, are normal components of the plasma membrane of vertebrate cells and are particularly abundant in the nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Different regions of the brain have differing levels of vulnerability to stress and injury, and this brain region-dependent variability to vulnerability could be partly explained by the existence of glycosphingolipids within the cell's plasma membrane called gangliosides. (uwo.ca)
  • These data provide evidence that Abl family kinases reduce ganglioside turnover in the plasma membrane by inhibiting host cell sialidase activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Approximately equal specific activities of ganglioside-sialidase activity were found to be associated with the crude lysosomal and crude plasma membrane fractions isolated from whole cell homogenates. (elsevier.com)
  • These results show that, in herpes simplex virus- transformed fibroblasts, ganglioside-sialidase is both a lysosomal and a plasma membrane enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • We have recently shown that in addition to the previously described binding partner ganglioside GM1, CTB binds to fucosylated proteins. (gu.se)
  • In this review, we describe how proteins recognize gangliosides, focusing on the molecular recognition of gangliosides associated with cancer immunotherapy, and discuss the importance of these molecules in cancer research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Their spatial accessibility and the dynamic regulation of their profile are factors that argue in favor of a role of glycans of gangliosides as ligands (counterreceptors) for carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Ganglioside-embedding small bicelles for probing membrane-landing processes of intrinsically disordered proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Prostaglandins and gangliosides of tumor microenvironment: their role in angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Through both mechanisms, tumor-associated gangliosides may affect malignant progression, which makes them attractive targets for cancer immunotherapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Detection and characterization of N-glycolyated gangliosides in Wilms tumor by immunohistochemistry," Pediatric and Developmental Pathology , vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 18-23, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Several gangliosides have been found to have elevated expressions in tumor cells. (matreya.com)
  • The tumor-associated ganglioside GD2 is an attractive target for immunotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The significance of the endogenous IgM response to GD1a may be to eliminate this immunosuppressive-ganglioside from the tumor-microenvironment. (curehunter.com)
  • The ganglioside G-4 was shown to have the following structure: NeuAc-NeuAc-NeuAc-Galbeta1-3Gal NAcbeta1-4(NeuAc-NeuAc-NeuAcalpha2-3)Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'Cer. (nih.gov)
  • Gangliosides with NeuAcα2-6Gal structure have been studied in human hepatocellular carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Reacts with GD3 Ganglioside: (NeuAc alpha 2-8NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Cross reacts with 9-O-AcGD3 ganglioside (9OAcNeuAc alpha 2-8NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer) and GT1a ganglioside (NeuAc alpha 2-8NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4GalNAc beta 1-4 (NeuAc alpha 2-3) Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • These results suggested that NeuAc gangliosides are sufficient to mediate the immunomodulatory properties of LT-IIb(T13I) in mice and in human cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids that are present on all mammalian plasma membranes where they participate in recognition and signaling activities. (pnas.org)
  • Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids that are ubiquitously distributed on vertebrate plasma membranes. (pnas.org)
  • Few lipid species included in biological membranes have received as much attention as glycosphingolipids (GSLs), and especially gangliosides, sialic-acid-containing GSLs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gangliosides are glycosylated sphingolipids enriched in membranes of the nervous system . (humpath.com)
  • Results suggest that changes in the ganglioside composition of cell membranes might be important in the regulation of the EGF signal transduction. (biochemj.org)
  • Zika virus infection is associated with the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a neurological autoimmune disorder caused by immune recognition of gangliosides and other components at nerve membranes. (escholarship.org)
  • 3. Three separate colon cancer cell lines (LS174T, T84 and MCA-38), when butyrate treated, demonstrated striking amplification of specific individual gangliosides. (clinsci.org)
  • Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids that contain sialic acid ( N -acetyl- or N -glycolylneuraminic acid). (springer.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of brain gangliosides using the A2B5 preparation demonstrated that c-series gangliosides are enriched in lower animals, especially bony fish of different species. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding the precise nature of native gangliosides, including low abundance species and modifications, is an important first step. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Genetic disruption of GM3 ganglioside synthesis. (pnas.org)
  • A ) Pathway of ganglioside synthesis showing the block in GM3S −/− mice. (pnas.org)
  • Gangliosides are very similar to globosides except that they also contain N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) in varying amounts. (hmdb.ca)
  • Our results show that GM3 ganglioside is a negative regulator of insulin signaling, making it a potential therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. (pnas.org)
  • These encompassed the many aspects of basic research that have evolved over the past half-century, as well as some newer topics relating to the biomedical potential of gangliosides as therapeutic agents. (springer.com)
  • Remarkably, the vast majority of these strategies have focused on protein antigens and recently mAbs recognizing cell surface gangliosides have recently proven to be effective for cancer therapeutic targets [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This strongly supports the hypothesis that autoimmune targeting of ganglioside-complexes is of pathogenic relevance in a proportion of GBS patients. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Corti M, Degiorgio V, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Masserini M, iettamanti G (1981) GM1 ganglioside-Triton X-100 mixed micelles: changes of micellar properties studied by laser-light scattering and enzymatic methods. (springer.com)
  • Ganglioside GM1 (GM1) micelles have been studied by means of water proton T1 NMRD experiment. (diva-portal.org)
  • A randomized, controlled, delayed start trial of GM1 ganglioside in treated Parkinson's disease patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The persistence of polysialo-gangliosides in the brain and spinal cord of adult amphibians could serve to guarantee a proper functioning of the central nervous system at low body temperature. (biomedsearch.com)