Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Amacrine Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Eye ProteinsRod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Cone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred C57BLRetinal Bipolar Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Darkness: The absence of light.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Cetomacrogol: Non-ionic surfactant of the polyethylene glycol family. It is used as a solubilizer and emulsifying agent in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, often as an ointment base, and also as a research tool.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Retinal Horizontal Cells: NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in the outer segment PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS of the RETINA. It is comprised of two catalytic subunits, referred to as alpha and beta, that form a dimer. In addition two regulatory subunits, referred to as gamma and delta, modulate the activity and localization of the enzyme.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Arrestin: A 48-Kd protein of the outer segment of the retinal rods and a component of the phototransduction cascade. Arrestin quenches G-protein activation by binding to phosphorylated photolyzed rhodopsin. Arrestin causes experimental autoimmune uveitis when injected into laboratory animals.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment: The light sensitive outer portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. The outer segment contains a stack of disk membranes laden with photoreceptive pigments (RETINAL PIGMENTS). The outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Retinal DiseasesSynapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Recoverin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that is found in ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and CONE PHOTORECEPTORS. It interacts with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a Ca2+ dependent manner and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Several characteristics of these L-AP4-resistant light responses suggested that they were driven by melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), including long latencies, marked poststimulus persistence, and a peak spectral sensitivity of 478 nm. (nih.gov)
  • Since the description of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) there has been an increased interest and broader application of pupillography in ophthalmology as well as other fields including psychology and chronobiology. (frontiersin.org)
  • 5 - 7 Saturation and adaptation in these various retinal pathways can therefore provide an additional control over the degree to which the retinal output reflects the activity of rods versus cones. (arvojournals.org)
  • These pathways originate in depolarizing ON bipolar cells (BCs) and hyperpolarizing OFF BCs, which respond with opposite polarity to light-evoked reductions in glutamate release from photoreceptors [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Psychophysical and electrophysiological data suggests that, as a consequence, rod signal transduction has a suppressive effect on the activity of cone pathways. (molvis.org)
  • Light adaptation in cone pathways relies in part on reductions in this effect, although mechanisms intrinsic to cone pathways also play an important role. (molvis.org)
  • Similarly, while changes in coupling between rod and cone pathways over the course of the day may contribute to circadian regulation of the cone pathway they are not sufficient to explain circadian rhythms in the wild-type cone ERG. (molvis.org)
  • It is perhaps then not surprising that the degree of coupling between rod and cone pathways is reduced under conditions favoring cone-based vision. (molvis.org)
  • The effects of both circadian regulation and light adaptation on the activity of cone pathways can be readily observed using the electroretinogram (ERG). (molvis.org)
  • The genetic and biochemical diversity of photoreceptor degnereration presents major challenges for therapy as there are many pathways to cell death. (berkeley.edu)
  • 2009), that the blue-ON cell's basic wavelength opponent response is generated primarily by excitatory conductances originating from ON and OFF bipolar cell pathways. (arvojournals.org)
  • Blocking inner retinal inhibitory pathways with the addition of GABAa/c receptor antagonists, TPMPA and GABAzine, and the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine, further isolates this conductance. (arvojournals.org)
  • These results are consistent with the blue-ON cells basic wavelength opponent response originating from ON and OFF bipolar pathways. (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition to the intracellular signal transduction pathways, the course will include transducer evolution, organogenesis, dynamic range, adaptation to ongoing stimuli, and selective filtering of irrelevant information by the transducing cells. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • Sensory pathways begin with the receptor, through to ganglion cells and end in the spinal cord. (lecturio.com)
  • Some classes of retinal neuroblast exhibit a significant tangential, as well as radial, component in their dispersion from the germinal zone, whereas others disperse only in the radial dimension. (pnas.org)
  • After retinal injury in zebrafish, genes associated with the formation of induced pluripotent stem cells are activated in dedifferentiating MG ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • In a screen in zebrafish, using a trapping vector carrying an engineered yeast Gal4 transcription activator and a UAS:eGFP reporter cassette, we have identified two transgenic lines of zebrafish co-expressing eGFP and Gal4 in specific subsets of retinal bipolar cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data suggest that both zebrafish dmbx1a and dmbx1b genes are retained in the fish genome due to their requirement during midbrain and retinal neurogenesis, although their function is partially diverged. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ptc2 deficiency in zebrafish results in defects at the vitreo-retinal interface and Müller glial reactivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These phenotypes are similar to the ocular abnormalities observed in human patients suffering from Basal Cell Naevus Syndrome (BCNS), a disorder that has been linked to mutations in the human PTCH gene (the orthologue of the zebrafish ptc2 ), and point to the utility of the lep/ptc2 mutant line as a model for the study of BCNS-related ocular pathologies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we analyzed the dynamic characteristics of nuclear structures and chromatin organizations of zebrafish retinal cells during development and aging. (aacrjournals.org)
  • X-linked juvenile retinoschisis Achromatopsia Cone dystrophy Disorders mimicking retinitis pigmentosa Usher Syndrome Other ocular disorders in which the standard ERG provides useful information include: Diabetic retinopathy Other ischemic retinopathies including central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), branch vein occlusion (BVO), and sickle cell retinopathy Toxic retinopathies, including those caused by Plaquenil and Vigabatrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tropism suggests that retinal cell-type-specific circuitry sensitizes to Rb loss, yet the nature of the circuitry and the cell type in which it operates have been unclear.Here we show that post-mitotic human cone precursors are uniquely sensitive to Rb depletion.More generally, they demonstrate that cell-type-specific circuitry can collaborate with an initiating oncogenic mutation to enable tumorigenesis. (nih.gov)
  • This tropism suggests that retinal cell-type-specific circuitry sensitizes to Rb loss, yet the nature of the circuitry and the cell type in which it operates have been unclear. (nih.gov)
  • More generally, they demonstrate that cell-type-specific circuitry can collaborate with an initiating oncogenic mutation to enable tumorigenesis. (nih.gov)
  • To describe the activity of rods and cones in visually intact mice in mesopic conditions, and establish the relative importance of each photoreceptor type in defining the transition from rod to cone vision. (arvojournals.org)
  • 8 - 10 Here we set out to use the method of silent substitution in combination with electroretinography to describe the mesopic shift from rod- to cone-based vision in mice and the relative importance of light intensity as experienced by these two photoreceptor classes in defining it. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cone-isolated ERGs elicited by bright flashes superimposed on a rod saturating background light were recorded from wild-type and rod transducin deficient ( Gnat1 −/− ) mice. (molvis.org)
  • The cone ERG b-wave exhibited significantly enhanced amplitude and reduced latency (implicit time) in Gnat1 −/− mice under all conditions. (molvis.org)
  • Gnat1 −/− mice retained circadian rhythms in the cone ERG with b-wave amplitudes larger and latencies reduced during the subjective day. (molvis.org)
  • In vivo deletion of laminin β2 in mice of both sexes results in a loss RPC basal processes and contact with the ECM, leading to a shift of the mitotic spindle pole orientation toward asymmetric cell divisions. (scicrunch.org)
  • STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: NaIO3-induced mice retinopathy and ARPE-19 cells injury models were established. (bvsalud.org)
  • RESULTS: NAR eye drops improved retinal function and morphology and normalized the protein expression of SIRT1 in mice exposed to NaIO3. (bvsalud.org)
  • The effect of rod and cone loss on this response was assessed by combining the rd mutation with a transgenic ablation of cones ( cl ) to produce mice lacking both photoreceptor classes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Despite the loss of all known retinal photoreceptors, rd/rd cl mice showed normal suppression of pineal melatonin in response to monochromatic light of wavelength 509 nanometers. (sciencemag.org)
  • We tested this assumption by examining the photic suppression of pineal melatonin in mice lacking both rod and cone photoreceptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of cone photoreceptor loss in mice bearing a specific transgenic ( cl ) ablation ( 12 , 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Effects of the cl transgene on the expression of photoreceptor-specific genes in C3H/He mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • The cl transgene rendered green cone opsin mRNA undetectable by Northern blot (A) in the transgenic mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • It significantly increased neural activation 4 h later in the trigeminal ganglia of both groups, but in the nucleus caudalis of only the PACAP+/+ mice. (pte.hu)
  • Recent evidence suggests that, besides diffusible factors, cell-cell interactions mediated by membrane-bound receptors and ligand interactions, exemplified by Notch signaling, may play a critical role in retinal neurogenesis (Dorsky et al. (jneurosci.org)
  • We analyzed transcriptomes from 44,808 mouse retinal cells and identified 39 transcriptionally distinct cell populations, creating a molecular atlas of gene expression for known retinal cell classes and novel candidate cell subtypes. (nih.gov)
  • Color pupillography plays an important role not only in research but also in clinical observational and therapy studies like gene therapy of hereditary retinal degenerations and psychopathology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has already revealed several new RDD genes, whereas RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq analyses are expected to uncover novel aspects of gene regulation and biological networks that are involved in retinal development, aging and disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To date, most gene therapies have targeted monogenic recessive retinal diseases and employed viral vectors to transfer a 'normal ' copy of the mutated gene to the affected cell. (berkeley.edu)
  • We find that gene therapy has vast potential for treating and potentially curing a number of inherited photoreceptor diseases. (berkeley.edu)
  • Furthermore, we achieved specific ablation of the labelled bipolar cells in 5 days old larvae, using a bacterial nitroreductase gene under Gal4-UAS control in combination with the prodrug metronidazole. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nr2e3 elements were observed to have activity in cone photoreceptors and Nr2e3 protein was expressed in developing cone photoreceptors, suggesting a role for this predominant rod gene in cone photoreceptor development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Onecut1 transcription factor is one such factor that influences the gene regulatory networks specific to cones and rods, but not those that are common to both. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gene regulatory processes at work in these cells is a primary area of investigation due to the highly specialized nature of these cells and the gene expression profiles that underlie this specialization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While rod and cone photoreceptors possess highly specific gene expression profiles in the fully differentiated state, these cells also express many of the same genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This suggests that these cells may have shared gene regulatory mechanisms as well as divergent ones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One hundred and thirty-eight cells were visualized by expression of the gene encoding a green fluorescent protein, introduced by particle-mediated gene transfer. (jove.com)
  • RB is a prototypic tumor suppressor gene that encodes pRB, a nuclear phosphoprotein implicated in cell cycle control, differentiation, apoptosis, and many other biological processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At different time points, the expression of key genes involved in retinal development was investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR or immunofluorescence. (molvis.org)
  • The expression of 14 key genes involved in retinal development was investigated in freshly harvested E13.5 and E17.5 RPCs. (molvis.org)
  • TF-encoding genes DLX1 , DLX2 and INSM1 were the most highly overexpressed genes in the OVs, indicating their important role in the early stages of retinal differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Domain swap experiments show that the ability to specify different cell fates is largely contained in the divergent sequence C-terminal to the homeodomain, while the more homologous N-terminal and homeodomain regions of both genes, when fused to VP16 activators, promote only photoreceptor fates. (xenbase.org)
  • Proliferation followed the induction of E2F-regulated genes, and depended on factors having strong expression in maturing cone precursors and crucial roles in retinoblastoma cell proliferation, including MYCN and MDM2. (nih.gov)
  • Elements associated with the Thrb, Nr2e3, and Rhodopsin genes showed highly enriched activity in cones or rods, and were affected by interference in Onecut1 signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With increasing insight into the molecular etiologies of several inherited retinal and macular dystrophies, studies from ours and many laboratories have defined several promising therapeutic strategies. (berkeley.edu)