Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
A benign neoplasm of the ovary.
Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Rare neoplasms of mesenchymal origin, usually benign, and most commonly involving the PLEURA (see SOLITARY FIBROUS TUMOR, PLEURAL). They also are found in extrapleural sites.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.
Sarcoma of FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS most often found in the lymph nodes. This rare neoplasm occurs predominately in adults.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A POU domain factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
A POU domain factor that activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS; alpha internexin; SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25; and BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The presence of neoplastic ganglion cells forming abnormal clusters, the presence of binucleation and dysmorphic neurons are ... The rare occurrence of malignant transformation is confined to the glial cell population, and is characterized by increased ... It is nearly impossible to differentiate ganglioglioma from other more common intramedullary neoplasms based on imaging alone. ... Occasionally, it may be challenging to differentiate ganglion cell tumors from an infiltrating glioma with entrapped neurons. ...
If the abnormal cells continue to grow, divide, and produce more abnormal cells, the mass of abnormal cells may eventually ... Vacuolated, or clear cells are common. Necrosis or cell death is normally observed to some extent in most of these tumors cells ... Pineal region tumors are normally composed of a variety of cells including astrocytes, ganglion cells, blood vessels, and ... papillary tumors of this region are made up of ependymal cells which form papilla. The papilla is meant to be surface cells. ...
Often, cell debris and foreign particles, which are impermeable to the BBB will get through the endothelial cells, only to be ... This occurrence is rare and there has been no observed association in such cases with reduced cognitive function or white ... In addition, a perivascular space has no mass effect and is located along the blood vessel around which it forms. One of the ... In contrast to VRS of the basal ganglia, VRS in the cerebral cortex are surrounded by only one layer of leptomeninges. As such ...
... and possible progression to aggressive form of leukemia. PDGFRB-ETV6 fusion protein-induced neoplasms often present with ... In vitro studies using cultured cells indicate that endothelial cells secrete PDGF, which recruits PDGFRβ-expressing pericytes ... Olson LE, Soriano P (2011). "PDGFRβ signaling regulates mural cell plasticity and inhibits fat development". Developmental Cell ... The most common of these rare mutations is the translocation of PDGFRB gene with the ETV6 gene (also termed ETS variant gene 6 ...
This forms the precursors of thyroid hormones monoiodotyrosine (MIT), and diiodotyrosine (DIT). When the follicular cells are ... This is an ion channel on the cell membrane which in the same action transports two sodium ions and an iodide ion into the cell ... The most common neoplasm affecting the thyroid gland is a benign adenoma, usually presenting as a painless mass in the neck. ... Typical symptoms are abnormal weight gain, tiredness, constipation, heavy menstrual bleeding, hair loss, cold intolerance, and ...
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal blood vessel structures in which an artery connects to a vein via an abnormal ... Though rare, risks of PAE include unintentional embolization of nearby blood vessels, which can result in loss of blood flow to ... It is the space within the canal (formed by the surrounding vertebrae) lying outside the dura mater (which encloses the ... ISBN 978-0-19-157556-3. Wah TM (August 2017). "Image-guided ablation of renal cell carcinoma". Clinical Radiology. Elsevier BV ...
... and consist of abnormal hypertrophic ganglion cells that are somewhat similar to Purkinje cells. The amount of white matter in ... Nervous tissue tumors/NS neoplasm/Neuroectodermal tumor (ICD-O 9350-9589) (C70-C72, D32-D33, 191-192/225) ... Lhermitte-Duclos disease is a rare entity; approximately 222 cases of LDD have been reported in medical literature.[3] Symptoms ... In Lhermitte-Duclos disease, the cerebellar cortex loses its normal architecture, and forms a hamartoma in the cerebellar ...
Brain tumor - occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous ... Gamete - Ganglion - is a group of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system. In the somatic nervous system this ... Zellweger spectrum disorders - are a group of rare disorders that create the same disease process. The subdivisions of this ... Papillary - In oncology, papillary refers to neoplasms with projections ("papillae", from Latin, 'nipple') that have ...
Scattered among follicular cells and in spaces between the spherical follicles are another type of thyroid cell, parafollicular ... the follicular cells reabsorb thyroglobulin from the follicular space. The iodinated tyrosines are cleaved, forming the thyroid ... The most common neoplasm affecting the thyroid gland is a benign adenoma, usually presenting as a painless mass in the neck.[64 ... Typical symptoms are abnormal weight gain, tiredness, constipation, heavy menstrual bleeding, hair loss, cold intolerance, and ...
Contains goblet cells, Paneth cells. Similar to duodenum. ? Gene and protein expression[edit]. About 20,000 protein coding ... "Abdominal X-ray - Abnormal bowel gas pattern". radiologymasterclass.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-07.. ... Instead, the digestive part of the gut forms a spiral intestine, connecting the stomach to the rectum. In this type of gut, the ... while others are vanishingly rare. ... Parietal cell. *Gastric chief cell. *Enterochromaffin-like cell ...
The presence of neoplastic ganglion cells forming abnormal clusters, the presence of binucleation and dysmorphic neurons are ... The rare occurrence of malignant transformation is confined to the glial cell population, and is characterized by increased ... It is nearly impossible to differentiate ganglioglioma from other more common intramedullary neoplasms based on imaging alone. ... Occasionally, it may be challenging to differentiate ganglion cell tumors from an infiltrating glioma with entrapped neurons. ...
Those Schwann cells associated with neuronal cell bodies form satellite cells that express either S100β or GFAP. Schwann cells ... Induction of abnormal proliferation by nonmyelinating Schwann cells triggers neurofibroma formation. Cancer Cell 2008;13:117-28 ... Ontogeny and multipotency of neural crest-derived stem cells in mouse bone marrow, dorsal root ganglia, and whisker pad Cell ... minimal cell atypia and rare mitosis. There are often intermixed nerve axons and mast cells present. All paraspinal tumors in ...
Mutations in RSK2abnormal H3 phosphorylation. Neoplasm of the lymphoid system characterized by presence of RS cells. ... Mothers genome likely pulled into second polar bodymale pronucleus divides to form diploid cell. ... Viral infection of sensory ganglia. Idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease; oligodendrocyte pathology. rare fatal viral ... oligodendrogliomas are slow growing tumors that arise from these cells. HIV targets this neural cell resulting in ...
... basal ganglia, or ventricles. Spinal seeding of a germ cell tumor has been well documented in the form of drop metastases [2-4 ... Germ cell tumors are similar in histology to germinal cells of the genital organs, and they may aberrantly arise in the central ... Primary intramedullary spinal germ cell tumors are exceedingly rare. As such, there are no established treatment paradigms. We ... symptoms and imaging features of primary spinal germ cell tumors are often indistinguishable from other spinal cord neoplasms. ...
The basal ganglia. Parkinson disease. Parkinson disease is a progressive disorder caused by degeneration of the cells of the ... Schwann cells, which form the myelin surrounding the axons of peripheral nerves, may suffer immune or toxic attack, as in ... Neuronal neuropathies affect the axon or cell body of ventral-horn neurons or dorsal-root ganglion neurons. Damage to the ... and abnormal viscosity of the blood due to excess numbers of cells or to increased protein concentration in the blood. ...
Ganglioglioma was named for its histologic components of differentiated nerve cells, in the form of ganglion cells, with a ... A and B, The neoplastic nature of the ganglion cell tumors large neuron (straight arrow) is readily apparent when abnormal ... ganglion cells (neuroblastoma). Leptomeningeal extension is rare (5).. In conclusion, although the diagnosis of CP angle ... Gangliogliomas account for 0.4% to 7.6% of pediatric CNS neoplasms and up to 1.3% of those in adults (3). Gangliogliomas are ...
If the abnormal cells continue to grow, divide, and produce more abnormal cells, the mass of abnormal cells may eventually ... Vacuolated, or clear cells are common. Necrosis or cell death is normally observed to some extent in most of these tumors cells ... Pineal region tumors are normally composed of a variety of cells including astrocytes, ganglion cells, blood vessels, and ... papillary tumors of this region are made up of ependymal cells which form papilla. The papilla is meant to be surface cells. ...
Hurthle cell cancer is a very rare form of thyroid gland cancer. It is a differentiated type of cancer which means that it ... They also have cell borders that are defined.. Hurthle cells were described for the first time in the 19th century by Askanasy ... It is effective in diagnosing Hurthle cell neoplasm but it cannot determine if it is benign or malignant. ... Horner syndrome- this may occur if the sympathetic nerve ganglia are It is a triad of symptoms including drooping eyelids ( ...
MTC is a rare tumor derived from the C cells of the thyroid. Three hereditary forms are known, that are transmitted in an ... ICC/IF: Neuro-2a cells. Flow Cyt: Caco-2 cells. IP: Neuro-2a cell lysate. ... CCHS is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal control of respiration in the absence of neuromuscular or lung disease, or an ... HSCR is a genetic disorder of neural crest development characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells in the hindgut ...
MTC is a rare tumor derived from the C cells of the thyroid. Three hereditary forms are known, that are transmitted in an ... CCHS is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal control of respiration in the absence of neuromuscular or lung disease, or an ... HSCR is a genetic disorder of neural crest development characterized by the absence of intramural ganglion cells in the hindgut ... Cell Biology. Epigenetics. Metabolism. Developmental Biology. By research area. Immunology. Microbiology. Neuroscience. Signal ...
Progressive muscle rigidity and involuntary tremors caused by degeneration of substantia nigra and cells of basal ganglia; ... Progressive, malignant disease of blood forming organs. Hodkins Disease. Malignant neoplasm of lymphatic system. ... Increased cell numbers in tissue. TNM. Method of staging tumors that looks at size of tumor, lymph node involvement and ... Very rare with loss of proprioception below level of injury. Sacral sparing. Patient retains sensation in perianal area and has ...
Those Schwann cells connected with neuronal cell physiques form satellite television cells that communicate either S100 or GFAP ... de-differentiated Schwann cells, and/or post-crest progenitor cells. mouse embryos perish by E13.5 because of abnormal heart ... and Schwann cells by E18 (11-12). Progenitors discovered following the establishment from the dorsal main ganglia (DRG) have ... Common findings consist of learning and storage complications, and optic pathway gliomas (2-3). Rarer manifestations consist of ...
They are generally mixed cell tumors containing both neural ganglionic cells (cells that arise from ganglion) and neural glial ... b. Hamartomas- They are elements formed by abnormal growth of local tissue elements. There is a broad spectrum of tumors that ... c. Oligogastrocytomas are usually rare. The most prominent signs associated with a brain neoplasm in dog is seizures, ... They are malignant tumors that arise from histiocytic cells like the macrophages and the dendritic cells which form an integral ...
This is a rare presentation of PA as an intraventricular tumor. Intraventricular neoplasms originate from cells forming the ... Focal areas showed fragments of native glial tissue with admixed ganglion cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were ... Other differentials include subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), ependymoma, meningioma, and low-grade gliomas such as ... T2-weighted sequence showed isointense to hyperintense lesion containing abnormal signals, suggestive of calcification and ...
The two major forms are divided based on the type of cell into myeloid or lymphoid. The most common sites of extramedullary ... b) High magnification view with numerous immature cells (blasts). (c) A proportion of the immature cells are positive for ... J. W. Vardiman, N. L. Harris, and R. D. Brunning, "The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of the myeloid neoplasms ... Second-order or preganglionic (proximal to the superior cervical ganglion) Horners syndrome is usually seen with neck trauma, ...
... the linear form is only visible with the use of gadolinium enhancement.Chronic pachymeningitis is a rare form of sensorineural ... Spiral ganglion cell populations varied, but were substantially diminished in all five temporal bones. Enlargement of the ... PA CGs form when mucosal swelling blocks the circuitous pneumatic pathways to the apical air cells. Trapped gas resorption ... For this study, abnormal audiometry is defined as an interaural difference of > or =15 dB at a single frequency or > or =10 dB ...
Astrocytomas are represented by a wide variety of histologic forms and grades of tumors with a common histologic lineage. ... The subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is a slow-growing neoplasm arising from a hamartoma of periventricular cells with ... the tumor cells can form solid sheets, with decreased extracellular mucin. The cells themselves are generally oval, with a ... Other regions are typical of ganglion cell tumors, with protein droplets and eosinophilic granular bodies present. [46] This ...
43 Chlamydia trachomatis may be isolated in tissue cultures, using cell strain HeLa0229 or McCoy cells, but this technique is ... It has a short period of incubation, oscillating from 4 to 7 days, and its onset is rare with less than 3 or more than 10 days ... It quickly multiplies on the infected epithelium, and by lymphatic route it attacks the regional ganglia, where it is also ... They are aerobic, immobile, do not form spores and are sensitive to most antiseptic agents currently used. They are intra- ...
Trunk neural crest cells give rise to DRG and sympathetic ganglia (SG) which form along the anterior-posterior axis of the ... Schwann cell precursors are derived from neural crest cells. Satellite cells, which are also important DRG glial cells, remain ... Neurological involvement in SS is rare and affects the central and peripheral nervous system. Some series have reported a ... Somatosensory evoked potentials may reveal abnormal central conduction times, which are probably due to the degeneration of ...
Trunk neural crest cells give rise to DRG and sympathetic ganglia (SG) which form along the anterior-posterior axis of the ... Progenitor cells, also known as precursor cells, act as an intermediate state of neural crest cell differentiation into the ... Neurological involvement in SS is rare and affects the central and peripheral nervous system. Some series have reported a ... Somatosensory evoked potentials may reveal abnormal central conduction times, which are probably due to the degeneration of ...
Tumeurs Des Gaines Nerveuses 0 questions Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL ... Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. ... DUODENAL NEOPLASMS; LIVER NEOPLASMS; etc. * Tumeurs Expérimentales 0 questions Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of ... Gangliogliome 0 questions Rare indolent tumors comprised of neoplastic glial and neuronal cells which occur primarily in ...
Recognition of this rare form of presentation by imaging is important because early radiation and chemotherapy can result in a ... This revealed a highly cellular neoplasm comprising sheets and lobules of polygonal tumor cells traversed by fibrous septae ... Germinomas, the most frequent intracranial germ cell tumors, are rare tumors of children and young adults. They comprise about ... very early in rostral neural tube development or from abnormal implantation in the midline during the migration of germ cells ...
Significant cell death is observed in TNP-treated MMP-14 positive MMTV-PyMT breast cancer cells in vitro, but not MMP-14 ... and subsequent biopsies demonstrated the appearance of mature ganglion cells in a previously aganglionic segment.CONCLUSIONS: ... Gorhams disease: diagnostic utility of an autopsy for a rare bone disease. Journal of pediatric health care Wells, K., Gray ... Ovarian Surface Epithelial Neoplasms in the Pediatric Population Incidence, Histologic Subtype, and Natural History AMERICAN ...
... and numerous circumscribed neoplasms and a weak suppressor genes. J Child Neurol cells are typically made a long cells in SEGA ... The bronchial circulation also warms and bronchi and bronchioles) and can form breath (tidal volume) red blood cells warm and ... Abnormal measurements of these substances can indicate diabetes, kidney disease, or a testosterone deficiency, all of which can ... The gene product Pathology Linkage studies Jr Haines JL with bizarre ganglion consensus conference tuberous advances in ...
Non-neuronal cells, or glial cells, make up 90% of the cell types in the nervous system. Will chemotherapy make my dog sick? ... doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2020.03.004 diffuse forms is... Mo old ), often in the dog CT scans Oct 31 16... From glial cells, and ... These gliomas are tumors within cells that are non-neuronal. They are rare, but have been reported most frequently in ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either found in the brain ...
I wonder if people truly understand what it means if their rare disease or disorder is on the RARE List™? Last week, the Global ... Basal cell carcinoma multiple, Basal cell nevus anodontia abnormal bone mineralization, Basal ganglia disease biotin-responsive ... Rectal neoplasm, Rectosigmoid neoplasm, Recurrent peripheral facial palsy, Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, Red cell ... Pseudoxanthoma elasticum dominant form, Pseudoxanthoma elasticum forme fruste, Pseudoxanthoma elasticum recessive form, ...
Basal cell carcinoma multiple, Basal cell nevus anodontia abnormal bone mineralization, Basal ganglia disease biotin-responsive ... Rectal neoplasm, Rectosigmoid neoplasm, Recurrent peripheral facial palsy, Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, Red cell ... Pseudoxanthoma elasticum dominant form, Pseudoxanthoma elasticum forme fruste, Pseudoxanthoma elasticum recessive form, ... Leydig cells hypoplasia, Lhermitte-Duclos disease, Li Fraumeni syndrome, Lichen planus follicularis, Lichen planus pigmentosus ...
Two forms of the disease occur: sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia. See also anemia, sickle cell; trait, sickle cell. ... n.pr rare, fatal disease characterized by abnormal glycogen deposits in tissues caused by deficiency of the branching enzyme ( ... heavy chain diseases a group of malignant neoplasms of lymphoplasmacytic cells marked by the presence of immunoglobulin heavy ... in the ganglion cells of both the retina and the brain. It has its onset in the first year of life, vision is affected and the ...
Pretreatment plan is formed by evaluating the treatment options to be used, disease involvement, and individual comorbidity. ... High-dose chemotherapy, autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation, and whole-brain radiotherapy are alternative ... lymphomas are rare disease entities, though the incidence is increasing due to various immunosuppressive situations. The brain ... Therefore, a decline in T cells leads to the proliferation and dissemination of abnormal B cells in immunodeficiency states [6 ...
They are generally mixed cell tumors containing both neural ganglionic cells (cells that arise from ganglion) and neural glial ... b. Hamartomas- They are elements formed by abnormal growth of local tissue elements. Diagnosis - Imaging studies of the brain ... they arise from ganglion cells in the diagnosis of brain neoplasms in dogs, with pituitary! These cells may be sensitive at ... Rare cause of neurological disease → rapid cerebral dysfunction. Poor transfection (opening of pores in cell membranes for the ...
  • Occasionally, it may be challenging to differentiate ganglion cell tumors from an infiltrating glioma with entrapped neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plexiform neurofibromas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors initiated by biallelic mutation of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene in the Schwann cell lineage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These tumors contained EGFP+/Sca-1+ stromal cells among EGFP-negative lympho-hematopoietic cells indicating a noncell autonomous effect and unveiling a role of Nf1 -deleted microenvironment on lympho-hematopoietic proliferation in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • 90%) develop tumors within the peripheral ganglia, peripheral, and/or cranial nerves called neurofibromas, composed of cell types including neuronal axons, fibroblasts, perineurial cells, Schwann cells, and mast cells ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Primary intramedullary spinal germ cell tumors are exceedingly rare. (hindawi.com)
  • We describe our management for spinal germ cell tumors and a review of the literature. (hindawi.com)
  • Germ cell tumors are similar in histology to germinal cells of the genital organs, and they may aberrantly arise in the central nervous system (CNS). (hindawi.com)
  • Germ cell tumors account for 1% of all CNS tumors, and they are seen more frequently in Japan (3%) and East Asia (12.5%) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • however, extremely rarely, germ cell tumors may be found within the spinal cord as a primary tumor. (hindawi.com)
  • Reported cases of primary spinal germ cell tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • Papillary tumors of the central nervous system and particularly of the pineal region are very rare and so diagnosing them is extremely difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pineal region tumors are normally composed of a variety of cells including astrocytes, ganglion cells, blood vessels, and pinealocytes, which are the cells of this organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, papillary tumors of this region are made up of ependymal cells which form papilla. (wikipedia.org)
  • The critical diagnosis of this neoplasm is often difficult because of its similarity with other primary or secondary papillary lesions of the pineal region, including parenchymal pineal tumors, papillary ependymoma, papillary meningioma, choroid plexus papilloma, and metastatic papillary carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Necrosis or cell death is normally observed to some extent in most of these tumors cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gangliogliomas are tumors of the CNS that are composed of atypical ganglion cells and astrocytes. (ajnr.org)
  • These tumors contained EGFP+/Sca-1+ stromal cells among EGFP-negative lympho-hematopoietic cells indicating a non-cell autonomous effect and unveiling a role of Nf1-erased microenvironment on lympho-hematopoietic proliferation in vivo. (movd2016.org)
  • Most NF1 sufferers ( 90%) develop tumors inside the peripheral ganglia, peripheral and/or cranial nerves neurofibromas known as, made up of cell types including neuronal axons, fibroblasts, perineurial cells, Schwann cells, and mast cells (7). (movd2016.org)
  • They are generally mixed cell tumors containing both neural ganglionic cells (cells that arise from ganglion) and neural glial cells (they provide protection and nutrition to neurons and participate in the signal transmission in the nervous system). (valpor.lv)
  • These tumors have a very poor prognosis, since they have traveled through the body depositing clusters of abnormal tissues in their course. (valpor.lv)
  • Astrocytomas are represented by a wide variety of histologic forms and grades of tumors with a common histologic lineage. (medscape.com)
  • Germinomas, the most frequent intracranial germ cell tumors, are rare tumors of children and young adults. (ajnr.org)
  • Gangliocytomas are rare intracranial tumors reported in adult dogs of several breeds. (seotop.vn)
  • Primary brain tumors (those arising form the cells of the brain and it's lining) in dogs include meningioma, glioma, choroid plexus papilloma, pituitary adenoma or adenocarcinoma, and others. (seotop.vn)
  • Some germ cell tumors have been misdiagnosed as pituitary tumors or craniopharyngiomas. (seotop.vn)
  • Low grade gliomas are brain tumors that come from two different types of brain cells known as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. (seotop.vn)
  • They have been further classified on the basis of the infiltrativeness of reticulohistiocytic cells (B cell lymphoid tumors) around the vessels with different patterns of reticulin production (scleroprotein responsible for maintaining the structural integrity of most organs) combined with inflammatory cells of varying populations. (g-beyond.com)
  • Histiocytic sarcomas- They are malignant tumors that arise from histiocytic cells like the macrophages and the dendritic cells which form an integral part of the immune system. (g-beyond.com)
  • Abnormal growth of tissues leads to the development of germ cell tumors. (g-beyond.com)
  • Most tumors contain a proportion of epithelial cells and lymphocytes, although the majority of thymomas are completely encapsulated. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Protective effect of irradiated renal carcinoma expressing hepatitis B surface antigen against renal-cell carcinoma-mediated tumors. (faintpower.ml)
  • Thyroid tumors include those that originate from follicular cells and those that arise from parafollicular cells (C cells). (scirp.org)
  • This neoplasm is listed as the most common endocrine tumor and represents approximately 3% of all malignant tumors in humans, with 75% of cases occurring in women, and two-thirds of cases occurring in people under 55 years. (scirp.org)
  • Less aggressive forms of these tumors are more common in women and younger people [8]. (scirp.org)
  • The tumors are usually found on the left cerebellar hemisphere, and consist of abnormal hypertrophic ganglion cells that are somewhat similar to Purkinje cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumeurs Des Sinus De La Face 0 questions Neoplasms or tumors of the paranasal sinuses. (lookformedical.com)
  • Tumors of germ cell origin (e.g., mature teratoma, malignant teratoma, endodermal sinus tumor [yolk sac tumor], embryonal carcinoma, dysgerminoma, primary choriocarcinoma) constitute approximately 70% of ovarian tumors in children ( Table 1 ). (glowm.com)
  • Because these tumors have a common histogenesis, mixed germ cell tumors can be found, which yield a confusing clinical picture with regard to anticipated post-therapy responses. (glowm.com)
  • Granulosa-stromal cell tumors are the most common of the sex-cord stromal cell tumors, vary greatly in their clinical course, and are rare in children. (glowm.com)
  • Germ cell tumors predominate in all age groups, accounting for approximately 70% of ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents (this is in marked contrast to the 20% incidence of similar tumors in adults). (glowm.com)
  • 5 In infants, tumors of germ cell and sex-cord stromal origin constitute 5% and 10% of ovarian lesions. (glowm.com)
  • In the 10- to 14-year-old group, sex-cord stromal tumors constitute 5% to 10% and surface epithelial-stromal tumors constitute approximately 12% to 25% of ovarian neoplasms. (glowm.com)
  • They usually occur in the pineal or suprasellar regions and less frequently in the thalamus, basal ganglia, or ventricles. (hindawi.com)
  • 1 The most common sites of involvement of intracranial germinomas are the pineal and suprasellar regions, 2 but they can also involve other locations, such as the thalamus and basal ganglia. (ajnr.org)
  • Clinically, these patients may be distinguished from XP patients with neurologic abnormalities by the presence of the CS features of pigmentary retinal degeneration, calcification of the basal ganglia, normal-pressure hydrocephalus, and hyperreflexia. (dermaamin.com)
  • The inner limiting membrane serves as the basal lamina for the cells of the retinal nerve fiber layer. (statpearls.com)
  • The consequent reduction of dopamine in the basal ganglia results in the classical parkinsonian motor phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and consequently reduced dopamine (DA) levels in the basal ganglia, causing motor dysfunction (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and motor basal ganglia circuitry in Parkinson's disease (PD) brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • NKX2-1 is not expressed in adult neurons of the basal ganglia. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive, blood vessel disease caused by blocked arteries at the base of the brain in an area called the basal ganglia. (calflameblog.com)
  • The presence of neoplastic ganglion cells forming abnormal clusters, the presence of binucleation and dysmorphic neurons are helpful clues favoring ganglioglioma over glioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, injury to the cord at mid-thoracic levels spares the arms, which are innervated by fibres originating from higher segments, but it causes characteristic signs (abnormal posture, spastic tone, weakness, increased deep reflexes, and abnormal plantar reflexes) of damage to motor neurons originating below that level-as well as the loss of bladder and bowel control. (britannica.com)
  • Located on the dorsal root ,which was first discovered in the 1800s by Charles Bell, is a cluster of neurons known as Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) also referred to as the spinal ganglia or posterior root ganglia. (edu.au)
  • Through the innervation of target areas and tissues by these neurons, organisms are able to detect and process stimuli in the form of pain, pressure, temperature, muscle movement. (edu.au)
  • A seizure is an episode of transient neurological dysfunction due to abnormal firing of neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • COX 2-like immunoreactive (COX 2-ir) staining occurred in dendrites and cell bodies of neurons, structures that are typically postsynaptic. (storysteel.gq)
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive disorder characterized neuropathologically by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, intracellular proteinaceous inclusions, reduction of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum, and increased neuroinflammatory cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer - the layer composed of retinal ganglion cell axons mixed with astrocytes and the processes of the Muller cells. (statpearls.com)
  • Histologically, ganglioglioma is composed of both neoplastic glial and ganglion cells which are disorganized, variably cellular, and non-infiltrative. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rare occurrence of malignant transformation is confined to the glial cell population, and is characterized by increased cellularity and mitotic activity, endothelial proliferation, and necrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurofibroma initiating cells may be committed glial cells, de-differentiated Schwann cells, and/or post-crest progenitor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This primary injury may initiate a number of secondary pathophysiological sequelae such as: Metabolic alterations in neuronal or glial cells. (valpor.lv)
  • The subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is a slow-growing neoplasm arising from a hamartoma of periventricular cells with neuronal and glial lineage differentiation, but its inclusion derives from its historical taxonomic relationship to astrocytomas. (medscape.com)
  • Tumeurs Neuroectodermiques 0 questions Malignant neoplasms arising in the neuroectoderm, the portion of the ectoderm of the early embryo that gives rise to the central and peripheral nervous systems, including some glial cells. (lookformedical.com)
  • Non-neuronal cells, or glial cells, make up 90% of the cell types in the nervous system. (seotop.vn)
  • The retina is a layer of photoreceptors cells and glial cells within the eye that captures incoming photons and transmits them along neuronal pathways as both electrical and chemical signals for the brain to perceive a visual picture. (statpearls.com)
  • The peripheral boundary of this layer consists of Müller glial cells, which function to maintain retinal homeostasis by upholding retinal lamination and by supporting other cells. (statpearls.com)
  • Progenitors identified after the establishment of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) have more limited self-renewal and differentiation potential than neural crest stem cells ( 13-17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the early embryo-genesis of humans and most mammals, the dorsal root ganglia develops from the neural crest.The neural crest can be described as a transient structure found in vertebrates which gives rise to non-neuronal cell types such as smooth muscle cells of the cardiovascular system, melanocytes, connective tissues, craniofacial bones and a majority of the peripheral nervous system which includes the dorsal root ganglion. (edu.au)
  • A and B, The neoplastic nature of the ganglion cell tumor's large neuron ( straight arrow ) is readily apparent when abnormal clustering and cytologic abnormalities, such as multinucleation and hyperchromaticia, are in evidence. (ajnr.org)
  • Papillary carcinomas are malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (abcam.com)
  • Tumeurs Complexes Et Mixtes 0 questions Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue. (lookformedical.com)
  • Recent advances in medical technology, such as bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the use of intensive chemotherapeutic regimens, have added substantially to the number of patients who are able to survive neoplastic disorders but do so with seriously impaired host defense mechanisms that compromise their ability to resist or contain infections. (nih.gov)
  • The frequency of infection is related to the type of underlying neoplastic disease, and most infections occur in patients who are no longer responding to the therapy of their neoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • Within the cornea, there is hyperplasia of the epithelium with irregular rete ridge formation, and within the stroma, there is fibrosis, neovascularization, and a mild inflammatory infiltrate, composed of lymp-hocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. (askjpc.org)
  • Acute transverse myelitis is a rare but severe inflammatory demyelinating disorder that usually involves both sensory and motor tracts of the spinal cord [1]. (who.int)
  • Neutrophils amplify inflammatory cells. (healinghorsessanctuary.com)
  • Abnormal laboratory parameters indicative of a tumorous or inflammatory process are presented in Table 1 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to vessels of peripheral organs, the BBB limits the exchange of inflammatory cells and mediators under physiological and pathological conditions. (courtfield.ml)
  • Painful ophthalmoplegia due to inflammatory pseudotumor is generally responsive to oral corticosteroids, which form the mainstay of treatment, but occasionally the disease is refractory, and additional immunosuppressive agents or orbit radiation may be indicated. (medlink.com)
  • A conditional EGFP reporter allele identified cells showing recombination, including peripheral ganglia satellite cells, peripheral nerve S100β+ myelinating Schwann cells, and peripheral nerve p75+ cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Schwann cells differentiate in close association with the axons of peripheral nerves. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Schwann cells ensheathing multiple small axons in peripheral nerves are GFAP+ nonmyelinating Schwann cells, whereas Schwann cells associating with single large axons form myelin and express S100β and periaxin ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a pioneering study a Krox20-Cre driver line, which expresses within boundary cap cells at E10.5 and later in Schwann cells in peripheral nerves, caused genetically engineered mice (GEM) neurofibroma formation ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Schwann cells ensheathing multiple little axons in peripheral nerves are GFAP+ non-myelinating Schwann cells, while Schwann cells associating with solitary large axons type myelin and communicate S100 and periaxin (18). (movd2016.org)
  • Inside a pioneering research a Krox20-Cre drivers range, which expresses within boundary cover cells at E10.5 and in Schwann cells in peripheral nerves later, caused GEM neurofibroma formation (22). (movd2016.org)
  • Peripheral nerve Remak bundles including small size axons ensheathed by an individual Schwann cell are disrupted in every neurofibroma models. (movd2016.org)
  • Tumeurs Des Gaines Nerveuses 0 questions Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. (lookformedical.com)
  • Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is an indolent B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the accumulation of monoclonal cells in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissues, and associated with the production of serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal protein. (mendelian.co)
  • Studies have also demonstrated that the BRAF V600E mutation can be identified in mononuclear cells in peripheral blood and cell-free DNA, usually in patients with disseminated disease. (oncolink.org)
  • He was found to have enhancing intramedullary mass lesions in the thoracic spinal cord, and pathology was consistent with an intramedullary germ cell tumor. (hindawi.com)
  • WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome is a congenital autosomal dominant immune deficiency characterized by abnormal retention of mature neutrophils in the bone marrow (myelokathexis) and occasional hypogammaglobulinemia, associated with an increased risk for bacterial infections and a susceptibility to human papillomavirus (HPV) induced lesions (cutaneous warts, genital dysplasia and invasive mucosal carcinoma). (mendelian.co)
  • Pubmed ID: 11772497 Parathyroid cysts are rare lesions of uncertain embryological origin, usually presenting as a painless mass in the lower part of the neck. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 17167683 Facial nerve schwannomas are rare lesions that may involve any segment of the facial nerve. (jove.com)
  • LCH results from the clonal proliferation of immunophenotypically and functionally immature, morphologically rounded LCH cells found in relevant lesions along with eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and, occasionally, multinucleated giant cells. (oncolink.org)
  • The term LCH cells is used because there are clear morphologic, phenotypic, and gene expression differences between normal Langerhans cells of the epidermis (LCs) and the pathologic variant of the LCH lesions (LCH cells), despite the pathologic histiocyte having the identical immunophenotypic characteristics of normal epidermal LCs, including the presence of Birbeck granules identified by electron microscopy. (oncolink.org)
  • This clinical form is characterized by single or multiple lesions that are usually located in the lower extremities and affects elderly men 28 . (bvsalud.org)
  • However, in some cases, there is no cutaneous involvement or it is preceded by visceral, oral or ganglion lesions 21 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Rarer manifestations include juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) ( 4-6 ), a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by monocytosis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm which usually progresses from a relatively indolent disease to a more aggressive disorder, during which time disease control is harder to achieve [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Tumeurs Des Vaisseaux Lymphatiques 0 questions Neoplasms composed of lymphoid tissue, a lattice work of reticular tissue the interspaces of which contain lymphocytes. (lookformedical.com)
  • These proteins arise from blood vessels, nerve cells and muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ganglioglioma- They arise from ganglion cells in the central nervous system. (valpor.lv)
  • The neural crest cells (NCCs) arise along the stretch of the anterior-posterior (AP) axis, generating 4 different types of tissues at different regions of the axis. (edu.au)
  • White matter (WM) consists of myelinated axons that arise from either the neuronal cell bodies in the cerebral cortex or the nuclei of deep gray matter structures. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Tumor biopsy demonstrated predominantly a low-grade astrocytoma with haphazard clusters of ganglion ( Fig 2A and B ). Histologic diagnosis was ganglioglioma (1) . (ajnr.org)
  • We present a case of a 17-year-old female presenting with an unusual cause of hydrocephalus, a rare case of a calcified pilocytic astrocytoma as an intraventricular tumor. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Disease manifestations are observed after mutation or loss of NF1 in diverse cells and tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is a differentiated type of cancer which means that it contains cells and tissues that look like the original thyroid cells and have a specific function. (checkbiotech.org)
  • Hurthle cell cancer has the highest propensity to spread to other tissues among differentiated cancers of the thyroid gland. (checkbiotech.org)
  • Hamartomes 0 questions A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area. (lookformedical.com)
  • Tumeurs Du Tissu Gonadique 0 questions Neoplasms composed of tissues of the OVARY or the TESTIS, not neoplasms located in the ovaries or testes. (lookformedical.com)
  • Gonadal tissues include GERM CELLS, cells from the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells. (lookformedical.com)
  • In a changing environment, the aim of this paper is to point out the impact of light radiation on ocular cells, with its phototoxicity potential on eye tissues. (rjme.ro)
  • A very rare genetic disorder where an enzyme deficiency prevents the break down of certain proteins into energy and results in a harmful accumulation of acids in the blood and body tissues. (wrongdiagnosis.com)
  • There are hopes that doctors can buy stem cells online for the treatment of this disease. (checkbiotech.org)
  • However, many patients with Hurthle cell disease actually have normal blood and thyroid function tests so other imaging studies need to be done regardless. (checkbiotech.org)
  • Leucémies 0 questions A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. (lookformedical.com)
  • Mitochondrial disorders are rare causes of childhood disease and dysfunction. (stanford.edu)
  • Home / Featured Stories / Is Your Disease on the RARE List™ - If So, More Bad News! (addiandcassi.com)
  • Last week, the Global Genes Project , leading patient advocacy organizations representing the rare disease community, issued the RARE List™ , a stunning 65 page alphabetical listing of roughly 7,000 known rare diseases and disorders. (addiandcassi.com)
  • This awareness campaign was created by the Global Genes Project ™ and was developed by leading advocates representing various rare diseases so we can combine forces and drive the rare disease agenda. (addiandcassi.com)
  • 43 Responses to "Is Your Disease on the RARE List™ - If So, More Bad News! (addiandcassi.com)
  • 52 Responses to "Is Your Disease on the RARE List™ - If So, More Bad News! (addiandcassi.com)
  • Alpers' disease a rare disease of young children, characterized by neuronal deterioration of the cerebral cortex and elsewhere, progressive mental deterioration, motor disturbances, seizures, and early death. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • alpha chain disease heavy chain disease characterized by plasma cell infiltration of the lamina propria of the small intestine resulting in malabsorption with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss, possibly accompanied by pulmonary involvement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Primary central nervous system (PCNS) lymphomas are rare disease entities, though the incidence is increasing due to various immunosuppressive situations. (intechopen.com)
  • Pretreatment plan is formed by evaluating the treatment options to be used, disease involvement, and individual comorbidity. (intechopen.com)
  • Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are rare disease entities. (intechopen.com)
  • Rare cause of neurological disease → rapid cerebral dysfunction. (g-beyond.com)
  • Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome (AMRF) is a rare epilepsy syndrome characterized by progressive myoclonus epilepsy in association with primary glomerular disease. (mendelian.co)
  • We can help you with your rare disease diagnosis. (mendelian.co)
  • Ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by cerebellar ataxia, cytopenias and predisposition to bone marrow failure and myeloid leukaemia. (mendelian.co)
  • Update Your Browser Two lumbar terms of Cleanroom Design for acid of prematurely located full disease: unusual web thought form. (shesonamission.org)
  • abnormally if you have affecting syndrome course hemiparaplegia surviving disease, yet the time's brain form will add, or if you navigate citing fever damage skin using substance, extremely the breast form direction will work. (shesonamission.org)
  • This shows that multisystem LCH arises from a somatic mutation within a marrow or circulating precursor cell, while localized disease arises from the mutation occurring in a precursor cell at the local site. (oncolink.org)
  • Langerhans'-cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X)--a clonal proliferative disease. (oncolink.org)
  • In Lhermitte-Duclos disease, the cerebellar cortex loses its normal architecture, and forms a hamartoma in the cerebellar hemispheres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like cowden syndrome, patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease often have mutations in enzymes involved in the Akt/PKB signaling pathway , which plays a role in cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - PO Box 8126, Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126 - Toll-free: 1-888-205-2311 A Bristol hospital is offering patients of a rare brain disease a radical surgery to cure the condition. (calflameblog.com)
  • Since then, this disease can be classified into four different clinical forms that have identical histologicalfeatures, but affecting specific populations. (bvsalud.org)
  • In his original article entitled "Idiopathic multiple sarcoma of the skin", Moritz Kaposi described the indolent and rare disease that is known as classic or sporadic Kaposi sarcoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • The retina is located in the posterior segment and forms the innermost boundary among the other major layers of the eye that include the vascular choroid and the fibrous sclera. (statpearls.com)
  • The localization of flow control is consistent with the neuroanatomy of the kidney, and the delayed renal cortical blood flow response is consistent with the vascular anatomy of the kidney and with previous measurements of red cell transit times through the renal cortex. (storysteel.gq)
  • These findings were typical of spinal cord syndrome, warranting urgent imaging of the cord to exclude a space-occupying lesion such as a neoplasm, vascular malformation or haemorrhage. (who.int)
  • These mechanisms are important to discuss Moyamoya is a Japanese word that means puff of smoke, which describes the abnormal, tangled, and hazy appearance of the vascular collateral network (small blood vessels) that forms to compensate for the blocked blood vessels. (calflameblog.com)
  • Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular neoplasm composed of endothelium-lined vascular spaces and spindle-shaped cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a neoplasm of vascular endothelium that is characterized by proliferation of spindle cells, neoangiogenesis, inflammation and edema 17 . (bvsalud.org)
  • These cells can be either benign or malignant and we cannot differentiate which form it falls under by doing a Fine-needle aspiration biopsy. (checkbiotech.org)
  • It is effective in diagnosing Hurthle cell neoplasm but it cannot determine if it is benign or malignant. (checkbiotech.org)
  • This study focuses on the analysis of geometric descriptors that can be applied in breast cytology, and their correlation with the qualitative features, with the aim to underline the differences between the benign and malignant cell profile. (rjme.ro)
  • A rare form of benign tumor that occurs in infants. (wrongdiagnosis.com)
  • The tumor, though benign, may cause neurological injury including abnormal movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • This developmental pathology of the orbit is dependent on the fusional abnormalities between the bones and it is divided into primary and secondary forms. (oculist.net)
  • This patient is one of only a handful of reports of a primary spinal germ cell tumor from the western hemisphere (Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Other clinical signs frequently associated with a brain tumor in dogs include circling, altered posture, gait abnormalities, ataxia (loss of the ability to coordinate muscular movement), head tilt, behavior change, depression, incontinence (inability to control excretory functions) and cervical spinal hyperesthesia (abnormal increase in sensitivity to stimuli of the senses). (valpor.lv)
  • Brown-Sequard syndrome is a rare yet classic type of spinal cord injury. (wikibooks.org)
  • Functional Recovery Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Mediated by a Unique Polymer Scaffold Seeded with Neural Stem Cells Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 11867737 To better direct repair following spinal cord injury (SCI), we designed an implant modeled after the intact spinal cord consisting of a multicomponent polymer scaffold seeded with neural stem cells. (jove.com)
  • In stark contrast, ovarian neoplasms account for approximately 1% of all childhood malignancies with those affecting the epithelium being extraordinarily rare. (stanford.edu)
  • It is partially due to their low frequency that little is known about the overall incidence, histologic subtypes, optimal treatment strategies, and natural history of ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms in children. (stanford.edu)
  • Although ovarian malignancies in children are rare (representing only 0.2% of all ovarian neoplasms), their recognition and diagnosis are vital because they can be fulminant if treated inadequately. (glowm.com)
  • The average overall incidence of ovarian neoplasms is 1.7:100,000 per year. (glowm.com)
  • Any ovarian enlargement is rare in infants. (glowm.com)
  • Myelin proteolipid proteins (Plp) is an element from the Schwann cell myelin sheath (25). (movd2016.org)
  • Neuroblast-like immature cells may also be seen, and occasionally, newly formed myelin sheaths. (seotop.vn)
  • In the former category, normally formed myelinated axons are adversely affected with resultant destruction and loss of myelin. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Dysmyelinating processes reflect the sequelae of enzymatic deficiencies that lead to abnormally myelinated axons and subsequent breakdown of the abnormal myelin. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This case underlines the importance of gene-expression profiling in the correct diagnosis of childhood neoplasms with atypical presentation to ensure that adequate treatment regimens can be applied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression profiling and multiplex RT-PCR strongly supported the final diagnosis of neuroblastoma, underlining the importance of including molecular techniques in the diagnosis of childhood neoplasms with atypical presentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Those Schwann cells associated with neuronal cell bodies form satellite cells that express either S100β or GFAP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These depletion syndromes are caused by anomalous mtDNA or nuclear DNA encoding for mitochondrial proteins resulting in a quantitative reduction in mtDNA and abnormal oxidative phosphorylation. (stanford.edu)
  • 451 llie drug mriena oxidative phosphorylaВ tion, resulting in abnormal rhodopsin synthesis, which causes disintegration of rod outer segments7. (films-deposit.ru)
  • The inflammation is composed of predominantly epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells, with fewer neutrophils. (askjpc.org)
  • Histological findings have prognostic value if syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells (STGCs) are found, which are associated with a higher rate of recurrence. (hindawi.com)
  • Tumeurs Par Type Histologique 4 questions A collective term for the various histological types of NEOPLASMS. (lookformedical.com)
  • Unlike neoplasms, their growth is limited. (valpor.lv)
  • The inability of the cell to correct this damage due to mutated DNA repair genes or absence of normal cell cycle may lead to abnormal growth of cells. (g-beyond.com)
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), and Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) are prototypical neurocutaneous disorders in which genetic mutations in pathways regulating cell growth cause developmental dysfunction of the brain, skin, and other organs. (frontiersin.org)
  • As with XP, cultured cells (fibroblasts or lymphocytes) from patients with CS are hypersensitive to UV-induced inhibition of growth and colony-forming ability. (dermaamin.com)
  • Studies showed that 0.25-3.0 h exposure to nanopulses of 18 kV/m field intensity, 1 kHz repetition rate and 10 ns pulse width had no effect on CL-S1 cell growth or viability during the subsequent 72-h culture period. (courtfield.ml)
  • Establishment of a growth hormone responsive chondrogenic cell line from fetal rat tibia. (termsreign.tk)
  • As many are associated with a specific neoplasia, their recognition can lead to the identity of the type of cancer involved.4-6 The individuality of the patient ensures considerable diversity of immunological activity with any given malignancy, but the same abnormal immunological reaction manifesting in different patients with the same type of cancer is indicative of a common pathway of sensitisation. (redorbit.com)
  • Successful treatment of IMP may require combination therapy aimed at eliminating the patient's cancer, and immunological desensitisation to address the abnormal hypersensitivity that may prove as debilitating and life-threatening as the malignancy. (redorbit.com)
  • However, some controversy remains as to whether it is a true malignancy or a neoplasm with varying clinical behavior. (oncolink.org)
  • The dysgerminoma in its pure form is considered a low-grade malignancy. (glowm.com)
  • Those Schwann cells connected with neuronal cell physiques form satellite television cells that communicate either S100 or GFAP. (movd2016.org)
  • Neurofibromas contained cells with Remak bundle disruption but no recombination within GFAP+ nonmyelinating Schwann cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II (CDA II) is the most common form of CDA (see this term) characterized by anemia, jaundice and splenomegaly and often leading to liver iron overload and gallstones. (mendelian.co)
  • As a crucial factor for lung development, NKX2-1 is expressed in the ventral foregut endoderm at a very early stage functioning as a signal which is essential for specification of a pulmonary cell fate instead of a liver cell fate. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In addition, liver and kidney diseases can produce a lack of vitamin D because these are the organs that con- vert vitamin D to its active form. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • 358(9294):1687-1693 negative results 're back eosinophilic among charities with primary drinking, and NAA Xcode can appear known to lead liver and freeze quantities about the pressure for domestic stain among corticosteroids with a 2030English form. (metaleapcreativedev.com)
  • Within the anterior uvea, there is iris and ciliary body atrophy, a pre-iridal fibrovascular membrane that spans across the filtration angle, and a mild to moderate perivascular accumulation of lymphocytes and plasma cells. (askjpc.org)
  • Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers travel along the branch to the inferior oblique and terminate in the ciliary ganglion near the apex of the extraocular muscle cone. (wordpress.com)
  • The postganglionic fibers from the ciliary ganglion travel in the short ciliary nerves, along with the sympathetic fibers, to enter the globe at the posterior aspect near the optic nerve. (wordpress.com)
  • Three hereditary forms are known, that are transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion: (a) multiple neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), (b) multiple neoplasia type IIB (MEN2B) and (c) familial MTC (FMTC), which occurs in 25-30% of MTC cases and where MTC is the only clinical manifestation. (abcam.com)
  • Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 63(2)362в72 Mahajan S, Juneja M, George T (2008) Osteosarcoma as a second neoplasm after chemotherapeutic treatment of hereditary retinoblastoma a case report. (luxbar-starway.ru)
  • This revealed a highly cellular neoplasm comprising sheets and lobules of polygonal tumor cells traversed by fibrous septae rich in lymphocytes. (ajnr.org)
  • Immunotherapy- The treatment of dogs with meningiomas using repeated intracisternal injections (infusion into the cisterna which carry golgi enzymes, to modify cargo proteins traveling through them but destined for other parts of the body) of stimulated lymphocytes (a type of white blood cells in the vertebrate immune system) have resulted in the reduction of tumor size and also in the improvement of clinical symptoms. (g-beyond.com)
  • In vitro studies show that the virus can infect various cell types such as endothelial cells and B-lymphocytes 15 . (bvsalud.org)
  • The tumor cells may differ in their structure and function, but they all have normal function, which is directed by the deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoplasmic and often nuclear expression of S100 protein is present in nearly all tumor cells, and vimentin typically stains tumor cell cytoplasm adjacent to vessel walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • This neoplasm can occur at all levels of the neuraxis, with majority (67%) arising in the cerebellum and optic pathway. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Brief periods of unconsciousness, of which the patient may not be aware, occur in many forms of epilepsy , narcolepsy , repeated attacks of low blood sugar, and reduction in the blood supply to the brain-particularly the brainstem. (academic.ru)
  • Rearrangements of the ROS1 gene occur in 1-2 % of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). (springer.com)
  • Ganglioglioma is a rare, slow-growing primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor which most frequently occurs in the temporal lobes of children and young adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is nearly impossible to differentiate ganglioglioma from other more common intramedullary neoplasms based on imaging alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prenatal diagnosis of CS has been performed based on the delay in recovery of post-UV RNA synthesis and the increased cell killing by UV radiation. (dermaamin.com)
  • Differentiating abnormal mediastinal contours from the normal mediastinum on a chest radiograph and recommending appropriate further imaging evaluation are essential steps in correct diagnosis of mediastinal abnormalities. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The osteocytes which form bone have the ability to select calcium and other minerals from blood and tissue fluid and to deposit the salts in the connective tissue fibers between cells. (chiro.org)
  • In humans, plexiform neurofibromas can be congenital, suggesting a possible role for a developing Schwann cell in neurofibroma formation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We present a patient with a primary intramedullary thoracic germ cell tumor. (hindawi.com)
  • They are generally associated with the pituitary gland which may be trapped within or replaced by the germ cell tumor. (valpor.lv)
  • Neural crest cells develop into Schwann cell precursors between E11 and E13 in mouse sciatic nerve, and Schwann cells by E18 ( 11-12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neural crest cells become Schwann cell precursors between E13 and E11 in mouse sciatic nerve, and Schwann cells by E18 (11-12). (movd2016.org)
  • Trunk neural crest cells give rise to DRG and sympathetic ganglia (SG) which form along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo. (edu.au)
  • The EMT process, which generates neural crest cells from the neuroepithelium of the dorsal neural tube, is believed to be enhanced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activation and the promotion of the Wnt Signalling pathway [8] . (edu.au)
  • These cells may be sensitive at certain dosages which are toxic to the normal brain or other organs. (valpor.lv)
  • It provides protection for the internal organs, provides movement when acted upon by muscles, manufactures blood cells, and stores mineral salts. (chiro.org)
  • Photoreceptor cells include rods and cones and are uniquely located towards the posterior aspect of the retinal sublayers, further away from the pupil where light enters the eye. (statpearls.com)
  • High-dose chemotherapy, autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation, and whole-brain radiotherapy are alternative applications in patients with insufficient response to induction therapy. (intechopen.com)
  • Immune-mediated paraneoplasia (IMP) is a collection of cancer- associated syndromes that involve pathological immunological activity.1-3 Autoimmunity is implicated by reports of patients displaying abnormal antibody reactions focused on single antigens expressed within the affected organ. (redorbit.com)
  • Cells from these XP-CS patients have reduced DNA excision repair characteristic of XP. (dermaamin.com)
  • Of these 63,229 patients, 89.4% had papillary carcinoma, 4.6% had follicular carcinoma, 2.0% had oncocytic cell carcinoma, 1.7% had medullary carcinoma, and 0.8% had anaplastic carcinoma [8]. (scirp.org)
  • The number of immatures of the two whitefly species showed similar dynamics, but while T. Functional state of the gastrin-producing cells in duodenal ulcer patients Tea contains an infusion of the leaves from the Camellia sinensis plant rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, the most abundant of which is (-)-EGCG. (courtfield.ml)
  • 7,12 Ocular involvement is rare and fewer than 6% of patients develop uveitis. (aao.org)
  • 1 Detecting Tumour Cells The introduction of methods more sensitive than histol- ogy for detecting tumour cells in surgical margins and lymph nodes could be helpful in obtaining better treat- ment results for patients with SCCs of the head and neck 53, 261, 361. (msiw.ru)
  • In the patients with prolonged remission, the memory B cells remained depleted while naive B cells recovered within 3-9 months, and the expression levels of CD40 and CD80 remained downregulated for 2 years. (termsreign.tk)
  • Kaposi sarcoma is rare in HIV negative patients and it is associated with HHV-8 infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this paper is to present two cases of Kaposi sarcoma in its epidemic form in HIV positive patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • WB: Neuro-2a, SH-SY5Y and TT cell lysates and mouse and rat brain tissue lysates. (abcam.com)
  • in different tissue and cells. (movd2016.org)
  • Blood leaks directly into the brain, forming a hematoma within the brain parenchyma, or into the subarachnoid or subdural space, leading to physical disruption of the tissue and pressure on the surrounding brain. (valpor.lv)
  • The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements. (lookformedical.com)
  • Tumeurs Du Tissu Conjonctif Et Des Tissus Mous 2 questions Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. (lookformedical.com)
  • The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue. (lookformedical.com)
  • Tumeurs Du Tissu Nerveux 0 questions Neoplasms composed of nerve tissue. (lookformedical.com)
  • Postganglionic fibers from the otic ganglion, which lies just below the foramen ovale, join the auriculotemporal nerve to reach the parotid gland. (sacatar.org)
  • In human beings, plexiform neurofibromas could be congenital, recommending a possible function for the developing Schwann cell in neurofibroma development. (movd2016.org)
  • Nf1−/− mouse embryos die by E13.5 due to abnormal heart development and Nf1+/− mice do not develop neurofibromas ( 19-20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • mouse embryos perish by E13.5 because of abnormal heart development and in animal models using neural crest drivers Wnt1-Cre (E9.5), Mpz-Cre (E9.5-10.5), and Pax3-Cre (E10.5) didn't bring about neurofibroma formation IC-87114 inhibitor (21). (movd2016.org)
  • Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD) is a multisystem disorder characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and disproportionate short stature, facial dysmorphism, T-cell immunodeficiency, and glomerulonephritis with nephrotic syndrome. (mendelian.co)
  • Additionally, there is epidemic form that is associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (bvsalud.org)
  • Histologic findings show mature, neuronal-like cells with multiple processes, a Central nucleus and a nucleolus. (g-beyond.com)
  • It regulates NKX2-1 in lung epithelial cells responding to transcription factors sp1 and sp3 . (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • It is expressed in conducting airways type II alveolar epithelial cells and Clara cells and uniformly in the terminal respiratory unit. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Copper Uptake in Mammary Epithelial Cells Activates Cyclins and Triggers Antioxidant Response. (courtfield.ml)
  • Clinical laboratory testing often shows sensorineural deafness, neuropathic electromyogram, and slow motor nerve conduction velocity The electroencephalogram may be abnormal, and x-ray examination may show thickened skull and microcephaly. (dermaamin.com)
  • Gangliogliomas account for 0.4% to 7.6% of pediatric CNS neoplasms and up to 1.3% of those in adults (3) . (ajnr.org)
  • Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) was the first paraneoplasia to be described and occurs in a wide range of different types of neoplasia such as lymphomas, carcinomas of the ovaries, uterus, breast, in addition to the most frequently culpable small cell carcinoma. (redorbit.com)
  • Many primary malignant neoplasms (eg, melanoma and renal cell, lung, breast, gastric, and colon carcinomas) have been reported to metastasize to the tonsil. (sacatar.org)
  • Rod cells contain rhodopsin, which is a light-sensitive pigment made of retinal that allows for the absorption of photons. (statpearls.com)
  • There is diffuse retinal detachment with hypertrophy of the retinal pigmented epithelium, and there is mild atrophy of the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers of the retina. (askjpc.org)
  • Thus cell(s) developing at or after the embryonic Schwann cell stage of development initiate neurofibroma formation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore cell(s) developing at or following the embryonic Schwann cell stage of advancement initiate neurofibroma development. (movd2016.org)
  • Inner Limiting Membrane - the innermost layer of the retina that forms a smooth boundary against the vitreous humor which fills the vitreous chamber of the eye. (statpearls.com)
  • Therefore, the cells differentiate from what they were meant to be. (wikipedia.org)