Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Lipofuscin: A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid. It accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Eye ProteinsMacular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.cis-trans-Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Retinal DiseasesPigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Iodates: Inorganic salts of iodic acid (HIO3).Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Retinal Drusen: Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Retinaldehyde: A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.Retinoids: A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Blood-Retinal Barrier: A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Melanosomes: Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Albinism: General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Choroid Diseases: Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Rats, Mutant Strains: Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment: The light sensitive outer portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. The outer segment contains a stack of disk membranes laden with photoreceptive pigments (RETINAL PIGMENTS). The outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Inbred C57BLRetinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Choroideremia: An X chromosome-linked abnormality characterized by atrophy of the choroid and degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium causing night blindness.Retinol-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.Geographic Atrophy: A form of MACULAR DEGENERATION also known as dry macular degeneration marked by occurrence of a well-defined progressive lesion or atrophy in the central part of the RETINA called the MACULA LUTEA. It is distinguishable from WET MACULAR DEGENERATION in that the latter involves neovascular exudates.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Pyridinium CompoundsMicroscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Vitreoretinopathy, Proliferative: Vitreoretinal membrane shrinkage or contraction secondary to the proliferation of primarily retinal pigment epithelial cells and glial cells, particularly fibrous astrocytes, followed by membrane formation. The formation of fibrillar collagen and cellular proliferation appear to be the basis for the contractile properties of the epiretinal and vitreous membranes.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Amacrine Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Retinal Perforations: Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Optic Disk Drusen: Optic disk bodies composed primarily of acid mucopolysaccharides that may produce pseudopapilledema (elevation of the optic disk without associated INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION) and visual field deficits. Drusen may also occur in the retina (see RETINAL DRUSEN). (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p355)Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Trypan Blue: A diazo-naphthalene sulfonate that is widely used as a stain.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Wet Macular Degeneration: A form of RETINAL DEGENERATION in which abnormal CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION occurs under the RETINA and MACULA LUTEA, causing bleeding and leaking of fluid. This leads to bulging and or lifting of the macula and the distortion or destruction of central vision.Retinal Dystrophies: A group of disorders involving predominantly the posterior portion of the ocular fundus, due to degeneration in the sensory layer of the RETINA; RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; BRUCH MEMBRANE; CHOROID; or a combination of these tissues.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Eye Diseases, Hereditary: Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Otx Transcription Factors: A family of VERTEBRATE homeodomain proteins that share homology with orthodenticle protein, Drosophila. They regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and play an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the BRAIN.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Ophthalmia, Sympathetic: Granulomatous uveitis which follows in one eye after a penetrating injury to the other eye; the secondarily affected eye is called the sympathizing eye, and the injured eye is called the exciting or activating eye.Choroid Neoplasms: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 126.96.36.199.Rats, Inbred BNOphthalmoscopes: Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Transcription Factor Brn-3B: A POU domain factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Leber Congenital Amaurosis: A rare degenerative inherited eye disease that appears at birth or in the first few months of life that results in a loss of vision. Not to be confused with LEBER HEREDITARY OPTIC NEUROPATHY, the disease is thought to be caused by abnormal development of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS in the RETINA, or by the extremely premature degeneration of retinal cells.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Transcription Factor Brn-3A: A POU domain factor that activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS; alpha internexin; SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25; and BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pigmentation DisordersCathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 188.8.131.52. (Formerly EC 184.108.40.206).Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Cone Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Intravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Gardner Syndrome: A variant of ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI caused by mutation in the APC gene (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. It is characterized by not only the presence of multiple colonic polyposis but also extracolonic ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT; the EYE; the SKIN; the SKULL; and the FACIAL BONES; as well as malignancy in organs other than the GI tract.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
... the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the optic stalk. The neural retina contains the retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) that give ... The optic nerve carries the ganglion cell axons to the brain, and the blood vessels that supply the retina. The ganglion cells ... Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ...
Histologically the only region of the retina where GCL has >1 layer of ganglion cells Yellowish appearance = luteal pigments ( ... which is across the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. The high spatial density of cones along with the absence ... The optic disc is the area on the right where blood vessels converge. The grey, more diffuse spot in the centre is a shadow ... the ratios of ganglion cells to photoreceptors is about 2.5; almost every ganglion cell receives data from a single cone, and ...
... ganglion cells, and retinal pigment epithelium cells. IN the visual system, cannabinoids agonist induce a dose dependent ... positive regulation of blood pressure. • regulation of penile erection. • regulation of lipid metabolic process. • ... such as fat cells, muscle cells, liver cells (and also in the endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and stellate cells of the liver ... cell membrane. • presynaptic membrane. • mitochondrion. • mitochondrial outer membrane. • cell projection. • integral component ...
The outer layer is highly pigmented, continuous with the retinal pigment epithelium, and constitutes the cells of the dilator ... and travel through the ciliary ganglion. Postsynaptic fibers from the ciliary ganglion form the short ciliary nerves. ... which do not have their own blood supply. Eighty percent of aqueous humor production is carried out through active secretion ... The inner layer is unpigmented until it reaches the iris, where it takes on pigment. The retina ends at the ora serrata. The ...
... while the outer layer is composed of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Experiments have determined that RPE cell ... ganglion cells, bipolar cells, horizontal cells, amacrine cells and Muller glia. This indicates that morphogenesis of the optic ... extraocular muscles endothelial lining of blood vessels of the eye blood vessels in sclera & choroid Sclera & Choroid Vitreous ... At this point, morphologies such as columnar epithelial cells, pseudo-stratified cells, and apically narrow wedge-shaped cells ...
2001). "Pigment epithelium-derived factor inhibits retinal and choroidal neovascularization". J Cell Physio. 188 (2): 253-263. ... A number of these cell types are implicated in retinal diseases, including retinal ganglion cells, which degenerate in glaucoma ... For example, tight junctions that form the blood-retina barrier, separate subretinal space from the blood supply, providing ... Intravitreal AAV targets retinal ganglion cells and a few Muller glial cells. Subretinal AAV efficiently targets photoreceptors ...
The choroid contains blood vessels that supply the retinal cells with necessary oxygen and remove the waste products of ... of the ganglion cells in the retina are themselves photosensitive through the pigment melanopsin. They are generally most ... No photosensitive cells exist at this point, it is thus "blind". Continuous with the retina are the ciliary epithelium and the ... Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate numerous nonvisual phenomena, including entrainment of the ...
The outer layer is highly pigmented, continuous with the retinal pigment epithelium, and constitutes the cells of the dilator ... However, some ganglion cells of vertebrates express r-opsins, suggesting that their ancestors used this pigment in vision, and ... Formation of a nontransparent ring allowed more blood vessels, more circulation, and larger eye sizes. Eyes are generally ... From more complex eyes, retinal photosensitive ganglion cells send signals along the retinohypothalamic tract to the ...
... optic nerve blood flow, excitatory neurotransmitter, trophic factor, retinal ganglion cell/axon degeneration, glial support ... Over time, these pigment cells can accumulate in the anterior chamber in such a way that it can begin to clog the trabecular ... Diode laser cycloablation lowers IOP by reducing aqueous secretion by destroying secretory ciliary epithelium. Both laser and ... Hernández M, Urcola JH, Vecino E (May 2008). "Retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection in a rat model of glaucoma following ...
... that activates retinal ganglion cells in animals with damaged rod and cone cells. 2015: A study by Bakondi et al. at Cedars- ... retinal layer morphology, and retinal pigment epithelium physiology, fundus imagery can help determine the state of RP ... and therefore markedly reduced expression of all Kell red blood cell antigens. For transfusion purposes these patients are ... Additionally, animal models suggest that the retinal pigment epithelium fails to phagocytose the outer rod segment discs that ...
Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Retina ganglion cell (Midget cell, Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell ... The optic disc is the area on the right where blood vessels converge. The grey, more diffuse spot in the centre is a shadow ... The retina contains two types of photosensitive cells, the rod cells and the cone cells. ...
Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Retina ganglion cell (Midget cell, Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell ... Notably, it is never filled with blood in physiological settings as it does not receive arterial blood circulation. ... Ramos RF, Hoying JB, Witte MH, Daniel Stamer W. (2007). "Schlemm's canal endothelia, lymphatic, or blood vasculature?". J ...
Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Retina ganglion cell (Midget cell, Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell ... The optic disc is the area on the right where blood vessels converge. The grey, more diffuse spot in the centre is a shadow ... The perifovea ends when the Henle's fiber layer disappears and the ganglion cells are one-layered. ...
Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Retina ganglion cell (Midget cell, Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell ... "Waveform analysis of human retinal and choroidal blood flow with laser Doppler holography." Biomedical Optics Express 10, no. ... The optic disc represents the beginning of the optic nerve and is the point where the axons of retinal ganglion cells come ...
... then to the Retina amacrine cell and Retinal ganglion cell(purple layer), then to the optic nerve fibres. The signals are ... Defining a reference transcriptome of the adult mammalian retina/retinal pigment epithelium"। BMC journals Genomics (about a ... The blood vessels in a normal human retina. Veins are darker and slightly wider than corresponding arteries. The optic disc is ... Rodieck RW (১৯৬৫)। "Quantitative analysis of cat retinal ganglion cell response to visual stimuli"। Vision Res.। 5 (11): 583- ...
Retinal pigment epithelium. Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine ... Retina ganglion cell (Midget cell, Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell ... e. Transition to the sclera, with more distinct fibrillation, and surmounted by a thicker epithelium. f. Small blood vessels ... "Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 20 (1, pp. 9-137): 95-137. doi:10.1016/S1350-9462(00)00016-1.. ...
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are primarily beneficial upon restoring homeostasis after inflammation. Due to their ... Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are primarily beneficial upon restoring homeostasis after inflammation. Because of ... During persistent stress, myeloid cells can remain partially differentiated and adopt immunosuppressive functions. ... During persistent stress, myeloid cells can remain partially differentiated and adopt immunosuppressive functions. ...
... ganglion cells; INL, inner nuclear layer; ONL, outer nuclear layer; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium. Scale bars: 40 μm in (A) ... 3). Strong staining was observed in choroid vessels (retinal blood vessels) and in an area bordering the RPE. Drusen of similar ... deposits called drusen concentrated in and around the macula behind the retina between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and ... The complement system protects against infection and attacks diseased and dysplastic cells and normally spares healthy cells. ...
RPE: Retinal pigment epithelium; ONL: Outer nuclear layer; INL: Inner nuclear layer; GCL: Ganglion cell layer. The bar ... Blood retinal barrier; ECM: Extracellular matrix; VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor. ... RPE:Retinal pigment epithelium; ONL: Outer nuclear layer; INL: Inner nuclear layer; GCL:Ganglion cell layer. ... Retinal pigment epithelium; ONL: Outer nuclear layer; INL: Inner nuclear layer; GCL: Ganglion cell layer. The bar represents 20 ...
To isolate the contribution of a single cell to any percept is quite challenging because normal... ... retinal ganglion cells [58, 59], and the mosaic of the retinal pigment epithelium [60, 61]. For visual stimulation, the AOSLO ... include the retinal nerve fiber layer and lamina cribrosa , blood flow with single blood cell resolution in the smallest ... The outer segments are embedded in the retinal pigment epithelium, a single layer of polygonal, highly pigmented cells, serving ...
RNFL/ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer/inner nuclear layer and retinal pigment epithelium/choroid interfaces, ... Retinal blood vessel oxygenation is considered to be an important marker for numerous eye diseases. Oxygenation is typically ... pigment epithelium, and choroid are measured and a quantitative comparison is presented. OCT retinal imaging at 1060 nm is ... the ganglion cell, and the inner plexiform layers compared to the OCT retinal imaging at 845 nm.. ...
RPE retinal pigmented epithelium; C- choroid and S sclera. The red arrows mark tiny capillaries imbedded in the retinal OPL, ... GCL ganglion cell layer; IPL inner plexiform layer; INL inner nuclear layer; OPL outer plexiform layer; ONL outer nuclear layer ... while the yellow arrows mark large blood vessels in the choroid. The red line boxes mark sections of the retinal image that ... Magnified view of a choroidal blood vessel, corresponding to the area marked with red box #3 in the original image [Fig. 1(b)] ...
... retinal pigment epithelium, CC- Choriocapillaris,); red and blue box: regions of interest for the CD FDOCT measurements. ... b) Cross section taken along the line in (a) (NFL- nerve fiber layer,GCL- ganglion cell layer, IPL/OPL-inner/outer plexiform ... We observe bi-directional blood flow and pulsatility of blood velocity in retinal vessels with a Doppler detection bandwidth of ... Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT Bernhard Baumann, Benjamin Potsaid, ...
... and bipolar cells synapsing with retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the RNFL. It is possible that the reduction in retinal ... and the hyporeflective line between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choriocapillaries (right). (B) Retinal nerve ... Of note, the outer third of the retina receives its blood supply from the choroid (with the inner two-thirds being retinal in ... Photoreceptors resting on the retinal pigment epithelium form the outer layer, and the RNFL the innermost layer. Between the ...
... nerve fiber layer/ganglion cell layer; OPL, outer plexiform layer; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium; CH, choroid), PS-OCT ... a) Depth color-coded OCTA maps over time from BL to F3 show the retinal plexuses as well as outer retinal blood flow at lesion ... nerve fiber layer/ganglion cell layer; OPL, outer plexiform layer; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium; CH, choroid), PS-OCT ... nerve fiber layer/ganglion cell layer; OPL, outer plexiform layer; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium; CH, choroid), PS-OCT ...
... the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the optic stalk. The neural retina contains the retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) that give ... The optic nerve carries the ganglion cell axons to the brain, and the blood vessels that supply the retina. The ganglion cells ... Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ...
... smooth muscle cells and pericytes in the vessel walls, and (d) the retinal pigment epithelium. In diabetic retinas, BRB ... ganglion cells, (b) glial cells such as astrocytes and Muller cells, whose cell processes are closely associated with retinal ... The relation between expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier in diabetic ... and the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was investigated. VEGF mRNA expression was examined by in situ ...
COX-2 is the predominant isoform in the retinal pigment epithelium.24 Cyclooxygenase catalyzes arachidonic acid from cell ... and inflammatory cells in the iris, ciliary body and around blood vessels.8 Intracytoplasmic edema of Müller cells and ... Other findings include swollen mitochondria in prelaminar ganglion cell axons, astrocyte degeneration and occlusion of laminar ... The subfoveal photoreceptor layer appears disorganized with disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium. (Image courtesy Ralph ...
... retinal ganglion cells; AC: amakrin cells; PR: photoreceptors; RPE: retinal pigment epithelium cells; BM: Bruch`s membrane; BV ... An imbalance of the intraocular protein composition promotes new blood vessel formation in case of VEGF dominance.. ... The pathology of AMD starts with an impairment of the RPE (retinal pigment epithelium) cell layer. The reasons for this loss of ... Dry AMD waste products accumulate in and around the RPE cells, drusen develops and RPE cells die. The impaired RPE cell layer ...
Human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium in patients with age-related macular degeneration and Stargardts ... Laser Doppler flowmetry showed the average blood cell flux (cells per meter squared per second) as a linear readout in relative ... Next, 3 × 105 hDPSCs were injected into the dorsal root ganglia. Here, the dorsal root ganglia in the intervertebral space ... A recent study showed that human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium was safe when transplanted into ...
A New Method to Visualize the Intact Subretina From Retinal Pigment Epithelium to Retinal Tissue in Whole Mount of Pigmented ... GCL, ganglion cell layer; IPL, inner plexiform layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; OPL, outer plexiform layer; ONL, outer nuclear ... Total retinal thickness and inner and outer retinal separation can be seen on the OCT scan. Arrow: blood vessel. ... Total retinal thickness and inner and outer retinal separation can be seen on the OCT scan. Arrow: blood vessel. ...
... ganglion cells; INL, inner nuclear layer; ONL, outer nuclear layer; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium. Scale bars: 40 μm in (A) ... Labeling of CFH is intense in choroid, including blood vessels and areas bordering RPE [(A) and (C)]; this CFH signal is ...
... of cells in the retinal organoids and caused a slight decrease in the differentiation of cells into retinal ganglion cells, the ... and flow cytometry to investigate the effects of DEX and RAP on cells in the retinal organoids. Retinal organoids were then ... Our ,i,in vivo,/i, experiments indicate that the retinal organoid can survive and differentiate into retinal tissues in a ... organoid cells retained their capacity to grow and differentiate into retinal tissues. ...
... and ganglion cells), the retinal nerve fibers and sites of creatine transport into the retina (retinal pigment epithelium, ... inner retinal blood vessels, and perivascular astrocytes). The CRT was not expressed in M??ller cells of any of the species ... ller cells suggests that neurons are independent of this glial cell in accumulating creatine. During mouse retinal development ... However, when tested against mammalian cell lines, most of the compounds were also toxic for macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells ...
Retinal ganglion cell survival is also promoted by PEDF (pigment epithelium-derived factor) via STAT3 (signal transduction and ... which is formed by aldose reductase in the presence of high blood sugar through the polyol pathway, leading to a blood-retinal ... affecting retinal cells like pericytes, ganglion, and Müller cells . In retinal cells, apoptosis may be triggered by the ... Inducible NOS, found in Müller cells and in the retinal pigment epithelium, can participate in normal phagocytosis of the outer ...
... alters structure and function of retinal pigmented epithelial cells. Aging Cell 8:162-177. doi: 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00456. ... Curcio CA, Drucker DN (1993) Retinal ganglion cells in Alzheimers disease and aging. Ann Neurol 33:248-257PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Before amyloid-related aggregation was shown in the AD-afflicted eye, Aβ immunoreactivity in the sub-retinal pigment epithelium ... in retinal blood oxygen saturation used spectrophotometric non-invasive retinal oximetry to report the elevation of blood ...
When retinal cells die, from disease or injury, they are gone for good. And with them goes the vision we too easily take for ... On its own, the body cannot replace cells of the retina. ... adjacent to the retina called the retinal pigment epithelium ( ... Together, these cells encode light into signals the brain can understand. Retinal ganglion cells, with their telephone wire- ... For example, diabetic retinopathy damages blood vessels that support the retina. In age-related macular degeneration, the build ...
... resolution provided by the neural retina at the macula is optimized by stereotyped retinal blood vessel and ganglion cell axon ... Comparison of human retinal pigment epithelium gene expression in macula and periphery highlights potential topographic ... Profile of the genes expressed in the human peripheral retina, macula, and retinal pigment epithelium determined through serial ... Ganglion cell axon pathfinding in the retina and optic nerve. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2004; 15:125-36. [PMID: 15036215] ...
They are connected to a highly pigmented layer called retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that grows atop a highly vascularized ... amacrine and horizontal cells. These three cellular workhorses process the signals and transfer them to the ganglion cell layer ... If the blood supply and the RPE were inside the eye, they would obscure light from the photosensitive cells. Explained Palanker ... The pillars allow retinal cells greater access to nutrients and let researchers affect specific cell layers by controlling the ...
P photoreceptor cell layer (nuclei and outer segments) rpe retinal pigment epithelium c choroid s sclera, b retinal blood ... V vitreous body G ganglion cell layer (cell bodies and nuclei) ... disrupted retinal pigment epithelium, infiltrated and thickened ... Note disrupted ocular architecture cells and debris in the vitreous, vasculitis, retinal folds and retinal detachment, ... Retinal Surgery Fri, 14 Jul 2017 , Cardiac Output Retinal detachments present sporadically but are not usually so urgent that ...
... such as retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the photoreceptors, while intravitreal injection transduces ganglion cells in the ... it was reported recently that AAV-9 is capable of bypassing the blood-brain barrier and efficiently targeting cells of the ... Robust expression was seen in the retinal pigment epithelium, outer nuclear layer, and in Müller cells. Interestingly a ... AAV-9 resulted in widespread (peripheral to central to peripheral) and throughout (RPE to retinal ganglion cells [RGC]) AP ...
ChoroidMacular degenerationVasculatureDetachmentEpithelial cellsVascularOpticDegeneration of retinal ganglRGCsSubretinalGlialRetinitis pigmentosaBipolar and ganglion cellsOcularEndothelialVesselGlaucomaMonolayerBarrierAmacrine cellsVitreousFoveaMouse models of retinalAtrophyAbnormalitiesPosteriorRole in retinalPhotoreceptor cellDeath of retinal neuronsHuman retinalNeuronalOxidative stressIntravitrealDiabeticDystrophyInflammationBlindnessOuter segmentsCorneal
- V vitreous body G ganglion cell layer (cell bodies and nuclei) P photoreceptor cell layer (nuclei and outer segments) rpe retinal pigment epithelium c choroid s sclera, b retinal blood vessel. (barnardhealth.us)
- The choroid underlies the retinal pigment epithelium and is continuous anteriorly at the ora serrata with the ciliary body. (missionforvision.org)
- The capillary layer of the choroid, the choriocapillaris, lies directly under Bruch's membrane and is critical to supply retinal photoreceptors. (missionforvision.org)
- Branches from the nerves to the adjacent choroid form small net-like arrangements where large ganglion cells may be observed. (missionforvision.org)
- The internal structures were disorganized with diffuse calcification and bone formation at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The level of VEGF in the RPE/choroid was significantly decreased in Aldh1a1 -/- mice, and RA-dependent enhancement of VEGF was observed in primary RPE cells. (elifesciences.org)
- A common example is age-related macular degeneration, where blood vessels in the choroid either break down or start growing uncontrollably in the wrong places. (elifesciences.org)
- The retinal pigment epithelium helps the choroid to develop properly by producing a protein, VEGF, which supports the growth of blood vessels. (elifesciences.org)
- Yet the choroid in the mutant mice without Aldh1a1 still grew fewer blood vessels than normal. (elifesciences.org)
- In the future, they may also help scientists to better understand why blood vessels in the choroid become abnormal in eye diseases like age-related macular degeneration. (elifesciences.org)
- The fovea is located in a small avascular zone and receives most of its oxygen from the vessels in the choroid, which is across the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- The choroid receives its blood supply from what? (studystack.com)
- What layer of the choroid lies next to the retinal pigment epithelium? (studystack.com)
- The mammalian photoreceptor amplification system involves huge portions of metabolic Electrical power for vision in photopic circumstances (scotopic problems on the ocean flooring demand a large amount less energy), and consequently, it demands a substantial and homogeneous offer of blood which is supplied with the blood vessels during the choroid which lies beneath the RPE. (blogminds.com)
- Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) begins with characteristic yellow deposits in the macula called drusen, between the retinal pigment epithelium and the underlying choroid. (ecotaf.net)
- Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to visualize the orientation of the nerves in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and to visualize depolarization in retinas of healthy volunteers and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- Several retinal diseases specifically affect the macula, including Best's disease, macular telangiectasia, Stargardt's macular dystrophy, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (molvis.org)
- Increased lutein intake from both food sources and supplements is positively correlated with increased macular pigment density, which is theorized to lower risk for macular degeneration. (barnardhealth.us)
- Dry Macular Degeneration seems to have less of an effect on vision than does Wet Macular Degeneration because the atrophy of rod and cone cells tends to be much slower. (quantumhealth.com)
- Retinal tissue derviced from embryonic stem cells may one day treat macular degeneration. (singularityhub.com)
- While still in the very early stages of development, the ESC-derived retinal tissue may help treat millions of people in the world that suffer from loss of vision due to macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa . (singularityhub.com)
- Adenoviral vector-delivered pigment epithelium-derived factor for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: results of a phase I clinical trial. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Indocyanine Green Angiography (or ICGA) is a technique performed by ophthalmologists to diagnose abnormalities of the choroidal and retinal vasculature of various eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (jove.com)
- RPE provide critical support for photoreceptors and death or dysfunction of RPE cells is characteristic of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of permanent vision loss in people age 55 and older. (jove.com)
- A bioengineered retinal pigment epithelial monolayer for advanced, dry age-related macular degeneration Sci Transl Med. (usc.edu)
- Risks of advanced stages of macular degeneration increase when the drusen are large and numerous and associated with disturbance in the pigmented cell layer under the macula. (ecotaf.net)
- Senile disciform degeneration (also known as Kuhnt-Junius macular degeneration), is a severe wet form that causes hemorrhaging of the blood vessels. (ecotaf.net)
- Stem cells, currently under investigation for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration and other retinal disorders, are characterized by the ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, and an unlimited self-renewal capacity. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- Loss PRs is associated with a large number of retinal degenerative diseases of which Age-related-Macular-Degeneration ( AMD ) is the most widespread with over 2 millions affected in the United States. (umassmed.edu)
- Gene Transfer for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration " by Peter Campochiaro shows the potential for long-term delivery of proteins to control abnormal growth of blood vessels. (medicalxpress.com)
- The retinal vasculature, pigmentation, nerve fiber arrangement, and optic nerve head were clearly visible on the fundus images. (arvojournals.org)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Leukostasis was determined by counting the number of fluorescently labeled leukocytes inside retinal vasculature. (diabetesjournals.org)
- 1,5) The presumed mechanism for retinal damage is coagulative necrosis due to loss of choroidal and retinal vasculature and possibly electroporation. (harvard.edu)
- Vascular progenitors from cord blood-derived induced pluripotent stem cells possess augmented capacity for regenerating ischemic retinal vasculature. (rpbusa.org)
- Atrophic changes in the retinal vasculature are also observed in many of these degenerations. (jci.org)
- In addition to the cytotoxic reaction in the target tissue (direct tumor cell killing), damage to the tumor vasculature, the immunological response associated with leukocyte stimulation, and release of inflammatory mediators like cytokines, growth factors, components of the complement system, acute phase proteins are important mechanisms for the effectiveness of PDT (3). (scielo.br)
- ICGA is especially useful to image the posterior choroidal vasculature of the eye due to its capability of penetrating through the pigmented layer with its infrared spectrum. (jove.com)
- Projection OCT fundus images show features such as the nerve fiber layer, retinal capillary networks and choroidal vasculature. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- Only with the subsequent development of electron microscopy, trypsin digest, clinical fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography have scientists been able to understand the retina's cellular connections, ultrastructure, and retinal vasculature, as well as correlate anatomical and clinical findings. (springer.com)
- Ferrari-Dileo G, Davis EB, Anderson DR. Response of retinal vasculature to phenylephrine. (springer.com)
- Fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) have been the gold standard for the evaluation of retinal and choroidal vasculature in the last three decades and have revolutionized the diagnosis of retinal and choroidal vascular diseases. (healio.com)
- The advantage of these imaging modalities lies in their ability to document retinal and choroidal vasculature through the dynamic assessment of contrast transit over time in the intravascular and extravascular spaces. (healio.com)
- A sudden increase in floaters can be one of the first signs of retinal detachment or other severe eye conditions. (barnardhealth.us)
- In PDR, proliferative neovasculature causes severe complications, such as vitreous hemorrhage, retinal scars, and tractional retinal detachment, all of which may lead to irreversible vision loss. (biomedcentral.com)
- This patient also had a localized posterior retinal detachment. (entokey.com)
- This sub retinal blood can also result in RPE detachment that can have its own retinal degenerative mechanisms as well as direct retinal death. (utah.edu)
- Where does retinal detachment occur? (studystack.com)
- Histologic evidence supporting the clinical diagnosis of secondary glaucoma includes the buphthalmia, iris and ciliary body atrophy, keratitis with focal rupture of Descemets membrane (corneal stria), retinal detachment with retinal pigmented epithelial hypertrophy, and inner retinal atrophy. (askjpc.org)
- Even after four years, none of the eyes developed abnormal growth suggestive of a teratoma, a tumor composed of two or more germ layers which could originate from stem cells, and no eyes developed proliferative vitreoretinopathy or a retinal detachment. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- For peripherally located tumors, these systems allow for more complete documentation of tumor margins and associated features such as exudative retinal detachment, particularly when multiple clock hours of the fundus are involved (Figure 2) . (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- 16. The kit of claim 13, wherein the magnetic therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent is selected from one or more of magnetic stem cells, magnetic corneal endothelial cells, magnetic retinal pigment epithelial cells, magnetic trabecular meshwork cells, magnetic antibodies, magnetic growth factors, and magnetic cytokines. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- An interventional pilot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent aflibercept on the development of retinal neovascularization. (arvojournals.org)
- The relation between expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier in diabetic rat retinas. (nih.gov)
- In the retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, the relationship between the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was investigated. (nih.gov)
- 13 Surgically induced trauma to the iris, ciliary body and lens epithelium disrupts the blood-aqueous barrier resulting in release of prostaglandins, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 and other inflammatory mediators. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- Most prominent molecules are the angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the anti-angiogenic protein pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). (targetamd.eu)
- The aim of this study was to identify novel genes that may influence retinal vascular patterning and definition of the foveal avascular area. (molvis.org)
- It has an extremely rapid blood flow which is provided by the choriocapillaris, inner vascular layer and outer vascular layer. (missionforvision.org)
- Vascular leakage was measured by immunoblotting of retinal albumin and fluorescent microscopic analysis of extravascular albumin. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS Müller cell-derived VEGF plays an essential and causative role in retinal inflammation, vascular lesions, and vascular leakage in DR. Therefore, Müller cells are a primary cellular target for proinflammatory signals that mediates retinal inflammation and vascular leakage in DR. (diabetesjournals.org)
- During diabetes, hyperglycemia and oxidative stress upregulates a major angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A or VEGF), which induces retinal neovascularization, vascular leakage, and perhaps macular edema ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- This report describes our investigation of the role of Müller cell-derived VEGF in retinal inflammation and vascular leakage that occurs as a consequence of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The crowded central cup places these nerves at risk for vascular occlusive disease, including large retinal venous and arterial occlusions, as well as ischemic papillopathy. (entokey.com)
- A congenital retinal macrovessel is a rare vascular anomaly that appears as an enlarged vessel exiting the optic nerve and traversing the macula with several first-order tributaries extending superior and inferior to its horizontal course. (entokey.com)
- While it is thought that this atrophy is secondary to diminished metabolic demand in the face of retinal degeneration, the precise relationship between the retinal neuronal and vascular degeneration is not clear. (jci.org)
- However, more than an alternative for FA and ICGA, OCTA is bringing new insights to our understanding of retinal and choroidal vascular structure and is changing fundamental paradigms in the clinical management of pathologic conditions. (healio.com)
- As diabetes develops, neurodegeneration may cause vascular permeability, which causes thickening of the retinal layers. (biomedcentral.com)
- Neural signals from the rods and cones undergo processing by other neurons, whose output takes the form of action potentials in retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
- Although the overlying neural tissue is partly transparent, and the accompanying glial cells have been shown to act as fibre-optic channels to transport photons directly to the photoreceptors, light scattering does occur. (wikipedia.org)
- The quality of the OCT images was sufficient to allow measurement of the total, inner, and outer retinal thicknesses and to visualize the optic nerve head excavation. (arvojournals.org)
- Retinal ganglion cells, with their telephone wire-like axons, carry the signals through the optic nerve to the visual centers of the brain. (nih.gov)
- This tissue comprises, among other things, light-sensitive rods and cones, retinal pigment epithelium and ganglion cells, which make up the optic nerve. (fraunhofer.de)
- In contrast to mammals, zebrafish successfully regenerate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons after optic nerve section (ONS). (biomedcentral.com)
- Finally, the stimulator uses this level information to alter the firing patterns of retinal ganglion cells whose action potentials propagate up the optic nerve to generate phosphene patterns in the visual areas of the brain. (utah.edu)
- A corkscrew-shaped retinal arterial loop is seen overlying the center of the optic nerve in this asymptomatic patient. (entokey.com)
- The pattern of retinal atrophy surrounding the optic nerve suggests a possible path of electrical current to the eye and demonstrates the selective tissuedamage that may occur in electrical injuries. (harvard.edu)
- Figure 1B) Results of optical coherence tomography (OCT) correlated with fundus examination findings, showing retinal thinning and retinal pigment epithelium/choriocapillary irregularity in the area adjacent to the optic nerve (Figure 2). (harvard.edu)
- This is in addition to common pathologies shared between open and closed globe trauma, including retinal tears, retinal detachments, choroidal ruptures, and optic nerve atrophy [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- About 3 mm medial to the fovea is the optic disc, where axons of the ganglionic cells converge to form the optic nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Frequent complications: progressive visual field scotoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, central retinal artery or vein occlusion, and neovascularization adjacent to the optic nerve head. (intechopen.com)
- Thus 60 rods and 2 cones converge on each ganglionic cell and optic nerve fiber. (epomedicine.com)
- The glaucomas comprise a genetically complex group of retinal neuropathies that typically occur late in life and are characterized by progressive pathology of the optic nerve head and degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. (prolekare.cz)
- The inner layer consists of the ganglion cells, which give rise to the optic nerve. (europeanmedical.info)
- Although regulating intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently considered the most effective method to control glaucoma-induced blindness, the damage to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) due to glaucoma is generally considered irreversible. (hindawi.com)
- To restore vision in such cases, damaged RGCs must be restored, which is possible only with stem-cell therapy [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- This difference is explained on the one hand by neurite growth inhibitors in mammals (including Nogo-A), as opposed to growth-promoting glial cells in the fish visual pathway, and on the other hand by the neuron-intrinsic properties allowing the upregulation of growth-associated proteins in fish RGCs but not in mammals. (biomedcentral.com)
- The in vitro effects of JNK inhibitors were evaluated in cultured adult rat retinal cells enriched in RGCs. (biomedcentral.com)
- This report also summarizes the content of the workshop discussion, which focused on: (1) cell sources for RGC replacement and regeneration, (2) optimizing integration, survival, and synaptogenesis of new RGCs, and (3) approaches for assessing the outcomes of RGC replacement therapies. (arvojournals.org)
- 8 This is a report from the fourth workshop addressing the replacement of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from exogenous and endogenous sources. (arvojournals.org)
- Furthermore, subretinal AAV-9 administration did not cause appreciable acute retinal damages. (molvis.org)
- It was found that subretinal injection transduces the outermost retinal structures, such as retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the photoreceptors, while intravitreal injection transduces ganglion cells in the innermost layer. (molvis.org)
- A novel approach for subretinal implantation of ultrathin substrates containing stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium monolayer," Ophthalmic Research, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- While not part of the actual protocol, we also describe how to determine the extent of the trauma induced by the injection, and how to verify that the cells were injected into the subretinal space using in vivo imaging modalities. (jove.com)
- it may be used to inject any compound or cell into the subretinal space. (jove.com)
- It's worth noting that most current approaches using somatic stem cells to treat retinal disease use an intravitreal delivery method, in contrast to subretinal transplantation. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- 1 Steven D. Schwartz, MD, of the Stein Eye Institute in Los Angeles, and his colleagues performed two prospective clinical trials of subretinal transplantation of hESC-derived RPE cells in nine patients with Stargardt macular dystrophy and nine with atrophic AMD. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- 2 Following surgery combined with immunosuppression, 72 percent of patients had increased subretinal pigmentation at the location of the transplant, suggesting the presence of the injected cells. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- Previous studies have shown that the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) 4 monolayer functions as an immune-privileged tissue ( 4 ), and that RPE cells are the principal mediators of immune privilege in the subretinal space ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Choroidal melanoma in the macula captured with standard color fundus photography documents typical features: a dome-shaped pigmented choroidal mass with overlying orange pigment, the absence of drusen and the presence of subretinal fluid. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- 1 Standard modern mydriatic fundus cameras now capture 30 to 50 degrees of the fundus and allow for excellent documentation of features pertinent to choroidal melanoma, such as the degree of pigmentation, the presence or absence of drusen, lipofuscin (or "orange pigment"), overlying changes in the retinal pigment epithelium, and subretinal fluid (Figure 1) . (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- Endogenous regeneration of damaged retinal pigment epithelium following low dose sodium iodate administration: an insight into the role of glial cells in retinal repair," Experimental Eye Research, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- If the hyaloid artery is encased by a glial sheath of neuroectodermal cells it is known as Bergmeister papilla. (entokey.com)
- Posterior injuries included occasional retinal detachments and epiretinal membranes, large retinal pigment epithelium vacuoles, regional photoreceptor cell death, and glial reactivity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Endothelial cells, pericytes, and M ller cells (the most prominent retinal glial cells) build up the inner BRB which regulates nourishment of inner retinal cells ( Hosoya and Tachikawa, 2012 ). (sudaneseoffline.net)
- Retinal Anatomy and Electrode Array Position in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients after Argus II Implantation: an International Study Am J Ophthalmol. (usc.edu)
- While most of the discussion in this chapter will focus on Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), it should be noted that the terminal phases of retinal remodeling discussed above and the plasticity and remodeling that will be elaborated on below also occur in AMD, particularly dry forms of AMD (30). (utah.edu)
- For example, stem cells have the potential to replace or regenerate tissue, such as retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma, or retinal pigment epithelium in retinitis pigmentosa or AMD-related geographic atrophy (GA). They can alternatively or simultaneously assume a trophic role, producing growth factors and cytokines, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, that have a supportive paracrine effect on local structures within the macula. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- For example, Retinitis Pigmentosa is a family of inherited retinal degenerations that is untreatable and leads to blindness. (umassmed.edu)
- While the dependence of cones on the presence of rods plays an important role in Retinitis Pigmentosa, it remains a fundamental question of retinal biology. (umassmed.edu)
- describe the delivery of a normal copy of the rhodopsin gene to mice with ocular disease caused by a mutated RHO gene and its ability to slow the rate of retinal degeneration in "AAV Delivery of Wild-Type Rhodopsin Preserves Retinal Function in a Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa. (medicalxpress.com)
- These operations are completed with the centre encompass buildings as applied with the bipolar and ganglion cells. (blogminds.com)
- The macular region within the central retinal characterized by extremely high cone density and lateral vascularization relocation in inner retinal bipolar and ganglion cells, blocked the minimally photoreceptors light. (nnunion.net)
- To isolate the contribution of a single cell to any percept is quite challenging because normal ocular optics and motion distributes light from small stimuli over many photoreceptors. (springer.com)
- Other ocular conditions associated with a higher incidence of pseudophakic CME include epiretinal membrane, vitreomacular traction, retinal vein occlusion and topical prostaglandin use. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- In this study we use our eye-directed blast model on a mouse that lacks a molecularly intact blood ocular barrier. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this article, we'll focus on human studies of stem cell-based ocular therapy. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- It turns out that the eye is a good candidate for stem cell clinical research, given the unmet therapeutic need, the relatively immune-privileged site and the clear ocular media that facilitates direct visualization of transplanted cells. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
- T cells that encounter ocular pigment epithelium in vitro are inhibited from undergoing TCR-triggered activation, and instead acquire the capacity to suppress the activation of bystander T cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Ocular pigment epithelium contributes to immune tolerance in the eye ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Ocular targeted therapy has enormously been advanced by implementation of new methods of drug delivery and targeting using implantable drug delivery systems (DDSs) or devices (DDDs), stimuli-responsive advanced biomaterials, multimodal nanomedicines, cell therapy modalities and medical bioMEMs. (ac.ir)
- Impeccable functionality of the visual cells is largely dependent upon integrity of the cells/tissues in posterior and anterior segments of the eye, where selective restrictiveness of the ocular tissues membranes and barriers control the shuttling of solutes to maintain the ocular homeostasis through perfect functions of ocular biological barriers. (ac.ir)
- In "Surgical Approaches to Gene and Stem Cell Therapy for Retinal Disease," Stout and Francis outline the many factors that contribute to the successful application of gene therapy to treat ocular disease. (medicalxpress.com)
- In ocular tissues, CB1 receptors have been detected on the ciliary body, the trabecular meshwork, the nonpigmented ciliary and the conjunctival epitheliums. (kalapa-clinic.com)
- N-acetylcysteine increases corneal endothelial cell survival in a mouse model of fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. (rpbusa.org)
- Endothelial cell microRNA expression in human late-onset fuchs' dystrophy. (rpbusa.org)
- describe gene therapy to prevent cell death in the cornea, in "Corneal Endothelial Cells are Protected from Apoptosis by Gene Therapy. (medicalxpress.com)
- An imbalance of the intraocular protein composition promotes new blood vessel formation in case of VEGF dominance. (targetamd.eu)
- Trauma is usually not the actual cause of macular holes but in case if there's a blow in the eye, the blood vessel leading to the macula can burst and destroy it. (altiusdirectory.com)
- The hypoxia leads to release of vasoproliferative factors which stimulate new blood vessel formation to provide better oxygenation of retinal tissue. (nnunion.net)
- Approximately 17 degrees (4.5-5 mm), or two and half disc diameters to the left of the disc, can be seen the slightly oval-shaped, blood vessel-free reddish spot, the fovea, which is at the center of the area known as the macula by ophthalmologists. (facmedicine.com)
- Loss of ganglion cells results in Glaucoma , a devastating disease affecting ~ 3 Millions in the United States alone. (umassmed.edu)
- We have used zebrafish to identify a genetically complex, recessive mutant that shows risk factors for glaucoma including adult onset severe myopia, elevated IOP, and progressive retinal ganglion cell pathology. (prolekare.cz)
- It resides between cells as both a barrier and a scaffold on which tissues are built. (scielo.br)
- Studies on the permeability of the blood-retinal barrier. (springer.com)
- Other factors, such as post-cellular entry actions Lenvatinib distributor (e.g. proteasome-mediated degradation) are thought to be another barrier to efficient retinal transduction8. (cancersurvivorstuff.com)
- To simulate the antagonistic center-surround contrast enhancement of the ganglion cell receptive field by horizontal and amacrine cells, a video processor chip scales and edge enhances the veiwed image. (utah.edu)
- Unlike photoreceptors, interneurons (bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells), and ganglion cells located in the inner retinal layers are not connected to the RPE. (sudaneseoffline.net)
- Immunostaining with anti-Aβ and anti-APP antibodies yielded signal in ganglion cells, amacrine cells, horizontal cells and Müller cells in both control and AD cases. (biomedcentral.com)
- The outer nuclear layer contains cell bodies of the rods and cones, the inner nuclear layer contains cell bodies of the bipolar, horizontal and amacrine cells and the ganglion cell layer contains cell bodies of ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells. (facmedicine.com)
- In addition, different varieties of horizontally- and vertically-directed amacrine cells, somehow interact in further networks to influence and integrate the ganglion cell signals. (facmedicine.com)
- Synapses between Bipolar cells, Ganglion cells and Amacrine cells. (epomedicine.com)
- Lateral inhibition (by horizontal and amacrine cells) provide contrast detection and enhancement. (epomedicine.com)
- The inner nuclear layer contains horizontal, bipolar, and amacrine cells that relay impulses from the photorecep-tors to the ganglion cells. (europeanmedical.info)
- Then a syringe with a blunt needle loaded with cells is inserted through the hole and passed through the vitreous until it gently touches the RPE. (jove.com)
- There is blood within the anterior and posterior chambers, as well as in the vitreous. (askjpc.org)
- Recurrent vitreous haemorrhages and vitreous contraction can lead to tractional retinal detachments. (nnunion.net)
- On the contrary, an intravitreal injection (IVT) is less invasive and since an agent is injected directly into the vitreous humour it may permit more broad and uniform retinal targeting7. (cancersurvivorstuff.com)
- Coupling and replacing the lost retinal neurons in the central fovea remains a challenge for both electronic and optogenetic combination therapies. (utah.edu)
- Fovea is the depression in the inner retinal surface, about 1.5 mm wide, the photoreceptor layer of which is entirely cones and which is specialized for maximum visual acuity. (wikipedia.org)
- Cones in the central fovea express pigments that are sensitive to green and red light. (wikipedia.org)
- Near its center is the fovea, a small pit that contains the largest concentration of cone cells in the eye and is responsible for central vision. (ecotaf.net)
- advanced retinal atrophy is known as dry AMD, and it slowly disturbs the central vision ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
- When this deposit starts to interfere with the retinal pigment epithelium, rod and cone cells in the area start to degenerate or atrophy. (quantumhealth.com)
- Because rod and cone cells literally absorb and decipher light, thereby enabling us to see, the atrophy of rod and cone cells impairs our vision. (quantumhealth.com)
- Geography atrophy appears as confluent regions of cell death in photoreceptors and in the retinal pigment epithelium , according to the report in the August 27th online issue of The New England Journal of Medicine. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Within the anterior uvea, there is iris and ciliary body atrophy, a pre-iridal fibrovascular membrane that spans across the filtration angle, and a mild to moderate perivascular accumulation of lymphocytes and plasma cells. (askjpc.org)
- However, retinal neurodegeneration is already present before any microcirculatory abnormalities can be detected in ophthalmoscopic examination. (nih.gov)
- Visual dysfunction in AD patients, traditionally attributed to well-documented cerebral pathology, can now be reexamined as a direct outcome of retinal abnormalities. (springer.com)
- Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. (biomedsearch.com)
- The usually heavily pigmented posterior or choroidal portion of the uveal tract is loosely adherent to the overlying sclera. (missionforvision.org)
- Folds on the inner ciliary epithelium are called ciliary processes, and these secrete aqueous humor into the posterior chamber. (wikipedia.org)
- The results are compatible with the hypothesis that the eye-derived Treg cells acquire functions that participate in the establishment of immune tolerance in the posterior segment of the eye. (jimmunol.org)
- Extended ophthalmoscopy with a detailed retinal drawing for evaluation of the posterior portion of the eye is considered not medically necessary when initial routine ophthalmoscopy showed normal clinical findings. (aetna.com)
- Neuronal NOS may be responsible for producing nitric oxide in photoreceptors and bipolar cells. (deepdyve.com)
- These retinal changes and apparent plasticity result in neuronal rewiring and reprogramming events that include alterations in gene expression, de novo neuritogenesis as well as formation of novel synapses, creating corruptive circuitry in bipolar cells through alterations in the dendritic tree and supernumerary axonal growth. (utah.edu)
- However changes in retinal structure is not the only cause of visual loss in DME, additionally the ion environment for neuronal transmission, inflammation, neurotransmitter and excitotoxicity these are potential mechanisms of retinal function loss. (nnunion.net)
- This pattern of neuronal cell injury leads to shrunken individual cell bodies and nuclei. (brainscape.com)
- As will be seen in this document, hyperglycemic states favor the activation of alternative pathways leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and augmented concentrations locally and in the rest of the body even at the point of surpassing the antioxidant capacity, a state known as oxidative stress affecting retinal integrity. (hindawi.com)
- Nevertheless, it should be noted that the balance between neurotoxic and neuroprotective factors rather than levels of neurotoxic factors alone will determine the presence or absence of retinal neurodegeneration in the diabetic eye. (nih.gov)
- Despite clinical trials showing that tighter control of blood glucose and blood pressure reduces the risk of microvascular diabetes complications, and despite tremendous advances in the clinical management of diabetic eye disease, rates of DR in the USA have increased by 89% over the last decade. (bmj.com)
- The primary reason for this is that many elderly diabetic patients suffer from physical and mental ailments and often take poor control of their blood sugar, especially in consideration of their social background. (docplayer.net)
- There are concerns that poor blood sugar control may help develop diabetic Among elderly diabetic patients, there are naturally those whose duration of morbidity is extended because of the onset of the disease at a young age. (docplayer.net)
- The National Eye Institute visual functioning questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ-25) was explored as a useful subjective outcome measurement for inherited retinal dystrophy patients, including LCA patients. (ufl.edu)
- Although subjective assessment of vision did not correlate to objective assessment of vision, subjective assessment of vision via the NEI-VFQ-25 showed clear differences in cone-mediated and rod-mediated vision between all inherited retinal dystrophy groups. (ufl.edu)
- Examples of disease causing macular dystrophies in children include Best's disease, Doyne's honeycomb retinal dystrophy, Sorsby's disease, and Stargardt's disease. (ecotaf.net)
- Myeloid cells, such as granulocytes/neutrophils and macrophages, have responsibilities that include pathogen destruction, waste material degradation, or antigen presentation upon inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
- Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are primarily beneficial upon restoring homeostasis after inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
- In line with the above findings, animal model studies have reported retinal Aβ deposits and tauopathy, often correlated with local inflammation, retinal ganglion cell degeneration, and functional deficits. (springer.com)
- Expression of biomarkers for retinal inflammation was assessed by immunoblotting of TNF-α, ICAM-1, and NF-κB. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The inflammation is composed of predominantly epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells, with fewer neutrophils. (askjpc.org)
- 6 The powerful effect of hydroxychloroquine on the cell-mediated pattern of inflammation found in lupus is consistent with this theory. (ccjm.org)
- In clinical trials since 2007 and approved by the FDA in 2013, the Argus II retinal implant, represents the culmination of a visual restoration strategy that offers an unprecedented degree of sight to those with complete retinal blindness. (usc.edu)
- In humans, the death of these cells results in irreversible blindness. (arvojournals.org)
- Photoreceptor outer segments interact with the retinal-pigmented epithelium, which a single sheet of cells adjacent to the photoreceptor layer. (umassmed.edu)
- The outer segments-retinal-pigmented epithelium interactions are vital since the retinal-pigmented epithelium provides nutrition and oxygen to PRs. (umassmed.edu)