Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.
Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.
Nodular tumor-like lesions or mucoid flesh, arising from tendon sheaths, LIGAMENTS, or JOINT CAPSULE, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. They are not true cysts as they lack epithelial wall. They are distinguished from SYNOVIAL CYSTS by the lack of communication with a joint cavity or the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS feeding the SPINAL CORD, such as the anterior and paired posterior spinal arteries or their many branches. Disease processes may include ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; and ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS leading to ISCHEMIA or HEMORRHAGE into the spinal cord (hematomyelia).
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
A comprehensive radiation treatment of the entire CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)
Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.

Regulation of neurotrophin-3 expression by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: the role of Wnt factors. (1/3919)

Neurotrophins regulate survival, axonal growth, and target innervation of sensory and other neurons. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed specifically in cells adjacent to extending axons of dorsal root ganglia neurons, and its absence results in loss of most of these neurons before their axons reach their targets. However, axons are not required for NT-3 expression in limbs; instead, local signals from ectoderm induce NT-3 expression in adjacent mesenchyme. Wnt factors expressed in limb ectoderm induce NT-3 in the underlying mesenchyme. Thus, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediated by Wnt factors control NT-3 expression and may regulate axonal growth and guidance.  (+info)

Differential expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its downregulation by axotomy. (2/3919)

Sensitivity to the pungent vanilloid, capsaicin, defines a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are mainly polymodal nociceptors. The recently cloned vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) is activated by capsaicin and noxious heat. Using combined in situ hybridization and histochemical methods, we have characterized in sensory ganglia the expression of VR1 mRNA. We show that this receptor is almost exclusively expressed by neurofilament-negative small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion cells. Within this population, VR1 mRNA is detected at widely varying levels in both the NGF receptor (trkA)-positive, peptide-producing cells that elicit neurogenic inflammation and the functionally less characterized glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-responsive cells that bind lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4). Cells without detectable levels of VR1 mRNA are found in both classes. A subpopulation of the IB4-binding cells that produce somatostatin has relatively low levels of VR1 mRNA. A previously uncharacterized population of very small cells that express the receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) and that do not label for trkA or IB4-binding has the highest relative levels of VR1 mRNA. The majority of small visceral sensory neurons of the nodose ganglion also express VR1 mRNA, in conjunction with the BDNF receptor trkB but not trkA. Axotomy results in the downregulation of VR1 mRNA in dorsal root ganglion cells. Our data emphasize the heterogeneity of VR1 mRNA expression by subclasses of small sensory neurons, and this may result in their differential sensitivity to chemical and noxious heat stimuli. Our results also indicate that peripherally derived trophic factors may regulate levels of VR1 mRNA.  (+info)

In vivo NGF deprivation reduces SNS expression and TTX-R sodium currents in IB4-negative DRG neurons. (3/3919)

Recent evidence suggests that changes in sodium channel expression and localization may be involved in some pathological pain syndromes. SNS, a tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel, is preferentially expressed in small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, many of which are nociceptive. TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA expression have been shown to be modulated by nerve growth factor (NGF) in vitro and in vivo. To determine whether SNS expression and TTX-R currents in DRG neurons are affected by reduced levels of systemic NGF, we immunized adult rats with NGF, which causes thermal hypoalgesia in rats with high antibody titers to NGF. DRG neurons cultured from rats with high antibody titers to NGF, which do not bind the isolectin IB4 (IB4(-)) but do express TrkA, were studied with whole cell patch-clamp and in situ hybridization. Mean TTX-R sodium current density was decreased from 504 +/- 77 pA/pF to 307 +/- 61 pA/pF in control versus NGF-deprived neurons, respectively. In comparison, the mean TTX-sensitive sodium current density was not significantly different between control and NGF-deprived neurons. Quantification of SNS mRNA hybridization signal showed a significant decrease in the signal in NGF-deprived neurons compared with the control neurons. The data suggest that NGF has a major role in the maintenance of steady-state levels of TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA in IB4(-) DRG neurons in adult rats in vivo.  (+info)

Human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-beta): mammary gland specific expression and production in transgenic rabbits. (4/3919)

Transgenic rabbits carrying gene constructs encoding human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-beta) cDNA were generated. Expression of hNGF-beta mRNA was restricted to the mammary gland of lactating rabbits. Western Blot analysis revealed a polypeptide of 13.2 kDa in the milk of transgenic animals. hNGF-beta was purified from the milk by a two-step chromatographic procedure. Electrospray mass spectroscopy analysis of purified hNGF-beta depicted a molecular weight of 13,261 Da per subunit. The biological activity of the hNGF-beta was tested using PC12W2 cells and cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from chicken embryos. Crude defatted milk from transgenic animals and purified hNGF-beta demonstrated full biological activity when compared to commercial recombinant hNGF-beta.  (+info)

Expression of alpha2-adrenergic receptors in rat primary afferent neurones after peripheral nerve injury or inflammation. (5/3919)

1. Immunocytochemistry with polyclonal antibodies directed against specific fragments of intracellular loops of alpha2A- and alpha2C-adrenergic receptors (alpha2A-AR, alpha2C-AR) was used to explore the possibility that expression of these receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones of rat alters as a result of peripheral nerve injury or localized inflammation. 2. Small numbers of neurones with positive alpha2A-AR immunoreactivity (alpha2A-AR-IR) were detected in DRG from normal animals or contralateral to nerve lesions. In contrast, after complete or partial sciatic nerve transection the numbers of ipsilateral L4 and L5 DRG somata expressing alpha2A-AR-IR sharply increased (>5-fold). There was no discernible change in the number of DRG neurones exhibiting alpha2A-AR-IR innervating a region in association with localized chemically induced inflammation. 3. After nerve injury, double labelling with Fluoro-Gold, a marker of retrograde transport from transected fibres, or by immunoreactivity for c-jun protein, an indicator of injury and regeneration, suggested that many of the neurones expressing alpha2A-AR-IR were uninjured by the sciatic lesions. 4. In general the largest proportionate increase in numbers of neurones labelled by alpha2A-AR-IR after nerve lesions appeared in the medium-large diameter range (31-40 microm), a group principally composed of cell bodies of low threshold mechanoreceptors. The number of small diameter DRG neurones labelled by alpha2A-AR-IR, a category likely to include somata of nociceptors, also increased but proportionately less. 5. Relatively few DRG neurones exhibited alpha2C-AR-IR; this population did not appear to change after either nerve lesions or inflammation. 6. These observations are considered in relation to effects of nerve injury on excitation of primary afferent neurones by sympathetic activity or adrenergic agents, sympathetically related neuropathy and reports of sprouting of sympathetic fibres in DRG.  (+info)

The distribution of zinc selenite and expression of metallothionein-III mRNA in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of the rat suggest a role for zinc in sensory transmission. (6/3919)

Zinc appears to play a role in synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. We tested the hypothesis that zinc is similarly involved in sensory transmission by determining whether vesicular zinc and metallothionein-III (MT-III), a zinc-binding protein, are localized in rat primary afferent neurons. MT-III mRNA, measured using RT-PCR, and MT-III immunoreactivity, were both present in the spinal cord as well as the thoracic and lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG). At a time (24 hr) that allows retrograde transport of zinc selenite to cell bodies, only small-diameter neurons and neurons scattered throughout lamina V of the spinal cord were stained by sodium selenite injected intrathecally. This stain disappeared if a ligature was placed on the dorsal root to block axonal transport, demonstrating that these cells are, in fact, zinc-containing primary afferent neurons. When assessed 1 hr after sodium selenite, stain was distributed throughout the neuropil of the spinal cord, especially in lamina III and the area surrounding the central canal. Even in rhizotomized animals, large- and small-diameter DRG neuronal cell bodies were also stained with either selenite (1 hr) or 6-methoxy 8-para-toluene sulfonamide quinoline (TSQ). Paradoxically, this unique pool of zinc was eliminated in large-diameter DRG neurons after neonatal capsaicin treatment, which had no effect on selenite stain or MT-III mRNA content in small-diameter DRG neurons. In summary, we demonstrate that there is a population of capsaicin-insensitive small-diameter primary afferent neurons that are zinc-containing. In addition, there is a unique pool of capsaicin-sensitive zinc that is associated with large-diameter cell bodies.  (+info)

Chemical signaling from colonic smooth muscle cells to DRG neurons in culture. (7/3919)

Transduction mechanisms between target cells within the intestinal wall and peripheral terminals of extrinsic primary afferent neurons are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interactions between smooth muscle cells from the rat distal colon and lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in coculture. DRG neurons visually appeared to make contact with several myocytes. We show that brief mechanical stimulation of these myocytes resulted in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) transients that propagated into 57% of the contacting neurites. Direct mechanical stimulation of DRG neurites cultured without smooth muscle had no effect. We also show that colonic smooth muscle cells express multiple connexin mRNAs and that these connexins formed functional gap junctions, as evidenced by the intercellular transfer of Lucifer yellow. Furthermore, thapsigargin pretreatment and neuronal heparin injection abolished the increase in neurite [Ca2+]i, indicating that the neuronal Ca2+ signal was triggered by inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate-mediated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Our results provide evidence for intercellular chemical communication between DRG neurites and intestinal smooth muscle cells that mediates the exchange of second messenger molecules between different cell types.  (+info)

Cell type-specific ATP-activated responses in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. (8/3919)

1. The aim of our study is to clarify the relationship between expression pattern of P2X receptors and the cell type of male adult rat (Wistar) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We identified the nociceptive cells of acutely dissociated DRG neurons from adult rats type using capsaicin sensitivity. 2. Two types of ATP-activated currents, one with fast, the other with slow desensitization, were found under voltage-clamp conditions. In addition, cells with fast but not slow desensitization responded to capsaicin, indicating that there was a relationship between current kinetics and capsaicin-sensitivity. 3. Both types of neurons were responsive to ATP and alpha, beta methylene-ATP (alpha,betameATP). The concentration of alpha,(beta)meATP producing half-maximal activation (EC50) of neurons with fast desensitization was less (11 microM) than that of neurons with slow desensitization (63 microM), while the Hill coefficients were similar. Suramin and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid tetrasodium (PPADS) antagonized alpha,betameATP-induced currents in both types of neurons. 4. In situ hybridization revealed that small cells of the DRG predominantly expressed mRNAs of P2X3 and medium-sized cells expressed mRNAs of P2X2 and P2X3. In contrast, both of mRNAs were not detected in large cells of the DRG. 5. These results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive, small-sized DRG neurons expressed mainly the homomeric P2X3 subunit and that capsaicin-insensitive, medium-sized DRG neurons expressed the heteromultimeric receptor with P2X2 and P2X3.  (+info)

Primary neuronal cultures represent an essential tool in the study of events related to peripheral neuropathies as they allow to isolate the affected cell types, often originating in complex tissues in which they account for only a few percentage of cells. Neuronal cultures also provide a powerful system to identifying or testing compounds with potential therapeutic effect in the treatment of those diseases. Proprioceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the primary affected cells in Friedreichs Ataxia. This paper describes a model of primary cultures of DRG sensory neurons in which there is an induced the loss of the frataxin protein. THis model can alleviate the issues related to the complexity of DRG tissues and low amount of sensory neuron material in adult mouse. The authors provide a protocol of detailed and optimized methods to obtain high yield of healthy mouse DRG sensory neuron in culture. Read the entire article HERE. ...
PubMed journal article: Comparison of intracellular calcium signals evoked by heat and capsaicin in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and in a cell line expressing the rat vanilloid receptor, VR1. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Summary We have previously described the capacity of neurites extending from cultured rat sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons to transport rabies virus through axoplasm in the retrograde direction. Here we report the infection of cultured neurons derived from the DRG and the subsequent anterograde transport of rabies virus from the infected cell somas through the extending neurites to its release into the culture supernatant. Viral transport was monitored by titration of the virus yield in the external compartment. Both early and late transport mechanisms of rabies virions were identified. The first one occurred a few hours post-infection and was undetectable 6 h later, before the initiation of viral replication. The velocity of this first wave of infective virions was in the range of 100 to 400 mm/day. The early viral transport was probably the result of a direct translocation of infective virions from the somatic site of entry to the neuritic extensions and subsequent release into the culture
Expression of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and vanilloid 1 (VR1) receptor proteins was studied in adult, cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Immunostaining of CB1 receptors alone produced labelling in 57+/-2% of the cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons (n=3 cultures). The area of the labelled cells was between 200 and 800 microm(2) with an average of 527+/-68 microm(2). VR1 immunolabelling revealed immunopositivity in 42+/-6% of the total population of dorsal root ganglion neurons. Cells showing VR1-like immunopositivity had an area between 200 and 600 microm(2). The mean area of the VR1-like immunopositive neurons was 376+/-61 microm(2). Double immunostaining with antisera raised against the CB1 and VR1 receptor proteins, showed a high degree of co-expression between CB1 and VR1 receptors. An average of 82+/-3% of the CB1-like immunopositive cells also showed VR1-like immunoreactivity (n=3 cultures) while 98+/-2% of the VR1-like immunolabelled neurons showed CB1 receptor-like immunostaining (n=3
Ma J, Stefanoska D, Grad S, Alini M, Peroglio M. Hypoxia and low pH stressed disc conditioned medium promotes hypersensitivity of peripheral sensory neurons. ORS PSRS 5th Symposium, Skytop PA (US), Nov 3-7, 2019 (poster). Stefanoska D, Ma J, Grad S, Alini M, Peroglio M. Effects of glucose concentration and pH on dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth. Pain in EU XI EFIC, Valencia (Spain), Sep 4-7, 2019 (e-poster). Ma J, Stefanoska D, Grad S, Alini M, Peroglio M. Effect of pH and oxygen tension on dorsal root ganglion calcium response to bradykinin and neurite sprouting. Pain in EU XI EFIC, Valencia (Spain), Sept 4-7, 2019 (poster). Ma J, Stefanoska D, Hildebrand M, Zeiter S, Alini M, Peroglio M. Validation of cell line models to study intervertebral disc neo-innervation associated with discogenic pain. Swiss 3R Day, Bern (CH), Sept 2, 2019 (poster).. Ma J, Stefanoska D, Grad S, Alini M, Peroglio M. Low pH culture of dorsal root ganglion cells as an in vitro model to study pathological changes ...
Location and numbers of neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heart within the right stellate and accessory cervical ganglia, the spinal cord, and spinal ganglia were investigated using horseradish peroxidase retrograde axonal transport techniques in cats. The enzyme was applied to central sections of the anastomosis of the stellate ganglion with the vagus nerve, the inferior cardiac nerve, and the vagosympathetic trunk caudal to the anastomosis. Labeled neurons within the stellate ganglion were located close to the point of departure of the nerves and more thinly distributed in the accessory cervical ganglion. A group of labeled cells was found in the anastomosis itself. Preganglionic neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heat were detected at segmental levels T1-T5 in the spinal cord. Labeled neurons were diffusely located in the spinal ganglia, concentrated mainly at levels T2-T4.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Investigating mammalian axon regeneration: In vivo electroporation of adult mouse dorsal root ganglion. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
BioAssay record AID 1066650 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at TRPM8 isolated from mouse dorsal root ganglion cells expressed in HEK T-REx cells assessed as inhibition of menthol-induced intracellular Ca2+ influx at 10 to 50 uM preincubated for 3 mins followed by menthol challenge measured after 10 mins of post compound washout.
We here provide a detailed protocol for the isolation and culture of primary mouse sensory neurons. The cell bodies of sensory afferent pseudounipolar neurons are located in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) along the vertebral column. Dissected mouse DRGs can be dissociated into single cells by enzymatic digestion to obtain primary cultures of mouse sensory neurons as performed in the studies reported by Khaminets et al. (2015).
in Neuroscience (1992), 51(2), 401-10. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not ... [more ▼]. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not found in situ, while several other transmitters are expressed in a much higher percentage of neurons in culture than in situ [Schoenen J. et al. (1989) J. Neurosci. Res. 22, 473-487]. The aim of the present study was to investigate the origin and the nature of the relevant environmental signals that allow this plasticity to be expressed, focusing on three neurotransmitters: 5-hydroxytryptamine, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and calcitonin-gene related peptide. The main results can be summarized as follows: (1) culturing cells in fetal calf serum ...
Run-Shan Duan.,刘佩佩.,Feng Xi.,Wei-Hua Wang.,汤刚彬.,...&刘长梅.(2018).Wnt3 and Gata4 regulate axon regeneration in adult mouse DRG neurons.BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS,499,246-252 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell type-specific changes of the membrane properties of peripherally- axotomized dorsal root ganglion neurons in a rat model of neuropathic pain. AU - Kim, Y. I.. AU - Na, H. S.. AU - Kim, S. H.. AU - Han, H. C.. AU - Yoon, Y. W.. AU - Sung, B.. AU - Nam, H. J.. AU - Shin, S. L.. AU - Hong, S. K.. PY - 1998/5/21. Y1 - 1998/5/21. N2 - Recent evidence indicates that neuropathic pain from partial peripheral nerve injury is maintained by electrophysiologically abnormal signals from injured sensory neurons. To gain an insight into the mechanisms underlying this electrophysiological abnormality, we examined the effects of S1 spinal nerve transection on the membrane properties of S1 dorsal root ganglion neurons one to two weeks after injury. This injury produced significant action potential broadening [40% (1 ms) in C-, 149% (1.5 ms) in Aδ- and 84% (0.5 ms) in Aα/β-cells], which was primarily due to the enhancement of the shoulder appearing on the falling phase of the action ...
Electrical stimulation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), referred to here as ganglionic field stimulation (GFS), is effective in reducing clinical pain, probably by interrupting transmission of afferent impulse trains on sensory neurons as they pass through the DRG.. Dorsal root ganglion stimulation Much like SCS, DRG stimulation interrupts the pain messages your nerves send out, but its even more precise. With SCS, the electrode is placed in a posterior part of the spinal cords epidural space.. Chronic hyperglycemia results in a predominantly sensory neuropathy. Recent studies suggest that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons comprise a specific target and may be responsible for the important complication of diabetic sensory neuropathy, since The dorsal root ganglion nestles within the bones of the spine which should give it protection from damage. The dorsal root ganglion contains the nucleus, or control centre, of the nerve and this nucleus manufactures the various sensors and sends them ...
Glutamate is a neurotransmitter used at both the peripheral and central terminals of nociceptive primary sensory neurons, yet little is known concerning regulation of glutamate metabolism during peripheral inflammation. Glutaminase (GLS) is an enzyme of the glutamate-glutamine cycle that converts glutamine into glutamate for neurotransmission and is implicated in producing elevated levels of glutamate in central and peripheral terminals. A potential mechanism for increased levels of glutamate is an elevation in GLS expression. We assessed GLS expression after unilateral hind paw inflammation by measuring GLS immunoreactivity (ir) with quantitative image analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after one, two, four, and eight days of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) compared to saline injected controls. No significant elevation in GLS-ir occurred in the DRG ipsilateral to the inflamed hind paw after one or two days of AIA. After four days AIA, GLS-ir was elevated significantly in all sizes of
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA sequences that regulate gene expression by binding to intracellular target transcripts. However, miRNAs can be detected in the circulation and in cerebrospinal fluid and are recognized by Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), and extracellular application of the miRNA let-7b triggers TLR7-mediated apoptosis of cortical neurons. Because TLR7 is also present on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons associated with pain, Park et al. explored whether DRG neurons responded to let-7b. Electrophysiological analysis of dissociated mouse DRG neurons from wild-type mice, but not those from TLR7-knockout mice, showed that small-diameter neurons, which are typically nociceptive, produced an inward current in response to let-7b, a response that was abolished by mutation of the GUUGUGU motif in let-7b. Pharmacological inhibition of the calcium channel transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) blocked the response to let-7b, and DRG neurons from TRPA1-knockout mice also failed to respond. ...
S. P. Kramer; ON THE FUNCTION OF THE POSTERIOR SPINAL GANGLIA . J Exp Med 25 May 1907; 9 (3): 314-318. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.9.3.314. Download citation file:. ...
We performed axonal guidance spot assays (Meiners et al., 1999) to determine the behavior of axons as they encounter immobilized CSPGs. Axonal behavior of cultured mouse cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) was analyzed near a defined region of chicken CSPGs immobilized onto poly-L-lysine (PLL)-coated coverslips. As observed previously (Laabs et al., 2007), most axons were deflected and few crossed onto the CSPG-rich area of the coverslip (Fig. 1A). Time-lapse imaging with adult mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons showed that filopodia dynamically sampled the CSPG spot (red), and that the growing axons turned at the interface between PLL and CSPG, and continued to extend along the interface, which is in contrast to growth cone collapse (Supplemental material Movie 1). Removal of the chondroitin sulfate GAG chains by cABC abolished this negative axonal guidance cue, indicating that the repellant activity of CSPGs is specifically mediated by the chondroitin sulfate GAG chains (Fig. 1B).. We examined ...
Two major reasons for the failure of central nervous system axon regeneration are (i) lack of neurotrophic factors available to CNS neurones and (ii) the presence of molecules that inhibit the growth of axons. In this study a gene therapy approach using adeno-associated virus 8 (AAV8) was used to manipulate these two factors. The following major aims were addressed: (i) confirm the bioactivity of transgenes that would be packaged into the AAV8 vector; (ii) assess the cellular tropism of AAV8 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG); (iii) evaluate the inflammatory responses of the nervous system to AAV8 after intra-DRG and intrathecal injection; (iv) determine the axon regenerative effect of AAV8-mediated delivery of nt-3 (a neurotrophic factor) and shRNA\(_{RhoA}\) (a disinhibitory therapy) to dorsal root ganglion neurones after spinal cord injury in the rat. Delivery of the nt-3 transgene in vitro resulted in production of high levels of NT-3 protein. Transfection of shRNA\(_{RhoA}\)-containing ...
MTT assay in DRG culture - posted in MTT, Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assay: Can someone please help me! I am trying to do a MTT assay in my DRG cultures, but so far it isnt working. I get some purple crystals forming after MTT incubation, but after adding my solvent i dont get any change in colour. I was wondering if it if might be due to my low plating density. Does anyone have a protocol for doing the MTT assay in DRG cultures? Thank you!
We used combined patch-clamp-microfluorimetric recordings to examine the effects of bradykinin on [Ca2+]i transients and the Ca2+ current (ICa) in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro. Bradykinin increased [Ca2+]i in approximately 20% of dorsal root ganglion cells examined and inhibited the ICa in approximately 65% of dorsal root ganglion cells. Bradykinin also inhibited the ICa when [Ca2+]i was buffered with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid or when Ba2+ was the charge carrier. When ICas of increasing duration were elicited in these neurons, [Ca2+]i transients were produced that increased in amplitude but eventually approached an asymptote at longer voltage steps. Similarly, the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient also approached an asymptote in current-clamp recordings when cells were induced to fire a large number of action potentials. The bradykinin-induced inhibition of the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient was more pronounced at shorter voltage steps. At pulse ...
Akifumi Kanai, Hiromi Hiruma, Tadashi Kawakami, Sumio Hoka; Room D, 10/17/2000 9: 00 AM - 11: 00 AM (PS) Low Dose Lidocaine Rapidly Inhibits Axonal Transport in Cultured Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons : A-761. Anesthesiology 2000;93(3A):A-761. doi: https://doi.org/.. Download citation file:. ...
Cancer-associated pain is a major cause of poor quality of life in cancer patients and is frequently resistant to conventional therapy. Recent studies indicate that some hematopoietic growth factors, namely granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), are abundantly released in the tumor microenvironment and play a key role in regulating tumor-nerve interactions and tumor-associated pain by activating receptors on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Moreover, these hematopoietic factors have been highly implicated in postsurgical pain, inflammatory pain and osteoarthritic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms via which G-/GMCSF bring about nociceptive sensitization and elicit pain are not known. In order to elucidate G-/GMCSF mediated transcriptional changes in the sensory neurons, we performed a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of changes in the transcriptome of DRG neurons brought about by exposure to GMCSF or GCSF. We present complete
article{3c1d0d1b-0530-4d68-8c34-76c362110061, abstract = {,p,The involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A,sub,2,/sub, (cPLA,sub,2,/sub,) in apoptosis of adult mouse superior cervical and dorsal root ganglia neurons has been investigated by the use of immunohistochemistry for cPLA,sub,2,/sub, and DNA nick-end labeling for apoptotic cells, respectively, cPLA,sub,2,/sub, immunoreactivity was strongly upregulated in neurons of both preparations during in vitro culturing. By double labeling it was unequivocally demonstrated that cPLA,sub,2,/sub, was present and upregulated only in neurons undergoing apoptosis. A similar picture emerged when cPLA,sub,2,/sub, immunoreactivity was compared with staining with Fluoro-Jade, a novel fluorochrome marker for neuronal degeneration. The preferential presence of cPLA,sub,2,/sub, in apoptotic and degenerating cells suggests that the enzyme is important for some mechanism involved in or intimately coupled to neuronal cell death.,/p,}, author = {Hornfelt, M. and ...
After a CNS injury in the adult mammals, axonal regeneration is very limited because of the reduced intrinsic growth capacity and nonpermissive environment for axonal elongation. The growth inhibitions from CNS myelin and astroglial chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans partially account for the lack of CNS repair. Here, we show that the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen and indomethacin, the drugs widely used as pain relievers in the clinic, can surmount axon growth restrictions from myelin and proteoglycans by potently inhibiting their downstream pathway RhoA signal. Similar to Rho and Rock inhibitors C3 transferase or Y27632 [(R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarboxamide], both NSAID drugs stimulate a significant neurite growth in the cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons exposed to the inhibitory substrates. Systemic administration of ibuprofen to spinal cord-lesioned rodents reverses the active RhoA signal around injury area measured via Rho-GTP ...
Whole cell patch recordings were obtained from medium diameter (35-45 microm) dorsal root ganglion neurons. Using electrophysiological parameters, we were able to subclassify acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglion cells into three uniform (types 5, 6 and 9) and one mixed class (type 8) of neurons. …
title: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 functions as a neuromodulator in dorsal root ganglia neurons, doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04969.x, category: Article
Sensory neurons possess the central and peripheral branches and they form unique spinal neural circuits with motoneurons during development. Peripheral branches of sensory axons fasciculate with the motor axons that extend toward the peripheral muscles from the central nervous system (CNS), whereas the central branches of proprioceptive sensory neurons directly innervate motoneurons. Although anatomically well documented, the molecular mechanism underlying sensory-motor interaction during neural circuit formation is not fully understood. To investigate the role of motoneuron on sensory neuron development, we analyzed sensory neuron phenotypes in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of Olig2 knockout (KO) mouse embryos, which lack motoneurons. We found an increased number of apoptotic cells in the DRG of Olig2 KO embryos at embryonic day (E) 10.5. Furthermore, abnormal axonal projections of sensory neurons were observed in both the peripheral branches at E10.5 and central branches at E15.5. To ...
With his research, Powell aims to identify molecular targets to develop novel painkillers that would eliminate the need for opioids in treating chronic inflammatory pain. Current treatment strategies are not suited for long-term pain relief. Pain receptors, known as nociceptors, are sensory neurons that are activated by noxious stimuli. To develop new, non-addictive analgesics, scientists must understand how inflammation produces the change in nociceptor firing that underlies pain perception. The adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex is responsible for endocytosis, a basic cellular process where substances and membrane proteins are brought into a cell. Powell is studying the role of the AP-2 complex and endocytosis in the context of inflammatory pain.. Nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are central sites for investigative study. During tissue damage, inflammatory mediators initiate signal transduction in DRG neurons - altering channel properties and concomitant pain perception.. Using ...
Miller K.E., J. Balbás, R.L. Benton, T.S. Lam, K.M. Edwards, R.M. Kriebel, and R. Schechter, Glutaminase immunoreactivity and enzyme activity is increased in the rat dorsal root ganglion following inflammation. Special issue: Primary Afferent Nociceptor as a Target for the Relief of Pain. Pain Research and Treatment 2012:414697, 2012; PMID: 22229088. DOI: 10.1155/2012/ ...
The use of genetically encoded calcium indicators in vivo reveals polymodality is a rare phenomenon in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, most of these neurons respond specifically to a single type of sensation, such as mechanical stimulation, cold, or heat, reports a team of researchers led by Edward Emery and John Wood, University College London, UK.
The use of genetically encoded calcium indicators in vivo reveals polymodality is a rare phenomenon in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, most of these neurons respond specifically to a single type of sensation, such as mechanical stimulation, cold, or heat, reports a team of researchers led by Edward Emery and John Wood, University College London, UK.
Diabetes initially induces distal axonal damage of peripheral nerves, but molecular mechanisms that mediate axonal injury are not fully understood. MircoRNAs (miRNAs) regulate axonal growth. We found that diabetic db/db mice exhibited substantial upregulation of miR-29c in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, sciatic nerve, and foot pad tissues. Bioinformatic analysis revealed PRKCI, a gene that encodes a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) iota, as a putative target for miR-29c. Western blot analysis showed that diabetic mice exhibited a considerable reduction of PRKCI protein levels in sciatic nerve tissues and DRG neurons. Using dual-luciferase assay, we found that co-transfection of a plasmid containing miR-29c binding site at 3 UTR of PRKCI gene and miR-29c mimics effectively reduced luminescence activity, which was abolished when miR-29c seed sequences at 3 UTR of PRKCI gene were mutated. In vitro, high glucose substantially upregulated and reduced miR-29c and PRKCI protein levels, respectively,
To investigate the distribution of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on peripheral and central axons, [125I]NGF was injected into the sciatic nerve or spinal cord of adult rats. Accumulation of [125I]NGF in lumbar dorsal root ganglia was monitored by gamma emission counting and radioautography. [125I]NGF, injected endoneurially in small quantities, was taken into sensory axons by a saturable process and was transported retrogradely to their cell bodies at a maximal rate of 2.5 to 7.5 mm/hr. Because very little [125I]NGF reached peripheral terminals, the results were interpreted to indicate that receptors for NGF are present on nonterminal segments of sensory axons. The specificity and high affinity of NGF uptake were illustrated by observations that negligible amounts of gamma activity accumulated in lumbar dorsal root ganglia after comparable intraneural injection of [125I] cytochrome C or [125I]oxidized NGF. Similar techniques were used to demonstrate avid internalization and retrograde ...
Capsaicin-sensitive nerves mediate axon vasodilator reflexes in the intestine but the ion channels underlying action potential (AP) propagation are poorly understood. To examine the role of voltage gated Na+ channels underlying these reflexes, we measured vasomotor and electrophysiological responses elicited by capsaicin in guinea pig and mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons, submucosal arterioles and mesenteric arteries in vitro. TRPV1 agonists dilated guinea pig ileal submucosal arterioles and were blocked by capsazepine and ruthenium red. In double chamber baths, capsaicin-evoked activation of TRPV1 on proximal perivascular nerves in the left chamber evoked dilations of the distal segment of the submucosal arteriole in the right chamber. Dilations were TTX (1 μM) resistant but reducing extracellular Na+ (10% solution) or applying the Nav 1.8 antagonist A-803467 (1 μM) in the proximal chamber blocked capsaicin-evoked dilations in the distal chamber (88%; P = 0.01 and 75%, P,0.02 respectively). ...
हम सूअर में laminotomy के लिए एक विधि का वर्णन है कि intraganglionic इंजेक्शन के लिए काष्ठ पृष्ठीय रूट गैंग्लिया (डीआरजी) तक पहुंच...
Im needing to inject viral vectors directly into mouse DRG so that I can localize the expression just to the DRG. I can get very good expression when I inject intrathecally, but that enables the spread of the virus to p…
Posterior dorsal Skin Gray sensation matter Dorsal root of Central canal White matter spinal nerve afferent sensory Dorsal root ganglion Afferent Ventral root of neuron Anterior spinal nerve ventral efferent motor Efferent neuron Skeletal muscle FIGURE The spinal cord showing gray and white matter transverse view.Synthesis of diadenosine PPtetraphosphate by lysyltRNA synthetase and a multienzyme complex of aminoacyltRNA synthetases from rat liver.Antiinflammatory medications NSAIDsWhat Abnormal Results Mean Higher than normal levels may indicate The pituitary gland near the brain makes too much of the hormone ACTH called Cushings disease because of excess growth of the pituitary gland or a tumor in the pituitary gland or elsewhere in the body such as the pancreas lung and thyroid Tumor of the adrenal gland that is producing too much cortisol Tumor elsewhere in the body that produces cortisol Lower than normal levels may indicate Addisons disease when the adrenal glands do not produce enough ...
Images: Expression of TLR3 in a subset of small-sized DRG neurons. (A) Single-cell RT-PCR analysis from dissociated small-sized DRG neurons showing the distinct and overlapped distribution patterns of TLR3 and TLR7 in DRG neurons. The lanes were run on the same gel but were noncontiguous. M, marker; NC, negative control. (B) Single-cell RT-PCR analysis from dissociated small-sized DRG neurons showing colocalization of TLR3 with TPRV1 and GRP. Similar results were obtained from 3 independent experiments in 30 cells collected from different animals. (C) Double immunostaining in DRGs showing co-colocalization of TLR3 and GRP. Red and yellow arrows indicate GRP+ only and double-labeled neurons, respectively. Scale bars: 50 μm. (D) Cell size distribution frequency of TLR3+ and GRP+ neurons. (E) Double immunostaining in cultured DRG neurons showing co-colocalization of TLR3 with TRPV1 but not with NF200. Green arrows indicate NF200+ or TRPV1+ neurons, red arrows indicate TLR3+ neurons, and yellow ...
Images: Expression of TLR3 in a subset of small-sized DRG neurons. (A) Single-cell RT-PCR analysis from dissociated small-sized DRG neurons showing the distinct and overlapped distribution patterns of TLR3 and TLR7 in DRG neurons. The lanes were run on the same gel but were noncontiguous. M, marker; NC, negative control. (B) Single-cell RT-PCR analysis from dissociated small-sized DRG neurons showing colocalization of TLR3 with TPRV1 and GRP. Similar results were obtained from 3 independent experiments in 30 cells collected from different animals. (C) Double immunostaining in DRGs showing co-colocalization of TLR3 and GRP. Red and yellow arrows indicate GRP+ only and double-labeled neurons, respectively. Scale bars: 50 μm. (D) Cell size distribution frequency of TLR3+ and GRP+ neurons. (E) Double immunostaining in cultured DRG neurons showing co-colocalization of TLR3 with TRPV1 but not with NF200. Green arrows indicate NF200+ or TRPV1+ neurons, red arrows indicate TLR3+ neurons, and yellow ...
The two paralogs of the calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS) are priming factors for synaptic vesicles (SVs) and neuropeptide containing large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs). Yet, it is unclear whether CAPS1 and CAPS2 regulate exocytosis of these two vesicle types differentially in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, wherein synaptic transmission and neuropeptide release are of equal importance. These sensory neurons transfer information from the periphery to the spinal cord (SC), releasing glutamate as the primary neurotransmitter, with co-transmission via neuropeptides in a subset of so called peptidergic neurons. Neuropeptides are key components of the information-processing machinery of pain perception and neuropathic pain generation. Here, we compared the ability of CAPS1 and CAPS2 to support priming of both vesicle types in single and double knock-out mouse (DRG) neurons using a variety of high-resolution live cell imaging methods. While CAPS1 was localized to synapses of all DRG
Our results provide evidence for a role for Hh signaling in promoting the development of neural crest-derived DRG neurons. Analysis of both an allelic series and a comparison of the effects of different concentrations of cyclopamine, reveals a correlation between the severity of the DRG defects observed and the level of Hh signaling. Furthermore, analyses of the timing and tissue requirements for Shh signaling reveal a direct requirement for Hh signal transduction within DRG precursors, and suggest that Shh signaling may act upstream of Ngn1 to promote the specification of DRG neurons. These studies add to the previously demonstrated roles for Shh signaling in other aspects of neural crest development, particularly craniofacial development (Dunn et al., 1995; Ahlgren and Bronner-Fraser, 1999).. In addition to the prevalent loss of DRG in midline/Hh mutants and in cyclopamine-treated embryos, in some segments we observed the appearance of abnormal neuronal clusters ventrolateral to the spinal ...
Dive into the research topics of Electrical stimulation inhibits cytosine arabinoside-induced neuronal death by preventing apoptosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The aim of the study was to identify the differential protein expressions related to neuropathic pain and neuroprotection in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following chronic compression of DRG (CCD) in rats. We conducted a proteomics study of L(4) and L(5) DRG after CCD for 28 days. A total of 98 pr …
Figure 3: Levels of PKA-RII and PKA-C mRNA in DRG. (a) Representative bands showing levels of PKA-RII and PKA-C mRNA analyzed by RT-PCR. (b and c) Data quantification. Four samples were used for each group with two ganglia in each sample ...
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
The effects of a long-term culturing (12 days, in vitro) of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the dorsal horn (DH) neurons with peptide Semax on the level of s...
Okada, E; Bunge, R P.; and Bunge, M B., Abnormalities expressed in long-term cultures of dorsal root ganglia from the dystrophic mouse. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3473 ...
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a degradative enzyme for a group of endogenous signaling lipids that includes anandamide (AEA). AEA acts as an endocannabinoid and an endovanilloid by activating cannabinoid and vanilloid type 1 transient receptor potential (TRPV1) receptors, respectively, on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Inhibition of FAAH activity increases AEA concentrations in nervous tissue and reduces sensory hypersensitivity in animal pain models. Using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and reverse transcription-PCR, we demonstrate the location of the FAAH in adult rat DRG, sciatic nerve, and spinal cord. In naive rats, FAAH immunoreactivity localized to the soma of 32.7 +/- 0.8% of neurons in L4 and L5 DRG. These were small-sized (mean soma area, 395.96 +/- 5.6 mum(2)) and predominantly colabeled with peripherin and isolectin B4 markers of unmyelinated C-fiber neurons; 68% colabeled with antibodies to TRPV1 (marker of nociceptive DRG neurons), and ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Ectopic midline spinal ganglion in diastematomyelia. T2 - a study of its connections. AU - Ross, Gary W.. AU - Swanson, Sven A.. AU - Perentes, Elias. AU - Urich, Henry. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - The connections of an ectopic midline spinal ganglion associated with an asymptomatic sacral diastematomyelia were studied. The ganglion was intercalated in the ventral root of one hemicord and sent its efferents to the dorsal root of the other hemicord. The afferents joined the anterior root to form a midline intradural spinal nerve in the cauda equina. Islands of ectopic glia were present in both roots and the spinal nerve. Both the midline position of the ganglion and the glial heterotopias can be tentatively explained by the failure of incorporation of the dorsal cell wedge (Zwischenstrang) into the divided neural tube.. AB - The connections of an ectopic midline spinal ganglion associated with an asymptomatic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory effects of clonidine on GABA-activated currents in rat DRG neurons. AU - Wang, Qin Wen. AU - Li, Qin. AU - Li, Zhi Wang. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on neurons from freshly isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to investigate modulatory effects of clonidine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist, on GABA-activated currents. In the majority of the neurons examined (72/75), GABA (10-6 ~ 10-3 mol/L) induced a concentration-dependent inward current, which could be blocked by bicuculine (10-4 ~ 10-5 mol/L). In 51 out of 72 cells, pretreatment with different dosages of clonidine (10-8 ~ 10-4 mol/L) decreased the GABA (10-4 mol/L)-activated current by 8.5%, 19.0%, 33.4%, 44.4% and 40.3%, respectively, while clonidine itself only induced a slight inward current in a few cells (12/72). The inhibitory action of clonidine blockable by yohimbine (10-4 mol/L) was voltage-independent and did not change the membrane conductance during the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Venom from Anemesia species of spider modulates high voltage-activated Ca2+ currents from rat cultured sensory neurones and excitatory post synaptic potentials from rat hippocampal slices.. AU - Kalikulov, D.. AU - Ayar, A.. AU - Nuritova, F.. AU - Frenguelli, B. G.. AU - McClelland, David. AU - Davidson, I.. AU - Scott, Roderick Hamilton. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The actions of crude venom from Anemesia species of spider were investigated in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurones from neonatal rats and hippocampal slices. Using mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), 10-12 distinct peptides with masses between about 3 and 10 kDa were identified in the crude spider venom. At a concentration of 5 mug/ml crude Anemesia venom transiently enhanced the mean peak whole cell voltage-activated Ca2+ current in a voltage-dependent manner and potentiated transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ triggered by 30 mM KCI as measured using Fura-2 fluorescence imaging. Additionally, 5-8 mug/ml ...
It is well established that neurons regulate the properties of both central and peripheral glial cells. Some of these neuro-glial interactions are modulated by the pattern of neuronal electrical activity. In the present work, we asked whether blocking the electrical activity of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro by a chronic treatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX) would modulate the expression of the T-type Ca2+ channel by mouse Schwann cells. When recorded in their culture medium, about one-half of the DRG neurons spontaneously fired action potentials (APs). Treatment for 4 days with 1 μM TTX abolished both spontaneous and evoked APs in DRG neurons and in parallel significantly reduced the percentage of Schwann cells expressing Ca2+ channel currents. On the fraction of Schwann cells still expressing Ca2+ channel currents, these currents had electrophysiological parameters (mean amplitude, mean inactivation time constant, steady-state inactivation curve) similar to those of control cultures. ...
Shingles several times more often seen on the background of reduced immunity.During the clinical manifestations of the virus has spread throughout the body and its contents can be determined rashes, tear fluid and saliva.. Once the virus enters the nervous system, its location is observed mainly in the peripheral neurons of the spinal ganglia, and begins to spread throughout the nervous system.It may also present a partial denervation.Posterior spinal ganglion becomes inflamed, involving over a hemorrhagic necrosis.While herpes zoster in the inflammatory process involved not only the peripheral nerves, brain and spinal ganglia and meninges from the medulla.. process of the virus herpes zoster goes into a latent state, and how then activated, especially not been studied until now.. Shingles has no relation to the herpes simplex virus type 1,2 and therefore caused a completely different view of the virus (the virus Zoster), but all kinds of herpes virus belong to the same group - the group of ...
1. The jugular and superior ganglia of the vagus and glossepharyngeal nerves, the hypoglossal ganglia and ganglia of the spinal nerves arise in the pig embryo from a continuous neural crest, as observed by Streeter in human embryos. 2. The hypoglossal ganglia are retarded in their development, but appear in embryos of 13 mm. as a series of eight connected cell masses of nearly equal size. HYPOGLOSSAL GANGLIA OF PIG EMBRYOS 281 3. According to their development, the hypoglossal ganglia can be divided only artificially into a cephalic cerebral group and a caudal pre-cervical group. 4. The first cervical and other spinal ganglia are often of double origin, composed of two spindle-shaped masses, and generally possess two distal roots. 5. The spindle-shaped ganglion of Froriep with its single distal root would therefore represent but one half of a spinal ganglion. 6. The degree of development of the hypoglossal ganglia varies in different embryos; in the same embryo the right side may be better ...
Title:Recent Patents on How to Form or Manufacture Large Diameter Plastic Pipe. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Chun Cheng, Wei Zou*, Wei-Ping Wang and Guang-Hong Wang*. Affiliation:School of Mechatronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, No. 101, Shanghai Road, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province, School of Mechatronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, No. 101, Shanghai Road, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province, School of Mechatronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, No. 101, Shanghai Road, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province, School of Mechatronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, No. 101, Shanghai Road, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province. Keywords:Additive manufacturing, extrusion, large diameter plastic pipe, plastic pipe, spouted-accumulated forming, spirally wound forming.. Abstract:. Background: In recent times, large diameter plastic pipes have been widely used in many functions because of their unique advantages. These applications include water supply, drainage, heating network, ...
For those rats receiving an epidural injection, an epidural catheter was inserted under the same surgical condition. A PE-10 tube (outer diameter 0.61 mm) (Clay Adams, Parsippany, NJ) was inserted according to the method described previously.10 Briefly, a 1- to 2-cm midline skin incision was made at the most prominent thoracic spinal process (T13). Using a pair of microscissors, a small hole was made in the middle of ligament flavum, and a PE-10 tube was gently advanced approximately 3 cm caudally into the epidural space with the catheter tip being placed at the level between the L4 and L5 nerve roots. The proximal end of the epidural catheter was tunneled subcutaneously and secured to the posterior cervical area to facilitate epidural injection. Incisions were closed with a 6.0 nylon suture or wound clip. To confirm correct epidural catheter placement, negative aspiration of spinal fluid was confirmed after each catheter implantation, and 2% lidocaine (0.15 ml) was injected through the catheter ...
The involvement of the adhesion molecules L1, N-CAM, and J1 in adhesion and neurite outgrowth in the peripheral nervous system was investigated. We prepared Schwann cells and fibroblasts (from sciatic nerves) and neurons (from dorsal root ganglia) from 1-d mice. These cells were allowed to interact with each other in a short-term adhesion assay. We also measured outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons on Schwann cell and fibroblast monolayers. Schwann cells (which express L1, N-CAM, and J1) adhered most strongly to dorsal root ganglion neurons by an L1-dependent mechanism and less by N-CAM and J1. Schwann cell-Schwann cell adhesion was mediated by L1 and N-CAM, but not J1. Adhesion of fibroblasts (which express N-CAM, but not L1 or J1) to neurons or Schwann cells was mediated by L1 and N-CAM and not J1. However, inhibition by L1 and N-CAM antibodies was found to be less pronounced with fibroblasts than with Schwann cells. N-CAM was also strongly involved in fibroblast-fibroblast adhesion. ...
A lacrimal silicone stent has a very large diameter segment with a diameter greater than the largest diameter stent which can be pulled through the canaliculi readily without damaging the canaliculi, a thin central segment, a moderate diameter segment, and a distal segment with a lumen extending partway from its end. A lumen can also be provided in the very large diameter segment to enhance its flexibility. In addition, a lumina may be provided in the moderate diameter segment when it is formed as an extruded tube. Except for the lumina, the stent is solid. The stent may be molded in one piece, but it may also be made of molded and extruded segments which are fused together. To install the stent, according to a first method a sheath is inserted through the lacrimal system from the eye, through a DCR ostium into the nasal cavity. The distal segment is threaded into the sheath which is used to pull the distal segment back through the lacrimal system and out the superior canaliculus and punctum. A probe is
The present invention generally relates to the field of pharmaceutical sciences. More specifically, the present invention includes apparatus and devices for the preparation of pharmaceutical formulations containing large diameter synthetic membrane vesicles, such as multivesicular liposomes, methods for preparing such formulations, and the use of specific formulations for therapeutic treatment of subjects in need thereof. Formation and use of the pharmaceutical formulations containing large diameter synthetic membrane vesicles produced by using the apparatus and devices for therapeutic treatment of subjects in need thereof is also contemplated.
Light microscopy of a spinal sensory ganglion also known as a dorsal root ganglion. The ganglion is formed of a cluster of nerve cell bodies each with a central nucleus and densely stained cytoplasm (purple). Between the cell bodies are many myelinated axons that convey sensory signals from peripheral nerves to the spinal cord via the spinal ganglia. Magnification x100 when narrow width printed at 10 cm. - Stock Image C024/0082
Neuronal cell responses and interactions with the epithelial and fibroblastic cells of the skin are a key factor in the production in vivo of the irritation/inflammatory response. Currently, few in vitromodels are available that contain dermal, epidermal and the relevant neuronal components. The primary objective of this study was to produce and maintain a 3-D in vitro model of human skin containing these elements. The relevant neuronal component was supplied by adding sensory neurons derived from the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Since adult neuronal cells do not grow significantly in vivo or in vitro, and since it is very difficult to obtain such cells from humans, it was necessary to employ embryonic rat DRG cells. The ultimate purpose of this model is to improve prediction of the in vivo skin irritancy potential of chemicals and formulations, without the need to use animal models. In addition, this approach has also been applied to the in vitro human eye and bronchial 3-D models being ...
Some embodiments of the present invention provide methods of neurostimulating targeted neural tissues. Also described are stimulation systems and components for selective stimulation and/or neuromodulation of one or more dorsal root ganglia through implantation of an electrode on, in or around a dorsal root ganglia. Some other embodiments of the present invention provide methods for selective neurostimulation of one or more dorsal root ganglia as well as techniques for applying neurostimulation to the spinal cord. Still other embodiments of the present invention provide stimulation systems and components for selective stimulation and/or neuromodulation of one or more dorsal root ganglia through implantation of an electrode on, in or around a dorsal root ganglia in combination with a pharmacological agent.
The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1, vanilloid receptor 1) ion channel plays a key role in the perception of thermal and inflammatory pain, however, its molecular environment in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is largely unexplored. Utilizing a panel of sequence-directed antibodies against TRPV1 protein and mouse DRG membranes, the channel complex from mouse DRG was detergent-solubilized, isolated by immunoprecipitation and subsequently analyzed by mass spectrometry. A number of potential TRPV1 interaction partners were identified, among them cytoskeletal proteins, signal transduction molecules, and established ion channel subunits. Based on stringent specificity criteria, the voltage-gated K(+) channel beta 2 subunit (Kvbeta2), an accessory subunit of voltage-gated K(+) channels, was identified of being associated with native TRPV1 channels. Reverse co-immunoprecipitation and antibody co-staining experiments confirmed TRPV1/Kvbeta2 association. Biotinylation assays in the presence of ...
IBS is a prevalent, chronic GI disorder that negatively impacts the quality of life in up to 14% of the population.1 ,2 It is characterised by abdominal pain and discomfort associated with altered bowel habits.3-5 Although the pathophysiology of IBS is not completely understood, it is becoming clear that changes to peripheral cellular and sensory mechanisms play key roles in the associated pain.6 ,7 In particular, chronic visceral hypersensitivity (CVH) of colonic afferents is implicated in the development and maintenance of chronic visceral pain (CVP) in IBS.4 ,5 Characteristic features of CVH include nociceptor hypersensitivity8 and increased signalling of noxious colorectal distension (CRD) within the spinal cord.9-11 Recent evidence suggests sensory afferents display upregulation of numerous ion channels and receptors in animal models of CVH,7 ,10 ,12 making them targets for analgesic treatment.. A recently introduced treatment for patients with IBS and constipation involves a small ...
Here we describe the technique of preparing and maintaining compartmented chambers for culturing sensory neurons of the dorsal root...
Voltage-gated sodium channel alpha-subunits play a key role in pain pathophysiology, and are modulated by beta-subunits. We previously reported that beta1- and beta2-subunits were decreased in human sensory neurons after spinal root avulsion injury. We have now detected, by immunohistochemistry, beta3-subunits in 82% of small/medium and 67% of large diameter sensory neurons in intact human dorsal root ganglia: 54% of beta3 small/medium neurons were NGF receptor trkA negative. Unlike beta1- and beta2, beta3-immunoreactivity did not decrease after avulsion injury, and the beta3:neurofilament ratio was significantly increased in proximal injured human nerves. beta3-subunit expression may thus be regulated differently from beta1, beta2 and Nav1.8. Targeting beta3 interactions with key alpha-subunits, particularly Nav1.3 and Nav1.8, may provide novel selective analgesics.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a sulfhydryl donor antioxidant that contributes to the regeneration of glutathione (GSH) and also scavengers via a direct reaction with free oxygen radicals. Recently, we observed a modulatory role of NAC on GSH-depleted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in rats. NAC may have a protective role on oxidative stress and calcium influx through regulation of the TRPM2 channel in diabetic neurons. Therefore, we investigated the effects of NAC on DRG TRPM2 channel currents and brain oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-six rats divided into four groups: control, STZ, NAC and STZ + NAC. Diabetes was induced in the STZ and STZ + NAC groups by intraperitoneal STZ (65 mg/kg) administration. After the induction of diabetes, rats in the NAC and STZ + NAC groups received NAC (150 mg/kg) via gastric gavage. After 2 weeks, DRG neurons and the brain cortex were freshly isolated from rats. In whole-cell patch clamp experiments, TRPM2 currents in the DRG ...
Current research in prosthetic device design aims to mimic natural movements using a feedback system that connects to the patients own nerves to control the device. The first step in using neurons to control motion is to make and maintain contact between neurons and the feedback sensors. Therefore, the goal of this project was to determine if changes in electrode resistance could be detected when a neuron extended a neurite to contact a sensor. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were harvested from chick embryos and cultured on a collagen-coated carbon nanotube microelectrode array for two days. The DRG were seeded along one side of the array so the processes extended across the array, contacting about half of the electrodes. Electrode resistance was measured both prior to culture and after the two day culture period. Phase contrast images of the microelectrode array were taken after two days to visually determine which electrodes were in contact with one or more DRG neurite or tissue. Electrodes in contact
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in skin, dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord: an ideal target gene for RNA interference therapy for pain relief, Chia-Chih Alex Tseng, Yua
Adult mouse DRG neurones have been maintained for 14 days in cultures where non-neuronal cell proliferation was inhibited by the inclusion of 5 × 10(−6) microM-cytosine arabinoside (AraC) in the medium from the onset of culture. On uncoated plastic neurone numbers significantly declined in the absence of non-neuronal cell outgrowth compared with uninhibited co-cultures. However, when neurones were maintained in the presence of AraC on certain coated surfaces this decrease in neurone numbers was not observed. Combinations of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LAM) proved most effective for 7 and 14 days in vitro, although either was beneficial if used separately. Microexudates produced by the fibroblast line, 3T6, also significantly improved neuronal counts for 14 days in vitro. However, a microexudate derived from primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes, although advantageous for 7 days in vitro, was not effective in maintaining neurones over the 14-day culture period, reminiscent of previous ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phylogenetic investigation of Dogiels pericellular nests and Cajals initial glomeruli in the dorsal root ganglion. AU - Matsuda, Seiji. AU - Kobayashi, Naoto. AU - Terashita, Takehiro. AU - Shimokawa, Tetsuya. AU - Shigemoto, Kazuhiro. AU - Mominoki, Katsumi. AU - Wakisaka, Hiroyuki. AU - Saito, Shouichiro. AU - Miyawaki, Kyoujy. AU - Saito, Kyoko. AU - Kushihata, Fumiki. AU - Chen, Jie. AU - Gao, Shuang Yan. AU - Li, Chun Yu. AU - Wang, Min. AU - Fujiwara, Takashi. PY - 2005/10/24. Y1 - 2005/10/24. N2 - Cajals initial glomeruli (IG) and Dogiels pericellular nests (PCNs) were first described from methylene blue preparations of healthy animal tissues around the beginning of the last century. Since that time, although many reports have been published concerning these structures, few have focused on their development and phylogeny in healthy animals. The aim of this study was to examine the phylogenetic development of the sensory neurons in Cajals IG (also called axonal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunostaining for the α3 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase is selective for functionally identified muscle spindle afferents in vivo. AU - Parekh, A.. AU - Campbell, A. J M. AU - Djouhri, L.. AU - Fang, X.. AU - McMullan, S.. AU - Berry, C.. AU - Acosta, C.. AU - Lawson, S. N.. PY - 2010/11. Y1 - 2010/11. N2 - Muscle spindle afferent (MSA) neurons can show rapid and sustained firing. Immunostaining for the α3 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase (α3) in some large dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and large intrafusal fibres suggested α3 expression in MSAs (Dobretsov 2003), but not whether α3-immunoreactive DRG neuronal somata were exclusively MSAs. We found that neuronal somata with high α3 immunointensity were neurofilament-rich, suggesting they have A-fibres; we therefore focussed on A-fibre neurons to determine the sensory properties of α3-immunoreactive neurons. We examined α3 immunointensity in 78 dye-injected DRG neurons whose conduction velocities and hindlimb sensory ...
Primary sensory neurons in the DRG play an essential role in initiating pain by detecting painful stimuli in the periphery. Tissue injury can sensitize DRG neurons, causing heightened pain sensitivity, often leading to chronic pain. Despite the functional importance, how DRG neurons function at a population level is unclear due to the lack of suitable tools. Here we developed an imaging technique that allowed us to simultaneously monitor the activities of >1,600 neurons/DRG in live mice and discovered a striking neuronal coupling phenomenon that adjacent neurons tend to activate together following tissue injury. This coupled activation occurs among various neurons and is mediated by an injury-induced upregulation of gap junctions in glial cells surrounding DRG neurons. Blocking gap junctions attenuated neuronal coupling and mechanical hyperalgesia. Therefore, neuronal coupling represents a new form of neuronal plasticity in the DRG and contributes to pain hypersensitivity by hijacking ...
The general somatic afferent fibers (GSA, or somatic sensory fibers) afferent fibers arise from cells in the spinal ganglia and are found in all the spinal nerves, except occasionally the first cervical, and conduct impulses of pain, touch and temperature from the surface of the body through the dorsal roots to the spinal cord and impulses of muscle sense, tendon sense and joint sense from the deeper structures.[1] ...
Professor and Chair, Neuroscience & Cell Biology, Cecil H. and Ida M. Green Distinguished University Chair, Neuroscience, UT Medical Branch at GalvestonKeywords: Neuralgia, Hyperalgesia, Spinal Nerves, Spinal Ganglia, Spinal Nerve Roots, Ligation, Pain, Neurons ...
Sensory neuron from an adult dorsal root ganglion immunostained for Growth Associated Protein (GAP43) shown in red. Neurites are growing in between st...
In March Charlotte was successfully defended with her doctorate thesis on Differentiation and characterization of human stem cell-derived nociceptors and comparison to human and mouse dorsal root ganglia tissue.. #gallery-1 { margin: auto; } #gallery-1 .gallery-item { float: left; margin-top: 10px; text-align: center; width: 33%; } #gallery-1 img { border: 2px solid #cfcfcf; } #gallery-1 .gallery-caption { margin-left: 0; } /* see gallery_shortcode() in wp-includes/media.php */ ...
sensory neurons for the skin and muscle; cell bodies of these sensory neurons are grouped in a structure called a ganglion just outside the spinal cord on the dorsal side. Thus they are called Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons. They have no dendrites. Their axons branch immediately. One branch goes to the periphery (skin or muscle); the other into the spinal cord. Sensory information from the periphery travels from one end of the axon to the other synapsing in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. ...
OLIVEIRA-ABREU, KLAUSEN... Melatonin Reduces Excitability in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons with Inflection on the Repolarization Phase of the Action Potential. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES 20 n.11 p. JUN 1 2019. Artigo Científico.
To overcome the shortcomings of in vitro and animal models we are developing a microscopic cell culture analogue (microCCA) of the spinal reflex-arc. The present work draws on advances in a wide variety of technical fields including cell culture, surface chemistry, and microfabrication. These advances have allowed us to begin development of a microCCA device comprised of the basic components of the reflex-arc: a muscle fiber, a dorsal root ganglion cell, and a motoneuron. Silicon microstructures serve as the foundation of the device. Surface modification with alkyl-silane SAMs followed by patterning with deep UV photolithography to selectively control cell adhesion and growth. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the control of neuronal growth and myotube differentiation on the microstructures. This system will enable the controlled interrogation of properties of the reflex-arc, thereby creating an improved test bed for the development of novel drug therapies for traumatic SCI and neurodegenerative
PubMed lists over 1,500 papers with U73122 in the abstract. The large majority use the inhibitor simply as a tool to check that some signaling pathway requires PLC. However, numerous papers report additional unexpected effects, raising question whether this agent can be used as a pharmacological tool without serious side effects. We select results from just four early papers. The initial brief announcement of U73122 from Upjohn reports that it inhibits partially purified PLC in vitro when the molar ratio of Ca2+:PI in the assay was ,2, but increased PLC activity when the molar ratio was 4-12 (Bleasdale et al., 1989). There are no data or experimental details in that book chapter. A careful study in NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma cells and in dorsal root ganglion cells shows that U73122 blocks bradykinin-induced Ca2+ transients irreversibly with a steep dose-response curve and a half-effective dose IC50 of 200 nM for 20-min preincubations and that U73343 is without effect (Jin et al., 1994). ...
Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons course of ache signaling by specialised nociceptors situated in their peripheral endings. It has lengthy. Read more ...
It has been hypothesized that one way to overcome the limitations of conventional, intimate electrode placement is to use percutaneous PNS systems designed to enable remote selective targeting. The goal of remote selective targeting is to activate a greater proportion of large diameter fibers while avoiding the unwanted activation of nociceptive afferents to produce a robust non-nociceptive peripheral signal. The relationships between stimulation strength, electrode characteristics, electrode-fiber distance, and fiber diameter are predicted to result in a greater separation of activation thresholds between large and small diameter fibers when using a PNS system designed to enable electrode placement up to several centimeters away (e.g., 0.5-3 cm) and deliver stimulation at therapeutic parameters more selective for large diameter fibers. Leads designed for remote selective targeting have large monopolar electrodes such that the generated electric fields, which decay exponentially across ...
TY - THES. T1 - Peripheral ganglia and the eye : a connection tracing study. AU - ten Tusscher, M.P.M.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. M3 - Doctoral Thesis. PB - Rijksuniversiteit Limburg. CY - Maastricht. ER - ...
Sensory ganglion definition. sensory ganglion n. A cluster of primary sensory neurons forming a swelling in the course of a peripheral nerve or its dorsal root and establishing the sol
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EMBL is Europes flagship laboratory for the life sciences - an intergovernmental organisation with more than 80 independent research groups covering the spectrum of molecular biology.. ...
The short pathways into which a spinal nerve divides near its point of attachment to the back of the spinal cord, containing afferent or sensory fibres transmitting nerve impulses to the spinal cord. See also Bell-Magendie law, dorsal root ganglion. Compare ventral root. ...
Neurons, Rat, Ganglia, Inhibition, Membrane, Plasma, Plasma Membrane, Cells, Danio Rerio, Dorsal Root, Dorsal Root Ganglia, Drg, G Protein, Sensory Neurons, Zebrafish, Calcium, Potassium, Proteins, Cannabinoid Receptors, Diacylglycerol Lipase
Expression of growth-associated protein B-50 (GAP43) in dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve during regenerative sprouting.: Recently it has been shown that B-
Chronic damage or injury to nerves causes changes in the primary sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and in their central connections.
Bundles of nerve fibres as they enter the spinal cord, carrying sensory information. The cell bodies of the sensory neurons lie in the dorsal root ganglion, a swelling of the dorsal root just outside the spinal cord ...
In the spinal gangliaEdit. Bipolar cells are also found in the spinal ganglia, when the cells are in an embryonic condition. ... Common examples are the retina bipolar cell, the ganglia of the vestibulocochlear nerve,[2] the extensive use of bipolar cells ... The majority of the bipolar neurons belonging to the vestibular nerve exist within the vestibular ganglion with axons extending ... one of the fibers is really derived from an adjoining nerve cell and is passing to end in a ramification around the ganglion ...
ISBN 978-0-443-06612-2. O'Rahilly R, Müller F (2003). "Somites, spinal Ganglia, and centra. Enumeration and interrelationships ... Spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord that causes changes in its function, either temporary or permanent. Spinal cord ... Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal which can occur in any region of the spine though less commonly in the ... Sometimes the spinal meninges and also the spinal cord can protrude through this, and this is called Spina bifida cystica. ...
Spinal ganglion are involved in movement. The frontal operculum is speculated to be the memory and association hub for taste.[ ... The pterygopalatine ganglia are ganglia (one on each side) of the soft palate. The greater petrosal, lesser palatine and ...
The spinal cord consists of such segmental enlargements called ganglia. These ganglia form the basis for the peripheral nervous ... In humans, the spinal cord comprises a major part of the central nervous system (CNS). Along with the brain, it develops from ... Vermeren, M. M.; Cook, G. M. W.; Johnson, A. R.; Keynes, R. J.; Tannahill, D. (2000). "Spinal Nerve Segmentation in the Chick ... The segmentation pattern observed in the spinal nerves is in fact governed by the somatic mesoderm. In the embryonic stages of ...
Laycock disagreed with Unzer's centralisation in the spinal root ganglia; Laycock stated: "The brain, although the organ of ... While Hall believed that the reflex arc was mediated by the spinal cord, separate from the cerebrum, Laycock argued that the ... Unzer centralised the nervous system in the spinal cord, such that reflexes could occur even without a functional brain, which ... consciousness, was subject to the laws of reflex action and in this respect it did not differ from other ganglia of the nervous ...
The destruction of neuronal cells produces lesions within the spinal ganglia; these may also occur in the reticular formation, ... Virus invasion causes inflammation of the nerve cells, leading to damage or destruction of motor neuron ganglia. When spinal ... The extent of spinal paralysis depends on the region of the cord affected, which may be cervical, thoracic, or lumbar. The ... In cases of spinal polio, if the affected nerve cells are completely destroyed, paralysis will be permanent; cells that are not ...
"PlexinA4 distribution in the adult rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia". J. Chem. Neuroanat. 44 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1016/j. ... In dorsal root ganglia, Plexin A4 is expressed in the neuronal cell bodies as well as the central and peripheral processes of ... Plexin A4 has been found in dorsal and, to a greater extent, ventral horns of the spinal cord. Both motor neurons and ... In the adult rat central nervous system (CNS), plexin A4 was present in neurons and fibers throughout the brain and spinal cord ...
The indicative diagnostic biomarkers are: reduced dopamine transporter uptake in the basal ganglia shown on PET or SPECT ... Also affected are the hypothalamus, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system-autonomic dysfunction. The European Federation of ... midbrain and basal ganglia - movement; brain stem - sleep, alertness, and autonomic dysfunction; olfactory cortex - smell. ...
The SCN evokes a response from the spinal cord. Preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord modulate the superior cervical ganglia ... The photosensitive retinal ganglion cells contain a pigment called melanopsin. This photopigment is depolarized in the presence ... These networks are often found in the spinal cord. It has been hypothesized that certain CPG's are hardwired from birth. For ... However, they did prove that the basal ganglia and SMA are highly involved in rhythm perception. In a study where patients ...
They are uncommon in the spinal cord. The normal function of Aβ is not certain, but plaques arise when the protein misfolds and ... the basal ganglia and diencephalon are affected; in Phase 4, plaques appear in the midbrain and medulla oblongata; and in Phase ...
From the superior and inferior ganglia in jugular foramen, it has its own sheath of dura mater. The inferior ganglion on the ... Upon entering the medulla these fibers descend in the spinal trigeminal tract and synapse in the caudal spinal nucleus of the ... The visceral motor fibers pass through both ganglia without synapsing and exit the inferior ganglion with CN IX general sensory ... Upon exiting the skull, the lesser petrosal nerve synapses in the otic ganglion, which is suspended from the mandibular nerve ...
Loss of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord are observed in some cases. Dorsal root ganglia, posterior roots and peripheral ... Semaphorin-a3A is then released in the ventral spinal cord to steer corticospinal neurons away from the midline spinal cord / ... McAndrew CR, Harms P (2003). "Paraesthesias during needle-through-needle combined spinal epidural versus single-shot spinal for ... Cerebral and spinal MRI is an important procedure performed in order to rule out other frequent neurological conditions, such ...
It is seen in disorders such as cerebral palsy, stroke, and spinal cord injury. Rigidity is a severe state of hypertonia where ... It is frequently associated with lesions of the basal ganglia. Individuals with rigidity present with stiffness, decreased ... Baclofen is generally the drug of choice for spinal cord types of spasticity, while sodium dantrolene is the only agent which ... Impaired ability of damaged motor neurons to regulate descending pathways gives rise to disordered spinal reflexes, increased ...
Pseudounipolar neurons in the dorsal root ganglion have axons that lead from the skin into the dorsal spinal cord where they ... The neurons of the lateral spinothalamic tract originate in the spinal dorsal root ganglia. They project peripheral processes ... Decussation usually occurs 1-2 spinal nerve segments above the point of entry. The axons travel up the length of the spinal ... After entering the spinal cord the first order neurons synapse (in the nucleus proprius), and the second order neurons ...
If subcortical, clarifying whether it is white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem, or spinal cord. If the process involves the ... abnormal sensation in one dermatome due to compression of a specific spinal nerve by a tumor deposit). General principles ...
The cells of Dogiel, bipolar neurons of the spinal ganglia, are named after him. Dogiel studied at Kazan University where he ... The Transcendent Contributions of Fernando de Castro on the Microscopic Structure of Sensory and Autonomic Motor Ganglia". ...
The PNS consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord. The main function of the PNS is to connect the ... These nerve roots are named according to the spinal vertebrata which they are adjacent to. In the cervical region, the spinal ... For the rest of the body, spinal nerves are responsible for somatosensory information. These arise from the spinal cord. ... so it is called spinal nerve root C8). In the lumbar and sacral region, the spinal nerve roots travel within the dural sac and ...
The sensory ganglia are directly correspondent to dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves and are known as cranial sensory ganglia ... Ganglia[edit]. Main article: Cranial nerve ganglia. Some of the cranial nerves have sensory or parasympathetic ganglia ( ... Spinal nerves emerge sequentially from the spinal cord with the spinal nerve closest to the head (C1) emerging in the space ... The trigeminal ganglia of the trigeminal nerve (V) occupies a space in the dura mater called Trigeminal cave. This ganglion ...
Along the length of the sympathetic trunk are sympathetic ganglia known as paravertebral ganglia. The sympathetic trunk (yellow ... It allows nerve fibres to travel to spinal nerves that are superior and inferior to the one in which they originated. Also, a ... The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots. Dissection of side wall of pelvis showing sacral and ... It interacts with the anterior rami of spinal nerves by way of rami communicantes. The sympathetic trunk permits preganglionic ...
The filum terminale of the spinal cord. Glandula pinealis and parietal organ. The parieto-occipital fissure of the brain [ ... The hypophysis cerebri (pituitary body). The dorsal roots and ganglia of the hypoglossus nerve. The rami recurrentes of certain ...
Cross-section of a spinal vertebra with the spinal cord in the centre (and grey matter labelled). Cross-section of spinal cord ... and joints through sensory neurons whose cell bodies lie in the dorsal root ganglion. This information is then transmitted in ... The lateral grey column is the third column of the spinal cord. The grey matter of the spinal cord can be divided into ... Interneurons present in the grey matter of the spinal cord Rexed laminae groups the grey matter in the spinal cord according to ...
The function of the STN is unknown, but current theories place it as a component of the basal ganglia control system that may ... Recherches sur le système cérébro-spinal, sa structure, ses fonctions et ses maladies (in French). Paris: Baillière. Afsharpour ... The connection of the lateral pallidum with the subthalamic nucleus is also the one in the basal ganglia system where the ... Surmeier D.J.; Mercer J.N. & Chan C.S. (2005). "Autonomous pacemakers in the basal ganglia: who needs excitatory synapses ...
Weiss is remembered for pioneer systematic research of the spinal marrow, medulla oblongata and basal ganglia. The eponymous " ...
Riley HA (1943). An Atlas Of The Basal Ganglia, Brain Stem And Spinal Cord (Based On Myelin-Stained Material). Baltimore: ...
The zona incerta has connections to the cerebral cortex, diencephalon, basal ganglia, brainstem and spinal cord. Cerebral ... Spinal cord Zona incerta afferents terminate within the spinal cord gray matter, particularly the anterior horn, while spinal ... Basal ganglia Zona incerta is connected in the basal ganglia to the substantia nigra (both pars compacta and pars reticulata) ... Some of these projections appear in register; the representation of the same body part in cortex and spinal cord connect to the ...
The peripheral nervous system contains the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord. This difference in ... After injection of a supralethal dose of radioactive acetylated apamin in mice, enrichment was found in the spinal cord, which ... Also it is known that the polysynaptic spinal reflexes are disinhibited in cats. Polysynaptic reflex is a reflex action that ... In mice, the injection of apamin produces convulsions and long-lasting spinal spasticity. ...
The cell bodies of the sensory neurons are located in the dorsal ganglia of the spinal cord. This sensory information travels ... Information from the sensory neurons below the head enters the spinal cord and passes towards the brain through the 31 spinal ... and the ganglion cell. The first action potential occurs in the retinal ganglion cell. This pathway is the most direct way for ... Retinal ganglion cells are involved in the sympathetic response. Of the ~1.3 million ganglion cells present in the retina, 1-2 ...
Freud, Sigmund (1878). Über Spinalganglien und Rückenmark des Petromyzon [On the Spinal Ganglia and Spinal Cord of Petromyzon ... "A New Histological Method for the Study of Nerve-Tracts in the Brain and Spinal Cord". Brain. 7 (1): 86-88. doi:10.1093/brain/ ... On the Origin of the Posterior Nerve Roots in the Spinal Cord of Ammocoetes (Petromyzon Planeri)] (in German). na. ...
... and pelvic plexuses The celiac ganglia with the sympathetic plexuses of the abdominal viscera radiating from the ganglia The ... Vagal and spinal ganglionic nerves mediate the lowering of the heart rate. The right vagus branch innervates the sinoatrial ... The cell bodies of visceral afferent fibers of the vagus nerve are located bilaterally in the inferior ganglion of the vagus ... The sensory fibers originate from neurons of the nodose ganglion, whereas the motor fibers come from neurons of the dorsal ...
Brain regions in which cannabinoid receptors are very abundant are the basal ganglia, associated with movement control; the ... the spinal cord, associated with peripheral sensations like pain; the brain stem, associated with sleep, arousal, and motor ...
... ganglia spinal include In Vitro Recording of Mesenteric Afferent Nerve Activity in Mouse Jejunal and Colonic Segments. ... Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are ... process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord ...
Meaning of ganglia, spinal. What does ganglia, spinal mean? Information and translations of ganglia, spinal in the most ... Definition of ganglia, spinal in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Ganglia, Spinal. Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal ... spinal mean?. Definitions for ganglia, spinal. Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word ganglia, spinal. ... Discuss these ganglia, spinal definitions with the community:. Word of the Day. Would you like us to send you a FREE new word ...
Friedreich Ataxia: Hypoplasia of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia Details Written by Jen Farmer Category: Funded Research ... Lack of large neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), thinning of dorsal roots (DR), and poor myelination in sensory nerves are ... Here, we measured cross-sectional areas of the mid-thoracic spinal cord (SC) and neuronal sizes in lumbosacral DRG of 24 ...
... bodies are many myelinated axons that convey sensory signals from peripheral nerves to the spinal cord via the spinal ganglia. ... The ganglion is formed of a cluster of nerve cell bodies each with a central nucleus and densely stained cytoplasm (purple). ... Light microscopy of a spinal sensory ganglion also known as a dorsal root ganglion. ... Caption: Light microscopy of a spinal sensory ganglion also known as a dorsal root ganglion. The ganglion is formed of a ...
P. Hu, A. L. Bembrick, K. A. Keay, and E. M. McLachlan, "Immune cell involvement in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord after ... Elevated Expression of Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and Fractalkine Receptor (CX3CR1) in the Dorsal Root Ganglia and Spinal Cord in ... distribution in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia under basal and neuropathic pain conditions," European Journal of ... "Elevation of tumor necrosis factor alpha in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord is associated with neuroimmune modulation of ...
Radiotherapy Suppresses Bone Cancer Pain through Inhibiting Activation of cAMP Signaling in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion and Spinal ... "Activation of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway in rat dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord contributes toward induction and ... R.-X. Zhang, B. Liu, L. Wang et al., "Spinal glial activation in a new rat model of bone cancer pain produced by prostate ... J.-H. Zheng, E. T. Walters, and X.-J. Song, "Dissociation of dorsal root ganglion neurons induces hyperexcitability that is ...
In adult patients with familial dysautonomia the mean volume of superior cervical sympathetic ganglia is reduced to 34% of the ... Quantitative Studies of Sympathetic Ganglia and Spinal Cord Intermedio-Lateral Gray Columns in Familial Dysautonomia J Neurol ... In adult patients with familial dysautonomia the mean volume of superior cervical sympathetic ganglia is reduced to 34% of the ...
Organotypic cultures of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion derived from Swiss outbred mice were infected with the Brazil ... Infection of Organotypic Cultures of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia with Trypanosoma Cruzi * Herbert B. Tanowitz, Celia ... Organotypic cultures of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion derived from Swiss outbred mice were infected with the Brazil ...
Jin SX, Woolf CJ, Ji RR ( 2002) Activation of p38 MAPK in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord after spinal nerve ligation ... The possible involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Is Activated after a Spinal Nerve Ligation in Spinal Cord Microglia and Dorsal Root Ganglion ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Is Activated after a Spinal Nerve Ligation in Spinal Cord Microglia and Dorsal Root Ganglion ...
Spinal Nerves and Ganglia. Ronald A. Bergman, PhD. Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS. Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD. Peer Review Status: Internally ... Lumbar and Sacral Spinal Nerves. Section Top , Title Page Home , About Us , FAQ , Reviews , Contact Us , Search Anatomy Atlases ...
... Eur J Neurosci. ... sst2A-Li was also observed in the dorsal root ganglia predominantly targeted to the somatic plasmalemma of medium size neurons ... used these antisera for immunocytochemical localization of the receptor protein in the rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia ... Thus, the present results not only provide a morphological substrate for spinal octreotide analgesia but also show that ...
... includes dorsal root ganglion and portions of ventral and dorsal nerve roots, c.s., trichrome stain, SB51623 at Nasco. You will ... Spinal cord, includes dorsal root ganglion and portions of ventral and dorsal nerve roots, c.s., trichrome stain. ... Spinal cord, includes dorsal root ganglion and portions of ventral and dorsal nerve roots, c.s., trichrome stain. ...
Insulin-like growth factor-II/Mannose-6-phosphate receptor in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of the adult rat ... Insulin-like growth factor-II/Mannose-6-phosphate receptor in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of the adult rat.. ... The meninges of the spinal cord also seemed to express IGF-II receptor immunoreactivity. In the dorsal root ganglia, receptor ... IGF-II binding compared to any given region of the spinal grey mater or the dorsal root ganglia. Western blot results indicated ...
Ganglion cyst of the ligamentum flavum: a rare cause of cervical spinal cord compression. A case report ... Ganglion cyst of the ligamentum flavum: a rare cause of cervical spinal cord compression. A case report ... Ganglion cyst of the ligamentum flavum: a rare cause of cervical spinal cord compression. A case report ...
... ... signaling pathway in bupivacaine-induced apoptotic injury in spinal cord dorsal root ganglia (DRG). DRG was prepared from adult ... Local anesthesia has been shown to render severe spinal cord neurotoxicity. This study used an in vitro model to explore the ... our work suggested that TNF-α and TNF-R1 are the major contributors of TNF signaling pathway in anesthesia-induced spinal cord ...
We studied the desensitization kinetics of currents activated in neurons of the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by short-term ... Proton-Gated Ion Currents in Neurons of the Rat Spinal Ganglia and the Action of Ketanov on These Currents. ... X. Jinghui, M. P. Price, A. L. Berger, and M. J. Welsh, "DRASIC contributes to pH-gated currents in large dorsal root ganglion ... We studied the desensitization kinetics of currents activated in neurons of the rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by short-term ...
... * ... Immunofluorescence staining depicts localization of p120 in the spinal cord. To study the location of p120, spinal cord ... Effects of nicorandil on p120 expression in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion of rats with chronic postsurgical pain. ... Effects of nicorandil on p120 expression in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion of rats with chronic postsurgical pain. ...
Dorsal root ganglion cells from embryonic mice were cultured and stimulated to produce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Cultures were ... Dorsal root ganglion cells from embryonic mice were cultured and stimulated to produce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Cultures were ... neuron of the dorsal spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi:10.7295/W9CIL38818 ...
Spinal Nerves, and Ganglia flashcards from Arjun Gupta ... Aka spinal ganglion. Here the sensory impulse goes from the ... and Ganglia Flashcards Preview ACE Unit 1 , TBL 3 - Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems, Spinal Nerves, and Ganglia , ... Exit the spinal cord through the anterior rami where the motor neurons exist and synapse in the sympathetic ganglia ... Flashcards in TBL 3 - Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems, Spinal Nerves, and Ganglia Deck (45): ...
Fasciculus Gracilis: White Matter in dorsal side of spinal cord Medial to fasciculus cuneatus Part of Dorsal (column) ... ganglion and such from NEURO 101 at The University of Akron. ... Found throughout spinal cord and brain stem  Spinal cord- part ... ganglion and such - Fasciculus Gracilis White Matter in.... This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full ... Fasciculus Gracilis: White Matter in dorsal side of spinal cord Medial to fasciculus cuneatus Part of Dorsal (column) faniculus ...
Spinal Cord Spinal Nerves Exhibit Category: Positron Emission Tomography Scanning and Beyond, 1979-2004 Box Number: 40. Folder ... Differential Effects of Electrical Stimulation of Sciatic Nerve on Metabolic Activity in Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglion ... of Electrical Stimulation of Sciatic Nerve on Metabolic Activity in Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglion in the Rat. ...
ON THE FUNCTION OF THE POSTERIOR SPINAL GANGLIA S. P. Kramer S. P. Kramer ... S. P. Kramer; ON THE FUNCTION OF THE POSTERIOR SPINAL GANGLIA . J Exp Med 25 May 1907; 9 (3): 314-318. doi: https://doi.org/ ... THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LESIONS IN PERIPHERAL GANGLIA IN CHIMPANZEE AND IN HUMAN POLIOMYELITIS ...
Offord, K., Ohta, M., Oenning, R. F., & Dyck, P. J. (1974). Method of morphometric evaluation of spinal and autonomic ganglia. ... Offord, K, Ohta, M, Oenning, RF & Dyck, PJ 1974, Method of morphometric evaluation of spinal and autonomic ganglia, Journal ... Method of morphometric evaluation of spinal and autonomic ganglia. Kenneth Offord, Michiya Ohta, Roger F. Oenning, Peter J Dyck ... Method of morphometric evaluation of spinal and autonomic ganglia. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 1974;22(1):65-71. ...
... of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the dorsal horn (DH) neurons with peptide Semax on the level of s... ... Ключевые слова: dorsal root ganglion, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, glutamate, postsynaptic currents, synaptic activity, ... The effects of a long-term culturing (12 days, in vitro) of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the dorsal horn (DH) neurons ... Changes in Ongoing Activity and Electrophysiological Characteristics of the Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells in Diabetes Mellitus ...
In vitro Experiments on the Effects of Mouse Sarcomas 180 and 37 on the Spinal and Sympathetic Ganglia of the Chick Embryo ( ... "In vitro Experiments on the Effects of Mouse Sarcomas 180 and 37 on the Spinal and Sympathetic Ganglia of the Chick Embryo." ... "In vitro Experiments on the Effects of Mouse Sarcomas 180 and 37 on the Spinal and Sympathetic Ganglia of the Chick Embryo" ... Navis, Adam R., "In vitro Experiments on the Effects of Mouse Sarcomas 180 and 37 on the Spinal and Sympathetic Ganglia of the ...
Proliferation, Differentiation and Degeneration in the Spinal Ganglia of the Chick Embryo under Normal and Experimental ... Navis, Adam R., "Proliferation, Differentiation and Degeneration in the Spinal Ganglia of the Chick Embryo under Normal and ... Proliferation, Differentiation and Degeneration in the Spinal Ganglia of the Chick Embryo under Normal and Experimental ... "Proliferation, Differentiation and Degeneration in the Spinal Ganglia of the Chick Embryo Under Normal and Experimental ...
A few axonal proteins distinguish ventral spinal cord neurons from dorsal root ganglion neurons. P Sonderegger, P Sonderegger ... Neurons from ventral spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia were grown in a compartmented cell-culture system which offers ... A few axonal proteins distinguish ventral spinal cord neurons from dorsal root ganglion neurons.. J Cell Biol 1 January 1984; ... neurons was reflected in a high degree of similarity of the gel pattern of the axonal proteins from sensory ganglia and spinal ...
... the spinal cord, and spinal ganglia were investigated using horseradish peroxidase retrograde axonal transport techniques in ... Labeled neurons were diffusely located in the spinal ganglia, concentrated mainly at levels T2-T4. ... The enzyme was applied to central sections of the anastomosis of the stellate ganglion with the vagus nerve, the inferior ... Labeled neurons within the stellate ganglion were located close to the point of departure of the nerves and more thinly ...
Spinal cord and infratentorial lesions in radiologically isolated syndrome are associated with decreased retinal ganglion cell/ ... Spinal cord and infratentorial lesions in radiologically isolated syndrome are associated with decreased retinal ganglion cell/ ... Spinal cord and infratentorial lesions in radiologically isolated syndrome are associated with decreased retinal ganglion cell/ ... T1 - Spinal cord and infratentorial lesions in radiologically isolated syndrome are associated with decreased retinal ganglion ...
What is craniospinal ganglia? Meaning of craniospinal ganglia medical term. What does craniospinal ganglia mean? ... Looking for online definition of craniospinal ganglia in the Medical Dictionary? craniospinal ganglia explanation free. ... sphenopalatine ganglion pterygopalatine ganglion.. spinal ganglion the cerebrospinal ganglion on the dorsal root of each spinal ... Synonym: pterygopalatine ganglion. spinal ganglion. Dorsal root ganglion.. spiral ganglion. A chain of tiny sensory ganglia ...
  • Lack of large neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), thinning of dorsal roots (DR), and poor myelination in sensory nerves are now also recognized as key components of FA. (curefa.org)
  • Between the cell bodies are many myelinated axons that convey sensory signals from peripheral nerves to the spinal cord via the spinal ganglia. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Historically, many patients with chronic pain resulting from complex regional pain syndrome or pain resulting from damage to peripheral nerves report inconsistent or inadequate pain relief from tonic spinal cord stimulation. (mediaroom.com)
  • Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord are damaged, causing muscle weakness and numbness in the legs and arms. (plos.org)
  • In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) also convey pain information from their areas to the spinal trigeminal nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives input from cranial nerves V , VII , IX , and X . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerves exit the spinal cord to both sides of the body. (cancer.ca)
  • The spinal cord carries signals back and forth between the brain and the nerves in the rest of the body. (cancer.ca)
  • The sympathetic chain ganglia affect spinal nerves and nerves in the thoracic cavity. (cancer.ca)
  • The collateral ganglia affect nerves in the abdomen and pelvis. (cancer.ca)
  • This book is a comprehensive illustrated surgical guide to operative exposures of the spinal nerves, also known as peripheral nerves. (springer.com)
  • Anatomy and Exposures of Spinal Nerves will effectively fill a gap caused by the absence of a peripheral nerve surgeon from many neurosurgery training programs. (springer.com)
  • CGRP-immunoreactive nerves of the cervix and spinal cord have been studied but cellular identification of the CGRP receptor has received little attention. (omeka.net)
  • Gray rami communicantes pass from all the ganglia to the lumbar spinal nerves. (theodora.com)
  • The spinal nerves leave the spinal cord through these holes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positively labeled neurons were detected in the major pelvic ganglion, but not in the superior cervical ganglion. (unm.edu)
  • Trigeminal ganglion. (tabers.com)
  • General somatic sensation is conveyed to the central nervous system at cranial levels by the trigeminal ganglion (TG), and at spinal levels by the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). (biomedcentral.com)
  • At spinal levels, general somatic sensation is conveyed by the dorsal root or spinal ganglia (DRG), while in the anterior head and face, these sensory modalities are mediated by the trigeminal ganglion (TG). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Determinations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron loss in nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) null mutant mice have supported the concept that neurons can switch neurotrophin dependence by revealing that many neurons must require both of these factors acting either sequentially or simultaneously during development. (jneurosci.org)
  • Spinal ganglia, also referred to as dorsal root ganglia (DRG), contain the cell bodies of pseudounipolar primary sensory neurons, which are surrounded by a layer of satellite glial cells (SGCs), also called amphicytes because of their position around each neuron. (frontiersin.org)
  • most common basal ganglia neuron? (brainscape.com)
  • Unlike the majority of neurons found in the central nervous system, an action potential in posterior root ganglion neuron may initiate in the distal process in the periphery, bypass the cell body, and continue to propagate along the proximal process until reaching the synaptic terminal in the posterior horn of spinal cord [1]. (ronaldschulte.nl)
  • After CCD and de-CCD treatments, the animals exhibited behavioral and neurochemical signs of neuropathic pain manifested as mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, DRG inflammation, DRG neuron hyperexcitability, induction of c-Fos, and the increased expression of PKCγ in the spinal cord as well as increased level of IL-1β and TNF-α in DRG and the spinal cord. (chiro.org)
  • Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are heterogeneous assemblies of assorted sensory neuron cell bodies found in bilateral pairs at every level of the spinal column. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dissected ganglia can then be used for RNA/protein analyses, subjected to immunohistochemical examination, and cultured as explants or dissociated primary neurons, for in-depth investigations of sensory neuron biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are bilateral assemblies of sensory neuron somas, satellite cells, fibroblasts and capillaries, found within dorsal intervertebral foramina at every level of the spinal column [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most surprisingly, these photoreceptors are retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and thus, have the unique ability to communicate directly with higher visual centers of the brain. (utah.edu)
  • In adult patients with familial dysautonomia the mean volume of superior cervical sympathetic ganglia is reduced to 34% of the normal of 222 mm3. (nih.gov)
  • the parasympathetic and the sympathetic ganglia combined. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Expression of estrogen receptor GPR30 in the rat spinal cord and in autonomic and sensory ganglia. (unm.edu)
  • 1. Either of two types of groups of nerve cells (sympathetic ganglion, parasympathetic ganglion) in the autonomic nervous system. (tabers.com)
  • Any autonomic ganglion located in the abdomen. (tabers.com)
  • Either of the paired prevertebral autonomic ganglia in the nerve plexus surrounding the aortic roots of the renal arteries. (tabers.com)
  • A ganglion of postganglionic autonomic neurons in the peripheral nervous system that are surrounded by a capsule of loose connective tissue. (tabers.com)
  • The autonomic ganglia develop from the neural crest during embryonic development. (tabers.com)
  • Any of the ganglia of autonomic (mainly postganglionic parasympathetic) neurons clumped in the superficial and deep cardiac plexuses. (tabers.com)
  • Either of a pair of connected prevertebral autonomic ganglia in the celiac plexus. (tabers.com)
  • A small autonomic ganglion lying on the outside of the optic nerve in the rear portion of the orbit. (tabers.com)
  • Neurons from ventral spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia were grown in a compartmented cell-culture system which offers separate access to cell somas and axons. (rupress.org)
  • The structural and functional similarity of axons from different neurons was reflected in a high degree of similarity of the gel pattern of the axonal proteins from sensory ganglia and spinal cord neurons. (rupress.org)
  • One of the proteins enriched in dorsal root ganglia axons had previously been found to be expressed with decreased abundance when dorsal root ganglia axons were co-cultured with ventral spinal cord cells under conditions in which synapse formation occurs (P. Sonderegger, M. C. Fishman, M. Bokoum, H. C. Bauer, and P.G. Nelson, 1983, Science [Wash. DC], 221:1294-1297). (rupress.org)
  • All of these studies would predict that the onset of dependence of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons on NGF/TrkA signaling would occur after axons have arrived in developing skin and that neurons would be dependent on another neurotrophin before that time. (jneurosci.org)
  • These ganglia are a meshwork of visceral afferent, sympathetic, and parasympathetic axons that coat the lower part of the trachea, its bifurcation, the aorta, the pulmonary trunk, and the coronary arteries. (tabers.com)
  • This ganglion receives preganglionic parasympathetic axons from the midbrain via the oculomotor nerve (CN III). (tabers.com)
  • Microscopically, the peripheral processes of dorsal root ganglion neurons look identical to axons. (tabers.com)
  • Common examples are the retina bipolar cell , the ganglia of the vestibulocochlear nerve , [2] the extensive use of bipolar cells to transmit efferent (motor) signals to control muscles, olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory epithelium for smell (axons form the olfactory nerve ), and neurons in the spiral ganglion for hearing (CN VIII). (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of the bipolar neurons belonging to the vestibular nerve exist within the vestibular ganglion with axons extending into the maculae of utricle and saccule as well as into the ampullae of the semicircular canals . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in neurofilament light polypeptide gene, NEFL cause CMT2E, an axonal form of CMT that results in abnormal structures and/or functions of peripheral axons in spinal cord motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion neurons. (plos.org)
  • The axons of dorsal root ganglion neurons are known as afferents. (ronaldschulte.nl)
  • In the peripheral nervous system, afferents refer to the axons that relay sensory information into the central nervous system (i.e. the brain and the spinal cord). (ronaldschulte.nl)
  • Antiallodynic effects of propentofylline elicited by interrupting spinal glial function in a rat model of bone cancer pain," Journal of Neuroscience Research , vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 1877-1886, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Spinal glial activation in a new rat model of bone cancer pain produced by prostate cancer cell inoculation of the tibia," Pain , vol. 118, no. 1-2, pp. 125-136, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, it was demonstrated that p120 was mainly distributed in the glial fibrillary acidic protein‑positive astrocytes in the spinal cord, and in the neurofilament 200‑positive medium and large neurons in the DRG. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • adj gan´glial, ganglion´ic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In particular, CB 1 receptor was observed in central nervous system (CNS) neurons ( 9 ) and in DRG neurons and glial cells ( 10 ), whereas CB 2 receptor was found in glial cells (astrocytes) of the spinal cord ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Both the midline position of the ganglion and the glial heterotopias can be tentatively explained by the failure of incorporation of the dorsal cell wedge ("Zwischenstrang") into the divided neural tube. (elsevier.com)
  • Light microscopy of a spinal sensory ganglion also known as a dorsal root ganglion. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The sensory ganglion of the facial nerve (CN VII). (tabers.com)
  • Yet, we have limited understanding of the cranial sensory ganglion neurons that innervate taste buds. (nature.com)
  • Evidence that exogenous and endogenous fractalkine can induce spinal nociceptive facilitation in rats," European Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 2294-2302, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Ligation of the L5 spinal nerve (SNL) on one side in adult rats produces an early onset and long-lasting mechanical allodynia. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, the changes in p120 were observed in the DRG and spinal cord of rats following the intraperitoneal injection of nicorandil, a KATP agonist. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It was demonstrated that nicorandil administration could relieve mechanical pain experienced following SMIR in rats, and decrease the expression of p120 in the DRG and spinal cord. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The purpose of the present study was to explore the role of p120 in the maintenance of CPSP by detecting the expression of p120 in the DRG and spinal cord of rats with CPSP. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Enhanced excitability of sensory neurons in rats with cutaneous hyperalgesia produced by chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we report that in peripheral nerve-injured rats, the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (CatS) is critical for the maintenance of neuropathic pain and spinal microglia activation. (pnas.org)
  • Intrathecal delivery of an irreversible CatS inhibitor, morpholinurea-leucine-homophenylalanine-vinyl phenyl sulfone (LHVS), was antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic in neuropathic rats and attenuated spinal microglia activation. (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with a pronociceptive role of endogenous CatS, spinal intrathecal delivery of rat recombinant CatS (rrCatS) induced hyperalgesia and allodynia in naïve rats and activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in spinal cord microglia. (pnas.org)
  • Neuropathic and postoperative pain were mimicked by chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) (CCD) and decompression (de-CCD) in adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats. (chiro.org)
  • 21, 24, 25 ] We have previously demonstrated the treatment effects of SMT as performed using the AAI (Activator-assisted spinal manipulative therapy [ASMT]) on pain and hyperalgesia produced by DRG inflammation using the IVF inflammation model in adult rats with outcomes being assessed through behavioral, electrophysiological, pathologic, molecular biological approaches. (chiro.org)
  • This study tested spasticity suppression and locomotion change after pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) at the dorsal root ganglion of rats with spasticity. (elsevier.com)
  • Materials and Methods: Twenty-four rats that survived for 28 days after thoracic spinal cord injury and showed spasticity in the right hind limb were separated randomly to a PRF group or Sham operation group. (elsevier.com)
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  • sst2A-Li was also observed in the dorsal root ganglia predominantly targeted to the somatic plasmalemma of medium size neurons distinct from those expressing somatostatin-14 or delta-opioid receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we measured cross-sectional areas of the mid-thoracic spinal cord (SC) and neuronal sizes in lumbosacral DRG of 24 genetically confirmed FA cases. (curefa.org)
  • Established in 1995, Spinal Diagnostics provides interventional pain management for the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal regions. (spinaldx.com)
  • The ganglia are of small size, and placed much nearer the median line than are the thoracic ganglia. (theodora.com)
  • Taste buds are innervated by neurons whose cell bodies reside in cranial sensory ganglia. (nature.com)
  • To begin remedying this major gap in our understanding of taste, we conducted single-cell RNA sequencing of neurons from the mouse geniculate ganglion, the cranial ganglion that innervates taste buds on the anterior tongue and palate. (nature.com)
  • In contrast, the TG is formed in part from the ophthalmic and maxillo-mandibular placodes originating in the surface ectoderm, as well as cranial neural crest cells derived from rhombomere 2, which migrate and condense to form the ganglion [ 3 , 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Around the time of ganglion condensation and cell cycle exit, beginning at E9.5-10.5, nearly all sensory neurons at both spinal and cranial levels co-express the homeodomain transcription factors Brn3a and Islet1 [ 1 , 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kadekaro, Massako, Alison M. Crane, Louis Sokoloff, and National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.). 'Differential Effects of Electrical Stimulation of Sciatic Nerve on Metabolic Activity in Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglion in the Rat. (nih.gov)
  • In these experiments the distance of 1 to 2 mm was shown to be optimal for nerve growth, but the stimulation could be seen with a distance of 5 mm between the sarcoma and the ganglion. (asu.edu)
  • ABBOTT PARK, Ill., Jan. 17, 2017 / PRNewswire / -- New data published in the January edition of Pain has confirmed the superiority of Abbott's dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation therapy over traditional spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for patients suffering from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). (mediaroom.com)
  • Paresthesia is a light tingling sensation often accompanying traditional tonic spinal cord stimulation. (mediaroom.com)
  • Aetna considers implantation of a dorsal column stimulator (DCS) medically necessary for members who meet the above-listed criteria who have experienced significant pain reduction (50 % or more) with a 3- to 7-day trial of percutaneous spinal stimulation. (aetna.com)
  • Aetna considers the use of cervical dorsal column stimulation for the treatment of members with complex regional pain syndrome medically necessary when criteria in section I are met and the member has experienced significant pain reduction (50 % or more) with a 3- to 7-day trial of percutaneous spinal stimulation. (aetna.com)
  • Member experienced significant pain reduction (50 % or more) with a 3- to 7-day trial of percutaneous spinal stimulation. (aetna.com)
  • Pain medicine specialist Dr. David Maine offers dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation to send electrical pulses in the nervous system, carefully targeting pain within specific areas of the body. (mdmercy.com)
  • What is Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation? (mdmercy.com)
  • Similar to spinal cord stimulation , dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation is a focal pain reduction therapy in which electrical pulses are used to disrupt pain signals to the brain. (mdmercy.com)
  • Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation involves a minor surgical procedure in which electrical leads are inserted into the spine (via epidural techniques) and left in place along with a device to control the electrical pulses and manage pain on an ongoing basis. (mdmercy.com)
  • Unlike spinal cord stimulation, dorsal root ganglion stimulation can be used to target a specific nerve root to affect only a particular area of the body. (mdmercy.com)
  • What conditions can Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation treat? (mdmercy.com)
  • Dorsal root ganglion stimulation is used to treat severe neuropathic pain of lower limbs including that arising from complex regional pain syndrome (previously referred to as reflex sympathetic dystrophy). (mdmercy.com)
  • How is Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation performed? (mdmercy.com)
  • Dorsal root ganglion stimulation involves a minor surgical procedure, during which small wires are carefully inserted into the spine using fluoroscopy or MRI. (mdmercy.com)
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcutaneous supraorbital nerve stimulation, sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation and vagal nerve stimulation have all been tried, but results are not wholly convincing, and more extensive evaluations are required. (medscape.com)
  • In the present study, using autoradiographic, Western blotting and immunocytochemical methods, we provide the first report that IGF-II/M6P receptors are discretely distributed at all major segmental levels of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of the adult rat. (open.ac.uk)
  • The specific location of the bipolar cells allow them to facilitate the passage of signals from where they start in the receptors to where they arrive at the amacrine and ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. Dopamine Affects 2 Different output Neurones in the Striatum: -D1 Dopamine Receptors : Excite Direct Pathway Movement -D2 Dopamine Receptors: Inhibit Indirect PathwayMovement (inhibit the inhibitory pathway/disinhibition) *DOPAMINE Indirect/Direct Pathway= MOVEMENT MAJOR CONNECTIONS OF THE BASAL GANGLIA A. Connections OUTSIDE the basal Ganglia Extrinsic inputs to the basal ganglia terminate mainly in the striatum FROM: 1. (scribd.com)
  • In order to help fill this anatomical gap, the present ex vivo study has been designed to identify the cellular sites of cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related receptors in canine spinal ganglia. (frontiersin.org)
  • In particular, the cellular distribution of the cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 (CB 1 and CB 2 ) and putative cannabinoid receptors G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) have been immunohistochemically investigated in the C6-C8 cervical ganglia of dogs. (frontiersin.org)
  • OBJECTIVES To determine whether free glutamate is available in herniated disc material in concentrations sufficient to diffuse to glutamate receptors and affect the activity of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion that may transmit pain information. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our unbiased transcriptome analyses of single geniculate ganglion neurons reveal distinctive clusters of cells that are characterized by specific markers, paving a way to discover the specificity of the synaptic contacts with peripheral receptors and central relays and the significance of these contacts for sensory coding. (nature.com)
  • one projects from the DRG to connect with the spinal cord dorsal horn, while the other branch, which ends in one of many different specialised sensory receptors [ 2 ], targets peripheral tissues (e.g. skin and muscle) to detect external stimuli [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nerve endings of dorsal root ganglion neurons have a variety of sensory receptors that are activated by mechanical, thermal, chemical, and noxious stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presynaptic regulation of the dorsal nerve ending discharge in the spinal cord can occur through certain types of GABAA receptors but not through the activation of glycine receptors which are absent from these types of terminals. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 Output to cortex from globus pallidus and substantia nigra, via thalamus tonic inhibition of thalamus one pathway (D1) disinhibits, second pathway (D2) inhibits D1 - - D2 - projections from cortex go on to influence descending systems controlling body, limb, and eye movements Parkinson s disease Caused by degeneration of pathways from substantia nigra to rest of basal ganglia and thalamus. (docplayer.net)
  • Ganglion cyst of the ligamentum flavum: a rare cause of cervical spinal cord compression. (bmj.com)
  • A ganglion is also called a synovial hernia or synovial cyst. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A ganglion is a non-cancerous cyst filled with a thick, jelly-like fluid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. (jove.com)
  • The possible involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in the development of peripheral neuropathic pain has been explored. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dorsal root ganglion cells from embryonic mice were cultured and stimulated to produce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). (ucsd.edu)
  • Ganglia are clusters of nerve cells , from which nerve fibers emerge. (asu.edu)
  • Hamburger and Levi-Montalcini reexamined ganglia growth by studying the proliferation of nerve cells . (asu.edu)
  • They confirmed a previous finding by Levi-Montalcini and Giuseppe Levi that there were two types of nerve cells , ventrolateral cells and mediodorsal cells, identified by the position on the ganglion and time of differentiation . (asu.edu)
  • Last, some of the myenteric ganglion cells were irGPR30. (unm.edu)
  • Dorsal root ganglia develop from neural crest cells during embryonic development. (tabers.com)
  • In primary infection, CD8 + T cells are important for clearance of infectious herpes simplex virus (HSV) from sensory ganglia. (elsevier.com)
  • In immunocompetent mice, HSV-specific CD4 + T cells were present in sensory ganglia and spinal cords coincident with HSV-1 clearance from these sites and remained detectable at least 8 months postinfection. (elsevier.com)
  • The association of cutaneous hyperalgesia with changes in the electrophysiological properties of DRG cells suggests a possible role for intrinsic alterations in the membrane properties of compressed DRG cells in the production and persistence of chronic pain after certain spinal injuries or pathologies of the spine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bipolar cells are also found in the spinal ganglia , when the cells are in an embryonic condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dorsal root ganglia develop in the embryo from neural crest cells, not neural tube. (ronaldschulte.nl)
  • Spinal ganglion neurons with satellite cells. (gettyimages.pt)
  • Immune cells intervene peripherally at the site of injury and in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) as well as centrally, in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Microglial cells are receiving growing interest as modulators of neuronal plasticity in the spinal cord under conditions of persistent pain by producing surface proteins and secreting signaling molecules ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • In Parkinson disease, nerve cells in part of the basal ganglia (called the substantia nigra) degenerate. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The basal ganglia are collections of nerve cells located deep within the brain. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Like all nerve cells, those in the basal ganglia release chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) that trigger the next nerve cell in the pathway to send an impulse. (merckmanuals.com)
  • When nerve cells in the basal ganglia degenerate, they produce less dopamine , and the number of connections between nerve cells in the basal ganglia decreases. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Clinical and electrodiagnostic data suggested the patient, a standardized questionnaire, including demo- involvement of spinal anterior horn cells, resulting in a graphics, medical history, initial signs and symptoms, risk poliomyelitis-like syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Although these ganglia have similar functions, they have distinct embryological origins, in that both contain neurons originating from the neural crest, while only the TG includes cells derived from the placodal ectoderm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. A group of nerve cells forming a nerve center, especially one located outside the brain or spinal cord. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These channels are found predominantly in smaller sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion cells and are activated by higher pressures, two attributes that are characteristic of nociceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A roughly spherical ganglion of unipolar neuronal cell bodies in the posterior roots of each spinal nerve near the intervertebral foramina. (tabers.com)
  • The dorsal root ganglia lie in the intervertebral foramina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we now extend this method with videos detailing all steps of the dissection process, as well as provide clear instruction on how to extract ganglia from defined cervical to lumbar spinal levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Any of several ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. (tabers.com)
  • The central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the brain and spinal cord. (cancer.ca)
  • Autoradiograms showed labeled neurons in the spinal cord (laminae IV-VI and many motoneurons) and numerous small and large neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. (elsevier.com)
  • An enlargement on a nerve that does not contain neuronal cell bodies and is therefore not a true ganglion. (tabers.com)
  • A recent major conceptual advance has been the recognition of the importance of immune system-neuronal interactions in the modulation of brain function, one example of which is spinal pain processing in neuropathic states. (pnas.org)
  • Perhaps the best-studied systems for the establishment of neuronal phenotypes in vertebrates are the primary input (sensory) and output (motor) pathways of the peripheral sensory ganglia, spinal cord, and brainstem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 3 collateral ganglia are the celiac ganglion, the superior mesenteric ganglion and the inferior mesenteric ganglion. (cancer.ca)
  • Immunochemical studies show decreased NFL protein levels in DRG, cerebellum and spinal cord in Nefl N98S/+ mice, and total NFL protein pool is shifted toward the triton-insoluble fraction. (plos.org)
  • The ganglion is formed of a cluster of nerve cell bodies each with a central nucleus and densely stained cytoplasm (purple). (sciencephoto.com)
  • We have demonstrated that, in determining the number of cytons (cell bodies) in a ganglion, it is important to consider the range of sizes of cytons and their associated nucleoli in correcting for the split-cell counting error. (elsevier.com)
  • A dorsal root ganglion (or spinal ganglion) (also known as a posterior root ganglion), is a cluster of nerve cell bodies (a ganglion) in a dorsal root of a spinal nerve. (ronaldschulte.nl)
  • The dorsal root ganglia contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons (afferent) [1]. (ronaldschulte.nl)
  • Ganglia are clusters of nerve cell bodies. (cancer.ca)
  • The cell bodies of sensory neurons known as first-order neurons are located in the dorsal root ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • MIF immunohistochemistry in the lumbosacral spinal cord. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor component protein expression in the uterine cervix, lumbosacral spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglia. (omeka.net)
  • Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. (jove.com)
  • The sympathetic chain is made of the sympathetic chain ganglia that run in a chain from the head to tail bone, or coccyx, along both sides of the vertebral column, or spine. (cancer.ca)
  • The vertebral column houses the spinal canal, a cavity that encloses and protects the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vertebrae in the human vertebral column are divided into different regions, which correspond to the curves of the spinal column. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these enclose the vertebral foramen, which contains the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Location and numbers of neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heart within the right stellate and accessory cervical ganglia, the spinal cord, and spinal ganglia were investigated using horseradish peroxidase retrograde axonal transport techniques in cats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Because the reduction in neuropathic pain by p38 inhibition occurs before the appearance of p38 activation in DRG neurons, p38 activation in spinal cord microglia is likely to have a substantial role in the earliest phase of neuropathic pain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Coactivation of p38 in DRG neurons and spinal microglia may contribute to later phases of neuropathic pain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Lumbar sympathetic ganglion block is used for several neuropathic pain syndromes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Lumbar Sympathetic Ganglion Block Indication: Neuropathic Pain, CRPS, Hyperhydrosis Etc. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Here, we identified CatS protein expression in spinal cord microglia and then tested for the involvement of centrally located CatS in hypersensitivity associated with the partial ligation of the sciatic nerve (PNL) model of neuropathic pain. (pnas.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate roles of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 10 and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in spinal manipulation-induced analgesic effects of neuropathic and postoperative pain. (chiro.org)
  • Repetitive Activator-assisted spinal manipulative therapy significantly reduced simulated neuropathic and postoperative pain, inhibited or reversed the neurochemical alterations, and increased the anti-inflammatory IL-10 in the spinal cord. (chiro.org)
  • These findings show that spinal manipulation may activate the endogenous anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the spinal cord and thus has the potential to alleviate neuropathic and postoperative pain. (chiro.org)
  • This study used an in vitro model to explore the expression and function of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway in bupivacaine-induced apoptotic injury in spinal cord dorsal root ganglia (DRG). (ovid.com)
  • This paper is an extension of that earlier work, demonstrating that the ganglia are responding to direct effects of the tumor, and not a latent effect of all tumors. (asu.edu)
  • Levi-Montalcini isolated the ganglia and the tumor in a tissue culture to determine the effects of the tumor separate from normal chick development. (asu.edu)
  • The tissue culture technique allows for a more direct study of the ganglia and tumor interactions than experimentation during chick development. (asu.edu)
  • Many nerve fibers had erupted from the ganglion within the first sixteen hours, concentrated on the side facing the tumor. (asu.edu)
  • The proximity of the tumor to the ganglion was also tested. (asu.edu)
  • Extrinsic Outputs from the basal ganglia arise mainly from the globus paliidus and substantia nigra pars reticula TO: 1. (scribd.com)
  • Pseudounipolar afferent neurons convert external stimuli from the environment into electrical signals that are retrogradely transmitted to the spinal cord dorsal horn. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dr. Dong, trained in molecular neuroscience, has identified many genes specifically expressed in pain-sensing neurons in dorsal root ganglia. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In addition the chick ganglia were introduced to two types of heart tissue, embryonic chick heart tissue and embryonic mouse heart tissue, as a control to demonstrate the effects of normal tissue. (asu.edu)
  • In this report, we conduct immunofluorescence studies of cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from Nefl N98S/+ mice, and show that inclusions found in DRG neurites can occur in embryonic stages. (plos.org)
  • Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed expression of GPR30 mRNA in varying quantities in the rat spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, nodose ganglia, trigeminal ganglia, hippocampus, brain stem, and hypothalamus. (unm.edu)
  • The entry angle of angular method which is one method of lumbar sympathetic ganglion block is 30 degree of anterior-posterior view of C-arm. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The anterior and posterior spinal nerve roots join just beyond (lateral) to the location of the dorsal root ganglion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two distinct types of mechanosensitive ion channels have been found in the posterior root ganglion neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of these channels in the posterior root ganglion gives reason to believe that other sensory neurons may contain them as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Turner lab has focused on the role of transcription factors in the development of peripheral sensory neurons, the spinal cord, midbrain, and habenula. (washington.edu)
  • The term is occasionally applied to certain nuclear groups within the brain or spinal cord, such as the basal ganglia . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In vertebrates, ganglia are usually located outside the brain or spinal cord and control the functioning of the body's internal organs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Geniculate ganglion. (tabers.com)
  • The mouse geniculate ganglion contains chemosensory neurons innervating lingual and palatal taste buds and somatosensory neurons innervating the pinna. (nature.com)
  • Here, we report single cell RNA sequencing of geniculate ganglion neurons. (nature.com)
  • In mammals, geniculate and petrosal ganglia innervate palatal and lingual taste buds. (nature.com)
  • We focused on the geniculate ganglion because a large fraction of its neurons are gustatory (Fig. 1a, b ) and because the majority of neurophysiological recordings and behavioral analyses are based on activity in this ganglion. (nature.com)
  • Hematoxylin and eosin staining, whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiological recordings, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to examine the neural inflammation, neural excitability, and expression of c-Fos and PKC as well as levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-10 in blood plasma, DRG, or the spinal cord. (chiro.org)
  • The DRG are formed entirely from spinal neural crest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the ganglion Impar block in the prevention of postoperative pain after anal surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)