Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
A pathological condition caused by impaired blood flow in the basal regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA), such as INFARCTION; HEMORRHAGE; or ISCHEMIA in vessels of this brain region including the lateral lenticulostriate arteries. Primary clinical manifestations include involuntary movements (DYSKINESIAS) and muscle weakness (HEMIPARESIS).
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
A complex network of nerve fibers including sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and visceral afferents. The celiac plexus is the largest of the autonomic plexuses and is located in the abdomen surrounding the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.

Early specification of sensory neuron fate revealed by expression and function of neurogenins in the chick embryo. (1/953)

The generation of sensory and autonomic neurons from the neural crest requires the functions of two classes of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, the Neurogenins (NGNs) and MASH-1, respectively (Fode, C., Gradwohl, G., Morin, X., Dierich, A., LeMeur, M., Goridis, C. and Guillemot, F. (1998) Neuron 20, 483-494; Guillemot, F., Lo, L.-C., Johnson, J. E., Auerbach, A., Anderson, D. J. and Joyner, A. L. (1993) Cell 75, 463-476; Ma, Q., Chen, Z. F., Barrantes, I. B., de la Pompa, J. L. and Anderson, D. J. (1998 Neuron 20, 469-482). We have cloned two chick NGNs and found that they are expressed in a subset of neural crest cells early in their migration. Ectopic expression of the NGNs in vivo biases migrating neural crest cells to localize in the sensory ganglia, and induces the expression of sensory neuron-appropriate markers in non-sensory crest derivatives. Surprisingly, the NGNs can also induce the expression of multiple pan-neuronal and sensory-specific markers in the dermomyotome, a mesodermal derivative. Taken together, these data suggest that a subset of neural crest cells may already be specified for a sensory neuron fate early in migration, as a consequence of NGN expression.  (+info)

Rhythmic swimming activity in neurones of the isolated nerve cord of the leech. (2/953)

1. Repeating bursts of motor neurone impulses have been recorded from the nerves of completely isolated nerve cords of the medicinal leech. The salient features of this burst rhythm are similar to those obtained in the semi-intact preparation during swimming. Hence the basic swimming rhythm is generated by a central oscillator. 2. Quantitative comparisons between the impulse patterns obtained from the isolated nerve cord and those obtained from a semi-intact preparation show that the variation in both dorsal to ventral motor neurone phasing and burst duration with swim cycle period differ in these two preparations. 3. The increase of intersegmental delay with period, which is a prominent feature of swimming behaviour of the intact animal, is not seen in either the semi-intact or isolated cord preparations. 4. In the semi-intact preparation, stretching the body wall or depolarizing an inhibitory motor neurone changes the burst duration of excitatory motor neurones in the same segment. In the isolated nerve cord, these manipulations also change the period of the swim cycle in the entire cord. 5. These comparisons suggest that sensory input stabilizes the centrally generated swimming rhythm, determines the phasing of the bursts of impulses from dorsal and ventral motor neurones, and matches the intersegmental delay to the cycle period so as to maintain a constant body shape at all rates of swimming.  (+info)

Physiological properties and receptive fields of mechanosensory neurones in the head ganglion of the leech: comparison with homologous cells in segmental ganglia. (3/953)

A study of the head ganglion of the leech was made to compare the properties of specific sensory cells in this ganglion with those of homologous neurones in the segmental ganglia. 1. In the head ganglion, cells were identified that had electrical properties, sensory modalities and adaptation properties similar to those of touch (T), pressure (P) and nociceptive (N) cells in the segmental ganglia. The cell bodies of these neurones were situated in characteristics positions that could be correlated with those in the segmental ganglia. Several lines of evidence suggested that they were primary sensory neurones. Fewer T, P and N neurones were identified in the head ganglion than would be expected from its six constituent segmental ganglia. 2. The receptive fields of identified T, P and N cells were situated on the external surface of the head and the interior of the mouth with considerable overlap. They were generally smaller in size than those situated on the main part of the body. The receptive fields were also displaced anteriorly so that some of them were situated in segments anterior to those of the innervating cells. 3. The morphology of the sensory cells in the head ganglion was studied by intracellular injection of horseradish perioxidase. The general branching characteristics of the cells and the structural appearance of their processes resembled those of homologous cells in the segmental ganglia. However, the routes taken to the periphery by some of the cells were not constant from head ganglion to head ganglion. This variability was confirmed by electrophysiological evidence, and differed from the constancy seen in segmental sensory cells.  (+info)

Receptive fields, geometry and conduction block of sensory neurones in the central nervous system of the leech. (4/953)

1. In segmental ganglia of the leech, the cutaneous mechanosensory neurones responding to to touch innervated the skin of their own segment and of part of the anterior and posterior adjacent segments. Each touch receptive field could be divided into three non-overlapping areas: a central part innervated by the branches of the cell which ran in the nerve roots of the ganglion containing the cell body, and anterior and posterior parts innervated by its branches which ran in the nerve roots of the anterior and posterior adjacent ganglia. 2. Impulses originating from the anterior and posterior parts of the receptive fields were susceptible to conduction block within the central nervous system when the touch cells fired repetitively at frequencies that could readily be elicited with weak mechanical stimulation. In contrast, impulses originating from the central part of the receptive fields were less susceptible to block. 3. The morphology of touch cells revealed by intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase suggested that conduction block occurred at specific bifurcation points where small cell processes joined the main process. Different physiological experiments supported this conclusion. 4. In some touch cells, bifurcation points with particularly low safety margins of conduction operated as low-pass filters, limiting the frequency of impulses capable of invading certain branches. 5. The results suggest that mechanical stimuli which would likely be encountered by the animal can lead to conduction block within its central nervous system and as a result modify its integrative activities.  (+info)

Dopaminergic synapses mediate neuronal changes in an analogue of operant conditioning. (5/953)

Feeding behavior in Aplysia can be modified by operant conditioning in which contingent reinforcement is conveyed by the esophageal nerve (E n.). A neuronal analogue of this conditioning in the isolated buccal ganglia was developed by using stimulation of E n. as an analogue of contingent reinforcement. Previous studies indicated that E n. may release dopamine. We used a dopamine antagonist (methylergonovine) to investigate whether dopamine mediated the enhancement of motor patterns in the analogue of operant conditioning. Methylergonovine blocked synaptic connections from the reinforcement pathway and the contingent-dependent enhancement of the reinforced pattern. These results suggest that dopamine mediates at least part of the neuronal modifications induced by contingent reinforcement.  (+info)

Detection of caprine herpesvirus 1 in sacral ganglia of latently infected goats by PCR. (6/953)

A study of the latency of caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV.1) was carried out with four latently infected goats. Three goats were treated with dexamethasone and euthanized after 4 and 6 days. PCR and virus isolation allowed us to detect CpHV.1 only in the third and fourth sacral ganglia of the two animals euthanized 6 days after the start of treatment.  (+info)

Extraventricular neurocytoma with ganglionic differentiation associated with complex partial seizures. (7/953)

We report an unusual case of extraventricular ("cerebral") neurocytoma with ganglion cells located in the right temporal lobe in a 9-year-old girl with complex partial seizures and precocious puberty. CT showed a calcified mass with central cystic zones. MR imaging showed a markedly hyperintense predominately solid tumor on both T1- and T2-weighted images, without appreciable contrast enhancement. Cerebral neurocytomas are histologically benign and radical surgery is curative; they should be included in the differential diagnosis of temporal lobe tumors in children.  (+info)

An analysis of herpes simplex virus gene expression during latency establishment and reactivation. (8/953)

In order to facilitate an analysis of the pattern of herpes simplex virus gene expression during latency establishment and reactivation, recombinant viruses containing the lacZ reporter gene under control of either the immediate early 110 (IE110) promoter or the latency-associated promoter have been constructed. Histochemical staining of ganglia taken from mice infected with these viruses allows for the rapid identification and quantification of sensory neurones in which these two promoters are active. Using the mouse ear model, this study demonstrates that, during the establishment of latency in vivo, IE110 promoter activity is only detectable in ganglia which provide innervation to the site of virus inoculation. Latency, however, is efficiently established not only in these ganglia, but also in adjacent ganglia whose neurones do not innervate the ear, and in which there was no evidence of IE110 expression during the acute phase of infection. This implies that replication-competent virus can efficiently establish latency in the absence of detectable IE110 expression. In addition, it has been possible to investigate viral gene expression in neurones following ganglionic explant culture by monitoring IE110 promoter-driven lacZ expression within reactivating neurones. This study shows that virus can be reactivated from all latently infected ganglia, but that reactivation appears to be more efficient from ganglia which provide innervation to the site of infection. The implications of these results for the mechanisms involved in latency establishment and reactivation are discussed.  (+info)

The Central Ganglion was a science fiction fanzine published by David Gordon-McDonald, Paula Johanson, E.B. Klassen, and Garth Spencer. Emerging from Victoria, British Columbia, Canada in the Spring of 1982, The Central Ganglion was conceived of by the editors as an interclub newsletter. The editors, calling themselves The Ganglion of Four, hoped to improve communications between Victorias four or five warring clubs and factions. Robert Runté wrote, It was one of Canadas better club newsletters, especially considering it didnt actually have its own club. The fanzine ran for approximately 11 issues, with the last issue appearing in November of 1983. Contributions included artwork by Dan Cawsey. David Gordon MacDonald as also a co-editor of Atavachron. Garth Spencer was also publishing The Maple Leaf Rag at the same time as The Central Ganglion. ...
The major function of the peripheral ganglia is to connect the central nervous system to the different parts of the body. The peripheral ganglia are found near target organs in the upper area of the body, more specifically, in the head. You can also find them in the abdomen, thorax, stomach, spleen, and liver kidney along the pelvis area, which act as the target organs. The genital organs and small intestines are also involved and they respond to innervations initiated by the postganglionic neurons. The peripheral ganglia are responsible in coordinating innervations coming from other organs and cells to the central nervous system.. ...
Today 56 newspapers in 45 countries take the unprecedented step of speaking with one voice through a common editorial. We do so because humanity faces a profound emergency.. Unless we combine to take decisive action, climate change will ravage our planet, and with it our prosperity and security. The dangers have been becoming apparent for a generation. Now the facts have started to speak: 11 of the past 14 years have been the warmest on record, the Arctic ice-cap is melting and last years inflamed oil and food prices provide a foretaste of future havoc. In scientific journals the question is no longer whether humans are to blame, but how little time we have got left to limit the damage. Yet so far the worlds response has been feeble and half-hearted.. Climate change has been caused over centuries, has consequences that will endure for all time and our prospects of taming it will be determined in the next 14 days. We call on the representatives of the 192 countries gathered in Copenhagen not to ...
Somehow the problem just keeps getting worse. Because we are unwilling to face a future without cars--in fact, we seem to be quite willing to sacrifice the world on the altar of the car--we seem willing to do anything to keep the cars rolling. Biofuels are one such approach; sequester carbon in plants, then convert the plants to usable fuel, and burn the fuel to keep the cars rolling while re-emitting the same carbon. The thinking is that this is, if not a zero-sum game, at least a significant reduction in the amount of carbon being added to the atmosphere. And its a great way to subsidize farmers (something all governments try to do) and an opportunity for big capital to open up a brand new market (with significant government subsidy. Without which, big capital doesnt do shit). But, of course, things arent as simple as they seem. Thus this article in the 25 March 2008 Guardian ...
Weberwomans Wrevenge was an Australian science fiction fandom and literary zine by Jean Weber. It was published from 1981 till 2000. Art work was contributed by Sheryl Birkhead, Tom Cardy, Jerry Collins, Terry Collister, Alison Cowling, Kevin Dillon, Richard Faulder (Xenophilia), Ken Fletcher (Rune), Steven Fox, Alexis Gilliland, Roelof Goudriaan, Craig Hilton, Peter Lempert, Eric Lindsay, Adrienne Losin, Mike McGann, John Packer, Bill Rotsler, Margaret Sanders, Jane Taubman, Arthur Thomson (The ATom Anthology), Julie Vaux, Sam Wagar, and Mel White. Written contributions were by Andy Andruschek, Chris Callahan, Glen Crawford, Stephen Dedman, David Evans, Terry Frost, Irwin Hirsh (Sikander, Thyme), Paula Johanson (The Central Ganglion), E.B. Klassen (The Central Ganglion), Dave Locke (Time and Again) Lyn McConchie, Ellie Miller, Marc Ortlieb (Q36, Tigger, The Australian Science Fiction Bullsheet), Pete Presford, Charlotte Proctor (Anvil), Alex Stewart, Julie Vaux, Sam Wagar, and Joy Window. ...
TY - THES. T1 - Peripheral ganglia and the eye : a connection tracing study. AU - ten Tusscher, M.P.M.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. M3 - Doctoral Thesis. PB - Rijksuniversiteit Limburg. CY - Maastricht. ER - ...
Id: 2258 2010-02-01 16:29:15Z d_pocock $ # # ganglia.spec. Generated from by configure. # # IMPORTANT NOTE: # This spec file has a noarch section. RPM is braindead in that it cannot # build mixed architecture packages. As a workaround, you must build # the RPMs using the following commandline # # % rpmbuild -ta --target noarch,i386 ganglia-3.1.7.tar.bz2 # Summary: Ganglia Distributed Monitoring System Name: ganglia Version: 3.1.7 %define lib_version 3_1_7-0 URL: Release: 5 License: BSD Vendor: Ganglia Development Team ,[email protected], Group: System/Monitoring Source: %{name}-%{version}.tar.gz Patch0: bug275_ganglia.php.patch Patch1: diskmetrics.patch Patch2: ganglia-no-private-apr.patch Buildroot: %{_tmppath}/%{name}-%{version}-buildroot BuildRequires: libpng-devel, libart_lgpl-devel, gcc-c++, python-devel, libconfuse-devel, pcre-devel %if 0%{?suse_version} BuildRequires: freetype2-devel, libapr1-devel %if ...
Ganglia is a scalable distributed system monitor tool for high-performance computing systems such as clusters and grids. It allows the user to remotely view live or historical statistics (such as CPU load averages or network utilization) for all machines that are being monitored. Ganglia is available as the ganglia package on the AUR, along with the web frontend ganglia-web. The Ganglia Wiki contains all the information you need to get started with Ganglia. ...
what is ganglion? explain in terms of cns and cell bodies. Dear Soumya, Ganglion (plural ganglia): Dense group of nerve-cell bodies present in most animals. In
An explanation of the seven basic chakras, which correlate to the seven main nerve ganglia emanating from the spinal column. Each chakra location has a unique meaning, orientation and healing potential and is represented by a color and stone. Read more here.
This page will give you information about Ganglion removal surgery. A ganglion is a lump under your skin that contains fluid. Most ganglions form near the wrist.They are also found on your ankle and foot.
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版acousticofacial ganglion是什么意思,acousticofacial ganglion的用法,acousticofacial ganglion翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
Ganglion surgery is performed by Mr Balint in Worcestershire and West Midlands. Check to know ganglion symptoms and causes information.
Describes the Ganglia layer, which supports Ganglia, a distributed monitoring system that manages the storage and visualization of instance metrics.
If you have made any changes to Nagios or Ganglia addons code (mon_dashboard/src/addOns/[ganglia,nagios]), you will also have to install hdp_mon_ganglia_addons- and hdp_mon_nagios_addons- on the hosts running Ganglia and Nagios server, respectively, to make your changes effective. After your Hadoop cluster is installed using Ambari, go to the host(s) running Nagios and Ganglia server, remove these pre-installed addon RPMs for Nagios and Ganglia, and install the new ones built from the source. To build these RPMs from the source, run:. ...
The gmond.conf file is used to configure the ganglia monitoring daemon (gmond) which is part of the Ganglia Distributed Monitoring System. SECTIONS AND ATTRIBUTES
Saat Rocks 5.2 diupgrade ke 5.2.2, semua node menghilang dari tampilan ganglia. Setelah dilihat, ternyata setting-an pada /etc/ganglia/gmond.conf antara front-end dan compute node berbeda alamat multicast, dan harus disamakan jadi: ...
Cara Menyembuhkan Ganglion Di Pergelangan Tangan Tanpa Operasi Untuk Anak Dan Dewasa Cara menyembuhkan ganglion di pergelangan tangan tanpa operasi yang efektif, cepat dan aman tanpa menimbulkan adanya efeksamping adalah… Read more ». ...
Cara Mengobati Kista Ganglion Sampai Sembuh - Dengan Obat herbal Jelly Gamat Gold-G telah terbukti ampuh mengobati dan menghilangkan Kista Ganglion anda tanpa operai. Jelly Gamat Gold-G ini terbuat dari bahan alami yaitu dari spesies teripang emas yang mempunya banya kandungan dan manfaat bagi...
Any group of nerve cell bodies in the central or peripheral nervous system but also used to refer to a cyst containing mucopolysaccharide rich fluid within fibrous tissue
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Ganglia is a open-source project that grew out of the University of California, Berkeley Millennium Project. Its a scalable distributed monitoring system for high-performance computing systems such as clusters and Grids. It is based on a hierarchical design targeted at federations of clusters. This tutorial will help you make better use of the grid resources…
wget rpm -Uhv yum install libpng-devel libart_lgpl-devel rrdtool-devel freetype-devel rrdtool-devel rpmbuild --rebuild ganglia-3.0.7-1.src.rpm rpm -ivh /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/x86_64/ganglia-gmetad-3.0.7-1.x86_64.rpm /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/x86_64/ganglia-gmond-3.0.7-1.x86_64.rpm /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/x86_64/ganglia-devel-3.0.7-1.x86_64. ...
15歳の中学生がバンドのMVをスマホでつくってみた。】 「15歳の女子中学生MaDoKa」と 海外でも活動を広げるガールズ・エモーショナル・ロックバ ...
This project is used by ganglia to prepare packages for openSUSE:Factory submissions. Usually all package changes should get submitted here for review and testing first. REPOSITORIES REMOVED BY ADMIN DUE AS ...
Ganglia is a scalable, distributed monitoring system for high-performance computing systems such as clusters and grids. It is based on a hierarchical...
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Arti dan makna apa itu semilunar ganglion adalah dalam istilah kedokteran, Kedokteran Hewan. Kamus, arti dan daftar istilah kedokteran, Kedokteran Hewan lengkap dari berbagai sumber terpercaya.
Invoke automatic rotation system. Automatic rotation rotates all of the graphs/metrics specified in a view waiting 30 seconds in between each. This will run as long as you have this page open. Please select the view you want to rotate.. ...
Invoke automatic rotation system. Automatic rotation rotates all of the graphs/metrics specified in a view waiting 30 seconds in between each. This will run as long as you have this page open. Please select the view you want to rotate.. ...
Its usually best to choose a WikiWord for the new topic name, otherwise automatic linking may not work. Characters not allowed in topic names, such as spaces will automatically be removed.. ...
神經節(英語:ganglion)在解剖學上是一個生物組織叢集,通常是神經細胞體的集合[1][2]。在神經節內的細胞稱為神經節細胞,雖然這一詞有時會特別用來指視網膜神經節細胞。 ...
AN APACHE GIRLS PUBERTY DRESS c. 1910 the two-piece dress composed of tanned hide, each side decorated with - Available at 2008 June American Indian Art...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spontaneous activity in the statoacoustic ganglion of the chicken embryo. AU - Jones, Timothy A.. AU - Jones, Sherri M.. PY - 2000/3/30. Y1 - 2000/3/30. N2 - Statoacoustic ganglion cells in the mature bird include neurons that are responsive to sound (auditory) and those that are not (nonauditory). Those that are nonauditory have been shown to innervate an otolith organ, the macula lagena, whereas auditory neurons innervate the basilar papilla. In the present study, single-unit recordings of statoacoustic ganglion cells were made in embryonic (E19, mean = 19.2 days of incubation) and hatchling (P6- P14, mean = 8.6 days posthatch) chickens. Spontaneous activity from the two age groups was compared with developmental changes. Activity was evaluated for 47 auditory, 11 nonauditory, and 6 undefined eighth nerve neurons in embryos and 29 auditory, 26 nonauditory, and 1 undefined neurons in hatchlings. For auditory neurons, spontaneous activity displayed an irregular pattern [discharge ...
Atrial ganglionated plexus Stimulation Prevents Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Arrhythmias by Preserving Connexin43 Protein. Background: Vagal nerve stimulation has been shown to provide protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) arrhythmias. Since atrial epicardial ganglionated plexuses contain a large amount of parasympathetic elements, we hypothesize atrial epicardial ganglionated plexus stimulation (GP-S) may be an alternative to vagal nerve stimulation for preventing arrhythmias induced by myocardial I/R.. Methods and Results: Twenty one dogs were randomly divided into GP stimulation (GP-S) group (N=11) and control group (N=10). Myocardial I/R was induced by first 2 hours of reperfusion in dogs subjected to 45 minutes of ischemia with occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). A bipolar plaque electrode was sutured overlying the fad pad containing the superior left ganglionated plexus (SLGP), which located at the junction of left pulmonary artery and left ...
Zhou, Y.,Tan, C.K.,Ling, E.A. (1997). Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons in the intramural ganglia of guinea pig urinary bladder. Journal of Anatomy 190 (1) : 135-145. [email protected] Repository. ...
In this study the relative potencies of four established molluscan cardioexcitatory agents were examined on Buccinum heart. The potencies were, in decending order: phenylalanine-leucine-arginine-phenylalanine-NH2 (FLRFamide) , phenylalanine-methionine-arginine-phenylalanine-NH2 (FMRFamide; 80% of maximum) , 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 60% of maximum) , guanosine triphosphate (GTP; 15% of maximum). FMRFamide and FLRFamide had similar dose-response curve patterns with thresholds at 10−9 mol l−1 but FLRFamide was more potent than FMRFamide. The superfused atrium was much less sensitive to all agonists than the internally perfused ventricle. FLRFamide and FMRFamide induced small depolarizations (1-2 mV) which triggered a burst of action potentials of about 5 mV which on reaching 4 mV triggered a burst of fast twitch contractions. Lithium, at high concentrations inhibited FMRFamide and 5-HT responses of internally perfused ventricles. Neomycin also inhibited peptide responses, but was without ...
The recent implementation of PET with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-specific radiotracers into the clinical practice has resulted in the significant improvement of accuracy in the detection of prostate carcinoma (PCa). PSMA-expression in ganglia has been regarded as an important pitfall in prostate carcinoma-PET diagnostics but has not found any practical use for diagnosis or therapy. We explored this phenomenon and demonstrated the applicability of peripheral ganglia in healthy rats as surrogates for small PSMA positive lesions for the preclinical evaluation of diagnostic PCa PET probes. Healthy rats were measured with PET/CT using the tracers [18F]DCFPyL, [Al18F]PSMA-11 and [68Ga]PSMA-11. Sections of ganglia were stained with an anti-PSMA antibody. [18F]DCFPyL uptake in ganglia was compared to that in LNCaP tumor xenografts in mice. Whereas [18F]DCFPyL and [68Ga]PSMA-11 were stable in vivo and accumulated in peripheral ganglia, [Al18F]PSMA-11 suffered from fast in vivo deflourination
The transport of neuropeptides between central ganglia was studied in Aplysia. Peptide transport was determined by incubating ganglia with 35S-methionine and measuring the appearance of labeled peptides in connected ganglia. Selected interganglionic connectives were left intact and passed through a diffusion barrier separating the ganglia. Labeled peptides transported between ganglia included FMRFamide, myomodulin, and pedal peptide. Each of these peptides has been shown to be physiologically active in Aplysia. In addition to these previously characterized neuropeptides, a number of other as yet uncharacterized labeled peptides were also transported. All the peptides were transported by fast axonal transport as judged by the distance transported and/or the sensitivity to colchicine. Overall, FMRFamide and several unidentified peptides were the predominant transported peptides. However, the nature and amount of the peptides transported differed for each ganglia. These results support the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - THE DISTRIBUTION OF SEVERAL AMINO ACIDS IN SPECIFIC GANGLIA AND NERVE BUNDLES OF THE LOBSTER. AU - Aprison, M. H.. AU - Mcbride, W. J.. AU - Freeman, A. R.. PY - 1973/7. Y1 - 1973/7. N2 - Using the technique of measuring DNP amino acid methyl esters by gas liquid chromatography, the distribution of alanine, proline, glycine, GABA, glutamate and aspartate was determined in individual ganglia and the associated nerve bundles between these ganglia after isolation from the nervous system of the lobster, Homarus americanus. The brain or supraesophageal ganglion (27.2 mg) and the next 5 thoracic ganglia (varying from 24 to 10 mg in a rostral caudal direction) as well as the nerve bundles connecting these ganglia were used. GABA and aspartate values varied the most among the individual ganglia; highest values were found in the second and third thoracic ganglia. The levels of alanine, proline, glycine and glutamate varied very little from ganglion to ganglion; however, the values for ...
Aplysia californica (Alacrity, Redondo Beach, CA), weighing 80-120 g, were anesthetized by injection of isotonic MgCl2, and their abdominal and pleural-pedal ganglia were removed. Prior to desheathing, ganglia were treated with 0.5% glutaraldehyde for 50 s to prevent contraction of muscle cells in the remaining sheath. Ganglia were secured with minuten pins on wax in a recording chamber and desheathed in a 1:1 mixture of MgCl2 and artificial sea water. In experiments on facilitation of depressed synapses, synaptic connections between LE siphon SNs and LFS MNs in the abdominal ganglion were recorded after the left ventral surface of the ganglion was desheathed. In experiments on spike broadening in SNs, pleural ganglia were desheathed to expose the SNs in the ventrocaudal (VC) cluster.. Experiments were performed at room temperature. Ganglia were superfused with high-Mg2+/high-Ca2+ culture medium (6 × normal Ca2+, 1.6 × normal Mg2+) (Goldsmith and Abrams 1991) to reduce polysynaptic input and ...
The Buccal neurons are divided into motoneurons, which innervate muscles and interneurons, which are mostly confined to the buccal ganglion. The interneurons are active in turn, with each type of nterneuron only active in one phase of the rhythm. Motoneurons may be active in more than one phase. the picture below shows a simplified diagram, showing which neurons are active in any one phase ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
The insect ventral nerve cord consists of metamerically repeated ganglia subserving the thoracic and abdominal segments. The abdominal ganglia control basic functions such as respiration, circulation, heartbeat, diuresis, hindgut motility, functions of the genitalia and ovipositor and abdominal post …
This is the first article in a two-part series that looks at a hands-on approach to monitoring a data center using the open source tools Ganglia and Nagios. In Part 1, see how to install and configure Ganglia, the scalable, distributed monitoring system for high-performance clusters based on a hierarchical design. Also learn how to add more monitoring capability by writing Ganglia plug-ins and by enabling external-source spoofing.
If the ganglion is asymptomatic it may not require any treatment whatsoever.. Conservative management of a ganglion consists of aspiration of the jellylike fluid and an injection of a steroid solution into the ganglion sac. This may be effective in preventing long-term recurrence in approximately 30% of patients.. If a ganglion recurs following aspiration and is symptomatic it can be removed by a small operation which is normally carried out either by numbing the arm or under a general anaesthetic. This is usually successful in preventing long-term recurrence in 70-80% of patients.. ...
The default file name is nagios_ganglia.cache in your Ganglia installs conf_dir (check out your conf.php in ganglia-webs root directory). In my case, the file was a couple weeks old, which is considerably more than the default 45 second age it was configured for! When I looked at the working system in the other DC, I saw the file being updated multiple times per minute - more often than the 45 seconds configured in conf.php - so I began to suspect that the Nagios checks themselves were triggering the cache refresh. A quick check of /var/log/httpd/ganglia_error_log made it blindingly obvious ...
Obat Kista Ganglion Obat kista ganglion yang ampuh dan tepat untuk anda pilih dalam melakukan pengobatan kista ganglion ialah Ace Maxs yang mampu mengobati kista ganglion yang saat ini anda derita secara aman tanpa menimbulkan efek samping apa ...
Ganglion removal surgery. Close-up of an orthopaedic surgeon removing a ganglion from a patients hand. A ganglion is a cyst-like mass of nervous tissue. - Stock Image C008/5181
Ganglia training gives knowledge on Collecting and Visualizing metrics. Ganglia Corporate Course from india gives best job support by top experts.
Maer term ganglia yn cyfeirio at y system nerfol ymylol. Fodd bynnag, yn yr ymennydd (rhan or system nerfol ganolog), maer ganglia gwaelodol yn grŵp o niwclysau syn gysylltiedig âr cortex, y thalamws a choesyn yr ymennydd, syn gysylltiedig ag amrywiaeth o swyddogaethau: rheolaeth dros symudiadau, gwybyddiaeth, emosiynau, a dysg. Yn rhannol oherwydd yr amwysedd hwn, maer Terminologia Anatomica yn argymell defnyddior term niwclews sylfaenol yn hytrach na ganglia gwaelodol; fodd bynnag, ni chafodd y defnydd hwn ei fabwysiadu yn gyffredinol. ...
The globals section configures the general characteristics of the daemon itself. It should appear only once in the configuration file. 1: globals { daemonize = yes setuid = yes user = nobody debug_level = 0 max_udp_msg_len = 1472 Configuring Ganglia , 23 } mute = no deaf = no allow_extra_data = yes host_dmax = 86400 /*secs. Expires (removes from web interface) hosts in 1 day */ host_tmax = 20 /*secs */ cleanup_threshold = 300 /*secs */ gexec = no send_metadata_interval = 0 /*secs */ daemonize (boolean) When true, gmond will fork and run in the background. Configure --with-gmetad LDFLAGS=-L/opt/local/lib CPPFLAGS=-I/opt/local/include Compile and install Ganglia: $ make $ sudo make install Solaris Convenient binary packages for Solaris are distributed in the OpenCSW collection. Follow the standard procedure to install the OpenCSW. Run the pkgutil tool on Solaris, and then use the tool to install the package: $ pkgutil $ CSWgangliagmetad The default location for the configuration files on ...
The scope of Ganglia and Nagios is enormous. What we have touched on here though is relevant to a cluster, grid, or cloud infrastructure. In Part 2, learn how to install and configure Nagios to watch hosts and services, alerting users when things go wrong. The article also shows you how to unite Nagios with Ganglia (from Part 1) and add two other features to Nagios for standard clusters, grids, and clouds to help with monitoring network switches and the resource manager ...
Um gânglio é um conjunto de pilhas de nervo encontradas no sistema nervoso periférico. As pilhas que são específicas a um gânglio são chamadas pilhas do gânglio
Swollen Ganglion Neck - Page 2/1 - : Tous les Résultats relatifs à votre recherche sont disponibles, il suffit dessayer : Swollen Ganglion Neck
Swollen Ganglion Neck - Page 8/1 - : Tous les Résultats relatifs à votre recherche sont disponibles, il suffit dessayer : Swollen Ganglion Neck kabar baik untuk anda yang kini menderita penyakit kista ganglion dan sudah melakukan berbagai pengobatan bahkan operasi, namun belum kunjung juga sembuh. Kini telah hadir Obat Herbal QnC Jelly Gamat sebagai solusi sekaligus alternatif Cara Mengobati Kista Ganglion Tanpa Operasi yang efektif dan tentunya tidak membahayakan tubuh.. ...
Definition of ganglion cell - A neuron (nerve cell); specifically (in later use) one with a cell body that is located in the peripheral (rather than central) ne
|p lang=en-GB||strong|PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS|/strong||/p| |p lang=en-GB|- Compression wrist support for the compression of a ganglion ad adjuvant therapy|/p| |p||span style=color: #000000;|- Individually adjustable a|/span||span style=color: #000
The distribution of fibrous flexor sheath ganglions was studied in 57 patients. They were found to be more common in the third decade and in the middle finger. Both hands were equally affected. There was no clear relationship to occupation or repeate
ganglia: Fix labtest descriptions Name is not a valid key there since Ic5548d1d5ff4ffeef9c635ade3d59d23a4dc39d6 Change-Id: Ifbb96cd8e47da27a9bdf0affaa087f5b43dea9e3 --- M hieradata/common.yaml 1 file changed, 2 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) Approvals: Alexandros Kosiaris: Verified; Looks good to me, approved diff --git a/hieradata/common.yaml b/hieradata/common.yaml index 2592115..6f25a70 100644 --- a/hieradata/common.yaml +++ b/hieradata/common.yaml @@ -261,12 +261,12 @@ sites: eqiad: [] labtestvirt: - name: Labtest virt hosts + description: Labtest virt hosts id: 57 sites: codfw: [] labtest: - name: Labtest services + description: Labtest services id: 58 sites: codfw: [] -- To view, visit To unsubscribe, visit Gerrit-MessageType: merged Gerrit-Change-Id: Ifbb96cd8e47da27a9bdf0affaa087f5b43dea9e3 Gerrit-PatchSet: 1 Gerrit-Project: operations/puppet Gerrit-Branch: production Gerrit-Owner: Alexandros Kosiaris ...
Ganglion lyrics by Mirrorthrone: Tristesse en devenir, si pйnible а subir / Infectait par milliers les pauvres cњurs ingrats / Dйvoilant
apache / incubator-retired-slider / e58cb2f5a1e89e1c12cbf088a8936a58c81b552e / . / app-packages / storm-v0_91 / ganglia_metrics.json ...
Basal ganglia[edit]. The Vogts greatly contributed to the analysis of what is known today as the basal ganglia system. Their ...
Ganglia[edit]. Main article: Cranial nerve ganglia. Some of the cranial nerves have sensory or parasympathetic ganglia ( ... The sensory ganglia are directly correspondent to dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves and are known as cranial sensory ganglia ... The trigeminal ganglia of the trigeminal nerve (V) occupies a space in the dura mater called Trigeminal cave. This ganglion ... inferior ganglion of vagus nerve (nodose ganglion) is located below the jugular foramen and contains the cell bodies of the ...
Basal ganglia pathways and dopamine[edit]. Neural pathways in the basal ganglia in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical ... inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... Basal ganglia. direct:. 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic ...
Damage to the basal ganglia[edit]. Injuries to the frontal lobe and/or the basal ganglia can interfere with an individual's ... of patients with lesions on their basal ganglia suffer from some form of diminished motivation.[2] ... frontal circuits through which the flow of information from the entire cortex takes place before reaching the basal ganglia. ...
Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498. PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ...
Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498. PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and ...
Csoti I, Storch A, Müller W, Jost WH (December 1, 2012). "Drug interactions with selegiline versus rasagiline". Basal Ganglia. ... basal ganglia, midbrain, and cingulate gyrus. Selegiline is mostly metabolized in the intestines and liver; it and its ...
Basal Ganglia. 1 (2): 83-89. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2011.04.001. PMC 3144573. PMID 21804954. v t e GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... including the basal ganglia, frontal cortex, and thalamus (Colasanti et al. 2012). Oral administration of d-amphetamine, 0.5 mg ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498. PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and ...
Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498. PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ...
Basal gangliaEdit. CB1 receptors are expressed throughout the basal ganglia and have well-established effects on movement in ... Dorsal root ganglion also express these receptors, which target a variety of peripheral terminals involved in nociception. ... In the retina, they are expressed in the photoreceptors, inner plexiform, outer plexiform, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, and ... This alters vertical transmission between photoreceptor, bipolar and ganglion cells. Altering vertical transmission in turn ...
The celiac ganglia with the sympathetic plexuses of the abdominal viscera radiating from the ganglia. ... Its fibers synapse with their postganglionic counterparts in the superior mesenteric ganglia, or in the aorticorenal ganglion. ... Ganglia. Description. greater[1]. T5-T9 or T5-T10[2]. The nerve travels through the diaphragm and enters the abdominal cavity, ... The nerve's origins can be remembered by the "4-3-2 rule", accounting for the number of ganglia giving rise to each nerve. ...
The Basal Ganglia IX. Springer. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4419-0340-2. Robert H. Wilkins; Irwin A. Brody (1997). Neurological Classics ...
The Basal Ganglia II. Advances in Behavioral Biology. 32. Boston, MA: Springer. pp. 169-173. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-5347-8_11. ...
"Ganglion". Retrieved June 30, 2012. "Ganglion". Retrieved July 1, 2012. "Monocyte". ... His debut album "Ganglion" was released in 2006 under Suspicious Records, a sub-label of Hive Records. He started cooperation ...
Then Comes Affliction to Awaken the Dreamer Ganglion 2002: Ganglion (7") 2003: Stripped Aperture 2006: Salvage Doctor Midnight ... He also performed in a side-project of Extol called Ganglion. Husvik began his musical career with Extol. The band has been ... "Ganglion". MusicMight. Archived from the original on October 28, 2016. Retrieved October 28, 2016. Röffentlicht, Ve (July 11, ... mpo (July 13, 2002). "An interview with... Ganglion". Art For The Ears Webzine. Retrieved October 28, 2016. Greiner, Matt ( ...
In the spinal gangliaEdit. Bipolar cells are also found in the spinal ganglia, when the cells are in an embryonic condition. ... Common examples are the retina bipolar cell, the ganglia of the vestibulocochlear nerve,[2] the extensive use of bipolar cells ... The majority of the bipolar neurons belonging to the vestibular nerve exist within the vestibular ganglion with axons extending ... one of the fibers is really derived from an adjoining nerve cell and is passing to end in a ramification around the ganglion ...
Striatum and basal gangliaEdit. Further information on the Striatum: Striatum. Further information on the Basal Ganglia: Basal ... 1999). "MRI study of basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia". Schizophr Res. 36: 202.. ... Parent, A (1990). "Extrinsic connections of the basal ganglia". Trends Neurosci. 13: 254-258. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(90)90105-j. ... The cerebellum, hippocampus, neostriatum, and basal ganglia were identified as being involved in memory acquisition tasks.[2] ...
Basal ganglia. direct:. 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic ... The medial globus pallidus (or internal globus pallidus, GPi) is one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (the other being ... As the medial globus pallidus, along with the substantia nigra pars reticulata, forms the output of the basal ganglia, these ... As the medial globus pallidus is one of the direct output centers of the basal ganglia, this causes disinihibtion of the ...
... within the basal ganglia). The structure of the most ventral and anterior parts of the tubercle can be defined as anatomically ... where they form bulges in the ventricles that later become the basal ganglia, present only in embryonic stages) and the ... These visual sensory fibers arrive from the retinal ganglion cells. Thus, the olfactory tubercle may play a role in the ...
intrinsic ganglia of descending and sigmoid colon, rectum, and inferior hypogastric plexus and ganglia to the pelvic viscera. ... Inferior mesenteric ganglia, ganglia of intermesenteric and hypogastric plexuses. Sacral splanchnic nerves. sacral part of ... inferior hypogastric plexus and ganglia to the pelvic viscera. Pelvic splanchnic nerves. parasympathetic. S2-S4. ... cervical and upper thoracic ganglia. Thoracic cavity. Thoracic splanchnic nerves. generally. Presynaptic. lower thoracic ...
Basal ganglia. direct:. 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic ... The Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop has been traditionally associated with reward-learning and though has also been ...
Basal ganglia. direct:. 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic ... The GPi is one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (the other being the substantia nigra pars reticulata). The GABAergic ... The place of subthalamic nucleus and external pallidium in basal ganglia circuitry". Brain Research Reviews. 20 (1): 128-154. ... As the GPi is one of the direct output centers of the basal ganglia, this causes disinhibition of the thalamus, increasing ...
inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... Basal ganglia. direct:. 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic ...
Basal ganglia. direct:. 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic ...
Basal ganglia. direct:. 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic ...
Rostral basal ganglia of the human brain and associated structures. Basal ganglia. ...
1 - ganglia. 2 - apical tuft. 3 - prototroch. 4 - metatroch. 5 - nephridium. 6 - anus. 7 - protonephridia. 8 - gastrointestinal ...
... hippocampal dysfunction might produce an alteration of dopamine release in the basal ganglia, thereby indirectly affecting the ...
Basal ganglia. direct:. 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic ...
Ganglion cysts are very common lumps within the hand and wrist. The most common locations are the top of the wrist, the palm ... How to Know If You Have a Ganglion Cyst. 5 treatment options for a Ganglion Cyst. Ask a Doctor: Ganglion Cysts. Video: Signs, ... Ganglion cysts are usually oval or round and may be soft or firm. Cysts at the base of the finger on the palm side are ... Ganglion cysts are very common lumps within the hand and wrist that occur adjacent to joints or tendons. The most common ...
ganglia-developers [Ganglia-developers] gmetad unable to write preamble/epilog ?. From: Ramon Bastiaans ,[email protected], - ... Ganglia. Scalable, distributed monitoring system for high-performance computing Brought to you by: bernardli, bnicholes, ...
The pterygopalatine ganglion (Meckels ganglion, nasal ganglion or sphenopalatine ganglion) is a parasympathetic ganglion found ... It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck, the others being the submandibular ganglion, otic ganglion, and ... The pterygopalatine ganglion and its branches (pterygopalatine ganglion visible but not labeled, as large yellow ganglion in ... The pterygopalatine ganglion (of Meckel), the largest of the parasympathetic ganglia associated with the branches of the ...
Factory/ganglia/ganglia.changes 2017-11-13 14:06:14.293494423 +0100 +++ /work/SRC/openSUSE:Factory/ ... Factory/ganglia (Old) and /work/SRC/openSUSE:Factory/ (New ... commit ganglia for openSUSE:Factory root Sun, 11 Mar 2018 07:26:17 -0700 ... Package is ganglia Sun Mar 11 15:25:27 2018 rev:3 rq:585107 version:3.7.2 Changes: -------- --- /work/SRC/openSUSE: ...
The basal ganglia represent the largest component, and include the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus. The pars reticulata ... Chapter 8C - The Basal Ganglia. Anatomy. The extrapyramidal system consists of a series of functionally related nuclei in the ... Most of the output from the basal ganglia goes through the thalamus to the cerebral cortex, effecting movement by influencing ... Many neurons in the basal ganglia begin to show activity before movement actually takes place. These have been termed "getting ...
This is the last notice about the review of debconf templates for ganglia. The reviewed templates have been sent as a bug ... Next by Date: [BTS#539204] templates://ganglia/{ganglia-webfrontend.templates} *Previous by thread: Re: Review for package ...
The ganglion of the vestibular nerve. It contains the cell bodies of the bipolar primary afferent neurons whose peripheral ... The ganglion of the vestibular nerve. It contains the cell bodies of the bipolar primary afferent neurons whose peripheral ... The vestibular fibers arise in bipolar cells in the vestibular ganglion in the internal acoustic meatus. ... vestibular ganglion. Go to external page Copy ...
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Synonyms: cardiac ganglia set ganglia cardiaca Wrisberg ganglion ganglion of Wrisberg cardiac ganglion of Wrisberg ... Any of the parasympathetic ganglia of the cardiac plexus between the arch of the aorta and the bifurcation of the pulmonary ... Any of the parasympathetic ganglia of the cardiac plexus between the arch of the aorta and the bifurcation of the pulmonary ... cardiac ganglion. Go to external page Copy ...
Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement. ... Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement. ... Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause problems controlling speech, movement, and posture. This combination of symptoms is ... A person with basal ganglia dysfunction may have difficulty starting, stopping, or sustaining movement. Depending on which area ...
ganglia-devel-3.7.2-23.fc29.s390x.rpm. ganglia-devel-3.7.2-23.fc29.x86_64.html. Ganglia Library. Fedora 29 for x86_64. ganglia- ... ganglia-devel-3.7.2-20.fc28.s390x.rpm. ganglia-devel-3.7.2-20.fc28.x86_64.html. Ganglia Library. Fedora 28 for x86_64. ganglia- ... ganglia-devel-3.7.2-17.fc27.s390x.rpm. ganglia-devel-3.7.2-17.fc27.x86_64.html. Ganglia Library. Fedora 27 for x86_64. ganglia- ... ganglia-devel-3.7.2-23.fc29.i686.rpm. ganglia-devel-3.7.2-23.fc29.i686.html. Ganglia Library. Fedora Rawhide for i386. ganglia- ...
The main parts of the basal ganglia are the caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus. Located on either side of ... The connections between the basal ganglia and the substantia nigra suggest that the basal ganglia may play a role in the plan ... Damage to the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in motor ability, but the neuronal activation in the basal ganglia ... Much of the output of the basal ganglia is directed at the primary motor cortex, and the motor nuclei of the brain stem. It is ...
basal gangliaunknown. The act of dangling one's testicles within close quarters of another peer's face while they ...
A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled swelling that develops near a joint or tendon. The cyst can range from the size of a pea to ... Ganglion cyst A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled swelling that usually develops near a joint or tendon. The cyst can range from ... Theres always a chance a ganglion cyst will come back after treatment. This is more likely if the ganglion is on certain areas ... Ganglion cysts look and feel like a smooth lump under the skin. Theyre made up of a thick, jelly-like fluid called synovial ...
A ganglion is also called a synovial hernia or synovial cyst. Description A ganglion is a non-cancerous cyst filled with a ... Ganglion Definition A ganglion is a small, usually hard bump above a tendon or in the capsule that encloses a joint. ... A ganglion is also called a synovial hernia or synovial cyst.. Description. A ganglion is a non-cancerous cyst filled with a ... ganglion (gang-li-ŏn) n. (pl. ganglia) 1. (in neurology) any structure containing a collection of nerve cell bodies and often ...
They are sometimes referred to as the semilunar ganglia or the solar ganglia. The celiac ganglion is part of the sympathetic ... The celiac ganglia or coeliac ganglia are two large irregularly shaped masses of nerve tissue in the upper abdomen. Part of the ... The main preganglion neurotransmitter of the celiac ganglion is acetylcholine, yet the celiac ganglion-mesenteric complex also ... the two celiac ganglia are the largest ganglia in the ANS, and they innervate most of the digestive tract. They have the ...
The lumbar ganglia are paravertebral ganglia located in the inferior portion of the sympathetic trunk. The lumbar portion of ... Paravertebral ganglia are divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral ganglia. Each controls different glands and ... Superiorly, it is continuous with thoracic sympathetic ganglion and inferiorly continuous with sacral sympathetic ganglion. ... The upper two lumbar ganglia (L1 and L2) of the sympathetic chain also give rise to the lumbar splanchnic nerves. Splanchnic ...
This volume represents the collected papers presented at the Third Triennial Symposium of the International Basal Ganglia ... The Basal Ganglia III. Editors: Bernardi, G., Carpenter, M.B., Di Chiara, G., Morelli, M., Stanzione, P. (Eds.) ... The 80 papers collected here reflect the wide spectrum and the depth of studies on virtually all aspects of the basal ganglia. ... This volume represents the collected papers presented at the Third Triennial Symposium of the International Basal Ganglia ...
... Spike Spiegel. * *Re: [Ganglia-developers] Thoughts on host spoof... Rick ... Ganglia-developers] Thoughts on host spoofing Spike Spiegel. * *Re: [Ganglia-developers] Thoughts on host spoofing Brad ... Re: [Ganglia-developers] Thoughts on host spoofing Spike Spiegel Fri, 06 Feb 2009 01:40:47 -0800 ... Ganglia-developers mailing list Ganglia[email protected] ...
Sensorimotor Processing in the Basal Ganglia Leads to Transient Beta Oscillations during Behavior Amin Mirzaei, Arvind Kumar, ... Ventral Medial Thalamic Nucleus Promotes Synchronization of Increased High Beta Oscillatory Activity in the Basal Ganglia- ...
Rupert Novotny, chief of New Yorks detectives makes it a habit, when in London, to meet with 3 of his colleagues when they are also in the area. …
Read about causes, symptoms, treatment, and removal (surgery). Learn what ganglia look like and where cysts form (wrist, foot, ... A ganglion is a cyst that typically forms along a tendon in the hand or wrist. ... Doctors diagnose a ganglion by physical examination. These ganglions can usually be felt on examination. A ganglion can be a ... A ganglion is a cyst formed by the synovium that is filled with a thick jelly-like fluid. While ganglia can follow local trauma ...
J. L. Gasser (1723-65), Austrian anatomist] Source for information on Gasserian ganglion: A Dictionary of Nursing dictionary. ... a ganglion on the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve, deep within the skull. [ ... Gasserian ganglion (gas-eer-iăn) n. a ganglion on the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve, deep within the skull. [ J. L. ... ...
Ganglion» har flere betydninger.. Ganglion eller ganglie er innen anatomien en samling med nervevev.[1] I nevrologiske ... å få amputert sentrale deler av ganglion-nettet. Mest kjent er kanskje kakerlakker, som kan overleve å få hodet fjernet. ... Hentet fra «» ...
The ciliary ganglion is a small ganglion associated with the ophthalmic nerve that descends from the trigeminal ganglion. ...
... including a group of structures in the brain called the basal ganglia, which help control movement. Explore symptoms, ... Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is a disorder that affects the nervous system, ... Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease should be renamed biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease: a retrospective ... Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. This gene provides instructions ...
Ganglia Monitoring core. Contribute to monitor-core development by creating an account on GitHub. ...
The article also shows you how to unite Nagios with Ganglia (from Part 1) and add two other features to Nagios for standard ... article in a two-part series that looks at a hands-on approach to monitoring a data center using the open source tools Ganglia ... cp /tmp/ganglia-3.1.1/contrib/ \ /usr/local/nagios/libexec/. check_ganglia. is a cool Python script that you ... define servicegroup { servicegroup_name ganglia-metrics alias Ganglia Metrics } define command { command_name check_ganglia ...
Also learn how to add more monitoring capability by writing Ganglia plug-ins and by enabling external-source spoofing. ... In Part 1, see how to install and configure Ganglia, the scalable, distributed monitoring system for high-performance clusters ... article in a two-part series that looks at a hands-on approach to monitoring a data center using the open source tools Ganglia ... Ganglia and Nagios, Part 1. Monitor enterprise clusters with Ganglia. Install, configure, and extend open source Ganglia to ...
... which lead to the spiral ganglion of Corti in the modiolus of the cochlea. The spiral ganglion sends axons into the cochlear ... Other articles where Spiral ganglion is discussed: human ear: Transduction of mechanical vibrations: …endings, ... endings, which lead to the spiral ganglion of Corti in the modiolus of the cochlea. The spiral ganglion sends axons into the ... of nerve cell bodies, the spiral ganglion, located in the modiolus of the cochlea. The neurons of the spiral ganglion are ...
  • In the pterygopalatine ganglion, the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the greater petrosal branch of the facial nerve synapse with neurons whose postganglionic axons, vasodilator, and secretory fibers are distributed with the deep branches of the trigeminal nerve to the mucous membrane of the nose , soft palate , tonsils , uvula , roof of the mouth, upper lip and gums, and upper part of the pharynx . (
  • receives presynaptic sympathetic fibers from the lesser splanchnic nerves that synapse in the ganglia with postsynaptic sympathetic neurons that extend along the superior mesenteric and renal arteries. (
  • Most of the fibers of the superior ovarian nerve come from the postganglionic sympathetic neurons of the celiac ganglion. (
  • Each controls different glands and muscle groups since each muscle and gland receives input from postganglionic neurons that originated from different levels of paravertebral ganglia. (
  • Presynaptic neurons traveling from the spinal cord terminate in the paravertebral ganglia (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral) or the prevertebral ganglia. (
  • Neurotransmitters are released in the paravertebral ganglia to activate the postganglionic neurons to send efferent sympathetic output to the lower extremities to prepare the body for the "fight or flight" responses. (
  • The neurons of the spiral ganglion are called bipolar cells because they have two sets of processes, or fibres, that extend from opposite ends of the cell body. (
  • Pterygopalatine ganglion cells innervate the vasculature of the brain and eye as well as the lacrimal gland, nasal glands, and palatine glands, while neurons of the submandibular ganglion innervate the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. (
  • The cluster of neurons known as the basal ganglia is a central hub for regulating a vast array of routine motor and behavior functions. (
  • With the detailed circuit map in hand, we can now plan studies to identify the specific information conveyed by each pathway, how this information impacts downstream neurons to control movement and how dysfunction in each output pathway leads to the diverse symptoms of basal ganglia diseases. (
  • Earlier studies of Parkinson's disease showed that, in patients with the disorder, dopamine-producing neurons in the basal ganglia area die, resulting in less dopamine transmission. (
  • Randall C. O'Reilly of the University of Colorado at Boulder, says that a subset of neurons in the basal ganglia actually become more active with the depleted dopamine transmission produced by punishment. (
  • Dorsal root ganglia (also known as the spinal ganglia) contain the cell bodies of sensory (afferent) neurons . (
  • Cranial nerve ganglia contain the cell bodies of cranial nerve neurons. (
  • The net effect of basal ganglia activation through this so-called direct pathway is thus excitiation of cortical neurons. (
  • The subthalamic nucleus, on the other hand, forms part of an internal loop within the basal ganglia that via excitation of a portion of the globus pallidus has a net inhibitory effect on the cortical neurons, so called indirect pathway. (
  • In parkinson's disease, the selective death of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta that use the neurotransmitter dopamine increases the excitatotry tone of the direct pathway through basal ganglia. (
  • It is our hope that vast scientific efforts reflected in these pages will be widely disseminated and further encourage every kind of research related to the basal ganglia. (
  • Using medical imaging, generalized swelling as well as specific areas of damage (lesions) in the brain can often be seen, including in the basal ganglia. (
  • The ganglion also consists of sympathetic efferent (postganglionic) fibers from the superior cervical ganglion . (
  • These fibers, from the superior cervical ganglion, travel through the carotid plexus , and then through the deep petrosal nerve . (
  • The vestibular fibers arise in bipolar cells in the vestibular ganglion in the internal acoustic meatus. (
  • The celiac ganglion is part of the sympathetic prevertebral chain possessing a great variety of specific receptors and neurotransmitters such as catecholamines, neuropeptides, and nitric oxide and constitutes a modulation center in the pathway of the afferent and efferent fibers between the central nervous system and the ovary. (
  • The main preganglion neurotransmitter of the celiac ganglion is acetylcholine, yet the celiac ganglion-mesenteric complex also contain α and β adrenergic receptors and is innervated by fibers of adrenergic nature that come from other preaortic ganglia. (
  • The lumbar splanchnic nerves arise from the ganglia here, and contribute sympathetic efferent fibers to the nearby plexuses. (
  • The spiral ganglion fibers create the cochlear nerve. (
  • A small parasympathetic ganglion suspended from the lingual nerve, with its postganglionic branches going to the submandibular and sublingual glands and its preganglionic fibers coming from the salivary nucleus. (
  • [2] [3] Ganglia house the cell bodies of afferent nerves (input nerve fibers) and efferent nerves (output/motor nerve fibers), or axons . (
  • A pseudoganglion looks like a ganglion, but only has nerve fibers and has no nerve cell bodies. (
  • In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the central nervous system to the ganglia are known as preganglionic fibers , while those from the ganglia to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers . (
  • A pseudoganglion is a localized thickening of the main part or trunk of a nerve that has the appearance of a ganglion [5] but has only nerve fibers and no nerve cell bodies. (
  • Where do ganglia form and what symptoms do they cause? (
  • The signs and symptoms of biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease usually begin between the ages of 3 and 10, but the disorder can appear at any age. (
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of a Ganglion Cyst? (
  • It should be kept in mind that each type of ganglion can cause local symptoms, depending on its anatomic location. (
  • The symptoms that may be indicative of a disorder in the basal ganglia include athetosis, which is characterized by an inability to maintain a single position for a muscle group. (
  • Treatment of basal ganglia disorders involve the administration of medications that help in controlling the symptoms. (
  • Whether you have symptoms or not, your ganglion cyst can benefit from medical evaluation. (
  • What are the symptoms and characteristics of ganglion cysts? (
  • Mucous cyst ganglions usually occur when osteoarthritis symptoms develop, at middle age or older. (
  • A group of nucleic structures in the brain located at bottom of the fore brain and connected to the thalamus and cerebral cortex and other areas is known as the basal ganglia. (
  • Now, researchers at the University of California San Diego, Columbia University's Zuckerman Institute and their colleagues have generated a precise map of brain connectivity from the largest output nucleus of the basal ganglia, an area known as the substantia nigra pars reticulata, or SNr. (
  • Striatum is the largest nucleus of the basal ganglia. (
  • 1989). While still serving this function, it is now also considered a second important input nucleus of the basal ganglia (Nambu et al. (
  • Contributions to the volume from leading basal ganglia researchers altogether relate the neural architecture and functional circuitry of the basal ganglia, its interactions with other major systems of the brain, its neurotransmitter and signaling mechanisms, its role in multiple cognitive and behavioral domains and in various neurocognitive, neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. (
  • Given the complex circuitry of the basal ganglia, research has suggested that they also are a coordination system. (
  • The connections between the basal ganglia and the substantia nigra suggest that the basal ganglia may play a role in the plan ning and initiation of self-triggered (i.e. voluntary ) movement. (
  • Convergent lines of evidence suggest that the basal ganglia are importantly involved in the control of voluntary, goal-directed behaviour. (
  • It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck, the others being the submandibular ganglion , otic ganglion , and ciliary ganglion . (
  • The ciliary ganglion is a small ganglion associated with the ophthalmic nerve that descends from the trigeminal ganglion. (
  • Nerves of the orbit, and the ciliary ganglion. (
  • Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion . (
  • The experiments will be done with lesions of specific nuclei of the basal ganglia of rats and monkeys which learn and perform specific tasks involving basal ganglia mechanisms of reward processing and procedural motor and habit learning. (
  • The external globus pallidus (GP) is an intrinsic nucleus as most of its connections are with the input and output nuclei of the basal ganglia. (
  • A traditional remedy involves hitting a ganglion cyst with a heavy object, such as a book. (
  • Sympathetic connections of the sphenopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. (
  • Part of the sympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), the two celiac ganglia are the largest ganglia in the ANS, and they innervate most of the digestive tract. (
  • The lumbar ganglia are paravertebral ganglia located in the inferior portion of the sympathetic trunk. (
  • The lumbar portion of the sympathetic trunk typically has 4 lumbar ganglia. (
  • The lumbar part of the sympathetic trunk contains four interconnected ganglia. (
  • Superiorly, it is continuous with thoracic sympathetic ganglion and inferiorly continuous with sacral sympathetic ganglion. (
  • The upper two lumbar ganglia (L1 and L2) of the sympathetic chain also give rise to the lumbar splanchnic nerves. (
  • The lumbar splanchnic nerves travel through the lumbar sympathetic ganglion but do not synapse there. (
  • The ganglion receives, on its medial side, filaments from the carotid plexus of the sympathetic. (
  • The spiral ganglion sends axons into the cochlear nerve. (
  • of the axons innervate the pterygopalatine ganglion, and others project to the submandibular ganglion. (
  • Note the axons growing out of the ganglion. (
  • The spiral ganglion is one of the two ganglion parts that make up the acoustic nerve complex (a group of ganglion cells closely applied to the cranial edge of the auditory vesicle). (
  • We propose that the vertebrate basal ganglia have evolved as a centralised selection device, specialised to resolve conflicts over access to limited motor and cognitive resources. (
  • The external globus pallidus (GPe) is principally an intrinsic structure that receives most of its afferents from, and provides efferent connections to other basal ganglia nuclei. (
  • The deep petrosal nerve (carrying postganglionic sympathetics) joins with the greater petrosal nerve (carrying preganglionic parasympathetics) to form the nerve of the pterygoid canal , which passes through the pterygoid canal before entering the ganglion. (
  • Ganglia doesn't have a built-in notification system, but it was designed to support scalable built-in agents on target hosts. (
  • Nagios doesn't seem to have scalable built-in agents on target hosts (people may argue on that point) while this was part of the intentional, original design of Ganglia. (
  • Package: gmetad Architecture: any Depends: ${misc:Depends}, ${shlibs:Depends}, adduser, libganglia1 (=${binary:Version}) Suggests: ganglia-monitor, ganglia-webfrontend Description: cluster monitoring toolkit - Ganglia Meta-Daemon Ganglia is a scalable, real-time distributed monitoring environment that collects cluster statistics in an open and well-defined XML format. (
  • Package: libganglia1 Architecture: any Section: libs Depends: ${misc:Depends}, ${shlibs:Depends} Description: cluster monitoring toolkit - shared libraries Ganglia is a scalable, real-time distributed monitoring environment that collects cluster statistics in an open and well-defined XML format. (
  • Package: libganglia1-dev Architecture: any Section: libdevel Depends: ${misc:Depends}, libganglia1 (=${binary:Version}), ${shlibs:Depends} Description: cluster monitoring toolkit - development libraries Ganglia is a scalable, real-time distributed monitoring environment that collects cluster statistics in an open and well-defined XML format. (
  • Ganglia is a scalable distributed system monitor tool for high-performance computing systems such as clusters and grids. (
  • Ganglia is described as 'scalable distributed monitoring system for high-performance computing systems such as clusters and Grids' and is an app in the Network & Admin category. (
  • Ganglia is a scalable, real-time monitoring and execution environment with all execution requests and statistics expressed in an open well-defined XML format. (
  • Doctors diagnose a ganglion by physical examination. (
  • Doctors usually can diagnose a ganglion cyst based on where it is and how it looks and feels. (
  • Located on either side of the thalamus , the basal ganglia receive input from much of the cerebral cortex , particularly the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, as well as the substantia nigra . (
  • The CNS of many invertebrates consists largely of ganglia, connected by nerve cords, variously arranged but usually well developed in the head (cerebral ganglia). (
  • Due to the basal ganglia being connected to the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem, the area is found to play a part in numerous function in the body, many of which are still being learned about. (
  • Basal Ganglia refer to four masses of gray matter located deep in the cerebral hemispheres including caudate, lentiform, and amygdaloid nuclei and the claustrum. (
  • The basal ganglia, a group of interconnected brain areas located deep in the cerebral cortex, have proved to be at work in learning, the formation of good and bad habits, and some psychiatric and addictive disorders. (
  • However, in the brain (part of the central nervous system ), the " basal ganglia " is a group of nuclei interconnected with the cerebral cortex , thalamus , and brainstem , associated with a variety of functions: motor control, cognition, emotions, and learning. (
  • The experiments will investigate regional cerebral blood flow as an indicator of brain activity in human volunteers during specific learning tasks which are known from lesion studies to involve the basal ganglia. (
  • General Functional Significance of the Basal Ganglia A. Involved in the regulation of movement: through direct and indirect connections with the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia influence descending motor systems (e.g., corticospinal and corticobulbar). (
  • To report a reduction in macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients with homonymous hemianopia due to posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. (
  • This type of ganglion is more common in women than men. (
  • The area is sometimes also injected with a dose of steroid medication to help prevent the ganglion returning, although there's no clear evidence this reduces the risk of recurrence. (
  • They may inject the area with a steroid to prevent the ganglion from returning. (
  • The pterygopalatine ganglion (of Meckel ), the largest of the parasympathetic ganglia associated with the branches of the maxillary nerve , is deeply placed in the pterygopalatine fossa , close to the sphenopalatine foramen . (
  • Any of the parasympathetic ganglia of the cardiac plexus between the arch of the aorta and the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery. (
  • Instead, they synapse at the inferior mesenteric ganglion and innervate the smooth muscle lining the large intestines, kidney, bladder, glands of the hindgut, and pelvic viscera. (
  • A definition of the medical term "basal ganglia" is presented. (
  • The basal ganglia represent the largest component, and include the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus. (
  • The main parts of the basal ganglia are the caudate nucleus , the putamen , and the globus pallidus. (
  • I went to a pain clinic this morning and the doctor wants to give me a Ganglion Impar Block. (
  • Ganglion cyst removal is a minor procedure. (
  • Most people make a good recovery and return to normal activities following ganglion cyst removal. (
  • The celiac ganglia or coeliac ganglia are two large irregularly shaped masses of nerve tissue in the upper abdomen. (
  • 4. My father recently had what is diagnosed as a hemorrhagic basal ganglion stroke caused by high blood pressure. (
  • endings, which lead to the spiral ganglion of Corti in the modiolus of the cochlea. (
  • of nerve cell bodies, the spiral ganglion, located in the modiolus of the cochlea. (
  • Half of all ganglion cysts disappear without intervention. (
  • Because many ganglion cysts disappear on their own, watching it to make sure it is improving may be all that is needed. (
  • Gasserian ganglion (gas- eer -iăn) n. a ganglion on the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve, deep within the skull. (
  • The trigeminal ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion , or semilunar ganglion , or Gasser's ganglion ) is a sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) that occupies a cavity ( Meckel's cave ) in the dura mater , covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone . (
  • After recovery from a primary herpes infection, the virus is not cleared from the body, but rather lies dormant in a non-replicating state within the trigeminal ganglion. (
  • The trigeminal ganglion is damaged, by infection or surgery, in Trigeminal trophic syndrome . (
  • The thermocoagulation or injection of glycerol into the trigeminal ganglion has been used in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia . (
  • In rodents, the trigeminal ganglion is important as it is the first part of the pathway from the whiskers to the brain. (
  • There are around 26,000-43,000 cell bodies in rodent Trigeminal ganglion. (
  • The pterygopalatine ganglion ( Meckel's ganglion , nasal ganglion or sphenopalatine ganglion ) is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the pterygopalatine fossa . (
  • RCT of Sphenopalatine Ganglion (SPG) Blocks using anesthetics vs. placebo for migraine. (
  • UCSF Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block Study- a Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial to Compare Nasal Anesthetics for Migraine Prevention in Adults. (
  • The flow of blood to the nasal mucosa , in particular the venous plexus of the conchae, is regulated by the pterygopalatine ganglion and heats or cools the air in the nose . (
  • The pterygopalatine ganglion supplies the lacrimal gland , paranasal sinuses , glands of the mucosa of the nasal cavity and pharynx , the gingiva , and the mucous membrane and glands of the hard palate . (
  • nerve, they pass to the pterygopalatine ganglion via the greater petrosal nerve (a branch of the facial nerve) and to the submandibular ganglion by way of the chorda tympani nerve (another branch of the facial nerve, which joins the lingual branch of the mandibular nerve). (
  • For example, the substantia nigra pars compacta provides critically important dopaminergic innervation and several raphe nuclei give rise to serotonin input to the basal ganglia. (
  • The basal ganglia comprise two principal input nuclei, the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and two principal output nuclei, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the internal globus pallidus (GPi) (primates) which in cats and rodents is known as the entopeduncular nucleus ( Figure 1 ). (
  • Finally, dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra (pars compacta) (SNc) and the adjacent ventral tegmental area (VTA) provide other basal ganglia nuclei, principally the striatum, with important modulatory signals. (
  • Extrinsic Outputs from the basal ganglia arise mainly from the globus paliidus and substantia nigra pars reticula TO: 1. (
  • 2007). "Selective retention of herpes simplex virus-specific T cells in latently infected human trigeminal ganglia" . (
  • The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected subcortical nuclei that represent one of the brain 's fundamental processing units. (
  • A ganglion is any structure containing a collection of nerve cell bodies in the central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS) and often also numbers of synapses . (
  • A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster [1] or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system . (
  • Ganglion cysts look and feel like a smooth lump under the skin. (
  • A ganglion is also the name of a benign lump, often at the wrist , found close to tendons and containing jelly-like fluid. (
  • Ganglion cysts form a benign lump that often goes away on its own. (
  • A ganglion cyst that occurs at the base of the finger may feel like a pea-sized lump under the skin. (
  • A ganglion cyst is a common, benign (noncancerous), fluid-filled lump found on joints or tendons. (
  • Is the lump on your wrist a ganglion cyst? (
  • After your doctor has diagnosed your lump as a ganglion cyst, remember that if your cyst doesn't cause pain or interfere with your range of motion, treatment might not be necessary. (
  • If your doctor identifies your lump as a ganglion cyst, they might recommend home treatment, medical treatment, or no treatment. (
  • A ganglion cyst is a noncancerous lump that most commonly develops on the wrist or hand. (
  • A ganglion cyst is a round, fluid-filled lump. (
  • Ganglia used to require an agent to run on every host to gather information from it, but now metrics can be obtained from just about anything through Ganglia's spoofing mechanism. (
  • Nagios, like Ganglia, is used heavily in HPC and other environments, but Nagios is more of an alerting mechanism that Ganglia (which is more focused on gathering and tracking metrics). (
  • Ganglia is more concerned with gathering metrics and tracking them over time while Nagios has focused on being an alerting mechanism. (
  • There are additional parameters which go in the hdfs config which tell it to send data to Ganglia which while not required will give you Hadoop specific metrics. (
  • Although they're known medically as soft tissue tumors, ganglion (GAN-glee-in) cysts are not cancerous and are easily treated. (
  • Ganglions in general represent 50-70% of all soft-tissue tumors of the hand and wrist. (
  • Striatal medium spiny neurones are GABAergic providing inhibitory inputs to adjacent spiny neurones via local axon collaterals, to the globus pallidus (external), and to both basal ganglia output nuclei. (
  • The subthalamic nucleus has a predominant cell type that is immunoreactive for glutamate that sends excitatory projections to both basal ganglia output nuclei and the external globus pallidus. (
  • Globus pallidus (internal)/entopeduncular nucleus is one of the two output nuclei that receive inputs from other basal ganglia nuclei and provides output to external targets in the thalamus and brainstem. (