Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
A pathological condition caused by impaired blood flow in the basal regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA), such as INFARCTION; HEMORRHAGE; or ISCHEMIA in vessels of this brain region including the lateral lenticulostriate arteries. Primary clinical manifestations include involuntary movements (DYSKINESIAS) and muscle weakness (HEMIPARESIS).
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
A complex network of nerve fibers including sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents and visceral afferents. The celiac plexus is the largest of the autonomic plexuses and is located in the abdomen surrounding the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.

Early specification of sensory neuron fate revealed by expression and function of neurogenins in the chick embryo. (1/953)

The generation of sensory and autonomic neurons from the neural crest requires the functions of two classes of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, the Neurogenins (NGNs) and MASH-1, respectively (Fode, C., Gradwohl, G., Morin, X., Dierich, A., LeMeur, M., Goridis, C. and Guillemot, F. (1998) Neuron 20, 483-494; Guillemot, F., Lo, L.-C., Johnson, J. E., Auerbach, A., Anderson, D. J. and Joyner, A. L. (1993) Cell 75, 463-476; Ma, Q., Chen, Z. F., Barrantes, I. B., de la Pompa, J. L. and Anderson, D. J. (1998 Neuron 20, 469-482). We have cloned two chick NGNs and found that they are expressed in a subset of neural crest cells early in their migration. Ectopic expression of the NGNs in vivo biases migrating neural crest cells to localize in the sensory ganglia, and induces the expression of sensory neuron-appropriate markers in non-sensory crest derivatives. Surprisingly, the NGNs can also induce the expression of multiple pan-neuronal and sensory-specific markers in the dermomyotome, a mesodermal derivative. Taken together, these data suggest that a subset of neural crest cells may already be specified for a sensory neuron fate early in migration, as a consequence of NGN expression.  (+info)

Rhythmic swimming activity in neurones of the isolated nerve cord of the leech. (2/953)

1. Repeating bursts of motor neurone impulses have been recorded from the nerves of completely isolated nerve cords of the medicinal leech. The salient features of this burst rhythm are similar to those obtained in the semi-intact preparation during swimming. Hence the basic swimming rhythm is generated by a central oscillator. 2. Quantitative comparisons between the impulse patterns obtained from the isolated nerve cord and those obtained from a semi-intact preparation show that the variation in both dorsal to ventral motor neurone phasing and burst duration with swim cycle period differ in these two preparations. 3. The increase of intersegmental delay with period, which is a prominent feature of swimming behaviour of the intact animal, is not seen in either the semi-intact or isolated cord preparations. 4. In the semi-intact preparation, stretching the body wall or depolarizing an inhibitory motor neurone changes the burst duration of excitatory motor neurones in the same segment. In the isolated nerve cord, these manipulations also change the period of the swim cycle in the entire cord. 5. These comparisons suggest that sensory input stabilizes the centrally generated swimming rhythm, determines the phasing of the bursts of impulses from dorsal and ventral motor neurones, and matches the intersegmental delay to the cycle period so as to maintain a constant body shape at all rates of swimming.  (+info)

Physiological properties and receptive fields of mechanosensory neurones in the head ganglion of the leech: comparison with homologous cells in segmental ganglia. (3/953)

A study of the head ganglion of the leech was made to compare the properties of specific sensory cells in this ganglion with those of homologous neurones in the segmental ganglia. 1. In the head ganglion, cells were identified that had electrical properties, sensory modalities and adaptation properties similar to those of touch (T), pressure (P) and nociceptive (N) cells in the segmental ganglia. The cell bodies of these neurones were situated in characteristics positions that could be correlated with those in the segmental ganglia. Several lines of evidence suggested that they were primary sensory neurones. Fewer T, P and N neurones were identified in the head ganglion than would be expected from its six constituent segmental ganglia. 2. The receptive fields of identified T, P and N cells were situated on the external surface of the head and the interior of the mouth with considerable overlap. They were generally smaller in size than those situated on the main part of the body. The receptive fields were also displaced anteriorly so that some of them were situated in segments anterior to those of the innervating cells. 3. The morphology of the sensory cells in the head ganglion was studied by intracellular injection of horseradish perioxidase. The general branching characteristics of the cells and the structural appearance of their processes resembled those of homologous cells in the segmental ganglia. However, the routes taken to the periphery by some of the cells were not constant from head ganglion to head ganglion. This variability was confirmed by electrophysiological evidence, and differed from the constancy seen in segmental sensory cells.  (+info)

Receptive fields, geometry and conduction block of sensory neurones in the central nervous system of the leech. (4/953)

1. In segmental ganglia of the leech, the cutaneous mechanosensory neurones responding to to touch innervated the skin of their own segment and of part of the anterior and posterior adjacent segments. Each touch receptive field could be divided into three non-overlapping areas: a central part innervated by the branches of the cell which ran in the nerve roots of the ganglion containing the cell body, and anterior and posterior parts innervated by its branches which ran in the nerve roots of the anterior and posterior adjacent ganglia. 2. Impulses originating from the anterior and posterior parts of the receptive fields were susceptible to conduction block within the central nervous system when the touch cells fired repetitively at frequencies that could readily be elicited with weak mechanical stimulation. In contrast, impulses originating from the central part of the receptive fields were less susceptible to block. 3. The morphology of touch cells revealed by intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase suggested that conduction block occurred at specific bifurcation points where small cell processes joined the main process. Different physiological experiments supported this conclusion. 4. In some touch cells, bifurcation points with particularly low safety margins of conduction operated as low-pass filters, limiting the frequency of impulses capable of invading certain branches. 5. The results suggest that mechanical stimuli which would likely be encountered by the animal can lead to conduction block within its central nervous system and as a result modify its integrative activities.  (+info)

Dopaminergic synapses mediate neuronal changes in an analogue of operant conditioning. (5/953)

Feeding behavior in Aplysia can be modified by operant conditioning in which contingent reinforcement is conveyed by the esophageal nerve (E n.). A neuronal analogue of this conditioning in the isolated buccal ganglia was developed by using stimulation of E n. as an analogue of contingent reinforcement. Previous studies indicated that E n. may release dopamine. We used a dopamine antagonist (methylergonovine) to investigate whether dopamine mediated the enhancement of motor patterns in the analogue of operant conditioning. Methylergonovine blocked synaptic connections from the reinforcement pathway and the contingent-dependent enhancement of the reinforced pattern. These results suggest that dopamine mediates at least part of the neuronal modifications induced by contingent reinforcement.  (+info)

Detection of caprine herpesvirus 1 in sacral ganglia of latently infected goats by PCR. (6/953)

A study of the latency of caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV.1) was carried out with four latently infected goats. Three goats were treated with dexamethasone and euthanized after 4 and 6 days. PCR and virus isolation allowed us to detect CpHV.1 only in the third and fourth sacral ganglia of the two animals euthanized 6 days after the start of treatment.  (+info)

Extraventricular neurocytoma with ganglionic differentiation associated with complex partial seizures. (7/953)

We report an unusual case of extraventricular ("cerebral") neurocytoma with ganglion cells located in the right temporal lobe in a 9-year-old girl with complex partial seizures and precocious puberty. CT showed a calcified mass with central cystic zones. MR imaging showed a markedly hyperintense predominately solid tumor on both T1- and T2-weighted images, without appreciable contrast enhancement. Cerebral neurocytomas are histologically benign and radical surgery is curative; they should be included in the differential diagnosis of temporal lobe tumors in children.  (+info)

An analysis of herpes simplex virus gene expression during latency establishment and reactivation. (8/953)

In order to facilitate an analysis of the pattern of herpes simplex virus gene expression during latency establishment and reactivation, recombinant viruses containing the lacZ reporter gene under control of either the immediate early 110 (IE110) promoter or the latency-associated promoter have been constructed. Histochemical staining of ganglia taken from mice infected with these viruses allows for the rapid identification and quantification of sensory neurones in which these two promoters are active. Using the mouse ear model, this study demonstrates that, during the establishment of latency in vivo, IE110 promoter activity is only detectable in ganglia which provide innervation to the site of virus inoculation. Latency, however, is efficiently established not only in these ganglia, but also in adjacent ganglia whose neurones do not innervate the ear, and in which there was no evidence of IE110 expression during the acute phase of infection. This implies that replication-competent virus can efficiently establish latency in the absence of detectable IE110 expression. In addition, it has been possible to investigate viral gene expression in neurones following ganglionic explant culture by monitoring IE110 promoter-driven lacZ expression within reactivating neurones. This study shows that virus can be reactivated from all latently infected ganglia, but that reactivation appears to be more efficient from ganglia which provide innervation to the site of infection. The implications of these results for the mechanisms involved in latency establishment and reactivation are discussed.  (+info)

The Central Ganglion was a science fiction fanzine published by David Gordon-McDonald, Paula Johanson, E.B. Klassen, and Garth Spencer. Emerging from Victoria, British Columbia, Canada in the Spring of 1982, The Central Ganglion was conceived of by the editors as an interclub newsletter. The editors, calling themselves The Ganglion of Four, hoped to improve communications between Victorias four or five warring clubs and factions. Robert Runté wrote, It was one of Canadas better club newsletters, especially considering it didnt actually have its own club. The fanzine ran for approximately 11 issues, with the last issue appearing in November of 1983. Contributions included artwork by Dan Cawsey. David Gordon MacDonald as also a co-editor of Atavachron. Garth Spencer was also publishing The Maple Leaf Rag at the same time as The Central Ganglion. ...
The major function of the peripheral ganglia is to connect the central nervous system to the different parts of the body. The peripheral ganglia are found near target organs in the upper area of the body, more specifically, in the head. You can also find them in the abdomen, thorax, stomach, spleen, and liver kidney along the pelvis area, which act as the target organs. The genital organs and small intestines are also involved and they respond to innervations initiated by the postganglionic neurons. The peripheral ganglia are responsible in coordinating innervations coming from other organs and cells to the central nervous system.. ...
Today 56 newspapers in 45 countries take the unprecedented step of speaking with one voice through a common editorial. We do so because humanity faces a profound emergency.. Unless we combine to take decisive action, climate change will ravage our planet, and with it our prosperity and security. The dangers have been becoming apparent for a generation. Now the facts have started to speak: 11 of the past 14 years have been the warmest on record, the Arctic ice-cap is melting and last years inflamed oil and food prices provide a foretaste of future havoc. In scientific journals the question is no longer whether humans are to blame, but how little time we have got left to limit the damage. Yet so far the worlds response has been feeble and half-hearted.. Climate change has been caused over centuries, has consequences that will endure for all time and our prospects of taming it will be determined in the next 14 days. We call on the representatives of the 192 countries gathered in Copenhagen not to ...
Somehow the problem just keeps getting worse. Because we are unwilling to face a future without cars--in fact, we seem to be quite willing to sacrifice the world on the altar of the car--we seem willing to do anything to keep the cars rolling. Biofuels are one such approach; sequester carbon in plants, then convert the plants to usable fuel, and burn the fuel to keep the cars rolling while re-emitting the same carbon. The thinking is that this is, if not a zero-sum game, at least a significant reduction in the amount of carbon being added to the atmosphere. And its a great way to subsidize farmers (something all governments try to do) and an opportunity for big capital to open up a brand new market (with significant government subsidy. Without which, big capital doesnt do shit). But, of course, things arent as simple as they seem. Thus this article in the 25 March 2008 Guardian ...
Weberwomans Wrevenge was an Australian science fiction fandom and literary zine by Jean Weber. It was published from 1981 till 2000. Art work was contributed by Sheryl Birkhead, Tom Cardy, Jerry Collins, Terry Collister, Alison Cowling, Kevin Dillon, Richard Faulder (Xenophilia), Ken Fletcher (Rune), Steven Fox, Alexis Gilliland, Roelof Goudriaan, Craig Hilton, Peter Lempert, Eric Lindsay, Adrienne Losin, Mike McGann, John Packer, Bill Rotsler, Margaret Sanders, Jane Taubman, Arthur Thomson (The ATom Anthology), Julie Vaux, Sam Wagar, and Mel White. Written contributions were by Andy Andruschek, Chris Callahan, Glen Crawford, Stephen Dedman, David Evans, Terry Frost, Irwin Hirsh (Sikander, Thyme), Paula Johanson (The Central Ganglion), E.B. Klassen (The Central Ganglion), Dave Locke (Time and Again) Lyn McConchie, Ellie Miller, Marc Ortlieb (Q36, Tigger, The Australian Science Fiction Bullsheet), Pete Presford, Charlotte Proctor (Anvil), Alex Stewart, Julie Vaux, Sam Wagar, and Joy Window. ...
TY - THES. T1 - Peripheral ganglia and the eye : a connection tracing study. AU - ten Tusscher, M.P.M.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. M3 - Doctoral Thesis. PB - Rijksuniversiteit Limburg. CY - Maastricht. ER - ...
Id: 2258 2010-02-01 16:29:15Z d_pocock $ # # ganglia.spec. Generated from by configure. # # IMPORTANT NOTE: # This spec file has a noarch section. RPM is braindead in that it cannot # build mixed architecture packages. As a workaround, you must build # the RPMs using the following commandline # # % rpmbuild -ta --target noarch,i386 ganglia-3.1.7.tar.bz2 # Summary: Ganglia Distributed Monitoring System Name: ganglia Version: 3.1.7 %define lib_version 3_1_7-0 URL: Release: 5 License: BSD Vendor: Ganglia Development Team ,[email protected], Group: System/Monitoring Source: %{name}-%{version}.tar.gz Patch0: bug275_ganglia.php.patch Patch1: diskmetrics.patch Patch2: ganglia-no-private-apr.patch Buildroot: %{_tmppath}/%{name}-%{version}-buildroot BuildRequires: libpng-devel, libart_lgpl-devel, gcc-c++, python-devel, libconfuse-devel, pcre-devel %if 0%{?suse_version} BuildRequires: freetype2-devel, libapr1-devel %if ...
Ganglia is a scalable distributed system monitor tool for high-performance computing systems such as clusters and grids. It allows the user to remotely view live or historical statistics (such as CPU load averages or network utilization) for all machines that are being monitored. Ganglia is available as the ganglia package on the AUR, along with the web frontend ganglia-web. The Ganglia Wiki contains all the information you need to get started with Ganglia. ...
what is ganglion? explain in terms of cns and cell bodies. Dear Soumya, Ganglion (plural ganglia): Dense group of nerve-cell bodies present in most animals. In
An explanation of the seven basic chakras, which correlate to the seven main nerve ganglia emanating from the spinal column. Each chakra location has a unique meaning, orientation and healing potential and is represented by a color and stone. Read more here.
This page will give you information about Ganglion removal surgery. A ganglion is a lump under your skin that contains fluid. Most ganglions form near the wrist.They are also found on your ankle and foot.
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版acousticofacial ganglion是什么意思,acousticofacial ganglion的用法,acousticofacial ganglion翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
Ganglion surgery is performed by Mr Balint in Worcestershire and West Midlands. Check to know ganglion symptoms and causes information.
Describes the Ganglia layer, which supports Ganglia, a distributed monitoring system that manages the storage and visualization of instance metrics.
If you have made any changes to Nagios or Ganglia addons code (mon_dashboard/src/addOns/[ganglia,nagios]), you will also have to install hdp_mon_ganglia_addons- and hdp_mon_nagios_addons- on the hosts running Ganglia and Nagios server, respectively, to make your changes effective. After your Hadoop cluster is installed using Ambari, go to the host(s) running Nagios and Ganglia server, remove these pre-installed addon RPMs for Nagios and Ganglia, and install the new ones built from the source. To build these RPMs from the source, run:. ...
The gmond.conf file is used to configure the ganglia monitoring daemon (gmond) which is part of the Ganglia Distributed Monitoring System. SECTIONS AND ATTRIBUTES
Saat Rocks 5.2 diupgrade ke 5.2.2, semua node menghilang dari tampilan ganglia. Setelah dilihat, ternyata setting-an pada /etc/ganglia/gmond.conf antara front-end dan compute node berbeda alamat multicast, dan harus disamakan jadi: ...
Cara Mengobati Kista Ganglion Sampai Sembuh - Dengan Obat herbal Jelly Gamat Gold-G telah terbukti ampuh mengobati dan menghilangkan Kista Ganglion anda tanpa operai. Jelly Gamat Gold-G ini terbuat dari bahan alami yaitu dari spesies teripang emas yang mempunya banya kandungan dan manfaat bagi...
Cara Menyembuhkan Ganglion Di Pergelangan Tangan Tanpa Operasi Untuk Anak Dan Dewasa Cara menyembuhkan ganglion di pergelangan tangan tanpa operasi yang efektif, cepat dan aman tanpa menimbulkan adanya efeksamping adalah… Read more ». ...
Any group of nerve cell bodies in the central or peripheral nervous system but also used to refer to a cyst containing mucopolysaccharide rich fluid within fibrous tissue
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Ganglia is a open-source project that grew out of the University of California, Berkeley Millennium Project. Its a scalable distributed monitoring system for high-performance computing systems such as clusters and Grids. It is based on a hierarchical design targeted at federations of clusters. This tutorial will help you make better use of the grid resources…
wget rpm -Uhv yum install libpng-devel libart_lgpl-devel rrdtool-devel freetype-devel rrdtool-devel rpmbuild --rebuild ganglia-3.0.7-1.src.rpm rpm -ivh /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/x86_64/ganglia-gmetad-3.0.7-1.x86_64.rpm /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/x86_64/ganglia-gmond-3.0.7-1.x86_64.rpm /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/x86_64/ganglia-devel-3.0.7-1.x86_64. ...
15歳の中学生がバンドのMVをスマホでつくってみた。】 「15歳の女子中学生MaDoKa」と 海外でも活動を広げるガールズ・エモーショナル・ロックバ ...
This project is used by ganglia to prepare packages for openSUSE:Factory submissions. Usually all package changes should get submitted here for review and testing first. REPOSITORIES REMOVED BY ADMIN DUE AS ...
Ganglia is a scalable, distributed monitoring system for high-performance computing systems such as clusters and grids. It is based on a hierarchical...
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Arti dan makna apa itu semilunar ganglion adalah dalam istilah kedokteran, Kedokteran Hewan. Kamus, arti dan daftar istilah kedokteran, Kedokteran Hewan lengkap dari berbagai sumber terpercaya.
Invoke automatic rotation system. Automatic rotation rotates all of the graphs/metrics specified in a view waiting 30 seconds in between each. This will run as long as you have this page open. Please select the view you want to rotate.. ...
Invoke automatic rotation system. Automatic rotation rotates all of the graphs/metrics specified in a view waiting 30 seconds in between each. This will run as long as you have this page open. Please select the view you want to rotate.. ...
Its usually best to choose a WikiWord for the new topic name, otherwise automatic linking may not work. Characters not allowed in topic names, such as spaces will automatically be removed.. ...
神經節(英語:ganglion)在解剖學上是一個生物組織叢集,通常是神經細胞體的集合[1][2]。在神經節內的細胞稱為神經節細胞,雖然這一詞有時會特別用來指視網膜神經節細胞。 ...
AN APACHE GIRLS PUBERTY DRESS c. 1910 the two-piece dress composed of tanned hide, each side decorated with - Available at 2008 June American Indian Art...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spontaneous activity in the statoacoustic ganglion of the chicken embryo. AU - Jones, Timothy A.. AU - Jones, Sherri M.. PY - 2000/3/30. Y1 - 2000/3/30. N2 - Statoacoustic ganglion cells in the mature bird include neurons that are responsive to sound (auditory) and those that are not (nonauditory). Those that are nonauditory have been shown to innervate an otolith organ, the macula lagena, whereas auditory neurons innervate the basilar papilla. In the present study, single-unit recordings of statoacoustic ganglion cells were made in embryonic (E19, mean = 19.2 days of incubation) and hatchling (P6- P14, mean = 8.6 days posthatch) chickens. Spontaneous activity from the two age groups was compared with developmental changes. Activity was evaluated for 47 auditory, 11 nonauditory, and 6 undefined eighth nerve neurons in embryos and 29 auditory, 26 nonauditory, and 1 undefined neurons in hatchlings. For auditory neurons, spontaneous activity displayed an irregular pattern [discharge ...
Atrial ganglionated plexus Stimulation Prevents Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Arrhythmias by Preserving Connexin43 Protein. Background: Vagal nerve stimulation has been shown to provide protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) arrhythmias. Since atrial epicardial ganglionated plexuses contain a large amount of parasympathetic elements, we hypothesize atrial epicardial ganglionated plexus stimulation (GP-S) may be an alternative to vagal nerve stimulation for preventing arrhythmias induced by myocardial I/R.. Methods and Results: Twenty one dogs were randomly divided into GP stimulation (GP-S) group (N=11) and control group (N=10). Myocardial I/R was induced by first 2 hours of reperfusion in dogs subjected to 45 minutes of ischemia with occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). A bipolar plaque electrode was sutured overlying the fad pad containing the superior left ganglionated plexus (SLGP), which located at the junction of left pulmonary artery and left ...
Zhou, Y.,Tan, C.K.,Ling, E.A. (1997). Distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons in the intramural ganglia of guinea pig urinary bladder. Journal of Anatomy 190 (1) : 135-145. [email protected] Repository. ...
In this study the relative potencies of four established molluscan cardioexcitatory agents were examined on Buccinum heart. The potencies were, in decending order: phenylalanine-leucine-arginine-phenylalanine-NH2 (FLRFamide) , phenylalanine-methionine-arginine-phenylalanine-NH2 (FMRFamide; 80% of maximum) , 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 60% of maximum) , guanosine triphosphate (GTP; 15% of maximum). FMRFamide and FLRFamide had similar dose-response curve patterns with thresholds at 10−9 mol l−1 but FLRFamide was more potent than FMRFamide. The superfused atrium was much less sensitive to all agonists than the internally perfused ventricle. FLRFamide and FMRFamide induced small depolarizations (1-2 mV) which triggered a burst of action potentials of about 5 mV which on reaching 4 mV triggered a burst of fast twitch contractions. Lithium, at high concentrations inhibited FMRFamide and 5-HT responses of internally perfused ventricles. Neomycin also inhibited peptide responses, but was without ...
The recent implementation of PET with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-specific radiotracers into the clinical practice has resulted in the significant improvement of accuracy in the detection of prostate carcinoma (PCa). PSMA-expression in ganglia has been regarded as an important pitfall in prostate carcinoma-PET diagnostics but has not found any practical use for diagnosis or therapy. We explored this phenomenon and demonstrated the applicability of peripheral ganglia in healthy rats as surrogates for small PSMA positive lesions for the preclinical evaluation of diagnostic PCa PET probes. Healthy rats were measured with PET/CT using the tracers [18F]DCFPyL, [Al18F]PSMA-11 and [68Ga]PSMA-11. Sections of ganglia were stained with an anti-PSMA antibody. [18F]DCFPyL uptake in ganglia was compared to that in LNCaP tumor xenografts in mice. Whereas [18F]DCFPyL and [68Ga]PSMA-11 were stable in vivo and accumulated in peripheral ganglia, [Al18F]PSMA-11 suffered from fast in vivo deflourination
The transport of neuropeptides between central ganglia was studied in Aplysia. Peptide transport was determined by incubating ganglia with 35S-methionine and measuring the appearance of labeled peptides in connected ganglia. Selected interganglionic connectives were left intact and passed through a diffusion barrier separating the ganglia. Labeled peptides transported between ganglia included FMRFamide, myomodulin, and pedal peptide. Each of these peptides has been shown to be physiologically active in Aplysia. In addition to these previously characterized neuropeptides, a number of other as yet uncharacterized labeled peptides were also transported. All the peptides were transported by fast axonal transport as judged by the distance transported and/or the sensitivity to colchicine. Overall, FMRFamide and several unidentified peptides were the predominant transported peptides. However, the nature and amount of the peptides transported differed for each ganglia. These results support the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - THE DISTRIBUTION OF SEVERAL AMINO ACIDS IN SPECIFIC GANGLIA AND NERVE BUNDLES OF THE LOBSTER. AU - Aprison, M. H.. AU - Mcbride, W. J.. AU - Freeman, A. R.. PY - 1973/7. Y1 - 1973/7. N2 - Using the technique of measuring DNP amino acid methyl esters by gas liquid chromatography, the distribution of alanine, proline, glycine, GABA, glutamate and aspartate was determined in individual ganglia and the associated nerve bundles between these ganglia after isolation from the nervous system of the lobster, Homarus americanus. The brain or supraesophageal ganglion (27.2 mg) and the next 5 thoracic ganglia (varying from 24 to 10 mg in a rostral caudal direction) as well as the nerve bundles connecting these ganglia were used. GABA and aspartate values varied the most among the individual ganglia; highest values were found in the second and third thoracic ganglia. The levels of alanine, proline, glycine and glutamate varied very little from ganglion to ganglion; however, the values for ...
Aplysia californica (Alacrity, Redondo Beach, CA), weighing 80-120 g, were anesthetized by injection of isotonic MgCl2, and their abdominal and pleural-pedal ganglia were removed. Prior to desheathing, ganglia were treated with 0.5% glutaraldehyde for 50 s to prevent contraction of muscle cells in the remaining sheath. Ganglia were secured with minuten pins on wax in a recording chamber and desheathed in a 1:1 mixture of MgCl2 and artificial sea water. In experiments on facilitation of depressed synapses, synaptic connections between LE siphon SNs and LFS MNs in the abdominal ganglion were recorded after the left ventral surface of the ganglion was desheathed. In experiments on spike broadening in SNs, pleural ganglia were desheathed to expose the SNs in the ventrocaudal (VC) cluster.. Experiments were performed at room temperature. Ganglia were superfused with high-Mg2+/high-Ca2+ culture medium (6 × normal Ca2+, 1.6 × normal Mg2+) (Goldsmith and Abrams 1991) to reduce polysynaptic input and ...
The Buccal neurons are divided into motoneurons, which innervate muscles and interneurons, which are mostly confined to the buccal ganglion. The interneurons are active in turn, with each type of nterneuron only active in one phase of the rhythm. Motoneurons may be active in more than one phase. the picture below shows a simplified diagram, showing which neurons are active in any one phase ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
The insect ventral nerve cord consists of metamerically repeated ganglia subserving the thoracic and abdominal segments. The abdominal ganglia control basic functions such as respiration, circulation, heartbeat, diuresis, hindgut motility, functions of the genitalia and ovipositor and abdominal post …
This is the first article in a two-part series that looks at a hands-on approach to monitoring a data center using the open source tools Ganglia and Nagios. In Part 1, see how to install and configure Ganglia, the scalable, distributed monitoring system for high-performance clusters based on a hierarchical design. Also learn how to add more monitoring capability by writing Ganglia plug-ins and by enabling external-source spoofing.
If the ganglion is asymptomatic it may not require any treatment whatsoever.. Conservative management of a ganglion consists of aspiration of the jellylike fluid and an injection of a steroid solution into the ganglion sac. This may be effective in preventing long-term recurrence in approximately 30% of patients.. If a ganglion recurs following aspiration and is symptomatic it can be removed by a small operation which is normally carried out either by numbing the arm or under a general anaesthetic. This is usually successful in preventing long-term recurrence in 70-80% of patients.. ...
The default file name is nagios_ganglia.cache in your Ganglia installs conf_dir (check out your conf.php in ganglia-webs root directory). In my case, the file was a couple weeks old, which is considerably more than the default 45 second age it was configured for! When I looked at the working system in the other DC, I saw the file being updated multiple times per minute - more often than the 45 seconds configured in conf.php - so I began to suspect that the Nagios checks themselves were triggering the cache refresh. A quick check of /var/log/httpd/ganglia_error_log made it blindingly obvious ...
Obat Kista Ganglion Obat kista ganglion yang ampuh dan tepat untuk anda pilih dalam melakukan pengobatan kista ganglion ialah Ace Maxs yang mampu mengobati kista ganglion yang saat ini anda derita secara aman tanpa menimbulkan efek samping apa ...
Ganglion removal surgery. Close-up of an orthopaedic surgeon removing a ganglion from a patients hand. A ganglion is a cyst-like mass of nervous tissue. - Stock Image C008/5181
Ganglia training gives knowledge on Collecting and Visualizing metrics. Ganglia Corporate Course from india gives best job support by top experts.
Maer term ganglia yn cyfeirio at y system nerfol ymylol. Fodd bynnag, yn yr ymennydd (rhan or system nerfol ganolog), maer ganglia gwaelodol yn grŵp o niwclysau syn gysylltiedig âr cortex, y thalamws a choesyn yr ymennydd, syn gysylltiedig ag amrywiaeth o swyddogaethau: rheolaeth dros symudiadau, gwybyddiaeth, emosiynau, a dysg. Yn rhannol oherwydd yr amwysedd hwn, maer Terminologia Anatomica yn argymell defnyddior term niwclews sylfaenol yn hytrach na ganglia gwaelodol; fodd bynnag, ni chafodd y defnydd hwn ei fabwysiadu yn gyffredinol. ...
The globals section configures the general characteristics of the daemon itself. It should appear only once in the configuration file. 1: globals { daemonize = yes setuid = yes user = nobody debug_level = 0 max_udp_msg_len = 1472 Configuring Ganglia , 23 } mute = no deaf = no allow_extra_data = yes host_dmax = 86400 /*secs. Expires (removes from web interface) hosts in 1 day */ host_tmax = 20 /*secs */ cleanup_threshold = 300 /*secs */ gexec = no send_metadata_interval = 0 /*secs */ daemonize (boolean) When true, gmond will fork and run in the background. Configure --with-gmetad LDFLAGS=-L/opt/local/lib CPPFLAGS=-I/opt/local/include Compile and install Ganglia: $ make $ sudo make install Solaris Convenient binary packages for Solaris are distributed in the OpenCSW collection. Follow the standard procedure to install the OpenCSW. Run the pkgutil tool on Solaris, and then use the tool to install the package: $ pkgutil $ CSWgangliagmetad The default location for the configuration files on ...
The scope of Ganglia and Nagios is enormous. What we have touched on here though is relevant to a cluster, grid, or cloud infrastructure. In Part 2, learn how to install and configure Nagios to watch hosts and services, alerting users when things go wrong. The article also shows you how to unite Nagios with Ganglia (from Part 1) and add two other features to Nagios for standard clusters, grids, and clouds to help with monitoring network switches and the resource manager ...
Um gânglio é um conjunto de pilhas de nervo encontradas no sistema nervoso periférico. As pilhas que são específicas a um gânglio são chamadas pilhas do gânglio
Swollen Ganglion Neck - Page 4/10 - : Tous les Résultats relatifs à votre recherche sont disponibles, il suffit dessayer : Swollen Ganglion Neck
Swollen Ganglion Neck - Page 8/1 - : Tous les Résultats relatifs à votre recherche sont disponibles, il suffit dessayer : Swollen Ganglion Neck kabar baik untuk anda yang kini menderita penyakit kista ganglion dan sudah melakukan berbagai pengobatan bahkan operasi, namun belum kunjung juga sembuh. Kini telah hadir Obat Herbal QnC Jelly Gamat sebagai solusi sekaligus alternatif Cara Mengobati Kista Ganglion Tanpa Operasi yang efektif dan tentunya tidak membahayakan tubuh.. ...
Definition of ganglion cell - A neuron (nerve cell); specifically (in later use) one with a cell body that is located in the peripheral (rather than central) ne
|p lang=en-GB||strong|PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS|/strong||/p| |p lang=en-GB|- Compression wrist support for the compression of a ganglion ad adjuvant therapy|/p| |p||span style=color: #000000;|- Individually adjustable a|/span||span style=color: #000
The distribution of fibrous flexor sheath ganglions was studied in 57 patients. They were found to be more common in the third decade and in the middle finger. Both hands were equally affected. There was no clear relationship to occupation or repeate
ganglia: Fix labtest descriptions Name is not a valid key there since Ic5548d1d5ff4ffeef9c635ade3d59d23a4dc39d6 Change-Id: Ifbb96cd8e47da27a9bdf0affaa087f5b43dea9e3 --- M hieradata/common.yaml 1 file changed, 2 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) Approvals: Alexandros Kosiaris: Verified; Looks good to me, approved diff --git a/hieradata/common.yaml b/hieradata/common.yaml index 2592115..6f25a70 100644 --- a/hieradata/common.yaml +++ b/hieradata/common.yaml @@ -261,12 +261,12 @@ sites: eqiad: [] labtestvirt: - name: Labtest virt hosts + description: Labtest virt hosts id: 57 sites: codfw: [] labtest: - name: Labtest services + description: Labtest services id: 58 sites: codfw: [] -- To view, visit To unsubscribe, visit Gerrit-MessageType: merged Gerrit-Change-Id: Ifbb96cd8e47da27a9bdf0affaa087f5b43dea9e3 Gerrit-PatchSet: 1 Gerrit-Project: operations/puppet Gerrit-Branch: production Gerrit-Owner: Alexandros Kosiaris ...
Ganglion lyrics by Mirrorthrone: Tristesse en devenir, si pйnible а subir / Infectait par milliers les pauvres cњurs ingrats / Dйvoilant
apache / incubator-retired-slider / e58cb2f5a1e89e1c12cbf088a8936a58c81b552e / . / app-packages / storm-v0_91 / ganglia_metrics.json ...
They are sometimes referred to as the semilunar ganglia or the solar ganglia. The celiac ganglion is part of the sympathetic ... The celiac ganglia or coeliac ganglia are two large irregularly shaped masses of nerve tissue in the upper abdomen. Part of the ... The main preganglion neurotransmitter of the celiac ganglion is acetylcholine, yet the celiac ganglion-mesenteric complex also ... the two celiac ganglia are the largest ganglia in the ANS, and they innervate most of the digestive tract. They have the ...
... pterygopalatine ganglion, submandibular ganglion) glossopharyngeal nerve (otic ganglion) vagus nerve (no named ganglion) pelvic ... Parasympathetic ganglia are the autonomic ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system. Most are small terminal ganglia or ... Some ganglia also carry special sensory fibers (SVA) for taste sensation. oculomotor nerve (ciliary ganglion) facial nerve ( ... These paired ganglia supply all parasympathetic innervation to the head and neck. ciliary ganglion (sphincter pupillae, ciliary ...
The lumbar ganglia are paravertebral ganglia located in the inferior portion of the sympathetic trunk. The lumbar portion of ... Paravertebral ganglia are divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral ganglia. Each controls different glands and ... Superiorly, it is continuous with thoracic sympathetic ganglion and inferiorly continuous with sacral sympathetic ganglion. ... The upper two lumbar ganglia (L1 and L2) of the sympathetic chain also give rise to the lumbar splanchnic nerves. Splanchnic ...
Free and open-source software portal Official website Ganglia (software) on SourceForge "Ganglia". Freecode. Wikimedia Ganglia ... "Release 3.7.2". Ganglia Monitoring System Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ganglia (software). ... The ganglia system comprises two unique daemons, a PHP-based web front-end, and a few other small utility programs. Gmond is a ... Therefore, the Ganglia web front-end should run on a fairly powerful, dedicated machine if it presents a large amount of data. ...
The sacral ganglia are paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic trunk.:39 As the sympathetic trunk heads inferiorly down the ... Near the coccyx, the right and left sympathetic trunks join to form the ganglion impar. The sacral ganglia innervate blood ... There are generally four or five sacral ganglia. In addition to gray rami communicantes, the ganglia send off sacral splanchnic ... v t e (Articles with TA98 identifiers, Autonomic ganglia, All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs). ...
The segmental ganglia (singular: s. ganglion) are ganglia of the annelid and arthropod central nervous system that lie in the ... The ventral nerve cord itself is a chain of ([Metamerism (biology),metamerism ganglia, some compressed. Smarandache-Wellmann, ...
... may refer to: Submucous plexus Myenteric plexus This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the ... title Enteric ganglia. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended ...
... (or collateral ganglia, or preaortic ganglia) lie between the sympathetic ganglia and the target organ. ... the celiac ganglia (which can include the aorticorenal ganglion), 2. superior mesenteric ganglia, and 3. inferior mesenteric ... Similar to the paravertebral ganglia, the prevertebral ganglia are the nodules where preganglionic neurons synapse with their ... The nerves that synapse in the prevertebral ganglia innervate the pelvic viscera. Some of the targets present in the pelvic ...
The basal ganglia are situated at the base of the forebrain and top of the midbrain. Basal ganglia are strongly interconnected ... Basal ganglia disease is a group of movement disorders that result from either excessive output from the basal ganglia to the ... The term ganglia is a misnomer: In modern usage, neural clusters are called "ganglia" only in the peripheral nervous system; in ... The International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS) informally considers the basal ganglia to be made up of the striatum, the ...
The inferior ganglion may be fused with the first thoracic ganglion to form a single structure, the stellate ganglion. - ... The cervical ganglion has three paravertebral ganglia: superior cervical ganglion (largest) - adjacent to C2 & C3; ... Unlike all other ganglia, the medial branches of the cervical ganglia are 95% postganglionic axons. Muscles, arteries and ... The cervical ganglia are paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. Preganglionic nerves from the thoracic spinal ...
The sympathetic ganglia, or paravertebral ganglia are autonomic ganglia, of the sympathetic nervous system. Ganglia are 20,000 ... These include the celiac ganglia, superior mesenteric ganglia, and inferior mesenteric ganglia. Schematic Illustration of ... The chain extends from the upper neck down to the coccyx, forming the unpaired coccygeal ganglion. Each ganglion within this ... There are usually 22-23 pairs of these ganglia: 3 in the cervical region (cervical ganglia), 11 in the thoracic region (note ...
The term ganglia may refer to: Plural form of ganglion, a cluster of neurons Lymph node Ganglion cyst Ganglia (software), a ... Look up ganglia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... page lists articles associated with the title Ganglia. If an ... scalable distributed monitoring system for high-performance computing systems Ganglion (disambiguation) This disambiguation ...
The thoracic ganglia are paravertebral ganglia. The thoracic portion of the sympathetic trunk typically has 12 thoracic ganglia ... Sympathetic connections of the ciliary and superior cervical ganglia. v t e (Articles with TA98 identifiers, Autonomic ganglia ... Emerging from the ganglia are thoracic splanchnic nerves (the cardiopulmonary, the greater, lesser, and least splanchnic nerves ... the ganglia of the thoracic sympathetic trunk have both white and gray rami communicantes. The white rami communicantes carry ...
It has a dual role as a regulator of, and of being regulated by the basal ganglia. In the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo- ... The primate central complex as one of the basal ganglia. In The Basal Ganglia III Bernardi, G. et al. (eds) pp. 177-186. Plenum ... The basal ganglia form a major brain system in all species of vertebrates, but in primates (including humans) there are special ... 2004) to propose that the complex be linked in a way or another to the basal ganglia system. A review on its role in the system ...
... ciliary ganglion pterygopalatine ganglion otic ganglion submandibular ganglion trigeminal ganglion (CN V) geniculate ganglion ( ... CN VII) spiral ganglion (CN VIII) vestibular ganglion aka Scarpa's ganglion (CN VIII) superior ganglion of glossopharyngeal ... In neuroanatomy, the cranial nerve ganglia are ganglia of certain cranial nerves. They can be parasympathetic or sensory. All ... nerve inferior ganglion of glossopharyngeal nerve superior ganglion of vagus nerve inferior ganglion of vagus nerve Purves, ...
Blepharospasm may come from abnormal functioning of the brain's basal ganglia. Many disorders of the basal ganglia are due to ... Though motor disorders are the most common associated with the basal ganglia, recent research shows that basal ganglia ... primarily in the basal ganglia. About 0.3-1.5% of people have asymptomatic basal ganglia calcifications. Blepharospasm is any ... Basal ganglia disease is a group of physical problems that occur when the group of nuclei in the brain known as the basal ...
Ganglia often interconnect with other ganglia to form a complex system of ganglia known as a plexus. Ganglia provide relay ... Among vertebrates there are three major groups of ganglia: Dorsal root ganglia (also known as the spinal ganglia) contain the ... Cranial nerve ganglia contain the cell bodies of cranial nerve neurons. Autonomic ganglia contain the cell bodies of autonomic ... A pseudoganglion looks like a ganglion, but only has nerve fibers and has no nerve cell bodies. Ganglia are primarily made up ...
The suboesophageal ganglion (acronym: SOG; synonym: subesophageal ganglion) of arthropods and in particular insects is part of ... and to the first thoracic ganglion (or protothoracic ganglion). Its nerves innervate the sensory organs and muscles of the ... Neurons in the suboesophageal ganglion control movement of the head and neck as well. It is composed of three pairs of fused ... As part of the ventral nerve cord, it is connected (via pairs of connections) to the brain (or supraoesophageal ganglion) ...
Ganglion may also refer to: Ganglion cyst Ganglion (band), a musical act from Calgary, Alberta, Canada Ganglia (disambiguation ... Look up Ganglion or ganglion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Ganglion is a biological tissue mass, most commonly a mass of ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Ganglion. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
... and inferior mesenteric ganglia. This is distinct from the celiac ganglia. However, they are part of the preaortic ganglia. ... The aorticorenal ganglion is composed of the superior mesenteric, renal, ... and synapses in the celiac ganglion before proceeding onto the foregut. Below this the lesser splanchnic nerve arises from T10- ... T11, leaves the sympathetic chain and synapses at the aorticorenal ganglion before going onto also supply the kidney and upper ...
Below, the two pelvic sympathetic trunks converge, and end on the front of the coccyx in a small ganglion, the ganglion impar, ... also known as azygos or ganglion of Walther. A study found that in some cases a single injection of nerve block at the ganglion ... ganglion impar - azygos. Foye P, Buttaci C, Stitik T, Yonclas P (2006). "Successful injection for coccyx pain". Am J Phys Med ... Munir MA, Zhang J, Ahmad M. (2004) "A modified needle-inside-needle technique for the ganglion impar block." Can J Anaesth. ...
The stellate ganglion (or cervicothoracic ganglion) is a sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical ... The stellate ganglion is relatively big (10-12 x 8-20 mm) compared to much smaller thoracic, lumbar and sacral ganglia, and is ... It is thought that anesthetic is spread along the paravertebral muscles to the stellate ganglion. Stellate ganglion block also ... ganglion, which exists in 80% of people. Sometimes, the second and the third thoracic ganglia are included in this fusion. ...
... may refer to: Inferior cervical ganglion Inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion Inferior ganglion of vagus ... nerve Inferior ganglion of glossopharyngeal nerve Inferior mesenteric ganglion This disambiguation page lists articles ... associated with the title Inferior ganglion. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
The geniculate ganglion is one of several ganglia of the head and neck. Like the others, it is a bilaterally distributed ... The geniculate ganglion is an important surgical landmark near the internal auditory meatus. The geniculate ganglion may become ... much like the Dorsal root ganglion neurons relay signal to nuclei in the spinal cord. Via the geniculate ganglion, the facial ... do not synapse in the geniculate ganglion. Instead, the cells of the geniculate ganglion relay the signal to the appropriate ...
A vagus ganglion (plural: vagus ganglia) is a small, elongated ganglion located between the esophagus and aorta. They mark the ... nervous system neuron ganglion "vagus nerve." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. ... Nervous ganglia of the torso, Vagus nerve, All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs). ...
The others are the otic ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, and ciliary ganglion). The submandibular ganglion is small and ... The submandibular ganglion (or submaxillary ganglion in older texts) is part of the human autonomic nervous system. It is one ... Like other parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck, the submandibular ganglion is the site of synapse for parasympathetic ... Autonomic ganglia of the head and neck, Mandibular nerve, Parasympathetic ganglia). ...
A trigeminal ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or semilunar ganglion, or Gasser's ganglion) is the sensory ganglion at the base ... The otic ganglion and its branches. Trigeminal ganglion Trigeminal ganglion. Deep dissection. Superior view. This article ... The greater superficial petrosal nerve lies also underneath the ganglion. The ganglion receives, on its medial side, filaments ... The motor root runs in front of and medial to the sensory root, and passes beneath the ganglion; it leaves the skull through ...
The vestibular ganglion (also called Scarpa's ganglion) is the ganglion of the vestibular nerve. It is located inside the ... The ganglion contains the cell bodies of bipolar neurons whose peripheral processes form synaptic contact with hair cells of ... Sato H; Sando I; Takahashi H (September 1992). "Three-dimensional anatomy of human Scarpa's ganglion". Laryngoscope. 102 (9): ...
... may refer to: inferior mesenteric ganglion superior mesenteric ganglion This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Mesenteric ganglion. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to ...
... ganglion volar wrist ganglion volar retinaculum ganglion extensor retinaculum ganglion occult ganglion intraosseous ganglion ... the ganglion cyst is unrelated to the neural "ganglion" or "ganglion cell"; its etymology traces back to the ancient Greek ... Between 50 and 70% of all masses on the hand and wrist are expected to be ganglion cysts. Ganglion cysts most frequently occur ... Although most commonly found in the wrist, ganglion cysts also may occur in the foot. Ganglion cysts are "commonly observed in ...
Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement. ... Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement. ... A common cause of the symptoms of basal ganglia dysfunction is chronic use of medicines used to treat schizophrenia. ... Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause problems controlling speech, movement, and posture. This combination of symptoms is ...
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It is hypothesized that trauma leads to an increase in nerve growth factor in the stellate ganglion. This in turn leads to a ... Stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) "seems to significantly improve PTSD symptoms as well as significantly reduce or eliminate ... Cite this: Stellate Ganglion Block a Potential Lifesaver in Severe PTSD - Medscape - May 19, 2015. ...
The anatomy and physiology of the basal ganglia and their relation to brain and behavior, disorders and therapies, and ... The main task of the basal ganglia-a group of subcortical nuclei, located at the base of the brain-is to optimize and execute ... In this book, Hagai Bergman analyzes the anatomy and physiology of the basal ganglia, discussing their relation to brain and ... Focusing on studies of nonhuman primates and human basal ganglia and relying on system physiology and in vivo extra-cellular ...
Basal ganglia: A region of the base of the brain that consists of three clusters of neurons (caudate nucleus, putamen, and ... The basal ganglia are abnormal in a number of important neurologic conditions, including Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons ...
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... insideretinal ganglion cellsnatural visual scenesnatural images dependsalamander ganglion cellsencoding natural imagesganglion ... B) Left: One of the 300 natural images, overlaid with the 3-sigma outline of the receptive field of a sample retinal ganglion ... Simple model for encoding natural images by retinal ganglion cells with nonlinear spatial integration ...
The results suggest that atrophy of the basal ganglia occurs gradually, beginning years before symptom onset. ... Basal ganglia volume and proximity to onset in presymptomatic Huntington disease Arch Neurol. 1996 Dec;53(12):1293-6. doi: ... Gene-positive subjects who were far from onset had smaller basal ganglia volumes than gene-negative subjects for all structures ... Gene-positive subjects who were close to onset had smaller volumes than gene-negative subjects for all basal ganglia structures ...
... , Nerve Plexus Anatomy, Ganglion, Nerve Plexus. ... Ganglion Anatomy. Ganglion Anatomy Aka: Ganglion Anatomy, Nerve ... Ganglia, ganglion, Ganglionic, neural ganglion, a group of nerve cell, ganglia, Ganglion, GANGLION, Nervous system ganglion, ... spinal ganglion, trigeminal ganglion, superior cervical ganglion, celiac ganglion, inferior hypogastric (pelvic) ganglion. ... spinal ganglion, trigeminal ganglion, superior cervical ganglion, celiac ganglion, inferior hypogastric (pelvic) ganglion. ...
A ganglion cyst is a noncancerous lump that most commonly develops on the wrist or hand. It may be painful or restrict movement ... When a ganglion cyst presses on a nerve it can be painful. And depending on its location, a ganglion cyst may restrict movement ... A ganglion cyst removal does not guarantee that ganglion cysts will not return, and you may experience new cysts a few years ... Removal of severe ganglion cysts can be quite beneficial.. Some people with a ganglion cyst may never experience pain or ...
Accordingly, it moves, what makes Ganglion Reef so euphorically hypnotic is the way it translates bandleader Cory Hansons ... It seemingly depicts Ganglion Reef itself-an imaginary island that the members of Wand might just frequent from time to time, ... The insert that comes with Ganglion Reef, the debut album by Los Angeles Wand, is printed with the kind of map that might ... Plenty of new psych-rock albums are content to fill the signifier checklist and then just sit there, but Ganglion Reef is as ...
Basal Ganglia Pathophysiologys profile in Lund University Research portal Description. The basal ganglia are a group of ... Loss or dysfunction of neurons within the basal ganglia cause some typical motor symptoms, such as poverty of movement ( ... is the most common neurodegenerative disease affecting the basal ganglia. The typical lesion in PD consists in a loss of ... Website: ...
We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. Surprisingly, neurons ... The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye ... Basal ganglia Is the Subject Area "Basal ganglia" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... basal ganglia or cerebellum [4], [8], [24]. Therefore, in a subgroup of patients, we additionally studied the basal ganglia ...
API).. However, this functionality has been split into its own issue due to the additional transitive dependencies that these reporters bring:. ...
... Condition Basics. What are ganglions?. Ganglions are small sacs (cysts) filled with fluid that often appear as bumps ... Some ganglions can weaken your grip or affect joint motion. How are they diagnosed?. A ganglion can usually be diagnosed based ... How are ganglions treated?. Ganglions usually dont need treatment, and they often go away on their own. But treatment may be ... Most people with ganglions notice that the bumps appear suddenly. Bumps may be very small or bigger than a cherry. Ganglions ...
Grueneberg Ganglion Neurons Are Finely Tuned Cold Sensors Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal ... Grueneberg Ganglion Neurons Are Finely Tuned Cold Sensors. Andreas Schmid, Martina Pyrski, Martin Biel, Trese Leinders-Zufall, ... Grueneberg Ganglion Neurons Are Finely Tuned Cold Sensors. Andreas Schmid, Martina Pyrski, Martin Biel, Trese Leinders-Zufall, ... Grueneberg Ganglion Neurons Are Finely Tuned Cold Sensors. Andreas Schmid, Martina Pyrski, Martin Biel, Trese Leinders-Zufall ...
This illustration shows nerve cells from spinal ganglia. ... Nerve Cells from Spinal Ganglia. Add to Cart. , View Cart ⇗ , ...
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TRANSMISSION AND BLOCK IN SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Pharmacological ...
The presence of calcium deposition affecting one or more structures of the basal ganglia. ...
The purinergic receptors 2X3 on spiral ganglion neurons enhance the medial olivocochlear reflex in mice after long-term ... The purinergic receptors 2X3 on spiral ganglion neurons enhance the medial olivocochlear reflex in mice after long-term ... The purinergic receptors 2X3 on spiral ganglion neurons enhance the medial olivocochlear reflex in mice after long-term ... long-term moderate noise\r, medial olivocochlear\r, P2X\r, spiral ganglion neurons. ...
Category: ganglia. * Notes on installing Rocks Cluster Software…... - Front-end machine is a Dell 2950 with 2 x 1 GigE Broadcom ...
Hypomyelination with atrophy of basal ganglia and cerebellum. Disease definition A rare disorder characterized by slowly ... mild to severe cerebellar atrophy and atrophy of the basal ganglia. ...
Longitudinal change in basal ganglia volume in patients with Huntingtons disease. E. H. Aylward, Q. Li, O. C. Stine, N. Ranen ... Longitudinal change in basal ganglia volume in patients with Huntingtons disease. E. H. Aylward, Q. Li, O. C. Stine, N. Ranen ... Total basal ganglia volume was calculated by adding the volumes of the head of the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. ... Amount of basal ganglia change did not correlate significantly with QNE at time of initial imaging or duration of symptoms, ...
Ultrasound Stimulations Induce Prolonged Depolarization and Fast Action Potentials in Leech Neurons 800 345 IEEE Open Journal of Engineering in Medicine and Biology (OJEMB) IEEE Open Journal of Engineering in Medicine and Biology (OJEMB) // ...
What is a Dorsal Wrist Ganglion Cyst?. A ganglion cyst (synovial cyst) is a fluid filled membrane that can occur around any ... Ganglion cysts are caused when normal joint fluid leaks out of the joint capsule due to a capsular injury (sprain) or due to a ... Wrist ganglion cysts will many times rupture on their own due to continued pressure to this area from activity approximately 60 ... This again can lead to recurrence of the ganglion cyst in about 50% of cases. If recurrence continues, surgical intervention ...
In this episode of the Strange Horizons podcast, editor Ciro Faienza presents Lynne Sargents "Basal Ganglia". ...
Proceedings of the workshop on Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia and Cortical Connections Unmasked in Health and Disorder Held in Brno ... KW - Basal ganglia. KW - Dentate. KW - Striatum. KW - Imaging. KW - White matter. KW - Magnetic resonance spectroscopy. KW - ... Publications , Proceedings of the workshop on Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia and Cortical Connections Unmasked in .... ... TI - Proceedings of the workshop on Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia and Cortical Connections Unmasked in Health and Disorder Held in ...
Coconut kefir is an effective natural remedy for some ganglion cysts. ... I took 2 tsp a day and in 1 week my ganglion cyst I had for years is GONE!!! ... What exactly did you do to get rid of your ganglion cyst on your foot? ...
  • We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. (
  • The purinergic receptors 2X3 on spiral ganglion neurons enha. (
  • Our purpose was to study the expression of purinergic receptors 2X2 (P2X2) and purinergic receptors 2X3 (P2X3) in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the afferent nerves of medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex, after long-term moderate noise exposure, and its relationship with the enhancement of MOC reflex. (
  • Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the neurons in the retina which directly project to the brain and transmit visual information along the optic nerve. (
  • Cultured dissociated primary dorsal root ganglion neurons from adult horses enable study of axonal transport. (
  • Here we report the generation of primary neuronal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures from adult horses: the mixed, dissociated cultures, containing neurons and glial cells, remained viable for at least 90 days. (
  • Diabetic Polyneuropathy: New Strategies to Target Sensory Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia. (
  • Although the pathogenesis of DPN is complex, this review emphasizes the concept that hyperglycemia and metabolic stressors directly target sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia ( DRG ), leading to distal axonal degeneration. (
  • No obvious histopathologies were observed after 24h treatment with any of the paclitaxel doses employed, but with 48 h treatment, paclitaxel damaged cochlear hair cells in a dose-dependent manner and also damaged auditory nerve fibers and spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) near the base of the cochlea. (
  • 1987. The influence of skeletal muscle on the electrical excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture. (
  • A part of the coeliac ganglion that is semidetached and contains sympathetic neurons that innervate the kidney. (
  • Proceedings of the workshop on Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia and Cortical Connections Unmasked in Health and Disorder Held in Brno, Czech Republic, October 17th, 2013. (
  • N2 - The proceedings of the workshop synthesize the experimental, preclinical, and clinical data suggesting that the cerebellum, basal ganglia (BG), and their connections play an important role in pathophysiology of various movement disorders (like Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes) or neurodevelopmental disorders (like autism). (
  • These patients were noted to have variable degree of calcification in different parts of brain i.e., basal ganglia (42 cases), cerebellum (12 cases) and cerebral cortex (nine cases). (
  • The premotor and sensory regions provide the input for planning to the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. (
  • There is usually preserved metabolism in the sensorimotor cortices, basal ganglia, occipital lobes, and cerebellum. (
  • A) Schematic of the sequence of 300 natural images presented individually in a pseudo-random fashion for 200 ms each, with an inter-stimulus-interval of 800 ms. B) Left: One of the 300 natural images, overlaid with the 3-sigma outline of the receptive field of a sample retinal ganglion cell. (
  • However, we unexpectedly detected a large number of cells in the inner nuclear layer expressing retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-specific markers (called displaced RGCs, dRGCs) when at least one allele of Gsk3α is expressed. (
  • Our study thus uncovers a unique role of GSK3 in controlling the production of ganglion cells in the inner nuclear layer, which correspond to dRGCs, a rare and poorly characterized retinal cell type. (
  • Interrestingly, we unexpectedly uncovered a unique role of GSK3s in controlling the genesis of retinal ganglion cells in the inner nuclear layer, which could correspond to a rare and poorly characterized retinal cell type. (
  • Therefore, our mouse models potentially offer a unique and powerful model system to study the visual function of displaced retinal ganglion cells in mammals. (
  • In the vertebrate retina, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendrites extend from the cell body and form synapses with nearby amacrine and bipolar cells. (
  • Solutions will be evaluated for establishment of a human PSC-derived in vitro retina model system that resembles the morphology of a healthy-native retina and is viable through formation of photoreceptor outer segments and/or long-term survival of retinal ganglion cells with extension of axonal processes. (
  • Off-cone), and Retinal Ganglion Cells (identify at least three subtypes). (
  • Stellate ganglion blocks have been utilized for almost a century to treat a variety of medical conditions. (
  • Today, stellate ganglion blocks are most commonly used in the diagnosis and treatment of sympathetically maintained pain in the head, neck, and upper extremity. (
  • Stellate ganglion blocks have traditionally been performed blindly by palpating the anterior tubercle of the transverse process of C6 (Chassaignac tubercle) and directing a needle to the C6 transverse process while retracting the the carotid laterally. (
  • Image-guided stellate ganglion blocks have the advantages of increased safety and accuracy compared with blind injections. (
  • Stellate ganglion blocks are also used to see if blood flow can be improved in those patients with circulation problems related to vascular disease. (
  • Stellate ganglion blocks may be therapeutic (to relieve pain) and/or diagnostic (to determine the source of your pain). (
  • SHINGLES RELIEF: Sphenopalatine Ganglion (SPG) Blocks Offers Fast Relief for Herpes Zoster as does Stellate Ganglion Blocks. (
  • Autonomic Blocks: Sphenopalatyine Ganglion Blocks and Stellate Ganglion Blocks can give amazing relief from the pain of a Herpes Zoster Episode. (
  • In his unique, passionate style, Hagai Bergman takes the reader on a journey through his lifelong quest for understanding the fundamental role of the basal ganglia within the brain orchestra. (
  • The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye movements is poorly understood. (
  • Drawing on his forty years of studying the basal ganglia, Bergman presents new information on physiology and computational models, Parkinson's disease and other ganglia-related disorders, and such therapies as deep brain stimulation. (
  • Typical appearance of dorsal ganglion cyst. (
  • Surgery (open or arthroscopic) often becomes necessary, and current evidence suggests that arthroscopic ganglion excision is a practical and successful means of dorsal ganglion cyst removal. (
  • Schaffer J, Hunter B, Ball K, Weaver C. Noninvasive sphenopalatine ganglion block for acute headache in the emergency department: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. (
  • PALM SPRINGS, California - A noninvasive, easy-to-administer sphenopalatine ganglion block relieves postdural puncture headache (PDPH) faster than an epidural blood patch in obstetric patients and has fewer adverse effects, new research shows. (
  • The sphenopalatine ganglion block has been used successfully for other headaches, including migraines, for more than 100 years, without significant side effects. (
  • Okada K, Miyake J, Kataoka T, Moritomo H, Murase T, Yoshikawa H. Median nerve neuropathy in the forearm due to recurrence of anterior wrist ganglion that originates from the scaphotrapezial joint: Case Report. (
  • Ulnar Nerve Compression in Guyon's Canal by Ganglion Cyst. (
  • together with other nerve plexuses, nerves and ganglia, it constitutes the peripheral nervous system. (
  • When a ganglion cyst presses on a nerve it can be painful. (
  • This illustration shows nerve cells from spinal ganglia. (
  • Compression of the median nerve can occur when a volar radial ganglion arises within the carpal canal. (
  • [ 5 ] The ulnar nerve may also be compressed within the tunnel of Guyon when the ganglion presents on the ulnar side of the wrist. (
  • Volar ganglia are commonly associated with the radioscaphoid and scaphotrapezial joints, with proximity to the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve and the median nerve itself. (
  • Electron micrograph of Maize mosaic virus (MMV, Rhabdoviridae) in nerve ganglion of the insect vector Peregrinus maidis (planthopper, Hemiptera, Delphacidae). (
  • It's imperative to identify potential issues such as nerve sheath tumors or ganglion cysts with pre-op imaging beforehand. (
  • VZV remains dormant in sensory-nerve ganglia and may be reactivated at a later time causing herpes zoster (i.e., shingles) -- a painful vesicular rash usually appearing in a dermatomal distribution of one or two sensory-nerve roots. (
  • His first project was to isolate nerve growth factor from sarcoma 180-a tumor which causes extreme nerve growth in spinal and sympathetic ganglia of the chick . (
  • COLD SORE STAGES: #1 - LATENT - Here the cold sore herpes simplex virus is hiding in the nerve ganglia near the back of the jaw on the same side as your cold sore usually appears. (
  • Your cold sore virus is now retreating back to the nerve ganglia area where it will sleep until the next opportunity. (
  • The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is an extracranial parasympathetic ganglion with both sensory and autonomic fibers. (
  • Which of the following ganglia are associated with the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system? (
  • Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement. (
  • Focusing on studies of nonhuman primates and human basal ganglia and relying on system physiology and in vivo extra-cellular recording techniques, Bergman first describes the major brain structures that constitute the basal ganglia, the morphology of their cellular elements, their synaptic connectivity and their physiological function in health and disease. (
  • After controlling for the subject's age at the time of the scan, significant correlations were found between volumes of all basal ganglia structures and years to onset. (
  • Gene-positive subjects who were far from onset had smaller basal ganglia volumes than gene-negative subjects for all structures except globus pallidus. (
  • The presence of calcium deposition affecting one or more structures of the basal ganglia. (
  • Amount of change in basal ganglia structures was not significantly correlated with neurologic symptom severity at the time of the initial imaging or duration of symptoms. (
  • The activity of free moving rats was recorded in different structures of the cortico-basal ganglia circuit before and after an injection of a subanesthesic dose of ketamine (10mg/kg). (
  • The basal ganglia are a set of structures deep in the brain. (
  • The anatomy and physiology of the basal ganglia and their relation to brain and behavior, disorders and therapies, and philosophy of mind and moral values. (
  • In this book, Hagai Bergman analyzes the anatomy and physiology of the basal ganglia, discussing their relation to brain and behavior, to disorders and therapies, and even to moral values. (
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Ganglion Anatomy. (
  • Understanding the surrounding anatomy of the stellate ganglion is critical for an effective block and to avoid serious and even life-threatening complications. (
  • During a ganglion cyst removal, a doctor removes the cyst capsule or stalk to completely remove the cyst. (
  • Ganglion cyst removal is usually an outpatient procedure and may be performed under local or general anesthesia. (
  • What are the benefits of ganglion cyst removal? (
  • As with any surgery, ganglion cyst removal can cause infection. (
  • Most likely, you'll heal quickly and without difficulty after a ganglion cyst removal. (
  • At the subcortical level, an involvement of the basal ganglia during scanning EM was suggested by early research using regional cerebral blood flow in healthy controls and schizophrenic patients [7] . (
  • H-ABC is diagnosed on the basis of the distinctive MRI findings of diffuse but partial hypomyelination of the cerebral hemispheres, mild to severe cerebellar atrophy and atrophy of the basal ganglia. (
  • Studies show the importance of the basal ganglia and thalamus in memory, attention, selection and monitoring of information. (
  • Shaheen H , Melnik R, Singh P. Deep Brain Stimulation with a Computational Model for the Cortex-Thalamus-Basal-Ganglia System and Network Dynamics of Neurological Disorders. (
  • Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation is an emerging technique that may have a role in the treatment in many pain conditions. (
  • Dorsal root ganglion stimulation appears to be a valuable addition to the armamentarium against chronic pain. (
  • Dorsal root ganglion stimulation is similarly based upon the gate theory of pain but with more precision as it strictly targets the dorsal root ganglion. (
  • We present a case of a patient with chronic pancreatitis who obtained 80% abdominal pain relief for two years after undergoing dorsal root ganglion stimulation. (
  • Dopamine physiology in the basal ganglia of male zebra finches during social stimulation. (
  • The results suggest that atrophy of the basal ganglia occurs gradually, beginning years before symptom onset. (
  • Article abstract-Cross-sectional MRI studies demonstrating an association between caudate atrophy and symptom severity and duration of symptoms in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) have been assumed to reflect longitudinal changes in basal ganglia, but such neuropathologic progression has never been directly demonstrated. (
  • This is the first longitudinal MRI study to document progressive basal ganglia atrophy in HD, and suggests that quantitative neuroimaging with serial MRI may be useful in monitoring effectiveness of potential treatments. (
  • In addition, demonstration of greater rate of basal ganglia atrophy in patients with earlier symptom onset suggests that treatment effects may be more quickly observed in this subgroup of patients than in the general HD population. (
  • CNS toxoplasmosis produces multifocal lesions, with a predilection for the basal ganglia and the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. (
  • Ganglion cysts can occur at any joint or tendon sheath, but they most often present in the dorsum of the wrist at the scapholunate joint, followed by the volar wrist. (
  • A ganglion cyst (synovial cyst) is a fluid filled membrane that can occur around any joint in the body. (
  • Ganglion cysts are not limited to any specific location as they can occur near any joint in the body, commonly in the back of the knee (Baker's Cyst) and in the foot. (
  • The involuntary movement might occur due to the unequal distribution of the blood flow in the basal ganglia. (
  • Although anyone can be affected by ganglion cysts, they occur three times as often in women as they do in men. (
  • Which of the following types of ganglia occur in chains on either side of the vertebral column? (
  • If the ganglion puts pressure on nearby nerves, you may have tingling in your fingers, hand, or forearm. (
  • Although many ganglions produce no other symptoms besides the appearance of a mass, if a cyst puts pressure on the nerves that pass across the joint, it can cause pain, tingling, and muscle weakness. (
  • Activity often causes the ganglion to increase in size, which may increase pressure on surrounding nerves, causing pain. (
  • A stellate ganglion block is an injection of local anesthetic (numbing medicine) to block the sympathetic nerves located on either side of the voice box in the neck. (
  • This paper by Devid Damiani, Elena Novelli, Francesca Mazzoni and Enrica Strettoi documents continued negative plasticity in retina by examining ganglion cells in the rd1 mouse. (
  • A 3-D human retina organoid system that mimics the physiological and morphological features of the in vivo biology, consists of the major retina cell types (rod and cone photoreceptors, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells and Muller glia) with appropriate lamination and synaptic organization, and represents their biological functions and interplay. (
  • The ganglion impar also is located just anterior to the coccyx, so a potential risk of injury to the sympathetic nervous system exists during coccygectomy. (
  • In humans, this process was found to be regulated by the closely related transporter, OATP1B1 that regulates cellular uptake of paclitaxel into dorsal root ganglia, the main site of drug accumulation within the nervous system. (
  • Sometimes, an MRI or ultrasound is needed to find an occult ganglion that is not visible, or to distinguish the cyst from other tumors. (
  • [ 1 ] Representing about 60% of these benign tumors is the ganglion cyst. (
  • Ganglion cysts are the most common soft-tissue tumors of the hand and wrist. (
  • Transillumination of recurrent multilobulated left volar ganglion cyst. (
  • Rocchi L, Canal A, Fanfani F, Catalano F. Articular ganglia of the volar aspect of the wrist: arthroscopic resection compared with open excision. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Basal ganglia calcification. (
  • Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is now being diagnosed with increasing frequency with widespread application of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice and is no more considered a rarity. (
  • This study highlights the fact that calcification of basal ganglia and other parts of the brain is often a nonspecific finding on CT scan and it may not be possible to establish a clinicopathological correlation. (
  • Ganglions aren't cancerous. (
  • This is typically safe because ganglions are not cancerous and may disappear on their own in time. (
  • Any condition that can cause brain injury can damage the basal ganglia. (
  • Many brain disorders are associated with basal ganglia dysfunction. (
  • The main task of the basal ganglia-a group of subcortical nuclei, located at the base of the brain-is to optimize and execute our automatic behavior. (
  • Explaining this leap into domains rarely explored in neuroscientific accounts, Bergman writes that the longer he studies the basal ganglia, the more he is convinced that they are truly the base of both brain and mind. (
  • Group A streptococcus bacteria can react with a part of the brain called the basal ganglia to cause this disorder. (
  • Example: dystonia is known to origin in the basal ganglia, but it is also suspected or known that the cortex and maybe other areas of the brain have an impact in dystonia. (
  • It has therefore been hypothesized that blockade of the sphenopalatine ganglion may produce relief from primary headaches by modulating the autonomic fibers involved in headache disorders. (
  • Autonomic ganglia. (
  • Sometimes, doctors need to remove ganglia surgically. (
  • Unfortunately, aspiration frequently fails to eliminate the ganglion because the root or connection to the joint or tendon sheath is not removed. (
  • Thus, in many cases, the ganglion cyst returns after an aspiration procedure. (
  • If ganglia are painful or keep growing, doctors can remove the fluid inside it with a needle (called aspiration). (
  • Multiple nonsurgical modalities have been used over the years for ganglion cyst, including simple aspiration. (
  • [ 5 ] A ganglion cyst can also arise from the radioscaphoid or scaphotrapezial joint volarly. (
  • A common cause of the symptoms of basal ganglia dysfunction is chronic use of medicines used to treat schizophrenia. (
  • Ganglions are usually small, painless bumps and do not cause other symptoms. (
  • But treatment may be needed if the ganglion causes pain or other symptoms, limits what you can do, affects your bones or ligaments, or gets infected. (
  • Ganglions are usually painless bumps that don't cause other symptoms. (
  • A wrist brace or splint may relieve symptoms and cause the ganglion to decrease in size. (
  • What are the symptoms of ganglia? (
  • Unlike with the ganglia of the wrist, mucous cysts can cause the overlying skin to become thinned and may even lead to skin rupture. (
  • A common type of ganglion called a mucous cyst ganglion occurs with arthritis of the hands. (
  • Ganglion cysts that develop at the end joint on the nail side of a finger - also known as mucous cysts - are typically associated with arthritis in the finger joint, and are more common in women between the ages of 40 and 70. (
  • Soren A. Pathogenesis and treatment of ganglion. (
  • Recent studies have suggested the implication of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. (
  • He discusses the computational physiology of the healthy basal ganglia, describing four generations of computational models, and then traces the computational physiology of basal ganglia-related disorders and their treatments, including Parkinson's disease and its pharmacological and surgical therapies. (
  • The basal ganglia are abnormal in a number of important neurologic conditions, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease . (
  • Arthroscopic resection in the management of dorsal wrist ganglions: results with a minimum 2-year follow-up period. (
  • A ganglion can grow out of a joint capsule, which surrounds the joint , or a tendon sheath, which covers the tendon (the fibres connecting muscle to bone). (
  • A ganglion arises out of a joint, like a balloon on a stalk. (
  • The Efficacy of Nonsurgical and Surgical Interventions in the Treatment of Pediatric Wrist Ganglion Cysts. (
  • Initial treatment of a ganglion cyst is nonsurgical. (
  • A person with basal ganglia dysfunction may have trouble starting, stopping, or sustaining movement. (
  • Ganglion cysts are caused when normal joint fluid leaks out of the joint capsule due to a capsular injury (sprain) or due to a weakened portion of the capsule from overuse. (
  • Dorsal ganglia most often affect the scapholunate joint, and the scaphoid interosseus ligament and extensor tendons must be considered because they are closely associated with the joint capsule. (
  • A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled noncancerous lump that usually develops in the wrist or hand. (
  • Ganglion cysts are the most common mass or lump in the hand. (
  • The only symptom of ganglia is the lump on your wrist or hand. (
  • Although physical therapy was the primary treatment in the study, baclofen, ganglion impar blocks, and coccygeus trigger point injections were also used. (
  • Surgery is usually seen as a last resort for ganglion cyst treatment. (
  • Before deciding to remove a ganglion cyst, your doctor will discuss other treatment options. (
  • footnote 1 Children don't usually have ganglions, but if they do, the ganglion will very likely go away without any treatment. (
  • Ganglions usually don't need treatment, and they often go away on their own. (
  • With or without treatment, ganglions may come and go and may get bigger or smaller. (
  • Stellate ganglion block (SGB) has been the alternative treatment of Meniere's disease for years. (
  • Most ganglia go away on their own without treatment. (
  • [ 7 ] The patient can experience paresthesias and pain from a ganglion cyst, and in such cases, surgical treatment should be considered, to provide a favorable outcome with few complications. (
  • Potential advances in sclerosing agents specific to the treatment of ganglion cysts may lead to a definitive medical treatment of ganglions, which would avoid surgery. (
  • Age at onset and length of trinucleotide repeat correlated significantly with amount of volume change in caudate and total basal ganglia, even after controlling for length of interimage interval, duration of disease, and measures of symptom severity. (
  • The stellate ganglion is part of the sympathetic network formed by the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia. (
  • The cervical sympathetic chain is composed of the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia. (
  • In approximately 80% of the population, the inferior cervical ganglion fuses with the first thoracic ganglion, forming the cervicothoracic ganglion also known as the stellate ganglion. (
  • Involvement of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in synaptic transmission in cat superior cervical ganglions reinnervated by vagal primary afferent axons. (
  • The occult dorsal carpal ganglion. (
  • however, smaller ganglions can remain hidden under the skin (occult ganglions). (
  • The lung apex lies anterior and inferior to the ganglion. (