Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.X-Ray Therapy: Medical treatment involving the use of controlled amounts of X-Rays.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Sodium Iodide: A compound forming white, odorless deliquescent crystals and used as iodine supplement, expectorant or in its radioactive (I-131) form as an diagnostic aid, particularly for thyroid function tests.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Gamma Cameras: Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Crush Syndrome: Severe systemic manifestation of trauma and ischemia involving soft tissues, principally skeletal muscle, due to prolonged severe crushing. It leads to increased permeability of the cell membrane and to the release of potassium, enzymes, and myoglobin from within cells. Ischemic renal dysfunction secondary to hypotension and diminished renal perfusion results in acute tubular necrosis and uremia.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Radon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.Air Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.Radon Daughters: Short-lived radioactive decay products of radon that include 216-Po, 214-Pb, 214-Bi, and 214-Po. They have an effective half-life of about 30 minutes and are solids that can deposit on the bronchial airways during inhalation and exhalation. This results in exposure of the respiratory airways to alpha radiation and can lead to diseases of the respiratory system, including lung cancer. (From Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 4th ed, p740)Air Pollution, RadioactiveAir Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.MiningNeoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Methanomicrobiaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOMICROBIALES whose cells are coccoid to straight or slightly curved rods. There are six genera.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.MoscowTextbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RussiaUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
It led to a great simplification of our understanding of the spectra of such nuclei and directly to the Unified Model. ... Thus was born accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS); for his contribution the University of Toronto made him a university ... of new gamma-ray angular correlation techniques. In 1966, Litherland was recruited by the University of Toronto, and in 1967, ...
The annihilation peak produced in a gamma spectrum by annihilation radiation therefore has a higher full width at half maximum ... Cambridge University Press, 2001, p. 6. Gilmore, G., and Hemmingway, J.: "Practical Gamma Ray Spectrometry", page 13. John ... Annihilation radiation is a term used in Gamma spectroscopy for the gamma radiation produced when a particle and its ... FWHM) than other gamma rays in spectrum. The difference is more apparent with high resolution detectors, such as Germanium ...
The study and analysis of gamma-ray spectra for scientific and technical use is called gamma spectroscopy, and gamma-ray ... the Hard X-ray/Low-Energy Gamma-ray experiment (A-4) on HEAO 1, the Burst and Transient Spectrometry Experiment (BATSE) and the ... Gamma rays, emitted from the nuclei of atoms, show up as sharp emission lines on the instrument's spectrum output. While the ... A gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) is an instrument for measuring the distribution (or spectrum-see figure) of the intensity of ...
Mass spectrometry is also widely applied. It can be used to characterise enzyme kinetics, to guide enzyme inhibitor development ... Hayashi Y, Kirimoto T, Asaka N, Nakano M, Tajima K, Miyake H, Matsuura N (May 2000). "Beneficial effects of MET-88, a gamma- ... broad spectrum' inhibitors. Inhibitors that compete against the substrate were also developed, such as peptidyl-based ... a drug molecule that is commonly used in Russia and Eastern Europe that target gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase. Many assays ...
Nuclei also have distinct energy states that are widely separated and lead to gamma ray spectra. Distinct nuclear spin states ... Mass spectroscopy is an historical term used to refer to mass spectrometry. Current recommendations are to use the latter term ... A material's blackbody spectrum is a spontaneous emission spectrum determined by its temperature; this feature can be measured ... Spectra of atoms and molecules often consist of a series of spectral lines, each one representing a resonance between two ...
An example of a NaI spectrum is the gamma spectrum of the caesium isotope 137. Cs. -see Figure 1. 137. Cs. emits a single gamma ... Amateur gamma spectrometry of a chunk of a black mold picked in Minamisoma, close to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant. ... Gamma ray characteristics[edit]. The gamma-ray spectrum of natural uranium, showing about a dozen discrete lines superimposed ... The gamma spectrum shown in Figure 2 is of the cobalt isotope 60. Co. , with two gamma rays with 1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV ...
"Spectrometry of Celestial X-Rays 2-30 KeV (S77)". NSSDC Master Catalog. NASA. Retrieved 12 September 2011. "Solar Gamma-Rays in ... and measured their charge spectra. Spectrometry of Celestial X-Rays was another payload operated by the Saclay Nuclear Research ... The Saclay Nuclear Research Centre's Gamma-Ray Measurement experiment used a spark chamber to detect gamma rays during the sky ... Solar Gamma-Rays in the 50 to 500 MeV Energy Range was an experiment operated by the University of Milan which was used to ...
The accumulated dose is found by the additive dose method and by an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. This when a ... beta and gamma rays of Uranium-238 and Thorium-232 Correction factors related to the water content, the geometry of the sample ... Positioning an ESR line in a spectrum corresponds to the proportion (g-value) of the microwave frequency to magnetic field ... trapped electrons form para-magnetic centers and give rise to certain signals that can be detected under an ESR spectrometry. ...
The initial PeptideProphet used a fit of a Gaussian distribution for the correct identifications and a fit of a gamma ... OpenMS ProteoWizard Mass spectrometry software TPP 5.0.0 Release is Available Software:PeptideProphet - SPCTools Software: ... PeptideProphet performs statistical validation of peptide-spectra-matches (PSM) using the results of search engines by ... "A statistical model for identifying proteins by tandem mass spectrometry." Anal Chem 75:4646-58 Reiter, L.; Claassen, M.; ...
Biard B (2013). "Quantitative analysis of the fission product distribution in a damaged fuel assembly using gamma-spectrometry ... CNS Spectrums. 17 (4): 188-89. doi:10.1017/S1092852912000636. PMID 22929226.. ... Scatter of the gamma rays as well as the random nature of gamma rays can also lead to the degradation of quality of SPECT ... 99mTc is a metastable nuclear isomer that emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera. Attaching it to HMPAO allows ...
Semiconductor detectors are employed in gamma and X-ray spectrometry and as particle detectors. Silicon drift detectors (SDDs) ... Noise spectrum: The intrinsic noise voltage or current as a function of frequency. This can be represented in the form of a ... Their relative advantages include high sensitivity for x-rays and gamma-rays, due to the high atomic numbers of Cd and Te, and ... are X-ray radiation detectors used in x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron microscopy (EDX). Photovoltaic cells or solar cells ...
In the resulting spectra, gamma ray intensity is plotted as a function of the source velocity. At velocities corresponding to ... The Principle of the Mössbauer Effect and Basic Concepts of Mössbauer Spectrometry Mössbauer Spectroscopy Group, Royal Society ... to recoil during emission or absorption of a gamma ray. If a nucleus at rest emits a gamma ray, the energy of the gamma ray is ... Also, the gamma-ray energy should be relatively low, otherwise the system will have a low recoil-free fraction resulting in a ...
... and are preferred where feasible for gamma-ray spectrometry. In the case of neutron detectors, high efficiency is gained ... which approximates the energy spectrum of the incident radiation, with some additional artifacts. A monochromatic gamma ... For gamma rays (uncharged), their energy is converted to an energetic electron via either the photoelectric effect, Compton ... By measuring the intensity of the flash (the number of the photons produced by the x-ray or gamma photon) it is therefore ...
... and negative-ion electrospray ionisation mass spectra." Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry (2007) 18, 1605- ... "Amino acid sequence of bovine gamma E(IV) lens crystallin" Protein Science (1997) 6, 909-912 K.L. Bennett, S.V. Smith, R.M. ... "Mass spectrometry of Lens Crystallins: Bovine β-crystallins." Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry (1996) 10,123-129 G. ... "Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry of oligonucleotide complexes with drugs, metals, and proteins" Mass Spectrometry ...
28Mg decays by the emission of a high-energy beta or gamma particle, which can be measured using a scintillation counter. ... A number of chelators of divalent cations have different fluorescence spectra in the bound and unbound states. Chelators for ... Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) using either the mass spectrometry (MS) or atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) modifications ...
By rotating the gamma camera around the patient, a three-dimensional image of the distribution of the radiotracer can be ... Thus, in the visible region of the spectrum, only superficial assessment of tissue features is possible. Above 900 nm, water ... One emerging technology is MALDI molecular imaging based on mass spectrometry.[citation needed] Many areas of research are ... Detection of this gas occurs via a gamma camera-which is a scintillation detector consisting of a collimator, a NaI crystal, ...
... using mass spectrometry or infrared spectrometry. Deuterium can be detected by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy, since the ... Water Absorption Spectrum. lsbu.ac.uk *^ Weiss, Achim. "Equilibrium and change: The physics behind Big Bang Nucleosynthesis". ... Gamma radiation from ordinary nuclear fusion dissociates deuterium into protons and neutrons, and there are no known natural ... Deuterium NMR spectra are especially informative in the solid state because of its relatively small quadrupole moment in ...
The beta decay from 137Cs to 137mBa is a strong emission of gamma radiation. 137Cs and 90Sr are the principal medium-lived ... Because of the bright blue lines in the emission spectrum, they derived the name from the Latin word caesius, meaning sky-blue ... Caesium also was, and still is, used as a source of positive ions in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Since 1967, the ... Caesium-137 is a radioisotope commonly used as a gamma-emitter in industrial applications. Its advantages include a half-life ...
Budzikiewicz H, Grigsby RD (2006). "Mass spectrometry and isotopes: a century of research and discussion". Mass spectrometry ... A transition from one isomer to another is accompanied by emission or absorption of a gamma ray, or the process of internal ... Mass spectra and isotopes Francis W. Aston, Nobel prize lecture 1922 Sonzogni, Alejandro (2008). "Interactive Chart of Nuclides ... by a type of production mass spectrometry. Isotope analysis is the determination of isotopic signature, the relative abundances ...
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant. It has no odor, tastes salty, but is detectable when mixed ... Goldberg, Raymond (2006). Drugs across the spectrum (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth. p. 195. ISBN 0495013455. ElSohly ... experts recommend use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. This drug is also known as Whitleys, Trip-and-Fall, ... rohypnol, ketamine and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A 1999 study of 1,179 urine specimens from victims of suspected DFSAs in 49 ...
This was confirmed experimentally by Henry Moseley in 1913 using X-ray spectra. In 1917 (in experiments reported in 1919), ... Köhn, C.; Ebert, U. (2015). "Calculation of beams of positrons, neutrons and protons associated with terrestrial gamma-ray ... ISBN 0-415-31759-2. Gabrielse, G. (2006). "Antiproton mass measurements". International Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 251 (2-3 ... Another experiment at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada searched for gamma rays resulting from residual nuclei ...
Component peak maxima in the spectrum are minima in the 2nd. derivative spectrum and maxima in the 4th. derivative spectrum ... gamma )=\int _{-\infty }^{\infty }G(x';\sigma )L(x-x';\gamma )\,dx',} where σ and γ are half-widths. The computation of a Voigt ... Gans, P; Gill, J.B. (1980). "Comments on the critical evaluation of curve fitting in infrared spectrometry". Anal. Chem. 52 (2 ... Atoms also have distinct x-ray spectra that are attributable to the excitation of inner shell electrons to excited states. The ...
Gabrielse, G. (2006). "Antiproton mass measurements". International Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 251 (2-3): 273-280. Bibcode: ... Köhn, C.; Ebert, U. (2015). "Calculation of beams of positrons, neutrons and protons associated with terrestrial gamma-ray ... 8th Conference on Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum, September 1-6, 2008, Mainz, Germany. arXiv:0812.4976 . Bibcode: ... This was confirmed experimentally by Henry Moseley in 1913 using X-ray spectra. ...
Hurst and the team of L.J. Deal and H.H. Rossi performed gamma and neutron radiation measurements at the Nevada Test Site ... In 1956 and again in 1980, Hurst utilized threshold detectors to measure neutron spectra in order to determine tissue dose. In ... International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Physics. 34(1): 89-97. Chen, C. H., & Hurst, G. S. (1980). Resonance ... 2. Physical measurements of gamma and neutron radiation in shelter and instrumentation evaluation. Report for March-June 1953 ( ...
Chamberain, J.; Gibbs, J.E.; Gebbie, H.E. (1969). "The determination of refractive index spectra by fourier spectrometry". ... Spectra can be measured in situations where very little energy reaches the detector and scan rates can exceed 50 spectra a ... Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)[1] is a technique used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption or emission ... Griffiths, P.; de Hasseth, J. A. (18 May 2007). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0- ...
The refractive index (1.7) and optical dispersion properties of germanium dioxide makes it useful as an optical material for wide-angle lenses, in optical microscope objective lenses, and for the core of fiber-optic lines. See Optical fiber for specifics on the manufacturing process. Both Germanium and its glass oxide, GeO2 are transparent to the infrared spectrum. The glass can be manufactured into IR windows and lenses, used for night-vision technology in the military, luxury vehicles,[7] and Thermographic cameras. GeO2 is preferred over other IR transparent glasses because it is mechanically strong and therefore preferred for rugged military usage.[8] A mixture of silicon dioxide and germanium dioxide ("silica-germania") is used as an optical material for optical fibers and optical waveguides.[9] Controlling the ratio of the elements allows precise control of refractive index. Silica-germania glasses have lower viscosity and higher refractive index than pure silica. Germania replaced ...
ref name="commodity",{{cite journal ,title = USGS Minerals Information ,journal = U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries, url=http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/index.html#mcs , publisher=U.S. Geological Survey ,author = R.N. Soar ,year = 1977}}; [http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/220303.pdf januar 2003], [http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/germamcs04.pdf januar 2004], [http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/germamcs05.pdf januar 2005], [http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/germamcs06.pdf januar 2006], [http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/germamcs07.pdf januar 2007],[http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/mcs-2010-germa.pdf januar 2010] ISBN 0-85934-039-2,/ref ...
செருமேனியம் (Germanium, (அபஅ: /dʒə(r)ˈmeɪniəm/, ஜெர்மேனியம்) என்னும் வேதியியல் தனிமம் வெள்ளி-சாம்பல் நிறத்தில் பளபளப்பாக இருக்கும் கெட்டியான ஒரு மாழையனை (மாழை போன்றது) ஆகும். இது அணுவெண் 32 கொண்ட, Ge என்னும் வேதியியல் குறியீடு கொண்ட பொருள். இதன் வேதியியல் பண்புகள் சற்று வெள்ளீயம் போன்றது. இது முக்கியமான குறைகடத்திப் பொருட்களில் ஒன்று. முதன்முதலாக நுண்மின்கருவிகளின் புரட்சி தொடங்கிய ...
name=full demo , conventional atomic weight= , standard atomic weight=238.02891(3) , standard atomic weight ref=,ref,Reference for ''A'',sub,r,/sub,,/ref, , isotopes table footnote=* = [[excited state]]{{sfn,Chisté,2006}} , isotopes = {{Infobox element isotopes/isotopes stable , link=Fluorine-19 , mn=19 , sym=F , na=100% , n=10 }} {{Infobox element isotopes/isotopes decay , mn=251 , sym=Cf , na=trace , hl=898 y , dm=α , de=6.172 , link1=curium-247 , pn=247 , ps=Cm }} {{Infobox element isotopes/isotopes decay2 , mn=252 , sym=Cf , na=trace , hl=2.645 y , dm1=α (96.91%) , de1=6.217 , link1=curium-248 , pn1=248 , ps1=Cm , dm2=SF (3.09%) , de2=- , pn2= , ps2=- }} {{Infobox element isotopes/isotopes decay3 , mn=26 , sym=Al , na=[[trace radioisotope,trace]] , hl=7.17×105 y , dm1=[[Positron emission,β,sup,+,/sup,]] , de1=1.17 , link1=magnesium-26 , pn1=26 , ps1=Mg , dm2=[[electron capture,ε]] , de2=- , link2=magnesium-26 , pn2=26 , ps2=Mg , dm3=[[Gamma radiation,γ]] , de3=1.8086 , ...
The equipment used in gamma spectroscopy includes an energy-sensitive radiation detector, electronics to process detector signals produced by the detector, such as a pulse sorter (i.e., multichannel analyzer), and associated amplifiers and data readout devices to generate, display, and store the spectrum. Other components, such as rate meters and peak position stabilizers, may also be included.. The most common detectors include sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation counters and high-purity germanium detectors.. Gamma spectroscopy detectors are passive materials that wait for a gamma interaction to occur in the detector volume. The most important interaction mechanisms are the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, and pair production. The photoelectric effect is preferred, as it absorbs all of the energy of the incident gamma ray. Full energy absorption is ...
A nanowire battery uses nanowires to increase the surface area of one or both of its electrodes. Some designs (silicon, germanium and transition metal oxides), variations of the lithium-ion battery have been announced, although none are commercially available. All of the concepts replace the traditional graphite anode and could improve battery performance. Silicon is a desirable material for lithium battery anodes because it offers extremely desirable material properties. Silicon has a low discharge potential and a high theoretical charge capacity ten times higher than that of typical graphite anodes currently used in industry. Nanowires could improve these properties by increasing the amount of available surface area in contact with the electrolyte, thereby increasing the anode's power density and allowing for faster charging and higher current delivery. However, the use of silicon anodes in batteries has been limited by the volume expansion during lithiation. Silicon swells by 400% as it ...
... (abbreviated as "PS" or "pSi") is a form of the chemical element silicon that has introduced nanopores in its microstructure, rendering a large surface to volume ratio in the order of 500 m2/cm3. Porous silicon was discovered by accident in 1956 by Arthur Uhlir Jr. and Ingeborg Uhlir at the Bell Labs in the U.S. At the time, the Ulhirs were in the process of developing a technique for polishing and shaping the surfaces of silicon and germanium. However, it was found that under several conditions a crude product in the form of thick black, red or brown film were formed on the surface of the material. At the time, the findings were not taken further and were only mentioned in Bell Lab's technical notes. Despite the discovery of porous silicon in the 1950s, the scientific community was not interested in porous silicon until the late 1980s. At the time, Leigh Canham - while working at the Defence Research Agency in England - reasoned that the porous silicon may display quantum ...
According to theories of the time, Shockley's field effect transistor, a cylinder coated thinly with silicon and mounted close to a metal plate, should have worked. He ordered Brattain and Bardeen to find out why it wouldn't. During November and December the two men carried out a variety of experiments, attempting to determine why Shockley's device wouldn't amplify.[13] Bardeen was a brilliant theorist;[17] Brattain, equally importantly, "had an intuitive feel for what you could do in semiconductors".[14]:40 Bardeen theorized that the failure to conduct might be the result of local variations in the surface state which trapped the charge carriers.[18]:467-468 Brattain and Bardeen eventually managed to create a small level of amplification by pushing a gold metal point into the silicon, and surrounding it with distilled water. Replacing silicon with germanium enhanced the amplification, but only for low frequency currents.[13]. On December 16, Brattain devised a method of placing two gold leaf ...
RTGs use thermoelectric generators to convert heat from the radioactive material into electricity. Thermoelectric modules, though very reliable and long-lasting, are very inefficient; efficiencies above 10% have never been achieved and most RTGs have efficiencies between 3-7%. Thermoelectric materials in space missions to date have included silicon-germanium alloys, lead telluride and tellurides of antimony, germanium and silver (TAGS). Studies have been done on improving efficiency by using other technologies to generate electricity from heat. Achieving higher efficiency would mean less radioactive fuel is needed to produce the same amount of power, and therefore a lighter overall weight for the generator. This is a critically important factor in spaceflight launch cost considerations. A thermionic converter-an energy conversion device which relies on the principle of thermionic emission-can achieve efficiencies between 10-20%, but requires higher temperatures than those at which standard RTGs ...
Post transition metals, also known as the poor metals, is a group of metals on the periodic table. It is to the right of the transition metals. The Group 12 elements are sometimes included. Sometimes germanium, antimony, and polonium are included, although they are normally considered metalloids. They normally have higher electronegativities than the transition metals. Their melting points are lower, too. They are generally softer than other metals. They include Lead, Tin and other softer metals. ...
Based on EDVAC, SEAC used only 747 vacuum tubes (a small number for the time) eventually expanded to 1,500 tubes. It had 10,500 germanium diodes which performed all of the logic functions (see the article diode-transistor logic for the working principles of diode logic), later expanded to 16,000 diodes. It was the first computer to do most of its logic with solid-state devices. The tubes were used for amplification, inversion and storing information in dynamic flip-flops.[8] The machine used 64 acoustic delay lines to store 512 words of memory, with each word being 45 bits in size. The clock rate was kept low (1 MHz). The computer's instruction set consisted of only 11 types of instructions: fixed-point addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division; comparison, and input & output. It eventually expanded to 16 instructions. The addition time was 864 microseconds and the multiplication time was 2,980 microseconds (i.e. close to 3 milliseconds). Weight: 3,000 pounds (1.5 short tons; 1.4 t) ...
The raw data collected by a PET scanner are a list of 'coincidence events' representing near-simultaneous detection (typically, within a window of 6 to 12 nanoseconds of each other) of annihilation photons by a pair of detectors. Each coincidence event represents a line in space connecting the two detectors along which the positron emission occurred (i.e., the line of response (LOR)). Analytical techniques, much like the reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data, are commonly used, although the data set collected in PET is much poorer than CT, so reconstruction techniques are more difficult. Coincidence events can be grouped into projection images, called sinograms. The sinograms are sorted by the angle of each view and tilt (for 3D images). The sinogram images are analogous to the projections captured by computed tomography (CT) scanners, and can be reconstructed in a similar way. The statistics of data thereby obtained are much worse ...
The raw data collected by a PET scanner are a list of 'coincidence events' representing near-simultaneous detection (typically, within a window of 6 to 12 nanoseconds of each other) of annihilation photons by a pair of detectors. Each coincidence event represents a line in space connecting the two detectors along which the positron emission occurred (i.e., the line of response (LOR)).. Analytical techniques, much like the reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data, are commonly used, although the data set collected in PET is much poorer than CT, so reconstruction techniques are more difficult. Coincidence events can be grouped into projection images, called sinograms. The sinograms are sorted by the angle of each view and tilt (for 3D images). The sinogram images are analogous to the projections captured by computed tomography (CT) scanners, and can be reconstructed in a similar way. However, the statistics of the data are much worse ...
Mass Spectrometry Books online. Free delivery worldwide on over 18 million titles. ... Discover Book Depositorys huge selection of Spectrum Analysis, Spectrochemistry, ...
Results from the measurements with different sample geometries and isotopic compositions; incident neutron spectrum; reaction ... Neutron-induced cross-section measurements by activation technique and gamma-ray spectrometry in the energy range up to 20 MeV ... The radioactivity of the reaction products in the samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. Both ... Seminar topic: «Neutron-induced cross-section measurements by activation technique and gamma-ray spectrometry in the energy ...
An example of a NaI spectrum is the gamma spectrum of the caesium isotope 137. Cs. -see Figure 1. 137. Cs. emits a single gamma ... Amateur gamma spectrometry of a chunk of a black mold picked in Minamisoma, close to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant. ... Gamma ray characteristics[edit]. The gamma-ray spectrum of natural uranium, showing about a dozen discrete lines superimposed ... The gamma spectrum shown in Figure 2 is of the cobalt isotope 60. Co. , with two gamma rays with 1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV ...
Make research projects and school reports about gamma-ray spectrometry easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about gamma-ray spectrometry at Encyclopedia.com. ... enable a spectrum to be accumulated. This may be used to ... gamma-ray spectrometry An analytical method for the measurement of the intensities and energies of gamma radiation. ... gamma-ray spectrometry An analytical method for the measurement of the intensities and energies of gamma radiation. ...
Study of different filtering techniques applied to spectra from airborne gamma spectrometry. ...
The RRs were determined by the direct gamma spectrometry techniques. In total, 1196 gamma spectra have been measured, and about ...
ETD spectrum of an m/z 594.946 3+ identifies a peptide from Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2 with a single ... N-linked GlcNAc is stable in CID mass spectrometry (27), so these sites could also be identified from the CID spectra. An ... However, using the CID spectrum as a reference to identify the peptide, there were 3 occasions in which the ETD spectrum could ... This image shows the spectrum of a peptide from the scaffolding protein actin-binding LIM protein 1. In this spectrum, ...
Thousands of people around the world are now doing gamma spectrometry with sound card sampling which everyone here said would ... Spectrum Recorder PCI-E Card?. This area is for discussions involving any fusion related radiation metrology issues. Neutrons ... Frequency domain methods (eg a spectrum analyzer) will not be of much use.. The Nyquist rate is the BARE MINIMUM frequency that ... Clarify whether the goal is real-world spectrum measurements by you, or thought experiments, or something else.. * What is the ...
1 Chapter 12 Infrared Spectroscopy & Mass Spectrometry 1 2 • Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which helps determine ... Types of Spectroscopy 3 4 12-2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 4 • Examples: gamma rays, X rays, microwaves, radio waves, visible ... Mass spectrometry (MS) fragments the molecule and measures the masses. • Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy detects ... 5 Visible light and gamma rays and microwaves are really the same things. They are all electromagnetic radiation; they just ...
... and gamma-endorphin. Thermospray spectra for the endorphins could be acquired under ion evaporation conditions, when a low ... The spectra showed [M + H]+, [M + Hx-1 + Nax]+(x = 1-3) together with double charged ions. Positive ion detection exhibited ... High-performance liquid chromatography/thermospray mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was evaluated and optimized for the ... High-performance liquid chromatography/thermospray mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was evaluated and optimized for the ...
... enabling coincidence identification and spectrum manipulation in post-processing. When coincidence gamma-spectrometry is used ... Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry. Publication: Research - peer-review › Article in proceedings - Annual report year: 2017 ... Gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is often the technique of choice in an environmental ... Digital gamma-gamma coincidence HPGe system for environmental analysis. Publication: Research - peer-review › Journal article ...
... reaction rates were calculated from gamma spectroscopy measurements of irradiated foils and MCNP provided the guess spectrum. ... Furthermore, a dedicated neutron spectrometry experiment and a more detailed simulation ismore » required.« less ... Adjusted spectra were evaluated through activation calculations for a stainless-steel target using FISPACT-II. Adjusted spectra ... Retrospective neutron spectrum determination of a (30 MeV D, Be) source using the multi-foil activation technique and STAYSL- ...
Practical Gamma-Ray Spectrometry / Edition 2 The Second Edition of Practical Gamma-Ray Spectrometry has been completely revised ... coverage of the whole gamma-ray detection and spectrum analysis processes. Drawn on many years of teaching experience to ... Practical Gamma-Ray Spectrometry / Edition 2 The Second Edition of Practical Gamma-Ray Spectrometry has been completely revised ... This book brings together key essays and excerpts from the broad spectrum of Frederic Jamesons writings, providing an ...
... the best i would do is point at the gamma spectrum the peak label At210. (half life 8hours!). thats the beauty of spectrometry ... i have just identifyed a few element in the gamma spectrum of a sample of euxenite.. for the element collector its proof that ... And a gamma-ray spectrometer? Wow!. I have still to get together a "click counter" - looking around for the best kits for this ... being able to chemicaly separate those elements and follow them with the spectrometer (gamma and/or alpha). is what ...
Mass spectrometry showed 215 peptides of human origin, with the greatest numbers of peptide spectrum matches observed for beta- ... crystallin, alpha-crystallin, phakinin, and gamma-crystallin proteins. We observed no EBOV-specific peptide sequences. ...
NaI(Tl) detector, scintillation gamma spectrometry, spectrum drift correction, dose rate measurement, OSL dating ... Characterization of scintillator-based gamma spectrometers for determination of sample dose rate in OSL dating applications. ... Characterization of scintillator-based gamma spectrometers for determination of sample dose rate in OSL dating applications. ...
It led to a great simplification of our understanding of the spectra of such nuclei and directly to the Unified Model. ... Thus was born accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS); for his contribution the University of Toronto made him a university ... of new gamma-ray angular correlation techniques. In 1966, Litherland was recruited by the University of Toronto, and in 1967, ...
GRABGAM: A Gamma Analysis Code for Ultra-Low-Level HPGe SPECTRA Description: The GRABGAM code has been developed for analysis ... Description: The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its ... GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra ... of ultra-low-level HPGe gamma spectra. The code employs three ... GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC. ...
The annihilation peak produced in a gamma spectrum by annihilation radiation therefore has a higher full width at half maximum ... Cambridge University Press, 2001, p. 6. Gilmore, G., and Hemmingway, J.: "Practical Gamma Ray Spectrometry", page 13. John ... Annihilation radiation is a term used in Gamma spectroscopy for the gamma radiation produced when a particle and its ... FWHM) than other gamma rays in spectrum. The difference is more apparent with high resolution detectors, such as Germanium ...
The spectra were acquired at two different locations on each pearl sample in order to assess surface homogeneity. The spectral ... to classify and estimate the quality of 27 different pearls from their UV-Visible spectra. Due to the opaque nature of pearls, ... ANNs have been successfully used to classify spectra from various modalities including gamma ray spectroscopy [5], infrared ... Bos, M.; Weber, H.T. Comparison of the training of neural networks for quantitative X-ray fluorescence spectrometry by a ...
This 3-D data array "cube" has been described as "Position-Tagged Spectrometry (PTS)" by Princeton Gamma-Tech, Inc. of ... Therefore, the mean spectrum is a vector of length 1024, which represents the mean spectrum averaged over the 16,384 spectra. ... i.e., the average of all 7500 individual spectra). The average spectrum shown in FIG. 5. is similar to a spectrum that would be ... is transmitted to Spectrum Analyzer 70. . This can be accomplished through a direct link between spectrometer 69. and spectrum ...
J.M. and L.Q. simulated the neutron energy spectra. D.R., J.M., and L.Q. performed the gamma spectrometry analysis. D.R. ... After the end of irradiation, the 336-keV gammas from the decay of 115mIn and 811-keV gammas from the decay of 58Co in the foil ... A) Neutron energy spectra of the six HFNG irradiation targets calculated using the MCNP. The spectra are a function of the ... B) Simulated neutron energy spectra of the four LICORNE-irradiated samples calculated. The spectra are a function of hydrogen ...
... moving from microwaves to gamma rays, then into the worlds of mass spectrometry and particle based imaging techniques to ... Mass spectrometry imaging. Moving from the multitude of analytical possibilities the electromagnetic spectrum offers for in ... Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is by no means a new technique, being used for ... Across the spectrum: integrating multidimensional metal analytics for in situ metallomic imaging. Theodora J. Stewart ab a ...
Description: PCGAP is a software package, which was written to provide gamma-ray pulse height spectrum analysis on a personal ... Initial recommendations for restricting gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of radionuclides for on-site inspections ... Options discussed below include 1) acquisition and analysis of the entire high-resolution gamma-ray spectrum combined with ... ... resolution gamma-ray spectrometry systems to ensure that only the nuclides of interest to an OSI can be identified and ...
Abstract The current research examined for radiolytic structure modification and improved bioefficacy of phloridzin by gamma- ... Chiral amino acid analysis, direct infusion, and online HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided ... Abstract Curcumin is a plant-derived polyphenolic active substance with broad-spectrum antibacterial properties. Curcumin ... Mass Spectrometry. In total 54 compounds were detect.... Source: Chemistry and Biodiversity - May 29, 2020 Category: ...
  • The present study was undertaken with the purpose of determining radioactivity in some building materials from Pachal of Tiruvannamalai District, Tamilnadu and assessing the radiological hazards due to external gamma ray exposure in dwellings. (ommegaonline.org)
  • The 137Cs radioactivity was determined directly by gamma spectrometry and varied from 525 ± 37 Bq kg−1 for top layers to 9.80 ± 5.40 Bq kg−1 for the bottom of the core. (paperity.org)
  • Please note that fluctuations in the gamma readings may be caused by a number of factors, primarily naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment. (nukepro.net)
  • The EXFOR database presently contains integral, differential and partial cross-sections including angular distributions, secondary particle spectra, polarization data, resonance parameters, nu-bar, fission product yields, reaction rates etc. for reactions induced by neutrons, charged-particles, and photons with incident energies up to 1 GeV. (jinr.ru)
  • Because of this, the energy of gamma-ray photons can be resolved individually, and a gamma-ray spectrometer can measure and display the energies of the gamma-ray photons detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such sources typically produce gamma-ray "line spectra" (i.e., many photons emitted at discrete energies ), whereas much higher energies (upwards of 1 TeV ) may occur in the continuum spectra observed in astrophysics and elementary particle physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will (at least for the photoelectric effect) produce a peak in the energy spectrum whose centroid (the mean of the energy distribution) is the best estimate of the energy of the detected photons and whose width (usually called the energy resolution of the system) indicates the size of the random variations in the signal processing chain described above. (docplayer.net)
  • The entire mass of these two particles is then converted into two gamma photons of 0.51 MeV energy each. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Fluorescence occurs if a molecule absorbs photons from your U. V. -visible light spectrum (200-900 nm), creating transition to a high-energy electronic say and then gives off photons while it returns in order to its original state, in 10-9 securities and exchange commission's. (bluerosepictures.com)
  • With the addition of mass spectrometry and particle beam based techniques, the field of view grows to cover greater sensitivities and spatial resolutions, addressing structural, functional and quantitative metallomic questions from the atomic level to whole body processes. (rsc.org)
  • Principal component and biomarker analyses of mass spectra showed clustering, and mass peaks correlated with capsule type-specific genetic lineages. (cdc.gov)
  • When a gamma ray passes through matter, the probability for absorption in a thin layer is proportional to the thickness of that layer. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Spectra due to the absorption of radiant energy are produced when radiant energy from a stable source, collimated and separated into its components in a monochromator, passes through the sample whose absorption spectrum is to be measured, and is detected. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Structural and optical properties of quantum dots were studied by XRD, UV-Vis absorption spectrum and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and the number of cells in seminiferous tubes of various groups were analyzed using SPSS 16 program [one way ANOVA test]. (bvsalud.org)
  • The specific value of the linear absorption coefficient depends on the type of absorbing material, the energy of the gamma or X-ray and the density of the absorbing medium. (utoronto.ca)
  • Sreekantan, B. V. (1971) The flattening of the X-ray spectrum of Sco X-1 at energies beyond 40 keV Astrophysics and Space Science, 10 (3). (ias.ac.in)
  • Natural levels of these nuclides fluctuate significantly in the environment and their primary gamma energies are similar to those of cesium-137 and iodine-131. (nukepro.net)
  • Coding sequences for 16 of the inhibitors were unequivocally associated with specific proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in a previous proteomic analysis of milled white flour from Butte 86. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Information on the spectrum of alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes and proteins expressed in a single wheat cultivar is central to understanding the importance of these proteins in both plant defense mechanisms and human allergies and facilitates both breeding and biotechnology approaches for manipulating the composition of these proteins in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analyses of whole IFN-gamma proteins by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) from each recombinant source revealed heterogeneous populations of IFN-gamma molecules resulting from variations in N-glycosylation and C-terminal polypeptide cleavages. (kent.ac.uk)
  • The nearly monoenergetic neutrons produced for sample irradiation are anticipated to provide several advantages compared with conventional fission spectrum neutrons: Reduction of collateral nuclear reactions increases age accuracy and precision. (sciencemag.org)
  • Spectra due to the emission of radiant energy are produced as energy is emitted from matter, after some form of excitation, then collimated by passage through a slit, then separated into components of different energy by transmission through a prism (refraction) or by reflection from a ruled grating or a crystalline solid (diffraction), and finally detected. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Per le misurazioni è stato utilizzato l'apparato DIY descritto nel seguente post : Spettrometria Gamma DIY. (physicsopenlab.org)
  • La spettrometria gamma è lo studio quantitativo degli spettri di energia di fonti di raggi gamma, utilizzata in campi come l'industria nucleare, le indagini geochimiche ed in astrofisica. (physicsopenlab.org)
  • The spectra showed [M + H]+, [M + Hx-1 + Nax]+(x = 1-3) together with double charged ions. (rti.org)
  • When coincidence gamma-spectrometry is used for cascade emitting nuclides, coincident signals can be extracted thus significantly reducing the background, as random coincidences are unlikely. (dtu.dk)
  • Cadmium tungstate CdWO4 (CWO), due to its low intrinsic background and afterglow together with sufficiently high light yield, is the most promising for spectrometry and radiometry of radio nuclides under extremely low activities, and also for computer tomography. (mkt-intl.com)
  • The review includes obtaining the gamma spectrum stored in the monitor and evaluating that spectrum for both natural and man-made nuclides. (nukepro.net)
  • Interpretation of spectra provides fundamental information on atomic and molecular energy levels, the distribution of species within those levels, the nature of processes involving change from one level to another, molecular geometries, chemical bonding, and interaction of molecules in solution. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Coates J (2000) Interpretation of infrared spectra, a practical approach. (springer.com)
  • This allows one to, for the first time, attach a confidence measure to detected peaks, based on the signal strength of a peak across sub-spectra. (biomedcentral.com)
  • b) Examples of a peak corresponding to ubiquitin (mass indicated by red dotted line) in two sub-spectra and the full (aggregated) spectrum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to its high effective atomic number and high density, BGO is a very efficient gamma absorber with high photo effect fraction which results in a very good photo peak to Compton ratio. (mkt-intl.com)
  • FRAM uses response function methods to determine all peak areas, fitting a Gaussian with a single exponential on the low-energy side to model the gamma-ray peak shapes and uses a Lorentzian to model x-ray peaks. (ortec-online.com)
  • In the gamma ray energy range, the probability of interaction per unit length is orders of magnitude lower than in the visible range, and the detection is done through three major processes: the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect and pair production. (docplayer.net)
  • In this study we report the clinical features of 32 patients with gamma aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABABR) antibodies, identify additional autoantibodies in patients with anti-GABABR encephalitis that mark the presence of an underlying small cell lung carcinoma and optimize laboratory methods for the detection of GABABR antibodies. (eur.nl)
  • Calcium fluoride activated by Europium is light scintillators are used for detection of charged particles and soft gamma ray up to several hundreds keV. (mkt-intl.com)
  • It is not suitable for detection of high-energy gamma ray because has a small photo fraction. (mkt-intl.com)
  • A detailed analysis of this spectrum is typically used to determine the identity and quantity of gamma emitters present in a gamma source, and is a vital tool in radiometric assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-processing software enables coincidence identification and produces spectra ready for use with GENIE2000 analysis software. (dtu.dk)
  • P. G. Kotula and M. R. Keenan, "Information Extraction: Statistical Analysis to get the most from Spectrum Images" Microsc. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Potassium channel tetramerization domain-containing (KCTD)16 antibodies were identified by immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry analysis and cell-based assays. (eur.nl)
  • Buchalla R, Begley TH, Morehouse KM (2002) Analysis of low-molecular weight radiolysis products in extracts of gamma-irradiated polymers by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. (springer.com)
  • A single dialog bar controls all aspects of spectrum and results display, making it easy for the user to verify the quality of the data or analysis without leaving the FRAM main window. (ortec-online.com)
  • Other measuring instruments such as a gamma dose rate monitor can additionally be installed in the helicopter. (bfs.de)
  • The highest and lowest annual absorbed dose rate of gamma were found to be 1.17(10-3) and 1.99(10-3) Sv/y at the height of 20 cm above the ground level and 5.26(10-4) and 1.52(10-3) Sv/y at the height of 100 cm above the ground level, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • It led to a great simplification of our understanding of the spectra of such nuclei and directly to the Unified Model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data on illicit drug (cocaine, heroin, synthetic cathinones [bath salts], gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and methamphetamine) overdose deaths during March 1, 2012-March 31, 2013 were abstracted from the Rhode Island Office of State Medical Examiners database and examined using Poisson regression. (cdc.gov)
  • In these applications all detected events are recorded in a list mode file with their timestamp and energy, enabling coincidence identification and spectrum manipulation in post-processing. (dtu.dk)
  • When the nuclide of interest is a single-gamma emitter, coincidence signal can be subtracted from the total to lower the background. (dtu.dk)
  • Ar) can be measured via some form of conventional or coincidence-based gamma-ray spectrometry. (unt.edu)
  • Mammalian cell derived IFN-gamma molecules displayed oligosaccharides with monosaccharide compositions equivalent to complex, sialylated, or high-mannose type N-glycans. (kent.ac.uk)
  • This process is sub-optimal in that it can average out peaks from peptides that are present in low abundance or are unevenly distributed across the spot, particularly because the amount of noise varies considerably between sub-spectra. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In case of an inhomogeneous distribution of peptides over the spot, for example in the case of a low abundant peptide, taking the mean over all sub-spectra with these highly varying signal and noise levels can average out peaks, causing only the most abundant peptides to appear in the final spectrum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • seeds of S04-05 (Ustun-1) variety together with its salt tolerant mutants were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. (iku.edu.tr)
  • The US paper CTBT/PC/V/IOSI/WSII/PR/29 (and other papers) identified a need to limit the information that can be extracted from high-resolution gamma-ray spectra to ensure that only information relevant to an OSI is accessible. (unt.edu)
  • The mixed solution is then prepared, and checked by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. (ezag.com)
  • The solid reference source is then manufactured using the mixed radionuclide solution, and the final source is checked again for accuracy and homogeneity by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. (ezag.com)