Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
Californium. A man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Cf, atomic number 98, and atomic weight 251. Its valence can be +2 or +3. Californium has medical use as a radiation source for radiotherapy.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
A genus of gram-positive aerobic cocci found in the soil, that is highly resistant to radiation, especially ionizing radiation (RADIATION, IONIZING). Deinococcus radiodurans is the type species.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.

Characterization of nuclear structures containing superhelical DNA. (1/2775)

Structures resembling nuclei but depleted of protein may be released by gently lysing cells in solutions containing non-ionic detergents and high concentrations of salt. These nucleoids sediment in gradients containing intercalating agents in a manner characteristic of DNA that is intact, supercoiled and circular. The concentration of salt present during isolation of human nucleoids affects their protein content. When made in I-95 M NaCl they lack histones and most of the proteins characteristic of chromatin; in 1-0 M NaCl they contain variable amounts of histones. The effects of various treatments on nucleoid integrity were investigated.  (+info)

Nuclear foci of mammalian recombination proteins are located at single-stranded DNA regions formed after DNA damage. (2/2775)

A sensitive and rapid in situ method was developed to visualize sites of single-stranded (ss) DNA in cultured cells and in experimental test animals. Anti-bromodeoxyuridine antibody recognizes the halogenated base analog incorporated into chromosomal DNA only when substituted DNA is in the single strand form. After treatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents or gamma irradiation, ssDNA molecules form nuclear foci in a dose-dependent manner within 60 min. The mammalian recombination protein Rad51 and the replication protein A then accumulate at sites of ssDNA and form foci, suggesting that these are sites of recombinational DNA repair.  (+info)

Exposure to indoor background radiation and urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage. (3/2775)

We investigated whether exposure to indoor [gamma]-radiation and radon might be associated with enough free radical formation to increase urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a sensitive marker of DNA damage, due to a hydroxyl radical attack at the C8 of guanine. Indoor radon and [gamma]-radiation levels were measured in 32 dwellings for 6 months by solid-state nuclear track detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters, respectively. Urine samples for 8-OHdG determinations were obtained from 63 healthy adult subjects living in the measured dwellings. An overall tendency toward increasing levels of 8-OHdG with increasing levels of radon and [gamma]-radiation was seen in the females, presumably due to their estimated longer occupancy in the dwellings measured. Different models were considered for females, with the steepest slopes obtained for [gamma]-radiation with a coefficient of 0.500 (log nmol/l of 8-OHdG for each unit increase of [gamma]-radiation on a log scale) (p<0.01), and increasing to 0.632 (p = 0.035), but with larger variance, when radon was included in the model. In conclusion, there seems to be an effect of indoor radioactivity on the urinary excretion of 8-OHdG for females, who are estimated to have a higher occupancy in the dwellings measured than for males, for whom occupational and other agents may also influence 8-OHdG excretion. ree radicals; [gamma]-radiation; radon.  (+info)

Bcl-2 inhibits ischemia-reperfusion-induced apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium of transgenic mice. (4/2775)

Little is known about the effects of ischemia-reperfusion on the inductive, commitment, or execution phases of apoptosis. We have created a genetically defined model to study the response of small intestinal epithelial cells to ischemia-reperfusion injury as a function of their proliferative status and differentiation. Occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for 20 min in adult FVB/N or C57BL/6 mice results in the appearance of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in the jejunal epithelium within 4 h, with a maximum response occurring at 24 h. Stimulation of apoptosis is greater in postmitotic, differentiated epithelial cells located in the upper portions of villi compared with undifferentiated, proliferating cells in the crypts of Lieberkuhn (7-fold vs. 2-fold relative to sham-operated controls). Comparisons of p53(+/+) and p53(-/-) mice established that the apoptosis is p53 independent. To further characterize this response, we generated FVB/N transgenic mice that express human Bcl-2 in epithelial cells distributed from the base of crypts to the tips of their associated villi. The fivefold elevation in steady-state Bcl-2 concentration is not accompanied by detectable changes in the levels or cellular distributions of the related anti-apoptotic regulator Bcl-xL or of the proapoptotic regulators Bax and Bak and does not produce detectable effects on basal proliferation, differentiation, or death programs. The apoptotic response to ischemia-reperfusion is reduced twofold in the crypts and villi of transgenic mice compared with their normal littermates. These results suggest that both undifferentiated and differentiated cells undergo a commitment phase that is sensitive to Bcl-2. Forced expression of Bcl-2 also suppressed the p53-dependent death that occurs in proliferating crypt epithelial cells following gamma-irradiation. Thus suppressibility by Bcl-2 operationally defines a common feature of the apoptosis induced in the crypt epithelium by these two stimuli.  (+info)

Cyclin D1 overexpression enhances radiation-induced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in a breast tumor cell line. (5/2775)

Overexpression of cyclin D1, a G1 cell cycle regulator, is often found in many different tumor types, such as breast carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The overexpression of this protein is, in several cases, associated with a poor prognosis. In this study, the effect of cyclin D1 on radiosensitivity was investigated in a breast tumor cell line, MCF7, containing a cyclin D1 gene construct under the control of a tetracycline-sensitive regulator. MCF7 cells cultured without tetracycline resulted in a 6-fold increase in the cyclin D1 protein. Cyclin D1-overexpressing MCF7 cells were more sensitive to ionizing radiation than the nonoverexpressing counterparts. The cyclin D1-overexpressing cells also exhibited a higher induction of apoptosis. Treatment with a dose of 5 Gy resulted in a rapid increase of p53 and p21 in the cyclin D1-overexpressing cells. Nonoverexpressing cells showed a more transient expression of these proteins after ionizing radiation. A pronounced G2-M block was observed in both cell lines. The cyclin D1-overexpressing cells were, however, released earlier from the block than the control cells. These data suggest that overexpression of cyclin D1 alters sensitivity toward ionizing radiation by modulating gamma-radiation-induced G2-M transition.  (+info)

Functional interaction between retinoblastoma protein and stress-activated protein kinase in multiple myeloma cells. (6/2775)

Previous studies have demonstrated that gamma-irradiation (IR)-induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with activation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). In the present study, we examined the molecules downstream of SAPK/C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), focusing on the role of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) during IR-induced MM cell apoptosis. The results demonstrate that IR activates SAPK/JNK, which associates with Rb both in vivo and in vitro. Far Western blot analysis confirms that SAPK/JNK binds directly to Rb. IR-activated SAPK/JNK phosphorylates Rb, and deletion of the phosphorylation site in the COOH terminus domain of Rb abrogates phosphorylation of Rb by SAPK/JNK. Taken together, our results suggest that Rb is a target protein of SAPK/JNK and that the association of SAPK/JNK and Rb mediates IR-induced apoptosis in MM cells.  (+info)

Regulation of p53 expression by thymidylate synthase. (7/2775)

Previous studies showed that thymidylate synthase (TS), as an RNA binding protein, regulates its own synthesis by impairing the translation of TS mRNA. In this report, we present evidence that p53 expression is affected in a similar manner by TS. For these studies, we used a TS-depleted human colon cancer HCT-C cell that had been transfected with either the human TS cDNA or the Escherichia coli TS gene. The level of p53 protein in transfected cells overexpressing human TS was significantly reduced when compared with its corresponding parent HCT-C cells. This suppression of p53 expression was the direct result of decreased translational efficiency of p53 mRNA. Similar results were obtained upon transfection of HCT-C cells with pcDNA 3.1 (+) containing the E. coli TS gene. These findings provide evidence that TS, from diverse species, specifically regulates p53 expression at the translational level. In addition, TS-overexpressing cells with suppressed levels of p53 are significantly impaired in their ability to arrest in G1 phase in response to exposure to a DNA-damaging agent such as gamma-irradiation. These studies provide support for the in vivo biological relevance of the interaction between TS and p53 mRNA and identify a molecular pathway for controlling p53 expression.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of p53 protein in response to ionizing radiation occurs at multiple sites in both normal and DNA-PK deficient cells. (8/2775)

The tumour suppressor gene product, p53, is involved in mediating cellular responses to DNA damage including growth arrest and/or apoptosis. The mechanism by which p53 protein senses the presence of damaged DNA is not understood. The possibility that p53 may be post-translationally modified by enzymes that are activated in response to DNA damage including DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and stress activated protein kinase has received considerable attention. Recent studies have indicated that DNA-PK is not required for the transactivation or apoptosis-promoting activities of p53 protein. However, the possibility that other functions of p53 may be dependent on phosphorylation by DNA-PK has not been explored. Here we describe a series of experiments that compares the expression, function and phosphorylation status of p53 protein in normal and DNA-PK-deficient scid cells. While several novel p53 phosphoforms are generated in response to DNA damage in normal cells, the same phosphoforms are observed in scid cells.  (+info)

Gamma rays (γ-rays) are electromagnetic waves with the smallest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum.[1] They were discovered in 1900 by Paul Villard, and named in 1903 by Ernest Rutherford. Gamma rays are like x-rays, but the waves are smaller in wavelength. Both gamma rays and x-rays are photons with very high energies, and gamma have even more energy. They are also a type of ionizing radiation. Gamma rays can travel through thicker materials than x-rays can. Gamma rays are produced by some types of radioactive atoms. Cobalt-60 and potassium-40 are two isotopes that emit gamma rays. Cobalt-60 is created in accelerators and is used in hospitals. Potassium-40 occurs naturally. Small amounts of potassium-40 are in all plants and animals. Gamma rays from potassium-40 each have an energy of 1460 thousand electron volts (keV). Gamma rays and X-rays can also be distinguished by their origin: X-rays are emitted by electrons outside the nucleus, while gamma rays are emitted by the nucleus.[2] ...
|div class=ep_strongtext|Speakers: Prof. Paul Nolan, Physics Department Liverpool University |/div| |p|Speaker: Professor Paul Nolan|br|Most radioactive nuclei decay by emitting gamma radiation. For a given isotopes the energies of the gamma rays emitted are unique. This means that an accurate measurement of the gamma radiation emitted by an unknown isotope allows it to be identified uniquely. There are many different circumstances when the measurement of gamma radiation gives important information. The energies of gamma rays emitted by an excited nucleus gives information on the neutrons and protons that make up the nucleus and on the nuclear shape (spherical or deformed?). The measurement of the gamma radiation from an unknown source allows radioactive material to be identified and its exact nature determined. This has uses in security applications and following incidents such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. Gamma ray emitting isotopes are also widely used in medical diagnostic using imaging modalities
Background: Gamma radiation or radiotherapy is one of the most widely used treatments for cancer. There is accumulating evidence that adaptive immunity significantly contributes to the efficacy of radiotherapy. Aim: This study is carried out to show the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Methods: mice were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation and tested for the effect of recovery times on splenocyte proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, direct irradiation of spleens and lymphocyte suspension was done. Basal and mitogen-stimulated splenocyte proliferation was assessed by MTT assay while IL-10 and IL-12 were measured using ELISA. Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 gray) caused spontaneous and dose dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and
Researchers believe more knowledge of gamma rays could help them explore distant regions of space, help them look for evidence of dark matter, determine how much electromagnetic radiation the universe has produced and answer questions about the formation of stars and galaxies.. Krennrich said one key to current gamma ray research is the VERITAS telescope system (thats the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System). The $20 million instrument started operating in 2007 and is the worlds most sensitive instrument for detecting gamma rays.. Its not easy to detect those rays. Even with their high energies, gamma rays cant penetrate the earths atmosphere. When they hit the atmosphere, they create showers of electrons and positrons that create a blue light known as Cerenkov radiation. Those showers move very fast. And theyre not very bright.. VERITAS looks for the rays with four reflector disks 12 meters across that look like satellite dishes. The reflectors are covered with mirrors ...
Different types of abiotic stresses are known to have strong impact on morphological development of plants. Exposure of plants to ionizing radiation such as gamma radiation is potentially damaging, but effects may vary with species, radiation dose and life stage. Exposure of a biological system to gamma radiation may involve two types of effects within the cells, direct and indirect. Direct targets involve water, in which gamma radiation results in electron excitation or water radiolysis and further leads to chain reactions that produce secondary oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand, indirect effects of radiation affects the DNA helix, depending on the dose; it induces DNA breaks, which may lead to chromosomal and genomic abnormalities. In order to defend themselves, plants possess cell cycle checkpoints and systems repairing DNA damages. In A. thaliana the transcription factor Long Hypocotyl 5 (HY5), which is crucial in photomorphogenic development and formation of flavonoids acting as ...
The effects of irradiation with gamma rays and protons on HTB140 human melanoma cell morphology and viability were analyzed. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated close to the Bragg peak maximum of the 62-MeV proton beam, as well as with (60)Co gamma rays, with doses ranging from 8 to 24 Gy. The overall cell morphology was unchanged 6 and 48 h after gamma irradiation, also showing a relatively weak cell-inactivation level. After exposure to proton beam, considerable changes in cell morphology followed by stronger cell inactivation were achieved. Proliferation capacity of irradiated cells significantly decreased in both experimental set-ups. Higher ionization level of protons with respect to gamma rays, representing the main physical difference between these two types of radiation, was also revealed on the cell membrane level through larger pro-apoptotic capacity of protons ...
Character description, analysis and casting breakdown for Beatrice Hunsdorfer from The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds
Character description, analysis and casting breakdown for Ruth Hunsdorfer from The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) var. Co-1 seeds were treated with physical mutagen namely such as gamma rays and chemical mutagen namely such as Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) and Diethyl Sulphate (DES). Various concentrations of gamma rays 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 KR, EMS (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 %) and DES (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 %). The morphological parameters such as days to first flower, plant height, number of cluster per plant, number of pod per plan, seed yield per plant, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, protein content and oil content increasing with increasing level of some doses gamma rays, Ethyl methane sulphonate and Diethyl sulphate treatment in M2 and M3 generation were carried out. A number of mutants were recorded in M2 and M3 generations for one or more traits viz., plant height, maturity, branching, pigmentation, fruit size and yield were isolated in M2 and M3 generation. Mean for various characters increased at mutagenic treatment ...
The goal of part II of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma-radiation on circulating blood cells, functional characteristics of splenocytes, and cytokine expression after whole-body irradiation at varying total doses and at low- and high-dose-rates (LDR, HDR). Young adult C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were irradiated with either 1 cGy/min or 80 cGy/min photons from a 60Co source to cumulative doses of 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy. The animals were euthanized at 4 days post-exposure for in vitro assays. Significant dose- (but not dose-rate-) dependent decreases were observed in erythrocyte and blood leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion by activated spleen cells when compared to sham-irradiated controls (p < 0.05). Basal proliferation of leukocytes in the blood and spleen increased significantly with increasing dose (p < 0.05). Significant dose rate effects were observed only in thrombocyte counts. Plasma
One method of hardening optical glasses against radiation-induced darkening has been to add CeO2 to the batch composition. In the present investigation we prepared a series of lanthanum crown glasses with varying degrees of CeO2 additions and melted them at 1,400°C with and without bubbling oxygen gas. We examined the influence of added oxygen on the optical transmissions of these glasses in the spectral range 460 to 760 nm following gamma irradiations ranging from 10 to 250 krad. The results showed that dose-for-dose the radiation-induced optical attenuations of the oxidized glasses were greater than for the glasses without added O2.. ©2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Bioptron Lamp Irradiation Treatment clinics in Lefkosa at the best price. Find doctors, specialized in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and compare prices, costs and reviews.
The brightest gamma ray beam ever created- more than a thousand billion times more brilliant than the sun- has been produced in research led at the University of Strathclyde- and could open up new possibilities for medicine.
The brightest gamma ray beam ever created -- more than a thousand billion times more brilliant than the sun -- has been produced in research led at
Tube shunt coverage with gamma-irradiated cornea allograft (VisionGraft) Feyzahan Ekici, Marlene R Moster, Victor Cvintal, Wanda D Hu, Michael Waisbourd Glaucoma Research Center, Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: To investigate the clinical outcomes of tube shunt coverage using sterile gamma-irradiated cornea allograft.Patients and methods: The Wills Eye Hospital Glaucoma Research Center retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 165 patients who underwent glaucoma tube shunt procedures using sterile gamma-irradiated cornea allograft (VisionGraft) between December 2012 and November 2013. Demographic characteristics, type of tube shunt, and position were noted. Complications were recorded at 1 day; 1 week; 1, 3, 6, and 12 months; and on the final postoperative visit.Results: One hundred and sixty-nine eyes of 165 patients were included. The mean follow-up time was 4.8±3.5 (ranging from 1 to 16) months. There was no evidence of immunological reaction, infection, or exposure
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, stort og forholdsvis tungt (masse ca. 17 tonn) amerikansk romobservatorium utstyrt med fire instrumenter for registrering av gammastråle-kilder. Skutt opp med romfergen Atlantis 5. april 1991 under betegnelsen Gamma Ray Observatory, utplassert 7. april 1991. En rekke interessante målinger av bl.a. høyenergi-gammastråleutbrudd ble foretatt.
The computer code I-GAM calculates macroscopic cross sections for the production of gamma rays by neutron inelastic scatter. It does so by associating nuclear energy level excitation with energy deposited by neutrons undergoing inelastic scatter. Such energy deposition is described by a 99 fine group inelastic scatter array. The decay of excited levels is in conformance with nuclear level transition probabilities and produces photons of discrete energy which are combined in multigroup form. I-GAM calculates cross sections in up to 18 gamma ray broad groups and 22 neutron broad groups. Author)(*NEUTRONS
Last week scientists took pictures of a gamma ray burst while it was still happening. Gamma ray bursts are very fast and its hard to take pictures of them. This is the first time scientists have ever taken a picture of one. Scientists used a computer-conrolled telescope to look at the burst. It would have taken too long for a person to find it. The burst began to fade after less than half a minute ...
A gamma ray collimator assembly comprising a first portion and a second collimator portion, the first and second portions having different gamma ray acceptance angles.
A gamma ray collimator assembly comprising a first portion and a second collimator portion, the first and second portions having different gamma ray acceptance angles.
Gamma Ray - Silence Lyrics. Gamma Ray Heading For Tomorrow Silence Music/ Lyrics: Hansen When youre drowning, when youre freezin, when youre feeling cold There
Theory says that gamma rays, being even more energetic than x-rays, ought to bypass orbiting electrons altogether; materials should not bend them at all and the refractive index for gamma rays should be almost equal to one. Yet this is not what a team of physicists led by Dietrich Habs at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Germany and Michael Jentschel at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France, has discovered.. ILL is a research reactor that produces intense beams of neutrons. Habs, Jentschel, and colleagues used one of its beams to bombard samples of radioactive chlorine and gadolinium to produce gamma rays. They directed these down a 20-meter-long tube to a device known as a crystal spectrometer, which funneled the gamma rays into a specific direction. They then passed half of the gamma rays through a silicon prism and into another spectrometer to measure their final direction, while they directed the other half straight to the spectrometer unimpeded. To the ...
The paucity of liver donation highlights the use of cell-based strategies for end-stage liver failure. We recently showed that bone marrow-derived aggregates (BMDAs) can completely restore the hematopoietic system in gamma-irradiated mice. These aggregates are stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow (BM), composed of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, reports showed that resident BM cells migrate to the liver and integrate themselves into the tissue in small numbers. Hence, we hypothesized that direct delivery of BMDAs to the damaged liver might enhance the integration of BM cells in the liver because of its stemness property, intact BM architecture, the physical proximity of these niche-like structures to the damaged sites and the existence of liver paracrine factors ...
Earth-based gamma rays are made in storms at the same altitude as many commercial flight paths, possibly creating radiation hazards for air passengers.
As the title of this review says, its ALMOST the perfect power metal album. How Long is a good cut but it sounds a little out of place because of its simple easygoing structure. The formidable riff that leads Condemned to Hell could have been the best stomping rocker Gamma Ray have ever written but the side is let down by a generic power metal chorus, which, quite frankly is a re-write of Heaven and Hell and Send me a Sign. Majesty creates a superb groove with its first class riff, and it would have been nice to carry this idea through the whole song rather than chop and change it throughout the middle break. In all honesty I am being nitpicky because the above reasons are just personal taste and shouldnt detract anyone from getting their mitts on this CD ...
Care guide for Stereotactic Gamma Ray Surgery For Benign Intracranial Tumors (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Volume 35: Morphology and Yield Parameters and Biochemical Analysis of Soybean (|i|Glycine max|/i| (L.) Mrr.) Using Gamma Rays, EMS and DES Treatment
The brightest events in the Universe since the Big Bang; extremely powerful flashes of gamma rays that are believed to originate in massive supernova events. They are highly directional, concentrating in narrow beams that shine for a few seconds, containing as much energy as the Sun will emit in its entire lifetime.. ...
These are really months of hard work at the Gamma Ray camp. After finishing the tour with Helloween, during which they received the news of the Hamburg fire that destroyed their studio and equipment, they are now back in another studio, working on Empire Of The Undead, that will be released in March 2014 via earMUSIC ...
It seems to be everywhere on the web at the moment... But its easy to see why! First light from Fermi. A postcard of the Universe seen in gamma rays. How cool is that?
The ethereal, sensual groove of A Ghost to Find, the latest by the Minneapolis band Sun Gods for Gamma Rays, is a promising sign of whats to come from this up-and-coming band.
A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality diffracting crystals of 1 mm width are used for focussing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of a gamma-ray imager using a large area monolithic 4 × 4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner. AU - Nakamori, T.. AU - Kato, T.. AU - Kataoka, J.. AU - Miura, T.. AU - Matsuda, H.. AU - Sato, K.. AU - Ishikawa, Y.. AU - Yamamura, K.. AU - Kawabata, N.. AU - Ikeda, H.. AU - Sato, G.. AU - Kamada, K.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - We report the development of a monolithic MPPC array, which consists of 3 × 3 mm2 elements arranged as a 4 × 4 array manufactured by Hamamatsu applicable to next generation PET scanners. We show that the MPPC is suitable for time of flight PET applications by simple measurement using coincident back-to-back 511 keV gamma rays. We demonstrated that the MPPC has much better timing resolution of ∼ 600 ps than the APD. We coupled the monolithic MPPC array with the Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG scintillator matrices as gamma-ray detectors. The energy resolutions were evaluated as ∼ 14% with 662 keV gamma-rays and the Ce:LYSO achieved the best. We ...
Barakat, M.F. and Abdelhamid, M.M. (2013) Valence Stabilization of Polyvalent Ions during Gamma Irradiation of Aqueous Solutions by Sacrificial Protection. (III) Valence Stabilization of Fe(II) Ions by Organic Additives. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 298, 1619-1627.
This topic contains 10 study abstracts on Gamma Irradiation: Cold Pasteurization indicating it may negatively impact Food Allergies, Allergy: Cows Milk, and Colon Cancer
The goal of artificial mutagenesis is to increase the rate of mutation for the desired characteristic. The selection of mutagens depends upon some extent to their availability and effectiveness for achieving the desired genetic changes, Cuitivars have different responses to mutagenic treatments. Mutagenic treatments cause some physiological damages in Mj plant. This study was conducted to determine the responses of Gediz-75 ve Sofu durum wheat cuitivars to EMS treatment and gamma irradiation in Tokat-Kazova conditions in 1996 and 1997. The seeds were irradiated with 50 Gy, 100 Gy, 150 Gy and 200 Gy by gamma rays or treated with 0. i %, 0.2 %, 0.3 % and 0.4 % EMS. The seeds were treated with EMS at 24 °C for 8 hours without presoaked and were washed for 6 hours after treatment. Either of treated varieties were grown separately in the trial. Besides, the treatments of gamma rays and EMS separately were Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Mutagens caused different effects ...
In other words, zero is still possible. Given the large number of possible cancer types, possible population groups, and types of radiation you can study (and they did look at other cancer types and other types of radiation), it would be surprising if you cannot find any significant effect by chance. And even if it would be highly significant (it is not), it still doesnt allow separating the effect of gamma radiation and other possible causes of cancer ...
An enhanced understanding of background gamma radiation is necessary for accurate radionuclide activity quantification. Background spectra are routinely subtracted from spectra of samples prepared in known geometries, with data collection time chosen to optimize statistics for counting uncertainties …
Here, we discuss the difference between alpha beta and gamma radiation in terms of what they are made of, their charge, mass, speed, ionising power, effect
The AGILE satellite, currently in its Science Verification Phase, during the Observing Block that started on 2007-11-02 12:00 UT, detected significant gamma-ray emission from a source coincident with the blazar 3C 454.3, as reported in ATEL #1278. The source continues to be active in > 100 MeV gamma rays, showing variability on day-to-day time scales, with particular activity within the last two days. We strongly encourage continued multi-frequency observations of the field of the gamma-ray source detected by AGILE. ...
In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained. ...
Context. The detection and the characterization of the highenergy emission component from individual gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is one of the key science objectives of the currently operating gamma-ray satellite AGILE, launched in April 2007. In its first two years of operation AGILE detected three GRBs with photons of energy larger than 30 MeV. One more GRB was detected in AGILE third operation year, while operating in spinning mode. Aims. For the 64 other GRBs localized during the period July 2007 to October 2009 in the field of view of the AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID), but not detected by this instrument, we estimate the count and flux upper limits on the GRB high energy emission in the AGILE-GRID energy band (30 MeV-3 GeV). Methods. To calculate the count upper limits, we adopted a Bayesian approach. The flux upper limits are derived using several assumptions on the high-energy spectral behavior. For 28 GRBs with available prompt spectral information, a flux upper limit and the ...
The AGILE satellite is detecting a significant enhancement in gamma-ray activity from the FSRQ 3C 454.3 since the recent ATel #9176. According to a maximum likelihood analysis of the AGILE-GRID data for the integration period between 2016-06-22 02:50:00 UT and 2016-06-24 02:50:00 UT, the flux is F(E > 100 MeV) = (1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10^-5 ph/cm^2/s; this corresponds to a flux increase of approximately a factor of 6 above the average flux during the last 6 days. The current flux level is similar to the gamma-ray activity reported by AGILE in 2014 (ATel #6234). This measurement was obtained with AGILE observing a large portion of the sky in spinning mode. Multifrequency observations of the source are strongly encouraged. The 3C 454.3 gamma-ray flaring activity can be followed with the APP AGILEScience.. AGILE-GRID sky map (E , 100 MeV) during the period 22-24 June, 2016. ...
This invention provides a radiation detecting apparatus for imaging the distribution of radioactive substances in a three-dimensional subject such as a medical patient. Radiating substances introduced
Day 11: Whole Body Scan. If this {which is what I had done last month} or something very much like it is what you just had done, then the first WBS was just to determine the size of the large dose of I-131 you got on day 4.. Both scans should look pretty much the same or maybe the second scan will show something the first missed. The WBS youre taking is looking to see where gamma rays are eminating from your body. The day 2 dose {for me it was 2mCi} is much less strong than the day 4 dose {for me it was also 75 mCi}, so it will cause far fewer gamma rays {in my case something like 1/20th}. So they do the day 11 scan in order to see if the day 2 scan missed anything. The large dose will take maybe as long as 6 to 9 months to finish killing off thyroid cells, assuming it kills them all.. When do I get to be cancer free? No one has been able to answer that for me, so I doubt anyone will be able to answer it for you. Theres no way that you can know if there isnt some very small undetectable ...
The patient lies on a table that slides into the middle of the scanner. Within the scanner are rings of detectors containing special crystals that produce light when struck by a gamma ray. The scanners electronics record these detected gamma rays and map an image of the area where the radiopharmaceutical is located. Since the radiopharmaceutical contains a chemical commonly used by the body, PET enables the physician to see the location of the metabolic process. For example, glucose (or sugar, which the body uses to produces energy) combined with a radioisotope will show where glucose is being used in the brain, the heart muscle, or a growing tumor. ...
In conjunction with a having a key associated with your account, to have the possibility of exporting private event information necessitates the creation of a persistent key. This new key is also associated with your account and whilst it is active the data which can be obtained through using this key can be obtained by anyone in possession of the link provided. Due to this reason, it is extremely important that you keep links generated with this key private and for your use only. If you think someone else may have acquired access to a link using this key in the future, you must immediately remove it from My Profile under the HTTP API tab and generate a new key before regenerating iCalendar links ...
Measurement of the natural gamma rays emitted by various elements in the formation. Gamma ray logs are helpful for quantifying shaliness, well-to-well correlation, depth correlation between open- and cased-hole logs, and for correlation between logging runs.
Breaking News. A science team have released preliminary news that they can now very easily replicate proof of Cold Fusion / LENR with easy to get material.
When the World Lyrics : Bodies lie around me, only shells left from the fight victims of the ones that turn the day into the night survivors stumble through the field,theyre calling for the priest branded with a sign, the number of the beast its He..
A gamma decay was then understood to usually emit a gamma photon. Natural sources of gamma rays on Earth include gamma decay ... Extraterrestrial, high energy gamma rays include the gamma ray background produced when cosmic rays (either high speed ... Thunderstorms can produce a brief pulse of gamma radiation called a terrestrial gamma-ray flash. These gamma rays are thought ... followed by beta rays, followed by gamma rays as the most penetrating. Rutherford also noted that gamma rays were not deflected ...
... or Gamma Ray Observatory can refer to: Any observatory used for gamma ray astronomy. The Compton Gamma ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Gamma ray observatory. If an internal link led you here, you ... Ray Observatory, an observatory that operated from 1991 to 2000. ...
"Gamma Rays". NASA. Archived from the original on 2012-05-02. Atkinson, Nancy (2013-04-16). "New Kind of Gamma Ray Burst is ... Paczyński, B. (1999). "Gamma-Ray Burst-Supernova relation". In M. Livio; N. Panagia; K. Sahu (eds.). Supernovae and Gamma-Ray ... In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies ... Gamma-Ray Bursts. Vol. 141. American Institute of Physics. pp. 33-38. ISBN 0-88318-340-4. Hurley, K. (1992). "Gamma-Ray Bursts ...
... "gamma-ray" when used as an adjective, but uses "gamma ray" without a hyphen for the noun. "EGRET Detection of Gamma Rays from ... but also observed gamma-ray bursts. By identifying the first non-gamma ray counterparts to gamma-ray bursts, it opened the way ... the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor, for studying gamma-ray bursts. In November 2010, using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, two ... Cosmic-ray observatory Galactic Center GeV excess Gamma-ray Burst Coordinates Network History of gamma-ray burst research ...
A gamma-ray laser, or graser, is a hypothetical device that would produce coherent gamma rays, just as an ordinary laser ... In his 2003 Nobel lecture, Vitaly Ginzburg cited the gamma-ray laser as one of the 30 most important problems in physics. The ... Baldwin, G. C.; Solem, J. C.; Gol'danskii, V. I. (1981). "Approaches to the development of gamma-ray lasers". Reviews of Modern ... Baldwin, G. C.; Solem, J. C. (1980). "Two-stage pumping of three-level Mössbauer gamma-ray lasers". Journal of Applied Physics ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gamma Ray (musical group). Official website Gamma Ray discography at MusicBrainz Gamma ... "GAMMA RAY Hires FRANK BECK As Its New Lead Singer". 31 October 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2018. "GAMMA RAY ... "Gamma Ray - To the Metal! (album review 2)". Sputnikmusic. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2018. "GAMMA RAY: 'Skeletons ... "GAMMA RAY ANNOUNCE 25TH ANNIVERSARY REISSUE OF "ALIVE '95"". "A conversation with Kai Hansen (Helloween/ Gamma ...
Look up gamma ray or gamma-ray in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Gamma rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation. Gamma ... "Gamma Ray" (song), by Beck "Gamma Ray", a song by the German progressive rock band Birth Control "Gamma Ray", a song by Circa ... Ray may also refer to: Gamma Ray (band), a German power metal band Gamma Ray (EP), extended play recording by Queens of the ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Gamma ray. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer, the Hard X-ray/Low-Energy Gamma-ray experiment (A-4) on HEAO 1, the Burst and Transient ... The study and analysis of gamma-ray spectra for scientific and technical use is called gamma spectroscopy, and gamma-ray ... How are gamma rays and neutrons produced by cosmic rays? Incoming cosmic rays-some of the highest-energy particles-collide with ... gamma-ray instrument on HEAO 3, and the Ge gamma-ray spectrometer (SPI) on the ESA INTEGRAL mission are examples of cosmic ...
... while a spectral gamma ray log (see below) can. For standard gamma-ray logs, the measured value of gamma-ray radiation is ... Gamma ray energy 2.61 MeV Uranium-Radium series: Gamma ray energy 1.76 MeV Another example of the use of spectral gamma ray ... Thus gamma ray logs cannot be said to make good lithological logs by themselves, but in practice, gamma ray logs are compared ... The characteristic gamma ray line that is associated with each radioactive component: Potassium : Gamma ray energy 1.46 MeV ...
A) "Gamma Ray" (2:58) "Gamma Ray" (2:59) (cover by Jay Reatard) (B) "Gamma Ray" (2:58) "Bonfire Blondes" (2:25) Beck Hansen - ... "Gamma Ray (Jay Reatard Version) - Single by Beck - Download Gamma Ray (Jay Reatard Version) - Single on iTunes". ... "Gamma Ray" is a song by American rock musician Beck. It was released as the second single from his eighth studio album, Modern ... "Beck: Gamma Ray b,w Bonfire Blondes: 7". Archived from the original on 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2010-09-21. "Beck ...
Gamma Ray is the debut EP by Gamma Ray, a musical project by former Kyuss guitarist Josh Homme, released in 1996 by Man's Ruin ... recording engineer Gamma Ray (EP liner notes). Gamma Ray. San Francisco: Man's Ruin Records. 1996. MR 036.{{cite AV media notes ... He changed the name of the project to Queens of the Stone Age, and both of the Gamma Ray tracks were re-released the following ... After the breakup of Kyuss in 1995, Homme recorded the Gamma Ray material in Seattle with producer Chris Goss, bassist Van ...
"Gamma Ray - To The Metal!". Retrieved 2012-02-17. Steffen Hung (2010-02-14). "The Official Swiss Charts and Music ... "Gamma Ray Suchergebnisse in den deutschen Charts". (in German). Media Control Charts. Retrieved 2011-08-30.[dead link ... "Gamma Ray - To The Metal!". Archived from the original on 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2012-02-17. "Chartpositions " ... This is a discography of Gamma Ray, a German heavy metal band, formed in 1988 in Hamburg, Germany. They have released eleven ...
Gamma-ray detected by Gamma-ray detector in an oil or gas wells, is not only a function of radioactivity of the formations, but ... Gamma-ray measurement has the following applications: Well to well correlation: gamma-ray log fluctuates with changes in ... The spectrum of the gamma-rays emitted by these two isotopes consists of gamma-ray of many different energies and form a ... Gamma ray logging Gamma ray Formation evaluation Ellis, Darwin V. (1987). Well Logging for Earth Scientists. Amsterdam: ...
A terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF), also known as dark lightning, is a burst of gamma rays produced in Earth's atmosphere. ... In 2009, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in Earth orbit observed intense burst of gamma rays corresponding to positron ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Gamma-ray bursts Red sprite Blue jet Lightning Palmer, ... Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.; Fishman, G. (2006). "Terrestrial gamma ray flashes observed aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory ...
"Gamma-Ray Astronomy in the Compton Era: The Instruments". Gamma-Ray Astronomy in the Compton Era. NASA/ GSFC. Archived from the ... The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) measured high energy (20 MeV to 30 GeV) gamma-ray source positions to a ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. NASA Compton Gamma Ray Observatory site NASA CGRO images ... NASA's Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission (launched 2004), ASI AGILE (satellite) (launched 2007) and NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space ...
" - Gamma Ray - Majestic". Hung Medien. Retrieved 12 September 2020. " - Gamma Ray - Majestic" ( ... Henjo Richter GAMMA RAY: Japanese Version Of 'Majestic' To Include Bonus Track Retrieved November 1, 2017 "Gamma Ray - Majestic ... Gamma Ray - Majestic". Hung Medien. Retrieved 12 September 2020. " - Gamma Ray - Majestic". Hung Medien. ... Majestic is the eighth full-length studio album from the German power metal band Gamma Ray, released in 2005. The band also ...
A gamma-ray precursor is a short X-ray outburst event that comes before the main outburst of the gamma-ray burst progenitor. ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Gamma-ray bursts, Gamma-ray astronomy). ... Notably, the first gamma-ray precursor to be detected showed a thermal spectrum, with a peak in the X-ray wavelengths. There is ... The first gamma-ray precursor event was from GRB 900126, a long GRB. Immediately, because of the non-thermal nature of the ...
The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) was a gamma-ray spectrometer instrument on a balloon-borne airborne observatory. It ... "The Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS): A new balloon-borne experiment for gamma-ray line astronomy". 19th Intern. Cosmic ... "arguably one of the most successful gamma-ray balloon programs in history". GRIS followed earlier gamma ray spectroscopy work ... after the removal of a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer from the payload of what would become the Compton Gamma Ray ...
The path of the gamma-rays can be reconstructed using a tracking algorithm. Multi Geometry Simulation is one of the most ... Reconstructing the path of the γ-ray interaction is one of the main problems of the γ-ray tracking. There are several proposed ... AGATA, for advanced gamma tracking array, is a highly segmented High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector array. It is a European ... To determine the position of the interaction of the γ-ray one needs to consider the shapes of the induced real and mirror ...
... are the types of celestial objects that can emit gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRBs show an ... Gamma-ray burst emission mechanisms Quark-nova Ruderman, M. (1975). "Theories of gamma-ray bursts". Texas Symposium on ... 2005). "Bright X-ray Flares in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows". Science. 309 (5742): 1833-1835. arXiv:astro-ph/0506130. Bibcode: ... To date, three gamma-ray bursts have been associated with SGR flares in galaxies beyond the Milky Way: GRB 790305b in the Large ...
... gamma (\gamma -2)}{\gamma +1}}{\Biggl (}1-{\frac {1}{2\gamma (\gamma ^{2}-1)^{1/2}}}\ln {\frac {\gamma +(\gamma ^{2}-1)^{1/2 ... Gamma ray cross section - a measure of the probability that gamma ray interacts with matter. The total cross section of gamma ... gamma -(\gamma ^{2}-1)^{1/2}}}{\Biggr )}{\Biggr ]}} where γ = E γ − E B + E e E e {\displaystyle \gamma ={\frac {E_{\gamma }-E ... The photoelectric effect is the dominant energy transfer mechanism for X-ray and gamma ray photons with energies below 50 keV, ...
The gamma-ray burst coordinates network (GCN) is a system that distributes information about the location of a gamma-ray burst ... and the X-Ray/Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (XGRS) on NEAR Shoemaker. The GCN system has the capability to receive and distribute ... Gamma-ray telescopes, Gamma-ray bursts, Astrophysics). ... The GCN data flow starts when gamma-rays from a GRB hit a ... Future spacecraft that will be distributing GRB locations via GCN include AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope. GCN ...
Since lower energy gamma rays cannot be accurately detected on Earth's surface, EGRET was built to detect gamma rays while in ... "Energetic gamma ray experiment telescope high-energy gamma ray observations of the Moon and quiet Sun." JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL ... "Energetic gamma ray experiment telescope high-energy gamma ray observations of the Moon and quiet Sun." Journal of Geophysical ... The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) was one of four instruments outfitted on NASA's Compton Gamma Ray ...
"Revealing x-ray and gamma ray temporal and spectral similarities in the GRB 190829A afterglow". Science. 372 (6546): 1081-1085 ... Ray Characteristics of a Classical GammaRay Burst and Its Afterglow". The Astrophysical Journal. 501 (1): 307-324. arXiv:astro ... "Gamma-ray Burst 211106A". Retrieved 2022-08-14. "Out With a Bang: Explosive Neutron Star Merger Captured for ... The ING Newsletter, "Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows: Surprises from the Sky", P. Vreeswijk, N. Tanvir, T. Galama, No.2 - March 2000 ...
... are theories that explain how the energy from a gamma-ray burst progenitor (regardless of ... Gamma-ray burst emission is believed to be released in jets, not spherical shells. Initially the two scenarios are equivalent: ... As of 2007 there is no theory that has successfully described the spectrum of all gamma-ray bursts (though some theories work ... Sari, R.; Piran, T.; Halpern, J. P. (1999). "Jets in Gamma-Ray Bursts". Astrophysical Journal. 519 (1): L17-L20. arXiv:astro-ph ...
The ratio of primary cosmic ray hadrons to gamma rays also gives a clue as to the origin of cosmic rays. Although gamma rays ... Sources that produce cosmic rays will almost certainly produce gamma rays as well, as the cosmic ray particles interact with ... Very-high-energy gamma rays are of importance because they may reveal the source of cosmic rays. They travel in a straight line ... Very-high-energy gamma ray (VHEGR) denotes gamma radiation with photon energies of 100 GeV (gigaelectronvolt) to 100 TeV ( ...
" - Gamma Ray - Power Plant" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 12 September 2020. "Gamma Ray: Power Plant" ( ... "Gamma Ray - Power Plant review". Metal Storm. Retrieved 27 March 2021. Stagno, Mike (27 October 2006). "Gamma Ray - Power Plant ... Power Plant is the sixth full-length album from the German power metal band, Gamma Ray. The album was initially released in ... "Gamma Ray - Power Plant review". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 19 May 2021. Popoff, Martin (1 August 2007). The ...
The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) (formerly GLAST Burst Monitor) detects sudden flares of gamma-rays produced by gamma ray ... Galactic gamma- and X-ray bubbles In November 2010, it was announced that two gamma-ray and X-ray emitting bubbles were ... Gamma-ray bursts Study gamma-ray bursts with an energy range several times more intense than ever before so that scientists may ... The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST, also FGRST), formerly called the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), is a ...
The ratio of primary cosmic ray hadrons to gamma rays also gives a clue as to the origin of cosmic rays. Although gamma rays ... Ultra-high-energy gamma rays are gamma rays with photon energies higher than 100 TeV (0.1 PeV). They have a frequency higher ... The authors of the report have named the sources of these PeV gamma rays PeVatrons. Ultra-high-energy gamma rays are of ... Sources that produce cosmic rays will almost certainly produce gamma rays as well, as the cosmic ray particles interact with ...
He would go on to appear on every Gamma Ray record to date. Also making his first appearance with the band was Uli Kusch, who ... Heaven Can Wait was an EP released by German power metal band Gamma Ray in 1990, following the release of their debut album ... Gamma Ray (band) albums, 1990 EPs, Albums produced by Kai Hansen). ...
Cosmic rays are much more penetrating than gamma or x-rays. Warheads can be imaged in a container behind significant shielding ... Passive Imaging of SNM with Cosmic-Ray Generated Neutrons and Gamma-Rays. IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record. pp ... Cosmic rays are numerous and omnipresent in outer space. Therefore, it is predicted that the interaction of the cosmic rays in ... Minato used cosmic ray counts to radiograph a large temple gate. Emil Frlež et al. reported using tomographic methods to track ...
U.S. Customs and Border Patrol utilized X-ray, gamma ray machines, and radiation detection devices to screen cargo, operating ...
Hughes Stadium was the site of the AAU National Championships in 1968; on the evening of June 20, Jim Hines, Ronnie Ray Smith, ... The Doobie Brothers headlined the concert and were joined by Carlos Santana, Rick Springfield, and Gamma. "Archived copy" (PDF ...
Ray K, Kunsch C, Bonner LM, Robishaw JD (Oct 1995). "Isolation of cDNA clones encoding eight different human G protein gamma ... subunits, including three novel forms designated the gamma 4, gamma 10, and gamma 11 subunits". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (37): 21765- ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNG4 gene. GNG4 ... Pumiglia KM, LeVine H, Haske T, Habib T, Jove R, Decker SJ (1995). "A direct interaction between G-protein beta gamma subunits ...
It has a barely detectable, 1% radioactivity measured by GRapi (Gamma Ray American Petroleum Institute Units). It mostly ...
Other instruments gathering data before the mother ship crashed onto the Moon were a gamma ray spectrometer to measure overall ... a cosmic-ray integrating ionization chamber, cosmic dust detectors, and scintillation counters. The goal was to place these ...
Cheng, Xiongying; Gao, Mingwei (1988). "Biological and genetic effects of combined treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and ...
Godkiller was genetically modified to use Beta Ray Bill's hammer Stormbreaker. Khn'nr A Skrull who posed as Captain Marvel with ... Avengers trilogy Gamma Quest.[citation needed] He aligns himself with the Leader to enhance his powers and successfully mimics ...
When thermal neutrons are then absorbed, gamma rays are emitted. A suitable detector, positioned at a certain distance from the ... or the gamma rays emitted after the absorption. Mechanics of elastic collisions predict that the maximum energy transfer occurs ... and Neutron-gamma tools measure the intensity of gamma flux generated by thermal neutron capture. The tools usually have two ...
... gamma (IFN-gamma) also significantly stimulates the MHC II-dependent presentation of antigens. Higher MHC I ... Immunizing property of vaccinia virus inactivated by ultraviolets rays]". Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie ... Ikeda, Hiroaki; Old, Lloyd J.; Schreiber, Robert D. (April 2002). "The roles of IFN gamma in protection against tumor ... Interferons, such as interferon gamma, directly activate other immune cells, such as macrophages and natural killer cells. ...
This is in contrast to events like risks from impacts, gamma-ray bursts, supernovae and hypernovae, the frequencies of which we ... Hut and Rees note that, because cosmic ray collisions have been observed at much higher energies than those produced in ... Particle accelerators have reached energies of only approximately eight tera electron volts (8×1012 eV). Cosmic ray collisions ... gamma } is the unknown (possibly extremely large) surface tension of the domain wall, and R {\displaystyle R} is the radius of ...
Evans, W. D.; Glore, J. P.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.; Tech, E. R.; Spalding, R. E. (6 July 1979). "Gamma-Ray Burst ... Evans, W. D.; Glore, J. P.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.; Tech, E. R.; Spalding, R. E. (6 July 1979). "Gamma-Ray Burst ... Phillips, Roger J.; Sjogren, William L.; Abbott, Elsa A.; Smith, John C.; Wimberly, Ray N.; Wagner, Cari A. (6 July 1979). " ... Phillips, Roger J.; Sjogren, William L.; Abbott, Elsa A.; Smith, John C.; Wimberly, Ray N.; Wagner, Cari A. (6 July 1979). " ...
The term derives from the Greek téssara (τέσσαρα 'four') and from aktís (ἀκτίς 'ray'), referring to the four edges from each ... Coxeter labels it the γ 4 {\displaystyle \gamma _{4}} polytope. The term hypercube without a dimension reference is frequently ... "4D uniform polytopes (polychora) x4o3o3o - tes". The Tesseract Ray traced images with hidden surface elimination. This site ...
Spencer Jones is in the lower left, and the spacecraft's gamma-ray spectrometer is in lower right. The geologic history of the ...
Some post-processing effects also require multiple-passes, gamma inputs, vertex manipulation, and depth buffer access. Post- ... mapping Cel shading Chromatic aberration Color correction Color grading Contrast adjustment Dynamic contrast Crepuscular rays ... Eye adaptation Film grain Filmic scene tone mapping Fog/mist Gamma correction Global illumination Glow Grayscale Haze (depth, ...
In particular, gamma ray bursts, galactic radiation, and the cosmic microwave background radiation are examined. The SME ... In an attempt to observe a weak dependence of speed on energy, light from distant astrophysical sources such as gamma ray ... 2012). "Testing violations of Lorentz invariance with cosmic rays". Physical Review D. 86 (4): 045024. arXiv:1206.0713. Bibcode ...
... is replicated by the DNA polymerase gamma complex which is composed of a 140 kDa catalytic DNA polymerase ... Proteins associated with mitochondrial DNA protect it against the action of X-rays and hydrogen peroxide]. Biofizika (in ... Proteins associated with mitochondrial DNA protect it against the action of X-rays and hydrogen peroxide]" [ ... "Functional human mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma forms a heterotrimer". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (1): 374-82 ...
The Saclay Nuclear Research Centre's Gamma-Ray Measurement experiment used a spark chamber to detect gamma rays during the sky ... "Solar Gamma-Rays in the 50- to 500-MeV Energy Range". NSSDC Master Catalog. NASA. Retrieved 12 September 2011. "Solar X-Ray ... but also using x-ray and gamma ray detectors. TD-1A was named after the Thor-Delta series of rockets, a derivative of which was ... Solar Gamma-Rays in the 50 to 500 MeV Energy Range was an experiment operated by the University of Milan which was used to ...
"Gruppo Gamma", which originated from the kind of Pirelli rubber skin-suit nicknamed muta gamma used by these divers. Later they ... "Holy Sidemount!". X-Ray Magazine. 25 April 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2012. NOAA Diving Program (U.S.) (2001). Joiner, James T ... Originally these divers were called "Uomini Gamma" because they were members of the top secret special unit called " ...
Sasahara, Akihiro; Matsumura, Tetsuo; Nicolaou, Giorgos; Papaioannou, Dimitri (April 2004). "Neutron and Gamma Ray Source ... Americium is commonly used in industry as both an alpha particle source and as a low photon-energy gamma radiation source. For ...
Thus there is no burst of X-rays or gamma rays that usually happens when other black holes form. If blitzars exist, they may ...
85Kr clathrate provides a safe source of beta particles, while 133Xe clathrate provides a useful source of gamma rays. Smith GL ... Hogness, T.R.; Lunn, E.G. (1925). "The Ionization of Hydrogen by Electron Impact as Interpreted by Positive Ray Analysis". Phys ... and X-ray crystallography". Inorganic Chemistry. 46 (4): 1369-78. doi:10.1021/ic061899+. PMID 17256847. Smith GL, Mercier HP, ...
30-166 nm Extreme UV spectrometer Compound plasma spectrometer KONUS Gamma-ray burst detector SNEG Gamma-ray burst detector ... The last gamma-ray burst reported by Venera 12 occurred on 5 January 1980. Venera 12 used its ultraviolet spectrometer to study ... Before and after the Venus flyby, Venera 11 and Venera 12 yielded detailed time-profiles for 143 gamma-ray bursts, resulting in ... The Venera 12 flight platform carried solar wind detectors, ionosphere electron instruments, and two gamma ray burst detectors ...
In March, the Young Bucks made their final appearances for the company, losing to Cima, Gamma and Dragon Kid at Open the ... Currier, Joseph (March 4, 2017). "The Hardys & Bully Ray show up in Ring of Honor". Wrestling Observer Newsletter. Retrieved ... Bully Ray and Devon). At the tapings of the following day's Hardcore Justice 2 pay-per-view, Generation Me was defeated in a ...
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a nuclear medicine imaging methodology using gamma rays emitted by a ... Computed tomography angiography (CTA), an imaging methodology using a ring-shaped machine with an X-ray source spinning around ... uses X-ray fluoroscopy, typically at 30 frames per second, to visualize the position and volume of blood within the heart ... the circular path so as to bathe the inner circle with a uniform and known X-ray density. Cardiology uses are growing with the ...
In 1965, he along with Samuel E. Honneger and Joseph Mullins worked tirelessly to establish the Delta Colony of Phi Gamma Delta ... In 1984, he sued Ray Rogers, president of Corporate Campaigns, Inc., over Rogers' attempt to patent the term "corporate ... During his undergraduate schooling, Kamber joined the Phi Gamma Delta collegiate social fraternity. ... at the University of New Mexico which later became the Alpha Nu Chapter of Phi Gamma Delta in 1966. He worked on the ...
These were (wrongly) presumed to be gamma rays. Wang suggested the use of a cloud chamber to study these particles. However, he ... which was non-ionizing but even more penetrating than the strongest gamma rays derived from radium. ... In 1930, Wang first proposed the use of a cloud chamber to study a new type of high-energy ray induced by the bombardment of ... He was one of the founding fathers of Chinese nuclear physics, cosmic rays and particle physics. Wang was also a leader in the ...
Instead of detecting the individual gamma rays (as high-resolution detectors do), it will detect the gamma cascades emitted in ... The gamma rays produced in the decay under study are collected by photomultipliers attached to the scintillator material. This ... a simulated gamma response matrix must be built using the simulated responses to individual monoenergetic γ rays of several ... The gamma that would be emitted after the beta decay is missed, and the γ intensity decreases accordingly: IT = Iγ + Ie− = Iγ(1 ...
4K Blu-ray Discs have a data rate of at least 50 Mbit/s and disc capacity up to 100 GB. 4K Blu-ray Discs and players became ... added support for the hybrid log-gamma (HLG) transfer function and the ICtCp color matrix. This allows the fourth version of ... On September 5, 2014, the Blu-ray Disc Association announced that the 4K Blu-ray Disc specification would support HEVC-encoded ... "4K Blu-ray discs arriving in 2015 to fight streaming media". CNET. September 5, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014. "BDA Updates ...
... further studies have identified that meldonium is a substrate for gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase. X-ray crystallographic and ... Demonstration of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase activity". European Journal of Biochemistry. 203 (3): 599-605. doi:10.1111/j. ... O'Riordan, Ian (1 May 2020). "Ray Walker doping case raises more questions than answers". The Irish Times. "Ukraine's Senkevych ... The last of these 4 enzymes is gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase (GBB), which hydroxylates butyrobetaine into carnitine. The main ...
... (All information courtesy of the instrument teams.) Previous IAU Circulars * none Results of ... "At 04:02:29.723 UT on 17 August 2012, the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor triggered and located GRB 120817B (trigger 366868952 / ...
Credit: NASA/DOE/International LAT Team SOURCES OF GAMMA RAYS Gamma rays have the smallest wavelengths and the most energy of ... Brighter colors in the Cygus region indicate greater numbers of gamma rays detected by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope. ... DETECTING GAMMA RAYS. Unlike optical light and x-rays, gamma rays cannot be captured and reflected by mirrors. Gamma-ray ... These gamma-ray streams were imaged using NASAs Fermi gamma-ray space telescope to map out the Milky Way galaxy by creating a ...
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Gamma Ray Bursts. The biggest one recorded was in October 2022, in a galaxy far, far away. What would have happened if it had ... Gamma ray bursters, Part 2. Broadcast. Tue 8 Nov 2022 at 12:30am. Tuesday 8 Nov 2022 at 12:30am. Tue 8 Nov 2022 at 12:30am. ... But on the other hand, each cataclysmic Gamma Ray Burst is not just the death of an old star, its also the birth of a new ... On their way down to the ground, the gamma rays would have to pass through our atmosphere. 80% of our atmosphere is made up of ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by the Society for Science, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education (EIN 53-0196483).. ...
The high energy burst took place in August 2020 and it only lasted for about one second making it the shortest gamma-ray burst ... recently discovered a pulse of powerful gamma radiation that traveled for about half the age of the universe. ... using data from NASAs Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, ... Science in a Minute: Shortest Gamma Ray Burst Detected July 30 ... Scientists, using data from NASAs Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, recently discovered a pulse of powerful gamma radiation ...
... but how those gamma-rays are created remains a mystery, scientists say. ... Small star explosions called novas can unleash mega blasts of gamma-rays surprisingly often, ... "We anticipate more gamma-ray novae to be detected, and new observations of more examples will shed light on the gamma-ray ... Mysterious origins of gamma-rays. It remains uncertain how these three newfound classical novas generated gamma-rays. When it ...
... gamma-ray bursts randomly appear throughout the sky every day, giving astronomers few clues about their origins. ... RECORD BLAST. NASAs Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope spied the highest-energy light ever seen from a gamma-ray burst (GRB) on ... Some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) last for only a fraction of a second - some as long as a minute (and even one that lasted as long ... What Are Gamma-Ray Bursts?. One of the greatest mysteries of observational astronomy during the past three decades has been the ...
Tag: short gamma ray bursts. Posted on October 29, 2020. October 29, 2020. by Evan Gough ... One question surrounds short-lived gamma-ray bursts from these mergers. Previous studies have shown that these bursts may come ... A new study strengthens our understanding of these complex mergers and introduces a model that explains the gamma rays. ...
When this happens, one byproduct is gamma rays. The energy of the gamma rays keeps the suns core hot. Some of those gamma rays ... Alpha rays bounce right off, beta rays went a little farther, and gamma rays went the farthest. Today we know alpha rays are ... Some gamma rays come from thunderstorms.. In the 1990s, observatories in space detected bursts of gamma rays coming from Earth ... The name "gamma rays" came from Ernest Rutherford.. French chemist Paul Villard first identified gamma rays in 1900 from the ...
Gamma Ray's Fangface - March Metal Mascot Madness, Round 2. Megadeth's Vic Rattlehead vs. Gamma Ray's Fangface ... Gamma Ray's Recording Studio Destroyed by Mysterious Fire. Gamma Ray's Recording Studio Destroyed by Mysterious Fire ... Gamma Ray vs. Danzig - March Metal Mascot Madness, Round 1. Gamma Ray vs. Danzig - March Metal Mascot Madness, Round 1. ... Gamma Ray. The 25 Best Metal Albums of 2001. The 25 Best Metal Albums of 2001. A year full of change. ...
... beginning its mission to study gamma-ray bursts and identify their origins. ...
An artists impression of a gamma-ray burst powered by a neutron star. Credit: Nuria Jordana-Mitjans. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ... Black holes dont always power gamma-ray bursts, new research shows. Space scientists may need to rethink how GRBs are formed ... And from the crash site, a jetted explosion releases the gamma-ray radiation that makes a GRB, followed by a longer-lived ... "We were excited to catch the very early optical light from this short gamma-ray burst - something that is still largely ...
University-led team of astronomers has developed the most extensive inventory to date of the galaxies where short gamma-ray ... they generate momentary flashes of intense gamma-ray light, known as SGRBs. While the gamma rays last mere seconds, the optical ... Short gamma-ray bursts traced farther into distant universe. Most robust inventory to date catalogs SGRBs host galaxies, ... Broadband Repository for Investigating Gamma-ray burst Host Traits). All of BRIGHTs data and modeling products are publicly ...
... Posted by Saúl Morales Rodriguéz in category: space. ... A glowing blob known as "the cocoon," which appears to be inside one of the enormous gamma-ray emanations from the center of ...
A team of astronomers have just released the most extensive inventory to date of where short gamma ray bursts originate. ... Researchers hunt 84 mysterious short gamma ray bursts to their source. A catalogue of tantrums *. Share ... Some gamma ray bursts will eject more energy in 10 seconds than the Sun will emit in its 10-billion-year lifetime. ... Because these gamma rays currently represent the only way to study a large population of merging neutron star systems, having a ...
The collision of two distant neutron stars released one of the most powerful short gamma-ray bursts ever recorded, according to ... A short-duration gamma-ray burst usually lasts only a few tenths of a second and researchers look for an afterglow when it ... Gamma-ray bursts, in fact, are considered to be one of the most catastrophic space threats to the Earth, although scientists ... 5 (UPI) -- The collision of two distant neutron stars released one of the most powerful short gamma-ray bursts ever recorded, ...
Short GRB 171126A, 20322.007 s UT (05:38:42.007 ...
Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) support this accelerated expansion of the universe (cosmic acceleration) at high redshifts up to z=8.1. ... Gamma Ray Burst Data Model. The Gamma Ray Burst Data Model allows the user to test a cosmological model with different data ... Gamma Ray Burst Data Source Code. The source code zip archive contains an EJS-XML representation of the Gamma Ray Burst Data ... Fitting Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts Data DEDGP:. Is Based On Easy Java Simulations Modeling and Authoring Tool The Easy ...
Extinction by Gamma-Ray Burst. 3-Year Streaming Price: $49.99 Add to Cart *Add to Cart ... Extinction by Gamma-Ray Burst (09:47). FREE PREVIEW Find out about the last time and the next time the Earth will be hit by a ... Find out about the last time and the next time the Earth will be hit by a Gamma-ray Burst. ...
... gamma rays derived from neutral pions -mesons produced in collisions in a nonevolutionary situation and gamma rays from ... The flux of gamma rays from the second process is not far from the diffuse background that was reported. ... It is shown that the ultrahigh energy gamma rays could conceivably be of high enough intensity to be detected. ... An analysis is made of the interactions of very high energy cosmic ray protons with the relict radiation in extragalactic space ...
... and gamma rays from blazars (as well as direct observations of dark patches of sky) to set upper limits. The farther gamma rays ... The VERITAS array has detected gamma rays from a blazar known as PKS 1441+25. Researchers found that the source of the gamma ... "If the gamma rays were produced close to the black hole, the radiation fields there are strong enough to absorb them. So the ... When high-energy gamma rays collide with lower-energy photons, they annihilate and create an electron-positron pair. To reach ...
Some of the major stepping stones towards uncovering the mystery of gamma ray bursts will be discussed. This is an unfinished ... Some of the major stepping stones towards uncovering the mystery of gamma ray bursts will be discussed. This is an unfinished ...
Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts produced by high-energy electrons originating in the Earths ... Optical emissions associated with terrestrial gamma ray flashes Wei Xu 1 Sébastien Celestin 2 Victor P. Pasko 1 Details. ... Abstract : Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts produced by high-energy electrons originating in ... Optical emissions associated with terrestrial gamma ray flashes. Journal of Geophysical Research Space Physics, 2015, 120, pp. ...
All the latest science news about gamma-ray bursts from ...
... gamma rays along the EM spectrum. In fact, the spectral ranges of hard X-rays and gamma rays overlap. Gamma rays have ... Gamma Ray Radiation Gamma rays are an extremely high-energy form of electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Gamma ray radiation has a ... energy gamma rays. The distinction between X-rays and gamma rays is actually based on the origin of the radiation, not on the ... Gamma rays lie at the extreme high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum. X-rays, which have slightly lower energies than ...
Artist is Gamma-Ray and design is: Futurama,tv show,animation,comedy,bender,robot,internet,funny,captcha,text ... This product was designed by Gamma-Ray, who is part of our exclusive pop-culture inspired artist community. ...
Scope1.1 This practice outlines dosimetric procedures to be followed with self-contained dry-storage gamma-ray irradiators. If ... Standard Practice for Dosimetry for a Self-Contained Dry-Storage Gamma-Ray Irradiator (Withdrawn 2003). ... 1.2 This practice covers dosimetry in the use of dry-storage gamma-ray irradiators, namely self-contained dry-storage 137Cs or ... 1.3 The absorbed dose range for the use of the dry-storage self-contained gamma-ray irradiators covered by this practice is ...
... a flood of powerful gamma rays from a distant galaxy slammed into Earths atmosphere. ... Gamma rays are photons of light with very high energies. These gamma rays came from a galaxy known as PKS 1441+25, which is a ... "Thats why were able to see the gamma rays at all.". One of the unknowns in blazar physics is the exact location of gamma-ray ... as well as the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, the researchers found that the source of the gamma rays was within the ...
  • The familiar view of constantly shining constellations would be replaced by ever-changing bursts of high-energy gamma radiation that last fractions of a second to minutes, popping like cosmic flashbulbs, momentarily dominating the gamma-ray sky and then fading. (
  • Scientists, using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, recently discovered a pulse of powerful gamma radiation that traveled for about half the age of the universe. (
  • Scientists say such novas can unleash powerful gamma rays, but how the radiation is created is still uncertain. (
  • To monitor nuclear tests in the 1960s, the United States launched gamma radiation detectors on satellites. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected by satellites orbiting Earth as luminous flashes of the most energetic gamma-ray radiation lasting milliseconds to hundreds of seconds. (
  • And from the crash site, a jetted explosion releases the gamma-ray radiation that makes a GRB, followed by a longer-lived afterglow. (
  • Gamma rays refer to electromagnetic radiation from nuclear interactions while X-rays come from atomic interactions . (
  • But they are both high energy electromagnetic radiation and, if you didn't already know the source, you couldn't tell for sure if a particular photon was a gamma-ray or an X-ray. (
  • An analysis is made of the interactions of very high energy cosmic ray protons with the relict radiation in extragalactic space. (
  • The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is a major ground-based gamma-ray observatory consisting of four 12-metre aperture air Cherenkov telescopes (just two are shown here) based at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Mount Hopkins, Arizona. (
  • If the gamma rays were produced close to the black hole, the radiation fields there are strong enough to absorb them. (
  • Gamma rays are the highest energy form of electromagnetic radiation. (
  • Gamma rays are an extremely high-energy form of electromagnetic (EM) radiation . (
  • Gamma ray radiation has a much, much shorter wavelength than visible light , so gamma ray photons have much, much higher energies than photons of light do. (
  • The distinction between X-rays and gamma rays is actually based on the origin of the radiation, not on the frequency or wavelength of the electromagnetic waves. (
  • If followed, these procedures will help to ensure that calibration and testing will be carried out with acceptable precision and accuracy and that the samples processed with ionizing radiation from gamma rays in a self-contained dry-storage irradiator receive absorbed doses within a predetermined range. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts are incredibly bright flashes of high-energy radiation that likely signal the birth of black holes. (
  • The gamma-ray bursts have the capability of depleting stratospheric ozone , allowing the most powerful and damaging forms of ultraviolet radiation to reach the Earth's surface. (
  • Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are short events lasting a few seconds of copious flux of radiation arriving from random directions in the sky. (
  • Gamma radiation is the most energetic radiation on the electromagnetic spectrum, produced by the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei. (
  • Gamma radiation is blasted out from gamma ray bursts, and emitted from dead stars such as neutron stars and black holes within the Milky Way. (
  • Short bursts of gamma-rays (very high frequency electromagentic radiation) with very energetic explosions. (
  • The nine new pulsars netted by the scientists emit less gamma radiation than those previously known and rotate between three and twelve times per second. (
  • In these cases the search for additional gamma radiation is relatively easy. (
  • As gamma rays propagate from their sources of production to Earth, radiation-matter interactions can occur, leading to an effective screening of the incident flux. (
  • These photons can initiate air showers in the Earth atmosphere that gamma-ray telescopes can detect through the emission of Cherenkov radiation. (
  • Ionizing radiation is any one of several types of particles and rays given off by radioactive material, high-voltage equipment, nuclear reactions, and stars. (
  • X rays and gamma rays are types of electromagnetic radiation. (
  • These radiation particles and rays carry enough energy to knock out electrons from atoms and molecules (such as water, protein, and DNA) that they hit or pass near. (
  • Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures: Federal Guidance Report No. 14 is now available for public comment. (
  • The machine gets its name from the type of radiation (gamma rays) and the pod-like shape of the machine. (
  • The continuing study of the gamma-ray sky has revealed a large population of extreme astrophysical accelerators capable of emitting electromagnetic radiation up to the highest observable energies, in the TeV range. (
  • Above 100 GeV, gamma-ray observations can be performed from the ground using large optical telescopes sensitive to the Cherenkov radiation emitted by gamma-ray air showers. (
  • 2 The referenced absorbed dose levels in this document are assumed to be from beta, gamma, or x radiation. (
  • Some nuclides can be induced to eject a neutron by gamma radiation . (
  • People also claim that radiological energy (X-rays, neutron radiation, gamma radiation, etc.) will be the deadliest factor of all. (
  • Much of the natural background radiation comes from cosmic rays in addition to natural decay of earth bound elements. (
  • Additionally, since these rays are surface deflected, the interaction with human tissues is very minimal, resulting in less radiation exposure than would be experienced from the constant bombardment of radiation through the atmosphere in course of a few minutes. (
  • Eliminating water, oxygen, and energetic radiation (gamma, x-ray, UV, visible) can greatly extend and preserve organic molecules which is why some biomolecules can be preserved for longer periods of time when embedded in crystalline or amorphous solids like amber or stone. (
  • The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. (
  • The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source. (
  • To solve this doubt is relevant, as PVC products submitted to gamma radiation are usually re-sterilized with EtO, when the sterilization validity has expired, which is determined by the manufacturer. (
  • G3, consisting of tubes submitted to EtO sterilization and G4, consisting of tubes submitted to gamma-radiation and re-sterilized with EtO. (
  • There are different kinds of ionizing radiation, such as alpha, beta and gamma rays and neutrons. (
  • Empirical Bayesian Kriging was used to predict gamma radiation at each radon test site. (
  • Among them, the photon absorption technique exposes the individual to radiation, the densitometry requires the individuals to be fully adapted to the liquid medium, the gamma ray spectrometry is impractical due to the high costs associated with the equipment, and the hydrometry requires an extended amount time for the determination of the body water contents. (
  • The aim of the present study was designed to analyze the effects of different sterilization techniques, i.e. ethylene oxide (ETO), gamma radiation (GR) and hydrogen peroxide- based plasma (H2O2) in biodegradable PLA scaffolds, and to determine the best sterilization technique to render a sterile product with minimal degradation and deformation, and good tissue response. (
  • Brighter colors in the Cygus region indicate greater numbers of gamma rays detected by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope. (
  • These gamma-ray streams were imaged using NASA's Fermi gamma-ray space telescope to map out the Milky Way galaxy by creating a full 360-degree view of the galaxy from our perspective here on Earth. (
  • Instead an observatory like the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detects the signal from gamma rays when they hit a detector and convert into pairs of electrons and positrons. (
  • Johnson analysed data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope which complemented the data from VERITAS. (
  • But, to look at it another way, exploding stars like supernovas, and colliding neutron stars - which set off the long and short Gamma Ray Bursts - they make the heavy elements in our universe, including gold, platinum and uranium. (
  • We had a hunch that short gamma-ray bursts came from a neutron star crashing into a black hole or another neutron star, but these new detections leave no doubt," says Derek Fox, an astronomer at Pennsylvania State University. (
  • Newswise - A Northwestern University-led team of astronomers has developed the most extensive inventory to date of the galaxies where short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) originate. (
  • They're called short gamma ray bursts (SGRBs), and a team of astronomers have just released the most extensive inventory to date of where they originate. (
  • Aug. 5 (UPI) -- The collision of two distant neutron stars released one of the most powerful short gamma-ray bursts ever recorded, scientists say. (
  • At 04:02:29.723 UT on 17 August 2012, the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor triggered and located GRB 120817B (trigger 366868952 / 120817168), which was also located by IPN (S. Golenetskii et al. (
  • But first, how did this Gamma Ray Burst interfere with radio communications on our little planet? (
  • So what would happen if a powerful Gamma Ray Burst were to pop, not billions or millions of light years away, but much closer, say, within a few thousand light years? (
  • There are a few hypotheses as to the cause, but one is that a Gamma Ray Burst may have been the trigger. (
  • But on the other hand, each cataclysmic Gamma Ray Burst is not just the death of an old star, it's also the birth of a new black hole. (
  • The high energy burst took place in August 2020 and it only lasted for about one second making it the shortest gamma-ray burst spotted to date. (
  • On January 23, 1999, an intense gamma-ray burst exploded with the energy of 100 million billion stars. (
  • On May 8, 1997, Hubble caught the visible fireball from a distant gamma-ray burst that doesn't appear to be surrounded by a host galaxy. (
  • A key moment in researching gamma-ray bursts occurred suddenly March 29, 2003, when a brilliant burst in the constellation Leo appeared in the data collectors of NASA's High Energy and Transient Explorer (HETE-2) satellite. (
  • In 1997, Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 captured GRB 970228's visible glow, the first that linked a gamma-ray burst with a specific host galaxy. (
  • An artist's impression of a gamma-ray burst powered by a neutron star. (
  • Professor Carole Mundell , study co-author and professor of Extragalactic Astronomy at Bath, where she holds the Hiroko Sherwin Chair in Extragalactic Astronomy, said: "We were excited to catch the very early optical light from this short gamma-ray burst - something that is still largely impossible to do without using a robotic telescope. (
  • Short gamma-ray burst host galaxies across cosmic time. (
  • Because SGRBs are among the brightest explosions in the universe, the team calls its catalog BRIGHT (Broadband Repository for Investigating Gamma-ray burst Host Traits). (
  • An artist's rendering shows the collision between a neutron star and another star (seen as a disk at the lower left), which caused an explosion resulting in the short-duration gamma-ray burst, GRB 211106A (white jet, middle). (
  • A short-duration gamma-ray burst usually lasts only a few tenths of a second and researchers look for an afterglow when it fades. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts, in fact, are considered to be one of the most catastrophic space threats to the Earth, although scientists agree that the likelihood of the Earth being affected by a gamma-ray burst is extremely low. (
  • The Gamma Ray Burst Data Model allows the user to test a cosmological model with different data sets. (
  • Find out about the last time and the next time the Earth will be hit by a Gamma-ray Burst. (
  • Located in the constellation Leo, the 30-second burst outshone the entire Universe in gamma rays, and its optical afterglow was still over a trillion times brighter than the Sun two hours later. (
  • Gamma-ray burst illustration. (
  • A lot of them are very dangerous to life on Earth, be it a menacing asteroid, a solar flare or even a terrifying gamma-ray burst. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts typically occur when two stars collide, a process which leads to a giant energy burst into outer space. (
  • We find that a kind of gamma-ray burst - a short gamma-ray burst - is probably more significant than a longer gamma-ray burst," study researcher Brian Thomas of Washburn University, in Topeka, Kan., said in a statement. (
  • There are two types of gamma-ray bursts: a longer, brighter burst caused by two collinding stars, as discussed earlier, and a short timed burst. (
  • If a gamma-ray burst would have hit the Earth, the best sign of this would be the discovery of isotope iron-60. (
  • Last year, scientists detected the most energetic gamma ray burst we've ever seen. (
  • The energy from this latest gamma ray burst - called GRB 190114C, emanating from a galaxy 4.5 billion light-years away - was lower in energy, between 0.2 and 1 TeV, but it offered a new regime for testing, since Lorentz invariance violation should accumulate over distance, making it more pronounced the farther it travels. (
  • No Lorentz invariance violation study was ever performed on gamma ray burst data in the TeV energy range, simply because there was no such data up to now," explained astronomer Tomislav Terzic of the University of Rijeka in Croatia. (
  • When the Swift Gamma Burst Mission spacecraft first detected the flash within the constellation Draco, astronomers thought it was a gamma-ray burst from a collapsing star and designated it GRB 110328A. (
  • On March 31, however, UC Berkeley's Joshua Bloom sent out an email circular suggesting that it wasn't a typical gamma-ray burst at all, but a high-energy jet produced as a star about the size of our sun was shredded by a black hole a million times more massive. (
  • What made this gamma-ray flare, called Sw 1644+57, stand out from a typical burst were its long duration and the fact that it appeared to come from the center of a galaxy nearly 4 billion light years away. (
  • A newly published study analyzes a long-lasting blast of high-energy light, revealing that the gamma-ray burst was a rare and newly recognized class of ultra-long gamma-ray burst emanating from a galaxy so far away that its light had been traveling for 3.9 billion years. (
  • If this interpretation is correct, the outburst validates ideas about a recently identified class of gamma-ray burst and serves as a stand-in for what future observatories may see as the last acts of the first stars. (
  • EDT on September 25, 2013, Swift's Burst Alert Telescope triggered on a spike of gamma rays from a source in the constellation Fornax. (
  • The spacecraft automatically alerted observatories around the world that a new burst - designated GRB 130925A, after the date - was in progress and turned its X-ray Telescope (XRT) toward the source. (
  • NASA's Swift spacecraft has detected its 1,000th gamma-ray burst (GRB). (
  • Scientists using the NASA Swift satellite and several ground-based telescopes have detected the most distant explosion yet, a gamma-ray burst from the edge of the visible Universe. (
  • The previous most distant gamma-ray burst had a redshift of 4.5. (
  • Careful analysis of the Swift data and subsequent observations by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory confirmed Bloom's initial insight. (
  • The Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) can measure gamma rays emitted by the nuclei of atoms on planet Mercury's surface that are struck by cosmic rays. (
  • When struck by cosmic rays, chemical elements in soils and rocks emit uniquely identifiable signatures of energy in the form of gamma rays. (
  • In a cosmic twist, astronomers recently discovered that a less powerful explosion, known as a nova, could give off high-energy gamma-rays as well. (
  • Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) support this accelerated expansion of the universe (cosmic acceleration) at high redshifts up to z=8.1. (
  • Observations of cosmic rays are a sensitive probe of dark matter annihilation in our Galaxy. (
  • In this article we present an analysis of the AMS-02 antiproton data, reducing cosmic-ray propagation uncertainties by fitting at the same time dark matter and propagation parameters. (
  • GAMMARAYBINARIES (Exploring the gamma-ray sky: binaries, microquasars and their impact on understanding particle acceleration, relativistic winds and accretion/ejection phenomena in cosmic sources. (
  • Final Report Summary - GAMMARAYBINARIES (Exploring the gamma-ray sky: binaries, microquasars and their impact on understanding particle acceleration, relativistic winds and accretion/ejection phenomena in cosmic sources. (
  • I disagree that burying your civilisation underground would be of little value, since the shields described would be useless at stopping cosmic rays - but they could act to protect the biosphere of a planet from the worst effects, making recovery more certain. (
  • Earth's atmosphere cuts cosmic ray and gamma ray fluxes to just about 0. (
  • Unless you're delivering so much energy as to ablate and move the shielding material (like a weapons-grade laser), the number of gamma rays and cosmic rays doesn't matter when determining shielding thickness requirements. (
  • The combination of these techniques are giving us a new view of the TeV sky and providing tantalizing evidence of the sources of Galactic cosmic rays. (
  • These cosmic beacons still pose a few puzzles for scientists: not all radio pulsars can be identified as gamma-ray pulsars and, on the other hand, not all gamma-ray pulsars are 'visible' in the radio band. (
  • The Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory has taken on the challenging goal to detect such correlated air showers in the hope to open a new observation channel on the Universe. (
  • Here, we discuss the preliminary results of multivariate analysis used to discriminate between air showers generated by photon ensembles from air showers produced by cosmic-ray background, taking the example of the next-generation gamma-ray observatory Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) in La Palma. (
  • Recent analyses have shown that if the sources of cosmic-rays are discrete, as are supernova remnants, then the spectra of cosmic-ray electrons vary greatly with location and time and the locally measured electron spectrum may be not representative of the electron spectra elsewhere in the Galaxy. (
  • Gamma rays have the smallest wavelengths and the most energy of any wave in the electromagnetic spectrum. (
  • Gamma-ray wavelengths are so short that they can pass through the space within the atoms of a detector. (
  • Because emission at millimeter wavelengths can be detected for a longer time than in X-rays, the millimeter emission also can be used to determine the width of the GRB jet. (
  • Gamma rays have wavelengths of about 100 picometers (100 x 10 -12 meters) or shorter, or energies per photon of at least around 10 keV. (
  • Probable tidal disruptions of a star by a massive black hole have previously been seen at X-ray, ultraviolet and optical wavelengths, but never before at gamma-ray energies. (
  • The blasts emit outbursts of gamma rays - the most powerful form of light - and X-rays, and produce rapidly fading afterglows that can be observed in visible light, infrared and radio wavelengths. (
  • Today, I'm talking more about some of the most powerful events in the entire history of our Universe - Gamma Ray Bursts, or GRBs. (
  • Some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) last for only a fraction of a second - some as long as a minute (and even one that lasted as long as seven hours) - and beam so much energy in a focused searchlight that they make most supernovae appear weak in comparison. (
  • Astronomers eventually realized these explosions were coming from deep space-not the Soviet Union-and named them gamma-ray bursts, or GRBs. (
  • Today we know GRBs come in two types: the explosions of extremely massive stars, which pump out gamma rays as they die, and collisions between highly dense relics of stars called neutron stars and something else, probably another neutron star or a black hole. (
  • That's good for our health, but not so great for those who want to study GRBs and other sources of gamma rays. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the universe. (
  • Observations by Swift's XRT revealed an intense and highly variable X-ray afterglow that exhibited strong flares for six hours, after which it finally began the steady fadeout usually seen in long GRBs. (
  • But what really sets it apart is its unusual X-ray afterglow, which provides the strongest case yet that ultra-long GRBs come from stars called blue supergiants. (
  • Gamma-ray detectors typically contain densely packed crystal blocks. (
  • The key is to precisely count gamma-ray photons using sensitive detectors. (
  • In this paper, we investigate the operational principles of chlorine-doped methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr 3− x Cl x ) perovskite single crystal detectors that can efficiently count gamma-ray photon events with electrical pulses. (
  • This work suggest pathway towards energy resolved gamma-ray spectroscopy using perovskite crystal detectors. (
  • We discuss the joint development by Penn State University (PSU) and Teledyne Imaging Systems (TIS) of hybrid CMOS detectors for X-ray astronomy, and specifically the development over the past 10 years of a new event-driven X-ray detector for future astronomy missions. (
  • For pioneering nuclear structure studies with radioactive ion beams, development of innovative software for gamma ray spectroscopy, and significant contributions to gamma ray tracking detectors. (
  • For x-ray backscatter images, a source of high energy x-rays are focused into a rapidly scanning beam and the patterns of deflected rays are collected at one or more detectors. (
  • In the 1990s, observatories in space detected bursts of gamma rays coming from Earth that eventually were traced to thunderclouds. (
  • Abstract: Gamma-ray spectroscopy that quantifies the gamma-ray energies is a critical technology widely needed in astrophysics, nuclear material detection and medical treatment. (
  • Aim of the project is to enable gamma-ray spectroscopy in JET deuterium - tritium plasmas . (
  • Gamma rays are photons of light with very high energies. (
  • With VERITAS, we detected gamma rays from this unusual object at the highest energies observed on Earth," said Jonathan Biteau, who led the analysis of the data as a postdoctoral researcher at UC Santa Cruz. (
  • X-rays, which have slightly lower energies than gamma rays, are the neighbors of gamma rays along the EM spectrum. (
  • Photons with energies between about 10 keV and a few hundred keV can be either hard X-rays or gamma rays. (
  • As a result, we observe strong electrical pulses when exposing the detector under radioactive sources emitting gamma-ray photons at various energies. (
  • This dead star gamma ray emission has been detected in energies up to 450 TeV , and emission up to 100 TeV has been used to test whether gamma rays speed up under the violation of Lorentz invariance . (
  • When comparing the arrival times of two gamma-rays of different energies, one assumes they were emitted instantaneously from the source," explained astrophysicist Daniel Kerszberg of the Institute for High Energy Physics of Barcelona in Spain. (
  • Light extends beyond the visible spectrum: at low energies to infrared and radio waves, at high energies to ultraviolet light, X-rays and, finally, gamma rays. (
  • One of the unknowns in blazar physics is the exact location of gamma-ray emission. (
  • So, the team turned to theoretical modelling to predict the gamma-ray emission from the source of GRB 190114C from before telescopes started observing it. (
  • High-energy gamma-ray emission is the result of poorly understood processes that challenge our intuitions built upon everyday phenomena. (
  • We found that gamma-ray emission occurs in a wide variety of binary systems, composed of pulsars, white dwarfs or black holes. (
  • The observed gamma-ray emission is often variable on the orbital period of the binary. (
  • The system has been characterized in the laboratory and shows an energy resolution of 5.5% at Eγ = 0.662 MeV, which extrapolates favorably in the energy range of interest for gamma-ray emission from fast ions in fusion plasmas . (
  • Today we know alpha rays are the same thing as helium nuclei (two protons and two neutrons), beta rays are either electrons or positrons (their antimatter versions), and gamma rays are a kind of light. (
  • o High energy X-rays, gamma rays, and neutrons are penetrating radiations. (
  • The relative biological efficiency (RBE) of neutrons versus gamma rays varies inversely with neutron energy down to 0.4 MeV, where it can reach values of 20 and more. (
  • I will briefly describe the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next-generation TeV gamma-ray instrument, that will provide an order-of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over current instruments such as VERITAS and the status of the US contribution to this project. (
  • Gamma Rays" NASA Science . (
  • NASA scientist, Neil Gehrels, serves as your guide to this online lesson on gamma ray tools, which focuses on advances in detector technologies since the 1980s that have enabled us to capture and image high-energy phenomena. (
  • This process is called Compton scattering, wherein a gamma ray strikes an electron and loses energy, similar to what happens when a cue ball strikes an eight ball. (
  • Two situations are examined: gamma rays derived from neutral pions -mesons produced in collisions in a nonevolutionary situation and gamma rays from electron pairs produced at early epochs. (
  • When high-energy gamma rays collide with lower-energy photons, they annihilate and create an electron-positron pair. (
  • When an x-ray or gamma ray photon collides with an orbiting electron, part of the ray's energy may be transferred to the electron in an inelastic deflection. (
  • This results in the electron being ejected from its orbit while increasing the wavelength of the now less energetic ray. (
  • The emergence of approaches using various types of rays (electron, gamma, etc.) and the constant evolution of nuclear physics fostered the development of a new approach in neurosurgery stereotactic radioneurosurgery. (
  • Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are high-energy photon bursts produced by high-energy electrons originating in the Earth's atmosphere through bremsstrahlung processes. (
  • In 2010, astronomers detected high-energy gamma-rays from the nova V407 Cyg about 8,800 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus the Swan. (
  • When it came to 2010 nova V407 Cyg, the symbiotic binary system where the explosion took place created an environment that astronomers said might spur high-energy gamma-ray production. (
  • To study gamma rays, astronomers build telescopes in space. (
  • To see gamma rays before they reach the atmosphere, astronomers have to build telescopes in space. (
  • A glowing blob known as "the cocoon," which appears to be inside one of the enormous gamma-ray emanations from the center of our galaxy dubbed the " Fermi bubbles ," has puzzled astronomers since it was discovered in 2012. (
  • Astronomers have used cosmological models to estimate the EBL, galaxy counts to set lower limits, and gamma rays from blazars (as well as direct observations of dark patches of sky) to set upper limits. (
  • A bright flash of gamma rays observed March 28 by the Swift satellite may have been the death rattle of a star falling into a massive black hole and being ripped apart, according to a team of astronomers led by the University of California, Berkeley. (
  • The gamma-ray spectrometer on NASA's Mars Odyssey Orbiter detects and maps these signatures, such as this map (below) showing hydrogen concentrations of Martian surface soils. (
  • The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on NASA's Fermi satellite however only detects an average of a few thousand photons per year from any given gamma pulsar. (
  • Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) detects small changes in bone mass by comparing the patient's bone density to that of healthy adults (T score) and to age-matched adults (Z score). (
  • x-rays from the Chandra Observatory are blue and green. (
  • Their discovery suggests that gamma-ray emissions may be common from novas. (
  • Physicists are still debating the exact mechanism behind gamma-ray emissions from the jets, but PKS 1441+25 provides important clues, Biteau said. (
  • With observations across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, we have now realised that the location of the gamma-ray emissions for this source has to be at least a tenth of a light-year away from the black hole. (
  • Looking back at previous observations of this region of the cosmos, Bloom and his team could find no evidence of X-ray or gamma-ray emissions, leading them to conclude that this is a "one-off event," Bloom said. (
  • 3) a database of 402 in situ measurements of gamma emissions, and (4) two databases of housing characteristics. (
  • To reach telescopes on Earth, the gamma rays from PKS 1441+25 had to avoid a tight net of photons surrounding the vicinity of the black hole, as well as a looser net of photons, the extragalactic background light (EBL), that fills the universe. (
  • Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes such as HESS, Magic and VERITAS have exploited their high sensitivity and excellent angular resolution to discovered and map new classes of galactic gamma ray sources while continuing to discover and monitor extra-galactic AGN. (
  • Images from Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical (white, purple) and X-ray telescopes (yellow and red) were combined in this view of the gamma-ray flare, catalogued as GRB 110328A. (
  • As gamma rays pass through, they collide with electrons in the crystal. (
  • When two neutron stars collide, they generate momentary flashes of intense gamma-ray light, known as SGRBs. (
  • Researchers found that the source of the gamma rays was within the relativistic jet but surprisingly far from the galaxy's black hole. (
  • Bloom and his colleagues propose in their Science Express paper that some 10 percent of the infalling star's mass is turned into energy and irradiated as X-rays from the swirling accretion disk or as X-rays and higher energy gamma rays from a relativistic jet that punches out along the rotation axis. (
  • There should no longer be doubt in anybody's mind that gamma-ray bursts and supernovae are connected," said Thomas Matheson of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, a member of the team that made this discovery. (
  • On Earth, gamma waves are generated by nuclear explosions, lightning, and the less dramatic activity of radioactive decay. (
  • Nuclear reactions are a major source of gamma rays. (
  • When an unstable uranium nucleus splits in the process of nuclear fission, it releases a lot of gamma rays in the process. (
  • Gammas tend to be higher in energy since nuclear binding potentials are larger than atomic potentials but there is overlap in the two spectra. (
  • Gamma rays are produced by nuclear transitions, while X-rays are the result of accelerating electrons . (
  • Gamma Rays are produced whenever a nuclear bomb explodes. (
  • Because these gamma rays currently represent the only way to study a large population of merging neutron star systems, having a catalogue of what scientists already know is extremely helpful. (
  • Lower-energy radio waves are bundled more tightly at the magnetic pole of a neutron star field while the cone of high-energy gamma-rays will spread out. (
  • Herein we describe the contacts' closeness to the index TB patient and the positivity of interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). (
  • Ota M, Kato S. Risk of tuberculosis among air passengers estimated by interferon gamma release assay: survey of contact investigations, Japan, 2012 to 2015. (
  • Higuchi K, Sekiya Y, Igari H, Watanabe A, Harada N. Comparison of specificities between two interferon-gamma release assays in Japan. (
  • Diel R, Loddenkemper R, Nienhaus A. Evidence-based comparison of commercial interferon-gamma release assays for detecting active TB: a metaanalysis. (
  • Tuberculosis contact investigation using interferon-gamma release assay with chest x-ray and computed tomography. (
  • A positive result on an Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA), Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) or C-Tb skin test and 2.2. (
  • The further adventures of some of the most powerful events in our Universe: Gamma Ray Bursts. (
  • The simulation allows users to compare and fit theoretical models of cosmology with recent gamma-ray bursts data sets to confirm the accelerated expansion of the universe. (
  • A flare of very high-energy gamma rays emitted from a galaxy halfway across the universe has put new bounds on the amount of background light in the universe and given astrophysicists clues to how and where such gamma rays are produced. (
  • In April 2015, after traveling for about half the age of the universe, a flood of powerful gamma rays from a distant galaxy slammed into Earth's atmosphere. (
  • Gamma Ray Bursts - The Most Powerful Objects in the Universe? (
  • This novel X-ray detector is designed to perform onchip event recognition and to read out only pixels containing X-ray events. (
  • If a significant accumulation of gamma quanta is observed from a rough direction in the sky, scientists check if the photon's arrival time at Fermi 's on-board detector matches an exact sky position and pulse period and its change over time. (
  • A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to detect the Al gamma ray signals. (
  • More energetic than X-rays, they are born in the chaos of exploding stars, the annihilation of electrons and the decay of radioactive atoms. (
  • That static electricity also acts like a giant particle accelerator, creating pairs of electrons and positrons, which then annihilate into gamma rays. (
  • The finding was made using NASA's Fermi Large Area Telescope , an observatory launched in 2008 that continuously scans the sky for gamma rays. (
  • Fox's team discovered the afterglow with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. (
  • This collection features images taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, including image descriptions and comparison with optical images. (
  • While the gamma rays last mere seconds, the optical light can continue for hours before fading below detection levels (an event called an afterglow). (
  • The Higgs boson, for example, can decay into many different types of particles, including gamma rays. (
  • Results from a previous high resolution helicopter-borne gamma-ray spectrometry survey that was carried out in 2006 over the Fen Complex, Ulefoss region, were reevaluated in the light of the new data from the regional survey of the MINS project. (
  • Details for: Gamma-ray spectrometry in the environment. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts are the most energetic and luminous electromagnetic events since the Big Bang and can release more energy in 10 seconds than our Sun will emit in its entire 10-billion-year expected lifetime! (
  • Even after travelling for 2.4 billion years, the gamma rays still had enough energy to change the radio propagation properties of the ionosphere. (
  • High-energy gamma-rays are typically associated with supernovas , the explosive deaths of stars. (
  • Now, scientists have found more ordinary novas can give off high-energy gamma-rays, too. (
  • Some gamma ray bursts will eject more energy in 10 seconds than the Sun will emit in its 10-billion-year lifetime. (
  • The destructive energy from gamma-ray bursts can travel for thousands of light years. (
  • And, when combined with the X-rays, they can tell us about the true energy of the explosion. (
  • It is shown that the ultrahigh energy gamma rays could conceivably be of high enough intensity to be detected. (
  • Such very high-energy gamma rays were unexpected, he said, because they faced a good chance of being annihilated at some point during the 7.6 billion years they spent travelling toward Earth. (
  • Gamma rays lie at the extreme high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum . (
  • There is no sharp distinction between the highest energy X-rays and the lowest energy gamma rays. (
  • Measuring high-energy gamma rays at all was a surprise. (
  • The EBL also acts like a fog to high-energy gamma rays, absorbing them as they travel through space. (
  • The investigation began on March 29, 2003, when NASA's High-Energy Transient Explorer satellite discovered one of the brightest and closest gamma-ray bursts on record. (
  • The latest generation of gamma-ray observatories have renewed our vision of the high-energy sky, offering exciting opportunities to understand how particles are accelerated in various environments. (
  • We explored how gamma-ray modulations constrain the size and location of the high-energy particles in the binary. (
  • What matters is the energy of the individual rays. (
  • Very High Energy Gamma Ray Astronomy. (
  • Bloom draws an analogy with a quasar, which is a distant galaxy that emits bright, high-energy light because of the massive black hole at its center gobbling up stars and sending out a jet of X-rays along its rotation axis. (
  • In the 1960's, the United States launched some satellites to look for very high energy light, called Gamma Rays. (
  • Pure gamma-ray pulsars are extremely difficult to find despite their high energy because they radiate very few photons per unit of time. (
  • The tracer sends out a form of energy called gamma rays. (
  • [ 12 ] and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). (
  • These high energy rays do not have the penetrating power of the lower energy rays medical imagers use, so while they can penetrate clothing, they are deflected by soft body tissues as opposed to passing through them. (
  • Scientists can use gamma rays to determine the elements on other planets. (
  • Gamma-rays, the most powerful form of light, may erupt from star explosions called novas surprisingly often, but the way these gamma-rays form remains a mystery, scientists say. (
  • To destroy brain cancers and other problems, medical scientists sometimes use a 'gamma ray knife. (
  • Even though theory predicts that a Higgs boson will decay into gamma rays just 0.2 percent of the time, this type of decay is relatively easy to identify and it was one of the types that scientists observed when they first discovered the Higgs boson. (
  • Using an improved analysis algorithm, Max Planck scientists and international partners have now discovered a number of previously unknown gamma-ray pulsars with low luminosity in data from the Fermi satellite. (
  • spectrometer developed for the JET gamma-ray camera upgrade. (
  • Performance of the prototype LaBr 3 spectrometer developed for the JET gamma-ray camera upgrade. (
  • The researchers later found this gamma-ray nova originated in an unusual kind of binary system known as a symbiotic binary, which is made up of a small hot star and a cool giant star. (
  • Researchers of Washburn University, in Topeka, Kan. have studied gamma-ray bursts and its potential consequences, and now claim the Earth quite probably has been met by such events during its history, with dramatic consequences on the life harbored within it. (
  • Researchers are now beginning to connect the timing of these gamma-ray bursts to extinctions on Earth that can be dated through the fossil record. (
  • Researchers have developed a perovskite crystal that can detect gamma rays and a method to produce it in large volumes. (
  • Alpha rays bounce right off, beta rays went a little farther, and gamma rays went the farthest. (
  • The farther gamma rays have to travel the more likely they are to encounter photons of the EBL and annihilate, so the detection of a source 7.6 billion light-years away was surprising. (
  • So the fact that the gamma rays are getting out of the galaxy at all indicates they were produced farther away from the black hole," Williams said. (
  • 1.3 The absorbed dose range for the use of the dry-storage self-contained gamma-ray irradiators covered by this practice is typically 1 to 10 5 Gy, depending on the application. (
  • Moreover, the region emitting gamma rays was larger than typically seen in an active galaxy, measuring about a third of a light-year across. (
  • These systems typically show highly relativistic outflows and the goal is to understand why, when and how they form using the newly available information from the gamma-ray part of the spectrum. (
  • But with an eruption at close range, there would be so many highly energetic gamma rays, that they would force the oxygen and nitrogen molecules to react with each other to create various oxides of nitrogen - including nitrogen dioxide. (
  • NASA's Swift satellite recorded the gamma-ray blast caused by a black hole being born 12.8 billion light years away (below). (
  • The source code zip archive contains an XML representation of the Fitting Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts Data Model. (
  • J. Moldenhauer, K. Stone, Z. Shuler, and L. Engelhardt, Computer Program FITTING SUPERNOVAE AND GAMMA RAY BURSTS DATA DEDGP, Version 1.0 (2012), WWW Document, ( ). (
  • They generate flashes of intense gamma ray light that last less than two seconds but can travel billions of light years. (
  • The types that are normally important to your health are alpha particles, beta particles, x rays, and gamma rays. (
  • But even if that happens, almost certainly, the two Gamma Ray beams would be aimed away from us. (
  • This consists of many beams of gamma rays focused on the cells that need to be destroyed. (
  • Depending on its spatial orientation and intensity of the cone, a pulsar will thus be observed as a radio and/or gamma-ray pulsar. (
  • This low detection rate makes it extremely difficult for even the fastest supercomputers to assign the individual gamma quanta to an unknown pulsar with a defined rotation period. (
  • Deselect GW tasks from your project preferences and accept only Gamma Ray Pulsar searches. (
  • The VERITAS array has detected gamma rays from a blazar known as PKS 1441+25. (
  • These gamma rays came from a galaxy known as PKS 1441+25, which is a rare type of galaxy known as a blazar. (
  • 3) under SU(2)_L. Since some of the component fields of \phi carry large electric charges, loop induced dark matter annihilation to \gamma \gamma and \gamma Z can be enhanced without the need for non-perturbatively large couplings, and without overproduction of continuum gamma-rays from other final states. (
  • It operates at frame rates of over 1000 frames per second, providing excellent performance for bright X-ray sources and/or high-throughput optics. (
  • This type of treatment consists in exposing a lesion of small volume, determined by three -dimensional imaging, to a single high dose of ionizing rays while at the same time minimizing the dose absorbed by the surrounding structures. (
  • This new measurement sets an indirect limit on how abundant the EBL can be - too much, and it would have absorbed the gamma-ray flare. (
  • Due to this accidental bombardment of gamma rays Bruce became a giant green (at first grey) creature known as The Incredible Hulk whenever he is angered. (