Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
Californium. A man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Cf, atomic number 98, and atomic weight 251. Its valence can be +2 or +3. Californium has medical use as a radiation source for radiotherapy.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
A genus of gram-positive aerobic cocci found in the soil, that is highly resistant to radiation, especially ionizing radiation (RADIATION, IONIZING). Deinococcus radiodurans is the type species.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
Americium. A completely man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Am, atomic number 95, and atomic weight 243. Its valence can range from +3 to +6. Because of its nonmagnetic ground state, it is an excellent superconductor. It is also used in bone mineral analysis and as a radiation source for radiotherapy.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
Instruments used to observe distant objects.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Extravasation of blood into the skin, resulting in a nonelevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch, larger than a petechia.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)

Characterization of nuclear structures containing superhelical DNA. (1/2775)

Structures resembling nuclei but depleted of protein may be released by gently lysing cells in solutions containing non-ionic detergents and high concentrations of salt. These nucleoids sediment in gradients containing intercalating agents in a manner characteristic of DNA that is intact, supercoiled and circular. The concentration of salt present during isolation of human nucleoids affects their protein content. When made in I-95 M NaCl they lack histones and most of the proteins characteristic of chromatin; in 1-0 M NaCl they contain variable amounts of histones. The effects of various treatments on nucleoid integrity were investigated.  (+info)

Nuclear foci of mammalian recombination proteins are located at single-stranded DNA regions formed after DNA damage. (2/2775)

A sensitive and rapid in situ method was developed to visualize sites of single-stranded (ss) DNA in cultured cells and in experimental test animals. Anti-bromodeoxyuridine antibody recognizes the halogenated base analog incorporated into chromosomal DNA only when substituted DNA is in the single strand form. After treatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents or gamma irradiation, ssDNA molecules form nuclear foci in a dose-dependent manner within 60 min. The mammalian recombination protein Rad51 and the replication protein A then accumulate at sites of ssDNA and form foci, suggesting that these are sites of recombinational DNA repair.  (+info)

Exposure to indoor background radiation and urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage. (3/2775)

We investigated whether exposure to indoor [gamma]-radiation and radon might be associated with enough free radical formation to increase urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a sensitive marker of DNA damage, due to a hydroxyl radical attack at the C8 of guanine. Indoor radon and [gamma]-radiation levels were measured in 32 dwellings for 6 months by solid-state nuclear track detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters, respectively. Urine samples for 8-OHdG determinations were obtained from 63 healthy adult subjects living in the measured dwellings. An overall tendency toward increasing levels of 8-OHdG with increasing levels of radon and [gamma]-radiation was seen in the females, presumably due to their estimated longer occupancy in the dwellings measured. Different models were considered for females, with the steepest slopes obtained for [gamma]-radiation with a coefficient of 0.500 (log nmol/l of 8-OHdG for each unit increase of [gamma]-radiation on a log scale) (p<0.01), and increasing to 0.632 (p = 0.035), but with larger variance, when radon was included in the model. In conclusion, there seems to be an effect of indoor radioactivity on the urinary excretion of 8-OHdG for females, who are estimated to have a higher occupancy in the dwellings measured than for males, for whom occupational and other agents may also influence 8-OHdG excretion. ree radicals; [gamma]-radiation; radon.  (+info)

Bcl-2 inhibits ischemia-reperfusion-induced apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium of transgenic mice. (4/2775)

Little is known about the effects of ischemia-reperfusion on the inductive, commitment, or execution phases of apoptosis. We have created a genetically defined model to study the response of small intestinal epithelial cells to ischemia-reperfusion injury as a function of their proliferative status and differentiation. Occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for 20 min in adult FVB/N or C57BL/6 mice results in the appearance of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in the jejunal epithelium within 4 h, with a maximum response occurring at 24 h. Stimulation of apoptosis is greater in postmitotic, differentiated epithelial cells located in the upper portions of villi compared with undifferentiated, proliferating cells in the crypts of Lieberkuhn (7-fold vs. 2-fold relative to sham-operated controls). Comparisons of p53(+/+) and p53(-/-) mice established that the apoptosis is p53 independent. To further characterize this response, we generated FVB/N transgenic mice that express human Bcl-2 in epithelial cells distributed from the base of crypts to the tips of their associated villi. The fivefold elevation in steady-state Bcl-2 concentration is not accompanied by detectable changes in the levels or cellular distributions of the related anti-apoptotic regulator Bcl-xL or of the proapoptotic regulators Bax and Bak and does not produce detectable effects on basal proliferation, differentiation, or death programs. The apoptotic response to ischemia-reperfusion is reduced twofold in the crypts and villi of transgenic mice compared with their normal littermates. These results suggest that both undifferentiated and differentiated cells undergo a commitment phase that is sensitive to Bcl-2. Forced expression of Bcl-2 also suppressed the p53-dependent death that occurs in proliferating crypt epithelial cells following gamma-irradiation. Thus suppressibility by Bcl-2 operationally defines a common feature of the apoptosis induced in the crypt epithelium by these two stimuli.  (+info)

Cyclin D1 overexpression enhances radiation-induced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in a breast tumor cell line. (5/2775)

Overexpression of cyclin D1, a G1 cell cycle regulator, is often found in many different tumor types, such as breast carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The overexpression of this protein is, in several cases, associated with a poor prognosis. In this study, the effect of cyclin D1 on radiosensitivity was investigated in a breast tumor cell line, MCF7, containing a cyclin D1 gene construct under the control of a tetracycline-sensitive regulator. MCF7 cells cultured without tetracycline resulted in a 6-fold increase in the cyclin D1 protein. Cyclin D1-overexpressing MCF7 cells were more sensitive to ionizing radiation than the nonoverexpressing counterparts. The cyclin D1-overexpressing cells also exhibited a higher induction of apoptosis. Treatment with a dose of 5 Gy resulted in a rapid increase of p53 and p21 in the cyclin D1-overexpressing cells. Nonoverexpressing cells showed a more transient expression of these proteins after ionizing radiation. A pronounced G2-M block was observed in both cell lines. The cyclin D1-overexpressing cells were, however, released earlier from the block than the control cells. These data suggest that overexpression of cyclin D1 alters sensitivity toward ionizing radiation by modulating gamma-radiation-induced G2-M transition.  (+info)

Functional interaction between retinoblastoma protein and stress-activated protein kinase in multiple myeloma cells. (6/2775)

Previous studies have demonstrated that gamma-irradiation (IR)-induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with activation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). In the present study, we examined the molecules downstream of SAPK/C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), focusing on the role of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) during IR-induced MM cell apoptosis. The results demonstrate that IR activates SAPK/JNK, which associates with Rb both in vivo and in vitro. Far Western blot analysis confirms that SAPK/JNK binds directly to Rb. IR-activated SAPK/JNK phosphorylates Rb, and deletion of the phosphorylation site in the COOH terminus domain of Rb abrogates phosphorylation of Rb by SAPK/JNK. Taken together, our results suggest that Rb is a target protein of SAPK/JNK and that the association of SAPK/JNK and Rb mediates IR-induced apoptosis in MM cells.  (+info)

Regulation of p53 expression by thymidylate synthase. (7/2775)

Previous studies showed that thymidylate synthase (TS), as an RNA binding protein, regulates its own synthesis by impairing the translation of TS mRNA. In this report, we present evidence that p53 expression is affected in a similar manner by TS. For these studies, we used a TS-depleted human colon cancer HCT-C cell that had been transfected with either the human TS cDNA or the Escherichia coli TS gene. The level of p53 protein in transfected cells overexpressing human TS was significantly reduced when compared with its corresponding parent HCT-C cells. This suppression of p53 expression was the direct result of decreased translational efficiency of p53 mRNA. Similar results were obtained upon transfection of HCT-C cells with pcDNA 3.1 (+) containing the E. coli TS gene. These findings provide evidence that TS, from diverse species, specifically regulates p53 expression at the translational level. In addition, TS-overexpressing cells with suppressed levels of p53 are significantly impaired in their ability to arrest in G1 phase in response to exposure to a DNA-damaging agent such as gamma-irradiation. These studies provide support for the in vivo biological relevance of the interaction between TS and p53 mRNA and identify a molecular pathway for controlling p53 expression.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of p53 protein in response to ionizing radiation occurs at multiple sites in both normal and DNA-PK deficient cells. (8/2775)

The tumour suppressor gene product, p53, is involved in mediating cellular responses to DNA damage including growth arrest and/or apoptosis. The mechanism by which p53 protein senses the presence of damaged DNA is not understood. The possibility that p53 may be post-translationally modified by enzymes that are activated in response to DNA damage including DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and stress activated protein kinase has received considerable attention. Recent studies have indicated that DNA-PK is not required for the transactivation or apoptosis-promoting activities of p53 protein. However, the possibility that other functions of p53 may be dependent on phosphorylation by DNA-PK has not been explored. Here we describe a series of experiments that compares the expression, function and phosphorylation status of p53 protein in normal and DNA-PK-deficient scid cells. While several novel p53 phosphoforms are generated in response to DNA damage in normal cells, the same phosphoforms are observed in scid cells.  (+info)

Gamma rays (γ-rays) are electromagnetic waves with the smallest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum.[1] They were discovered in 1900 by Paul Villard, and named in 1903 by Ernest Rutherford. Gamma rays are like x-rays, but the waves are smaller in wavelength. Both gamma rays and x-rays are photons with very high energies, and gamma have even more energy. They are also a type of ionizing radiation. Gamma rays can travel through thicker materials than x-rays can. Gamma rays are produced by some types of radioactive atoms. Cobalt-60 and potassium-40 are two isotopes that emit gamma rays. Cobalt-60 is created in accelerators and is used in hospitals. Potassium-40 occurs naturally. Small amounts of potassium-40 are in all plants and animals. Gamma rays from potassium-40 each have an energy of 1460 thousand electron volts (keV). Gamma rays and X-rays can also be distinguished by their origin: X-rays are emitted by electrons outside the nucleus, while gamma rays are emitted by the nucleus.[2] ...
|div class=ep_strongtext|Speakers: Prof. Paul Nolan, Physics Department Liverpool University |/div| |p|Speaker: Professor Paul Nolan|br|Most radioactive nuclei decay by emitting gamma radiation. For a given isotopes the energies of the gamma rays emitted are unique. This means that an accurate measurement of the gamma radiation emitted by an unknown isotope allows it to be identified uniquely. There are many different circumstances when the measurement of gamma radiation gives important information. The energies of gamma rays emitted by an excited nucleus gives information on the neutrons and protons that make up the nucleus and on the nuclear shape (spherical or deformed?). The measurement of the gamma radiation from an unknown source allows radioactive material to be identified and its exact nature determined. This has uses in security applications and following incidents such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. Gamma ray emitting isotopes are also widely used in medical diagnostic using imaging modalities
Background: Gamma radiation or radiotherapy is one of the most widely used treatments for cancer. There is accumulating evidence that adaptive immunity significantly contributes to the efficacy of radiotherapy. Aim: This study is carried out to show the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Methods: mice were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation and tested for the effect of recovery times on splenocyte proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, direct irradiation of spleens and lymphocyte suspension was done. Basal and mitogen-stimulated splenocyte proliferation was assessed by MTT assay while IL-10 and IL-12 were measured using ELISA. Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 gray) caused spontaneous and dose dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and
Researchers believe more knowledge of gamma rays could help them explore distant regions of space, help them look for evidence of dark matter, determine how much electromagnetic radiation the universe has produced and answer questions about the formation of stars and galaxies.. Krennrich said one key to current gamma ray research is the VERITAS telescope system (thats the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System). The $20 million instrument started operating in 2007 and is the worlds most sensitive instrument for detecting gamma rays.. Its not easy to detect those rays. Even with their high energies, gamma rays cant penetrate the earths atmosphere. When they hit the atmosphere, they create showers of electrons and positrons that create a blue light known as Cerenkov radiation. Those showers move very fast. And theyre not very bright.. VERITAS looks for the rays with four reflector disks 12 meters across that look like satellite dishes. The reflectors are covered with mirrors ...
Different types of abiotic stresses are known to have strong impact on morphological development of plants. Exposure of plants to ionizing radiation such as gamma radiation is potentially damaging, but effects may vary with species, radiation dose and life stage. Exposure of a biological system to gamma radiation may involve two types of effects within the cells, direct and indirect. Direct targets involve water, in which gamma radiation results in electron excitation or water radiolysis and further leads to chain reactions that produce secondary oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand, indirect effects of radiation affects the DNA helix, depending on the dose; it induces DNA breaks, which may lead to chromosomal and genomic abnormalities. In order to defend themselves, plants possess cell cycle checkpoints and systems repairing DNA damages. In A. thaliana the transcription factor Long Hypocotyl 5 (HY5), which is crucial in photomorphogenic development and formation of flavonoids acting as ...
The effects of irradiation with gamma rays and protons on HTB140 human melanoma cell morphology and viability were analyzed. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated close to the Bragg peak maximum of the 62-MeV proton beam, as well as with (60)Co gamma rays, with doses ranging from 8 to 24 Gy. The overall cell morphology was unchanged 6 and 48 h after gamma irradiation, also showing a relatively weak cell-inactivation level. After exposure to proton beam, considerable changes in cell morphology followed by stronger cell inactivation were achieved. Proliferation capacity of irradiated cells significantly decreased in both experimental set-ups. Higher ionization level of protons with respect to gamma rays, representing the main physical difference between these two types of radiation, was also revealed on the cell membrane level through larger pro-apoptotic capacity of protons ...
Character description, analysis and casting breakdown for Ruth Hunsdorfer from The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds
Character description, analysis and casting breakdown for Beatrice Hunsdorfer from The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) var. Co-1 seeds were treated with physical mutagen namely such as gamma rays and chemical mutagen namely such as Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) and Diethyl Sulphate (DES). Various concentrations of gamma rays 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 KR, EMS (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 %) and DES (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 %). The morphological parameters such as days to first flower, plant height, number of cluster per plant, number of pod per plan, seed yield per plant, number of branches per plant, number of leaves per plant, protein content and oil content increasing with increasing level of some doses gamma rays, Ethyl methane sulphonate and Diethyl sulphate treatment in M2 and M3 generation were carried out. A number of mutants were recorded in M2 and M3 generations for one or more traits viz., plant height, maturity, branching, pigmentation, fruit size and yield were isolated in M2 and M3 generation. Mean for various characters increased at mutagenic treatment ...
The goal of part II of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma-radiation on circulating blood cells, functional characteristics of splenocytes, and cytokine expression after whole-body irradiation at varying total doses and at low- and high-dose-rates (LDR, HDR). Young adult C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were irradiated with either 1 cGy/min or 80 cGy/min photons from a 60Co source to cumulative doses of 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy. The animals were euthanized at 4 days post-exposure for in vitro assays. Significant dose- (but not dose-rate-) dependent decreases were observed in erythrocyte and blood leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion by activated spleen cells when compared to sham-irradiated controls (p < 0.05). Basal proliferation of leukocytes in the blood and spleen increased significantly with increasing dose (p < 0.05). Significant dose rate effects were observed only in thrombocyte counts. Plasma
One method of hardening optical glasses against radiation-induced darkening has been to add CeO2 to the batch composition. In the present investigation we prepared a series of lanthanum crown glasses with varying degrees of CeO2 additions and melted them at 1,400°C with and without bubbling oxygen gas. We examined the influence of added oxygen on the optical transmissions of these glasses in the spectral range 460 to 760 nm following gamma irradiations ranging from 10 to 250 krad. The results showed that dose-for-dose the radiation-induced optical attenuations of the oxidized glasses were greater than for the glasses without added O2.. ©2010 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Bioptron Lamp Irradiation Treatment clinics in Lefkosa at the best price. Find doctors, specialized in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and compare prices, costs and reviews.
The brightest gamma ray beam ever created- more than a thousand billion times more brilliant than the sun- has been produced in research led at the University of Strathclyde- and could open up new possibilities for medicine.
The brightest gamma ray beam ever created -- more than a thousand billion times more brilliant than the sun -- has been produced in research led at
Tube shunt coverage with gamma-irradiated cornea allograft (VisionGraft) Feyzahan Ekici, Marlene R Moster, Victor Cvintal, Wanda D Hu, Michael Waisbourd Glaucoma Research Center, Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: To investigate the clinical outcomes of tube shunt coverage using sterile gamma-irradiated cornea allograft.Patients and methods: The Wills Eye Hospital Glaucoma Research Center retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 165 patients who underwent glaucoma tube shunt procedures using sterile gamma-irradiated cornea allograft (VisionGraft) between December 2012 and November 2013. Demographic characteristics, type of tube shunt, and position were noted. Complications were recorded at 1 day; 1 week; 1, 3, 6, and 12 months; and on the final postoperative visit.Results: One hundred and sixty-nine eyes of 165 patients were included. The mean follow-up time was 4.8±3.5 (ranging from 1 to 16) months. There was no evidence of immunological reaction, infection, or exposure
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, stort og forholdsvis tungt (masse ca. 17 tonn) amerikansk romobservatorium utstyrt med fire instrumenter for registrering av gammastråle-kilder. Skutt opp med romfergen Atlantis 5. april 1991 under betegnelsen Gamma Ray Observatory, utplassert 7. april 1991. En rekke interessante målinger av bl.a. høyenergi-gammastråleutbrudd ble foretatt.
The computer code I-GAM calculates macroscopic cross sections for the production of gamma rays by neutron inelastic scatter. It does so by associating nuclear energy level excitation with energy deposited by neutrons undergoing inelastic scatter. Such energy deposition is described by a 99 fine group inelastic scatter array. The decay of excited levels is in conformance with nuclear level transition probabilities and produces photons of discrete energy which are combined in multigroup form. I-GAM calculates cross sections in up to 18 gamma ray broad groups and 22 neutron broad groups. Author)(*NEUTRONS
Last week scientists took pictures of a gamma ray burst while it was still happening. Gamma ray bursts are very fast and its hard to take pictures of them. This is the first time scientists have ever taken a picture of one. Scientists used a computer-conrolled telescope to look at the burst. It would have taken too long for a person to find it. The burst began to fade after less than half a minute ...
A gamma ray collimator assembly comprising a first portion and a second collimator portion, the first and second portions having different gamma ray acceptance angles.
A gamma ray collimator assembly comprising a first portion and a second collimator portion, the first and second portions having different gamma ray acceptance angles.
Gamma Ray - Silence Lyrics. Gamma Ray Heading For Tomorrow Silence Music/ Lyrics: Hansen When youre drowning, when youre freezin, when youre feeling cold There
Theory says that gamma rays, being even more energetic than x-rays, ought to bypass orbiting electrons altogether; materials should not bend them at all and the refractive index for gamma rays should be almost equal to one. Yet this is not what a team of physicists led by Dietrich Habs at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Germany and Michael Jentschel at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France, has discovered.. ILL is a research reactor that produces intense beams of neutrons. Habs, Jentschel, and colleagues used one of its beams to bombard samples of radioactive chlorine and gadolinium to produce gamma rays. They directed these down a 20-meter-long tube to a device known as a crystal spectrometer, which funneled the gamma rays into a specific direction. They then passed half of the gamma rays through a silicon prism and into another spectrometer to measure their final direction, while they directed the other half straight to the spectrometer unimpeded. To the ...
The paucity of liver donation highlights the use of cell-based strategies for end-stage liver failure. We recently showed that bone marrow-derived aggregates (BMDAs) can completely restore the hematopoietic system in gamma-irradiated mice. These aggregates are stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow (BM), composed of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, reports showed that resident BM cells migrate to the liver and integrate themselves into the tissue in small numbers. Hence, we hypothesized that direct delivery of BMDAs to the damaged liver might enhance the integration of BM cells in the liver because of its stemness property, intact BM architecture, the physical proximity of these niche-like structures to the damaged sites and the existence of liver paracrine factors ...
Earth-based gamma rays are made in storms at the same altitude as many commercial flight paths, possibly creating radiation hazards for air passengers.
As the title of this review says, its ALMOST the perfect power metal album. How Long is a good cut but it sounds a little out of place because of its simple easygoing structure. The formidable riff that leads Condemned to Hell could have been the best stomping rocker Gamma Ray have ever written but the side is let down by a generic power metal chorus, which, quite frankly is a re-write of Heaven and Hell and Send me a Sign. Majesty creates a superb groove with its first class riff, and it would have been nice to carry this idea through the whole song rather than chop and change it throughout the middle break. In all honesty I am being nitpicky because the above reasons are just personal taste and shouldnt detract anyone from getting their mitts on this CD ...
Care guide for Stereotactic Gamma Ray Surgery For Benign Intracranial Tumors (Inpatient Care). Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
Volume 35: Morphology and Yield Parameters and Biochemical Analysis of Soybean (|i|Glycine max|/i| (L.) Mrr.) Using Gamma Rays, EMS and DES Treatment
The brightest events in the Universe since the Big Bang; extremely powerful flashes of gamma rays that are believed to originate in massive supernova events. They are highly directional, concentrating in narrow beams that shine for a few seconds, containing as much energy as the Sun will emit in its entire lifetime.. ...
These are really months of hard work at the Gamma Ray camp. After finishing the tour with Helloween, during which they received the news of the Hamburg fire that destroyed their studio and equipment, they are now back in another studio, working on Empire Of The Undead, that will be released in March 2014 via earMUSIC ...
It seems to be everywhere on the web at the moment... But its easy to see why! First light from Fermi. A postcard of the Universe seen in gamma rays. How cool is that?
The ethereal, sensual groove of A Ghost to Find, the latest by the Minneapolis band Sun Gods for Gamma Rays, is a promising sign of whats to come from this up-and-coming band.
A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality diffracting crystals of 1 mm width are used for focussing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of a gamma-ray imager using a large area monolithic 4 × 4 MPPC array for a future PET scanner. AU - Nakamori, T.. AU - Kato, T.. AU - Kataoka, J.. AU - Miura, T.. AU - Matsuda, H.. AU - Sato, K.. AU - Ishikawa, Y.. AU - Yamamura, K.. AU - Kawabata, N.. AU - Ikeda, H.. AU - Sato, G.. AU - Kamada, K.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - We report the development of a monolithic MPPC array, which consists of 3 × 3 mm2 elements arranged as a 4 × 4 array manufactured by Hamamatsu applicable to next generation PET scanners. We show that the MPPC is suitable for time of flight PET applications by simple measurement using coincident back-to-back 511 keV gamma rays. We demonstrated that the MPPC has much better timing resolution of ∼ 600 ps than the APD. We coupled the monolithic MPPC array with the Ce:LYSO and Pr:LuAG scintillator matrices as gamma-ray detectors. The energy resolutions were evaluated as ∼ 14% with 662 keV gamma-rays and the Ce:LYSO achieved the best. We ...
Barakat, M.F. and Abdelhamid, M.M. (2013) Valence Stabilization of Polyvalent Ions during Gamma Irradiation of Aqueous Solutions by Sacrificial Protection. (III) Valence Stabilization of Fe(II) Ions by Organic Additives. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 298, 1619-1627.
This topic contains 10 study abstracts on Gamma Irradiation: Cold Pasteurization indicating it may negatively impact Food Allergies, Allergy: Cows Milk, and Colon Cancer
The goal of artificial mutagenesis is to increase the rate of mutation for the desired characteristic. The selection of mutagens depends upon some extent to their availability and effectiveness for achieving the desired genetic changes, Cuitivars have different responses to mutagenic treatments. Mutagenic treatments cause some physiological damages in Mj plant. This study was conducted to determine the responses of Gediz-75 ve Sofu durum wheat cuitivars to EMS treatment and gamma irradiation in Tokat-Kazova conditions in 1996 and 1997. The seeds were irradiated with 50 Gy, 100 Gy, 150 Gy and 200 Gy by gamma rays or treated with 0. i %, 0.2 %, 0.3 % and 0.4 % EMS. The seeds were treated with EMS at 24 °C for 8 hours without presoaked and were washed for 6 hours after treatment. Either of treated varieties were grown separately in the trial. Besides, the treatments of gamma rays and EMS separately were Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Mutagens caused different effects ...
In other words, zero is still possible. Given the large number of possible cancer types, possible population groups, and types of radiation you can study (and they did look at other cancer types and other types of radiation), it would be surprising if you cannot find any significant effect by chance. And even if it would be highly significant (it is not), it still doesnt allow separating the effect of gamma radiation and other possible causes of cancer ...
An enhanced understanding of background gamma radiation is necessary for accurate radionuclide activity quantification. Background spectra are routinely subtracted from spectra of samples prepared in known geometries, with data collection time chosen to optimize statistics for counting uncertainties …
Here, we discuss the difference between alpha beta and gamma radiation in terms of what they are made of, their charge, mass, speed, ionising power, effect
The AGILE satellite, currently in its Science Verification Phase, during the Observing Block that started on 2007-11-02 12:00 UT, detected significant gamma-ray emission from a source coincident with the blazar 3C 454.3, as reported in ATEL #1278. The source continues to be active in > 100 MeV gamma rays, showing variability on day-to-day time scales, with particular activity within the last two days. We strongly encourage continued multi-frequency observations of the field of the gamma-ray source detected by AGILE. ...
In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained. ...
Context. The detection and the characterization of the highenergy emission component from individual gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is one of the key science objectives of the currently operating gamma-ray satellite AGILE, launched in April 2007. In its first two years of operation AGILE detected three GRBs with photons of energy larger than 30 MeV. One more GRB was detected in AGILE third operation year, while operating in spinning mode. Aims. For the 64 other GRBs localized during the period July 2007 to October 2009 in the field of view of the AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID), but not detected by this instrument, we estimate the count and flux upper limits on the GRB high energy emission in the AGILE-GRID energy band (30 MeV-3 GeV). Methods. To calculate the count upper limits, we adopted a Bayesian approach. The flux upper limits are derived using several assumptions on the high-energy spectral behavior. For 28 GRBs with available prompt spectral information, a flux upper limit and the ...
The AGILE satellite is detecting a significant enhancement in gamma-ray activity from the FSRQ 3C 454.3 since the recent ATel #9176. According to a maximum likelihood analysis of the AGILE-GRID data for the integration period between 2016-06-22 02:50:00 UT and 2016-06-24 02:50:00 UT, the flux is F(E > 100 MeV) = (1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10^-5 ph/cm^2/s; this corresponds to a flux increase of approximately a factor of 6 above the average flux during the last 6 days. The current flux level is similar to the gamma-ray activity reported by AGILE in 2014 (ATel #6234). This measurement was obtained with AGILE observing a large portion of the sky in spinning mode. Multifrequency observations of the source are strongly encouraged. The 3C 454.3 gamma-ray flaring activity can be followed with the APP AGILEScience.. AGILE-GRID sky map (E , 100 MeV) during the period 22-24 June, 2016. ...
This invention provides a radiation detecting apparatus for imaging the distribution of radioactive substances in a three-dimensional subject such as a medical patient. Radiating substances introduced
Day 11: Whole Body Scan. If this {which is what I had done last month} or something very much like it is what you just had done, then the first WBS was just to determine the size of the large dose of I-131 you got on day 4.. Both scans should look pretty much the same or maybe the second scan will show something the first missed. The WBS youre taking is looking to see where gamma rays are eminating from your body. The day 2 dose {for me it was 2mCi} is much less strong than the day 4 dose {for me it was also 75 mCi}, so it will cause far fewer gamma rays {in my case something like 1/20th}. So they do the day 11 scan in order to see if the day 2 scan missed anything. The large dose will take maybe as long as 6 to 9 months to finish killing off thyroid cells, assuming it kills them all.. When do I get to be cancer free? No one has been able to answer that for me, so I doubt anyone will be able to answer it for you. Theres no way that you can know if there isnt some very small undetectable ...
The patient lies on a table that slides into the middle of the scanner. Within the scanner are rings of detectors containing special crystals that produce light when struck by a gamma ray. The scanners electronics record these detected gamma rays and map an image of the area where the radiopharmaceutical is located. Since the radiopharmaceutical contains a chemical commonly used by the body, PET enables the physician to see the location of the metabolic process. For example, glucose (or sugar, which the body uses to produces energy) combined with a radioisotope will show where glucose is being used in the brain, the heart muscle, or a growing tumor. ...
In conjunction with a having a key associated with your account, to have the possibility of exporting private event information necessitates the creation of a persistent key. This new key is also associated with your account and whilst it is active the data which can be obtained through using this key can be obtained by anyone in possession of the link provided. Due to this reason, it is extremely important that you keep links generated with this key private and for your use only. If you think someone else may have acquired access to a link using this key in the future, you must immediately remove it from My Profile under the HTTP API tab and generate a new key before regenerating iCalendar links ...
Breaking News. A science team have released preliminary news that they can now very easily replicate proof of Cold Fusion / LENR with easy to get material.
When the World Lyrics : Bodies lie around me, only shells left from the fight victims of the ones that turn the day into the night survivors stumble through the field,theyre calling for the priest branded with a sign, the number of the beast its He..
I have very little interest. I loved watching The Room years ago, but I think this new movie is stupid because all its doing is getting the mainstream to be more interested in the 14 year old shit ...
To resolve the gamma-ray sky: unidentified sources and diffuse emission.. *To determine the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray ... Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope[edit]. Main article: Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope ... SLAC plays a primary role in the mission and operation of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched in August 2008. The ... SLAC research centers on a broad program in atomic and solid-state physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine using X-rays from ...
... has been used as a radiation source in portable X-ray machines. Like X-rays, the gamma rays emitted by the source pass through ... Thus, small 169Yb samples (which emit gamma rays) act like tiny X-ray machines useful for radiography of small objects. ... Source of gamma rays[edit]. The 169Yb isotope (with a half-life of 32 days), which is created along with the short-lived 175Yb ... At present, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a gamma ray source ...
Gamma rays. Main article: Gamma rays. After hard X-rays come gamma rays, which were discovered by Paul Ulrich Villard in 1900. ... which is of higher energy than any nuclear gamma ray-is not called X-ray or gamma-ray, but instead by the generic term of "high ... Many astronomical gamma ray sources (such as gamma ray bursts) are known to be too energetic (in both intensity and wavelength ... gamma rays are used for diagnostic imaging in nuclear medicine, an example being PET scans. The wavelength of gamma rays can be ...
by gamma rays: radiosurgery *Gamma Knife radiosurgery. *stereotactic radiation therapy. *cobalt therapy ...
Gamma Ray *Data: styczeń 1996. *Wydawca: Man's Ruin. 1997 Kyuss/Queens of the Stone Age *Data: 9 grudnia 1997 ...
High-energy studies (in x-rays and gamma rays) have had only moderate imaging resolutions so far. Studying x-ray and gamma-ray ... for gamma-ray astronomy. The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), renamed Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), was designed to take ... The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) primarily observed gamma rays, though it extended into hard x-rays as well. It was ... "Gamma-Ray Astronomy in the Compton Era: The Instruments". Gamma-Ray Astronomy in the Compton Era. NASA/ GSFC. Retrieved 2007-12 ...
X-rays and gamma rays. Since the energy of an individual photon of radio frequency is too low to remove an electron from an ... The term "radio" is derived from the Latin word "radius", meaning "spoke of a wheel, beam of light, ray". It was first applied ... O. J. Lodge, who preceded Marconi in making experiments in what may be called "ray" telegraphy or radiotelegraphy by a year or ... because an ordinary beam of light contains the rays which are operative. To avoid in future any misunderstandings upon this ...
Gamma ray. less than 0.01 nm. more than 30 EHz. more than 124 keV ... Recently T-ray imaging has been of considerable interest due to a number of new developments such as terahertz time-domain ... He was surprised at the result and called them "Calorific Rays".[49][50] The term 'Infrared' did not appear until late 19th ... Normally the human eye responds to light rays from 390 to 760 nm. This can be extended to a range of 310 to 1,050 nm under ...
There's no gamma rays. It's just like the suit and the gas, so in that sense, it really appealed to me in terms that we could ... 2015 and released on Blu-ray, Blu-ray 3D, and DVD on December 8, 2015. The digital and Blu-ray releases include behind-the- ... as well as the dedicated Blu-ray Disc sales chart, with 63% of unit sales coming from Blu-ray. The film was also collected in ... Truitt, Brian (October 15, 2015). "Watch: Michael Peña steals this exclusive 'Ant-Man' Blu-ray trailer". USA Today. Archived ...
The SAS II gamma ray telescope's successful results during the 1970s brought gamma ray astronomy of age and established it as ... gamma ray telescope. With this group and his former NASA colleagues, Ögelman co-authored several critical papers on gamma ray ... He was an expert on gamma ray astronomy, the physics of neutron stars, and solar energy and worked on several key topics in ... His main interests in the field of astrophysics were the study of gamma ray astronomy and compact objects such as neutron stars ...
He is best known for discovering the first optical afterglow of a gamma-ray burst, GRB 970228, in February 1997, together with ... Glanz, James (November 4, 1999). "Johannes van Paradijs, 53; Helped Explain Gamma Rays". The New York Times. Retrieved October ... Van Paradijs determined the first mass of a neutron star, the X-ray pulsar Vela X-1 in 1975. In 1978 he showed that X-ray ... and for establishing that gamma-ray bursts are extragalactic events. He was married to the astrophysicist Chryssa Kouveliotou. ...
The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is searching for similar gamma rays.[132] In April 2012, an analysis of previously ... The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope observed more gamma rays in 2008 than expected from the Milky Way, but scientists ... 2010). "Magic Gamma-Ray Telescope Observation of the Perseus Cluster of Galaxies: Implications for Cosmic Rays, Dark Matter, ... Video about the potential gamma-ray detection of dark matter annihilation around supermassive black holes. (Duration 3:13, also ...
This radioactive decay process involves emission of a gamma ray. The actual process can have two effects: *γ (gamma) emission ( ... from the large change in nuclear spin needed to emit a gamma ray. For example, 180m. 73Ta. has a spin of 9 and must gamma decay ... in which they emit a gamma ray. The process of isomeric transition is similar to any gamma emission from any excited nuclear ... the energy is released as gamma rays with a total energy of 2.45 MeV. As with 180m. Ta. , there are disputed reports that 178m2 ...
"Gamma rays - Our company profile". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013. "The men who keep us ... He is a part of Gammarays, the contemporary ensemble formed by Gamelan Asmaradana which focuses on genres like Jazz, Rock and ... Gammarays' Debut Album(On the Dance Floor), Johor Bahru's band Manmatha's Second Album,PaperCitizens' (Monster's in Silence) ...
Flatley, Guy (19 April 1970). "...And Gamma Rays Did Its!". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged ... he tried his hand at producing the off-Broadway play The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds by Paul Zindel, ...
No gamma rays were detected; however, the BBC reported that a scientist at AWE, who had worked on Britain's early atomic bomb ... as the gamma ray signal from polonium-210, a critical component of early nuclear bombs, which led to the correct diagnosis. ...
Flynn, Anne-Gerard (July 19, 1972). "'The Effect of Gamma Rays...'". The Berkshire Eagle. Pittsfield, Massachusetts. p. 18 - ...
A gamma-ray burst (GRB) is a highly luminous flash of gamma rays, the most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation. GRBs ... Varendoff, Martin (2001). "Gamma-Ray Bursts". In Volken Schönfelder (ed.). The Universe in Gamma Rays. Berlin: Springer-Verlag ... doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04913.x. Gamma-ray Burst 970228 BeppoSAX follow-up observations of the region of the Gamma-ray ... cosmological nature of Gamma-ray bursts. After the gamma-ray bursts itself had faded away, very deep observations taken with ...
A gamma-ray burst is a highly luminous flash associated with an explosion in a distant galaxy and producing gamma rays, the ... A gamma-ray burst (GRB) is a highly luminous flash of gamma rays-the most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation. GRBs ... On Thursday May 8, 1997, at 21:42 UTC, BeppoSAX's Gamma Ray Burst Monitor registered a gamma-ray burst that lasted ... Paczyński, Bohdan (1999). M. Livio; N. Panagia; K. Sahu (eds.). Gamma-Ray Burst-Supernova relation. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray ...
... ,"Angular correlation of gamma rays". 1947. Two-dimensional image data compression and decompression system. US ...
On 22 October 2005 he performed live in Kaufbeuren with Gamma Ray during their song "Blood Religion". He was a guest during ... Rod Capozzi, Gus Rosa (14 July 2004). "Ice Vajal - Music Land - Metal World :: Gamma Ray". Retrieved 11 ...
Gamma Ray (EP liner notes). Gamma Ray. San Francisco: Man's Ruin Records. 1996. MR 036.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media ( ...
No discernible gamma rays were initially detected; however, a small gamma ray spike was noticed at an energy of 803 kilo- ... Unlike most common radiation sources, polonium-210 emits very little gamma radiation (the low intensity gamma ray at an energy ... Both gamma rays and alpha particles are classified as ionizing radiation which can cause radiation damage. An alpha-emitting ... The studies of the biodistribution of 210Po using gamma-ray spectrometry in post-mortem samples were used to estimate intake as ...
To resolve the gamma-ray sky: unidentified sources and diffuse emission.. *To determine the high-energy behavior of gamma-ray ... Main article: Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. SLAC plays a primary role in the mission and operation of the Fermi Gamma-ray ... SLAC research centers on a broad program in atomic and solid-state physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine using X-rays from ... The LCLS-II project is to provide a major upgrade to LCLS by adding two new X-ray laser beams. The new system will utilize the ...
Gamma-ray burstsEdit. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are candidates for extraterrestrial communication. These high-energy bursts are ... SETI currently omits gamma ray frequencies in their monitoring and analysis because they are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere ... "Gamma-Ray Bursts: The ETI Hypothesis" (PostScript).. *^ Freitas Jr., Robert A. (1980). "Interstellar probes - A new approach to ... Still, the continued mysteries surrounding gamma-ray bursts have encouraged hypotheses invoking extraterrestrials. John A. Ball ...
An association between the gamma-ray and x-ray sources was not conclusively made until the ROSAT x-ray imager detected a 237 ms ... A study from 2019, using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovered a large gamma-ray halo around Geminga. ... Previous studies using data from the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-ray Observatory found only a small gamma-ray halo ... Halpern, J. P.; Holt, S. S. (May 1992). "Discovery of soft X-ray pulsations from the gamma-ray source Geminga". Nature. 357 ( ...
The gamma-ray emission had a duration of at least 28 minutes, which is unusually long. After news of the gamma-ray burst was ... The gamma ray burst, in the constellation Andromeda, was first detected by the NASA Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission at 18:38 UT ... The gamma-ray emission lasted at least 28 minutes, which is unusually long. Follow-up observations of the burst's afterglow by ... 2011). "The unusual gamma-ray burst GRB 101225A explained as a minor body falling onto a neutron star". Nature. 480 (7375): 69- ...
The gamma rays from Mrk 501 are extremely variable, undergoing violent outbursts. The gamma ray spectrum of Mrk 501 shows two ... In these flares the higher energy gamma rays (of 1.2 Tev) were delayed 4 minutes over the 0.25 TeV gamma rays. This delay has ... Markarian 501 (or Mrk 501) is a galaxy with a spectrum extending to the highest energy gamma rays. It is a blazar or BL Lac ... In the very-high-energy gamma ray region of the spectrum, at energies above 1011 eV (0.1 TeV), it is the brightest object in ...
GAMMA RAYS "Dynamite", 7" TEENBEAT 225. THE ROPERS "The World is Fire", LP/CD TEENBEAT 226. THE PROJECT "Celluloid Dreams of ... GAMMA RAYS "Lovely", 7" TEENBEAT 165. PHIL KRAUTH "Cold Morning", LP/CD TEENBEAT 166. GRENADINE "Christiansen", 7" TEENBEAT 167 ...
The observations of high energy neutrinos and gamma-rays from this source imply that it is also a source of cosmic rays, ... X-rays and gamma-rays. The detection of both neutrinos and light from the same object was an early example of multi-messenger ... The gamma-ray flux from TXS 0506+056 is highly variable, by at least a factor of a thousand, but on average it is in the top 4 ... Gamma rays from TXS 0506+056 were detected by the EGRET and Fermi Space Telescope missions. Radio observations using very-long- ...
Hershberger, Ray E; Morales, Ana. LMNA-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy. 19 September 2013. PMID 20301717. NBK1674.. In ...
The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radioligand, most commonly fluorine-18, which ... Time-of-flight PET makes use of very fast gamma-ray detectors and data processing system which can more precisely decide the ... in place of earlier equipment that offered a crude form of CT using a gamma ray (positron emitting) source and the PET ... It is also possible to acquire PET images using a conventional dual-head gamma camera fitted with a coincidence detector. ...
X-ray crystallographic studies of the N-terminal half of mammalian ZP3 (PDB: 3D4C, 3D4G, 3EF7​)[7] as well as its full-length ... positive regulation of interferon-gamma production. • blastocyst formation. • positive regulation of interleukin-4 production. ... "Insights into egg coat assembly and egg-sperm interaction from the X-ray structure of full-length ZP3". Cell. 143 (3): 404-15. ... "Insights into egg coat assembly and egg-sperm interaction from the X-ray structure of full-length ZP3". Cell. 143 (3): 404-15. ...
Diagnostic radiology is concerned with imaging of the body, e.g. by x-rays, x-ray computed tomography, ultrasonography, and ... usually either a gamma-emitter or a positron emitter). There is a degree of overlap between nuclear medicine and radiology, as ... which can then be imaged outside the body by a gamma camera or a PET scanner. Each radiopharmaceutical consists of two parts: a ...
... is an imaging technique using X-rays, gamma rays, or similar ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation to view ... Industrial Radiography can be performed utilizing either X-rays or gamma rays. Both are forms of electromagnetic radiation. The ... a beam of X-rays is produced by an X-ray generator and is projected toward the object. A certain amount of the X-rays or other ... which generate X-rays from X-ray tubes. The resultant images from the radiograph (X-ray generator/machine) or CT scanner are ...
The caesium-137 chloride radioactive source is the blue square, and gamma rays are represented by the beam emerging from the ... Radioisotopes of caesium require special precautions: the improper handling of caesium-137 gamma ray sources can lead to ... It is a strong emitter of gamma radiation. Caesium-137 has a very low rate of neutron capture and cannot be feasibly disposed ... Structure of 2.2.2-Cryptand encapsulating a potassium cation (purple). At crystalline state, obtained with an X-ray diffraction ...
Radiotherapy: the most commonly used treatment for brain tumors; the tumor is irradiated with beta, x rays or gamma rays. ... Forms used include stereotactic radiosurgery, such as Gamma knife, Cyberknife or Novalis Tx radiosurgery.[37][unreliable ... Experimental treatments include targeted therapy, gamma knife radiosurgery,[45] boron neutron capture therapy and gene therapy. ... "Radiosurgery treatment comparisons - Cyberknife, Gamma knife, Novalis Tx". Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved ...
"Measurement of gamma-rays from cold fusion (letter by Fleischmann et al. and reply by Petrasso et al.)" (PDF), Nature, 339: 667 ... "Upper limits on neutron and big gamma-ray emission from cold fusion", Nature, 340 (6228): 29-34, Bibcode:1989Natur.340...29G, ... Those reports of 4He production did not include detection of gamma rays, which would require the third pathway to have been ... but the only thing left clear was that no gamma ray had been registered and that Fleischmann refused to recognize any mistakes ...
SPECT (gamma ray):. *Myocardial perfusion imaging. PET (positron):. *Brain PET. *Cardiac PET ... The technology uses laser in the same way computed tomography uses X-Rays, these beams travel through tissue and suffer ...
Meridian Lossless Packing, used in DVD-Audio, Dolby TrueHD, Blu-ray and HD DVD ...
Prolonged exposure to ionising radiation, such as x-rays and gamma rays, will also kill most endospores. ... Kadota H, Iijima K (1965). "The X-ray diffraction pattern of spores of Bacillus subtilis". Agric Biol Chem. 29 (1): 80-81. doi: ... The X-ray diffraction pattern of purified B. subtilis endospores indicates the presence of a component with a regular periodic ...
Gamma-ray burst. *Hypercane. *Impact event *Asteroid impact avoidance. *Potentially hazardous object ...
gamma-secretase complex. • cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • ... De Strooper B, Annaert W, Cupers P, Saftig P, Craessaerts K, Mumm JS, Schroeter EH, Schrijvers V, Wolfe MS, Ray WJ, Goate A, ... Spasic D, Annaert W (February 2008). "Building gamma-secretase: the bits and pieces". J. Cell Sci. 121 (Pt 4): 413-20. doi: ... The same step can be also blocked by several gamma-secretase inhibitors, shown in the same study.[19] These evidences ...
NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope discovers 12 new gamma-ray-only pulsars, and has detected gamma-ray pulses from 18 ...
response to X-ray. • response to drug. • DNA unwinding involved in DNA replication. • cellular response to hydroxyurea. • ... cellular response to gamma radiation. • meiosis I. • replication fork processing. • cellular response to ionizing radiation. • ...
High-dose intravenous gamma-globulin has also been suggested for the treatment of severe eczema in patients with HIES and ... Abnormal neutrophil chemotaxis due to decreased production of interferon gamma by T lymphocytes is thought to cause the disease ... Kimata H (1995). "High-dose intravenous gamma-globulin treatment for hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome". J Allergy Clin ... Borges W, Augustine N, Hill H (2000). "Defective interleukin-12/interferon-gamma pathway in patients with ...
Power Plant е шести студиен албум на германската пауър метъл група Gamma Ray. През 2002 г. е преиздаден с бонус песни и ...
The CDC recommends either a blood test, also known as an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), or a skin test, also known as a ... Additional evaluation for TB disease as needed (e.g. chest x-ray for HCP with a positive TB test)[31] ... It is assumed that any HCP who has undergone a chest x-ray test has had a previous positive test result. ...
Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 362-8. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.. CS1 ... Gamma Proteobacteria. Order:. Enterobacteriales. Family:. Enterobacteriaceae. Genus:. Salmonella. Lignieres, 1900. Species. S. ...
displaystyle \Pi =\gamma _{o}-\gamma \,}. Where. Π. =. s. u. r. f. a. c. e. p. r. e. s. s. u. r. e. {\displaystyle \Pi =\mathrm ... Surface Roughness of Water Measured by X-Ray Reflectivity; A. Braslau, M. Deutsch, P. S. Pershan, A. H. Weiss, J. Als-Nielsen, ... displaystyle \gamma =\mathrm {surface\ tension\ of\ subphase\ with\ monolayer} }. γ. o. =. s. u. r. f. a. c. e. t. e. n. s. i. ... displaystyle \gamma _{LV}=\mathrm {surface\ tension\ of\ liquid} }. θ. =. c. o. n. t. a. c. t. a. n. g. l. e. {\displaystyle \ ...
... by reflecting the sun's rays while at the same time allowing the surface to discharge its heat as an infrared thermal radiation ... chromates or similar compounds have been maintained in cooling systems to keep heat exchange surfaces clean so a film of gamma ...
Ryan KJ, Ray CG, ed. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 294-5. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.. ... É característico dos enterococos a gamma-hemólise en ágar sangue de sangue de ovella.[4] ...
... and UV or gamma rays.[19][20] To be specific, molecular O2 is reduced to O2− (a ROS called superoxide) when it absorbs an ...
displaystyle \sigma (E)={\frac {\pi g}{k^{2}}}{\frac {\Gamma _{ab}\Gamma _{c}}{(E-E_{0})^{2}+\Gamma ^{2}/4}}}. ... Spallation (by cosmic ray) · Photodisintegration. Nucleosynthesis and. nuclear astrophysics. Nuclear fusion. Processes: Stellar ... Alpha α · Beta β (2β, β+) · K/L capture · Isomeric (Gamma γ · Internal conversion) · Spontaneous fission · Cluster decay · ... gamma ^{\mu }\partial _{\mu }-m)\psi _{i}-gG_{\mu }^{a}{\bar {\psi }}_{i}\gamma ^{\mu }T_{ij}^{a}\psi _{j}-{\frac {1}{4}}G_{\mu ...
The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer), which is introduced ... In modern scanners, three dimensional imaging is often accomplished with the aid of a CT X-ray scan performed on the patient ...
The Moon as seen by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, in gamma rays with energies greater than 20 MeV. These are produced by ... Since then, numerous satellite gamma-ray observatories have mapped the gamma-ray sky. The most recent is the Fermi Observatory ... cosmic rays by means of analyzing their Cherenkov radiation, which for cosmic rays are gamma rays emitted as they travel faster ... Cosmic rays can be divided into two types, galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and extragalactic cosmic rays, i.e., high-energy ...
Gilker JC, Pavilanis V, Ghys R (Jun 1967). "Multiplicity reactivation in gamma irradiated influenza viruses". Nature. 214 (5094 ... Cosmic ray. *Cosmochemistry. *Diffuse interstellar band. *Earliest known life forms. *Extraterrestrial life ...
... interferon gamma. The proteasome assembled with these alternative subunits is known as the immunoproteasome, whose substrate ... the first structure of the proteasome core particle was not solved by X-ray crystallography until 1994.[14] ... whose expression is induced by interferon gamma, are the primary producers of peptides which are optimal in size and ... The expression of the 11S particle is induced by interferon gamma and is responsible, in conjunction with the immunoproteasome ...
... including x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and/or microwave wavelengths. ...
Earth-based gamma rays are made in storms at the same altitude as many commercial flight paths, possibly creating radiation ... A terrestrial gamma ray flash is more like a strobe light-very brief and very bright." (See a picture of a gamma ray burst in ... Few Gamma Ray Protections. If further research proves that terrestrial gamma ray flashes are a threat, theres very little ... Gamma Ray Strobe Lights. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes were accidentally discovered in the 1990s, when space telescopes ...
... called gamma-ray bursts, with biological damage and even mass extinctions on Earth. Gamma-ray bursts are tremendous explosions ... called gamma-ray bursts, with biological damage and even mass extinctions on Earth. Gamma-ray bursts are tremendous explosions ... But gamma-ray bursts are so rare, astronomers expect one to detonate within 6,000 light-years of Earth only once every 15 ... Gamma-ray bursts are tremendous explosions detonated during a massive stars death throes. When stars eight times the mass of ...
... Providing Scientists With Crucial Test for Burst Physics. The closest Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) yet known ... In addition to gamma-ray and X-ray observations, visible light from GRB 030329 was observed by 65 telescopes around the world. ... Gamma Ray Bursts were first detected in 1967 by a satellite monitoring compliance with the 1963 atmospheric nuclear test-ban ...
Media in category "Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes". The following 8 files are in this category, out of 8 total. ... Category:Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ... Retrieved from "" ...
... the first and second portions having different gamma ray acceptance angles. ... A gamma ray collimator assembly comprising a first portion and a second collimator portion, ... b) a gamma ray detector wherein said gamma ray collimator assembly is positioned adjacent a gamma ray acceptance surface of the ... b. a gamma ray detector wherein said gamma ray collimator assembly is positioned adjacent a gamma ray acceptance surface of the ...
Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis is a measurement technique for nondestructive elemental analysis. Samples are irradiated ... Measurement of gamma rays gives determination of elements in the sample. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis is a measurement ... When these gamma rays are measured using a high resolution germanium detector, the energies the gamma rays energies identify ... R. L. Paul, D. Sahin, J. C. Cook, C. Brocker, R. M. Lindstrom, D. J. OKelly, "NGD Cold-Neutron Prompt Gamma-Ray Activation ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
... but a new discovery seems to emit only higher energy gamma rays ... First pulsar identified by its gamma rays alone. By Rachel ... "We think its quite possible that the radio beam is narrower than the gamma-ray emission, but we dont yet know how gamma rays ... by analysing fluctuations in gamma-ray maps of the sky made using the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space ... NASAs Fermi telescope has found the first pulsar that can be detected only by the gamma rays it emits - and not by lower- ...
... and processes that take place in that jet emit gamma radiation in the form of gamma-ray bursts. ... Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest objects in the entire universe, sending out as much energy in a fraction of a second as our ... "But the light from this Gamma-ray Burst looked like it was part of a 3D movie - it was about 1000 times more polarized than we ... "The gamma-ray burst itself lasted just over a minute," they said. "The subsequent afterglow was relatively bright, which ...
Yet, in June of 1991 a gamma-ray telescope onboard NASAs orbiting Compton Gamma Ray Observatory unexpectedly discovered that ... Gamma-Ray Quasar Credit: EGRET team, Compton Observatory, NASA Explanation: The bright object in the center of the false color ... Shortly after this image was recorded the quasar faded from view at gamma-ray energies. Astronomers are still trying to ... image above is quasar 3C279 viewed in gamma-rays, photons with more than 40 million times the energy of visible light. Like all ...
... known as gamma-knife surgery, is a highly precise form of radiation therapy used to treat tumours and other abnormalities of ... How gamma ray surgery works:. Stereotactic radiosurgery, known as gamma-knife surgery, is a highly precise form of radiation ... When Kelly goes in for her surgery, 201 beams of gamma radiation will be targeted at the precise spot in her brain where her ... Stereotactic radiosurgery, known as gamma-knife surgery, is a highly precise form of radiation therapy used to treat tumours ...
Gamma-ray bursts are among the most energetic and explosive events in the universe. They are also short-lived, lasting from a ... NASAs Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope first detected the gamma-ray emission from GRB 160625B. Soon afterward, the ground-based ... Gamma-Ray Burst Captured in Unprecedented Detail. by Staff Writers. College Park MD (SPX) Jul 26, 2017. This image shows the ... Gamma-ray Telescopes Reveal a High-energy Trap in Our Galaxys Center. Greenbelt MD (SPX) Jul 20, 2017. A combined analysis of ...
The Moon as seen in gamma rays by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Surprisingly, the Moon is brighter than the Sun at gamma ... Then the 60Ni drops down to the ground state (see nuclear shell model) by emitting two gamma rays in succession:. Gamma rays of ... Gamma rays, x-rays, visible light, and UV rays are all forms of electromagnetic radiation. The only difference is the frequency ... Gamma raysrays) is the popular name applied to gamma radiation, the most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation and ...
A total of 77 tumors were induced in 371 mice that received &gamma;-ray doses of 45 through 95 Gy. … 60%) after &gamma;-ray ... 放射線被爆後の発がんの多段階的なプロセスを明らかにするために、本研究では、バセドウ病患者より提供を受けた初代甲状腺細胞の、&gamma;線照射に対する放射線初期応答について解析を行った。 … まず、1 Gyの&gamma;線を照射し、DNA損傷 ... 実際,H,SUB
In addition, common gamma ray bursts are normally spied off-center in the main bodies of galaxies. But Sw 1644+57 was found in ... Earlier this year astronomers spied a burst of high-energy gamma rays emanating from the center of a dwarf galaxy 3.8 billion ... Most of these [common gamma ray bursts] are detected and quickly fade away within the course of a day, Bloom said. ... The explosive event was initially thought to be an ordinary gamma ray burst. Originating billions of light-years away, these ...
New observations from NASAs Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveal that our assumptions about the fog of gamma rays in our ... "New observations from NASAs Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveal that our assumptions about the fog of gamma rays in our ... Milky Ways Black Hole a Gamma Source?. Submission: Gamma Ray Mystery Reestablished by Fermi. ... Gamma Ray Mystery Reestablished By Fermi Telescope 95 Posted by Soulskill on Wednesday March 03, 2010 @12:23PM. from the back- ...
Corning Med-Gamma Glass is a high-quality, neutral appearance glass for protective shielding from Positron Emission Tomography ... PET) gamma-based radiation at various keV levels. ... Corning Med Gamma Glass , Gamma Ray Glass , Corning. We use ... Protective shielding glass against gamma-based PET radiation as specified by IEC 61331:2014 (Standard Gamma Radiation). ... Corning® Med-Gamma® Glass is a high-quality, neutral appearance glass for protective shielding from Positron Emission ...
New observations from NASAs Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveal that our assumptions about the fog of gamma rays in our ... This gamma ray job could be LSPs annilhating but only if the have the gamma rays match with the galactic halos. --- ... Indeed, but its only the active ones (I.E. ones emitting gamma rays as they munch stuff) that actually emit the gamma rays in ... "New observations from NASAs Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveal that our assumptions about the fog of gamma rays in our ...
... rays_from_tritium_bombarded_by_pro.html?id=sEdZAAAAYAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareGamma-rays from tritium bombarded by protons. ... curve cyclotron target effect electron pair produced emission Energy Commission Document factor figure filament froa gamma-ray ... 0 Reviews ... ... Gamma-rays from tritium bombarded by protons. Robert Sumner ...
AGNcognitive neurosciencegamma ray burstsgamma rayslight travel timemicrowave background radiationrelativityspeed of light ... Gamma Ray Bursts, which are very brief, but intense flashes of rays, currently believed to emanate from cataclysmic stellar ... deathgamma ray burstslifeSomerset Maughamsymmetric radio sources. Articles and Essays, Philosophy, Physics, Science, ... deathgamma ray burstslifeSomerset Maughamsymmetric radio sources. Life and Death, Philosophy, Physics ...
We know that light is an electromagnetic wave.gamma rays are e.m.waves. Both of them have the same speed 3*10^8 m/s. Gamma ray ... X-rays and gamma rays have better penetration because their higher frequency means less interaction with the matter. They still ... What is the reason behind this.By,correlating the properties of gamma ray and light please give me answer... ... In a sense, the short wave lengths help gamma rays get through very small gaps between atoms. ...
... it produces gamma rays. During the most recent event, NASAs Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observed that the pulsars gamma- ... Once this occurs, the gamma ray light is lost. In effect, the process dampens the gamma-ray signal in much the same way as fog ... Gamma rays produced in blazar jets travel across billions of light-years to Earth. During their journey, the gamma rays pass ... The March 7 flare also is notable for the persistence of its gamma-ray emission. Fermis LAT detected high-energy gamma rays ...
Gamma Ray - Empathy Lyrics. As the days grow colder now And everything is lost A vision forms of better men Rising from the ... Gamma Ray Lyrics provided by Note: When you embed the widget in your site, it will match your sites styles ( ... Gamma Ray - Empathy Lyrics. Artist: Gamma Ray. Album: To the Metal!. Heyo! SONGLYRICS just got interactive. Highlight. Review: ...
Dave Thompson, Multiwavelength Coordinator for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of NASAs Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope, on behalf of ... which is undergoing a major gamma-ray flare. ... Read more about Special Notice #287: Request to observe X-ray ... Special Notice #287: Request to observe X-ray transient Swift J1910.2-0546 ...
Gamma Ray Heading For Tomorrow Silence Music/ Lyrics: Hansen When youre drowning, when youre freezin, when youre feeling ... Gamma Ray Lyrics provided by Note: When you embed the widget in your site, it will match your sites styles ( ... Gamma Ray. Heading For Tomorrow. Silence. Music/ Lyrics: Hansen. When youre drowning, when youre freezin, when youre ...
There are radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays, all of which form ... Integral is designed to capture not just gamma rays but also X-rays and visible light. This complementary data is also helping ... There are radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays, all of which form ... By collecting gamma rays, astronomers are able to see these violent events and can judge exactly how they shape the Universe. ...
Gamma Ray Sources, Work Environment, Safety Measures, Design, Electrons, X Ray, Gamma Irradiators, Operation, Monitoring, ... It gives practical information on the safe design and operation of gamma, electron and X ray irradiators in accordance with ... INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Radiation Safety of Gamma, Electron and X Ray Irradiation Facilities, IAEA Safety Standards ...
... a focused collimator for forming gamma ray images of the gamma rays radiating from said sources, gamma ray image detecting ... a focused collimator for forming gamma ray images of the gamma rays radiating from said sources, gamma ray image detecting ... a focused collimator for forming gamma ray images of the gamma rays radiating from said sources, gamma ray image detecting ... a collimator for forming gamma ray images of the gamma rays radiating from said sources, said collimator having a geometrical ...
... Science Daily. January 21,2013. A nearby short duration gamma-ray burst ... Did An 8th Century Gamma Ray Burst Irradiate Earth?. Science Daily ^ , 1-21-2013 , Science Daily Posted on 01/21/2013 7:50:06 ... I guess a gamma ray pulse could do it, but at 24 MeV those photons would penetrate pretty deep, the primaries and secondaries ... Did An 8th Century Gamma Ray Burst Irradiate Earth?]]. After wtinessign the left in action for decades, does this question ...
... Nuclear physics Radioactive decayNuclear fissionNuclear fusion Classical decays Alpha decay · Beta decay · Gamma ... Then the 60Ni drops down to the ground state (see nuclear shell model) by emitting two gamma rays in succession: Gamma rays of ... Gamma rays, x-rays, visible light, and UV rays are all forms of electromagnetic radiation. The only difference is the frequency ... Materials for shielding gamma rays are typically measured by the thickness required to reduce the intensity of the gamma rays ...
  • Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are one of the universe's most dramatic spectacles, shining hundreds of times brighter than a typical supernova and "a million trillion times as bright as the sun," according to NASA . (
  • GRB-080916C was one of the most energetic gamma-ray bursts ever recorded, but like most GRBs, it didn't last very long. (
  • Hearing gamma-ray music may not yield much scientific insight about the cosmos, but it can make a weird, distant phenomenon like GRBs seem more real to non-scientists - and maybe even boost interest in deep-space astronomy. (
  • The odd flash, dubbed Sw 1644+57, is one is the brightest and longest gamma ray bursts (GRBs) yet seen. (
  • Swift primarily studies gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) -- the biggest and most mysterious explosions in the cosmos. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts, or GRBs, can be as long as a few minutes or as short as a few milliseconds, shedding intense gamma-rays in the initial explosion with an afterglow of X-rays and optical light that can fade over hours or weeks. (
  • A new supercomputer simulation shows the collision of two neutron stars can naturally produce the magnetic structures thought to power the high-speed particle jets associated with short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). (
  • Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright X-ray and gamma-ray flashes observed in the sky, emitted by distant extragalactic sources. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the brightest electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe and can last from ten milliseconds to several minutes. (
  • Traditionally, astronomers have recognized two types of GRBs: short and long, based on the duration of the gamma-ray signal. (
  • Astronomers have witnessed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)-lasting from just fractions of a millisecond to several minutes-as the brightest explosions in the universe. (
  • The observation of four Fermi-detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has led physicists to speculate that space-time is indeed smooth (a prepublication PDF can be found here ). (
  • In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies. (
  • All observed GRBs have originated from outside the Milky Way galaxy, although a related class of phenomena, soft gamma repeater flares, are associated with magnetars within the Milky Way. (
  • From 1991, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) and its Burst and Transient Source Explorer (BATSE) instrument, an extremely sensitive gamma-ray detector, provided data that showed the distribution of GRBs is isotropic - not biased towards any particular direction in space. (
  • The absence of any such pattern in the case of GRBs provided strong evidence that gamma-ray bursts must come from beyond the Milky Way. (
  • These explosions, called gamma ray bursts (GRBs), are by far the brightest and most energetic phenomena in the known universe, second only to the Big Bang itself. (
  • Gehrels and other researchers have gathered this week at the Sixth Huntsville Gamma Ray Burst Symposium in Huntsville, Ala., to discuss progress on this and other mysteries surrounding GRBs. (
  • Gamma rays from short bursts lean toward the high-energy end of the spectrum, while long GRBs emit lower-energy gamma rays. (
  • These Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), if they are being seen at cosmological distances, emit a supernova's worth of energy in a few seconds. (
  • Radiation from thunderstorms can equal 400 chest x-rays, study finds. (
  • Airplane passengers flying near thunderstorms could be exposed to dangerously high levels of radiation in the form of terrestrial gamma ray flashes, scientists say. (
  • The new study shows that just one of these terrestrial gamma ray flashes, or TGFs, can equal the radiation dosage of about 400 chest x-rays-creating potential hazards for frequent flyers. (
  • Although astronomers have catalogued nearly 1800 pulsars, this is the first pulsar that seems to emit only gamma-ray radiation. (
  • CTA 1's pulsar may actually emit radiation at a variety of wavelengths, but its gamma rays may be released in a wider cone, making them visible from Earth. (
  • The team calculated how deeply the radiation would penetrate the ocean if a gamma-ray burst went off 6,000 light-years from Earth. (
  • Thomas and his colleagues' earlier research found that a nearby gamma-ray burst would deplete the ozone layer, which would increase the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching Earth from the sun and ultimately do catastrophic damage to the DNA of organisms on Earth. (
  • Cosmic radiation contains galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles. (
  • 3. A gamma ray collimator assembly according to claim 2 wherein the collimator portions pass radiation received from different regions. (
  • The researchers used the European Space Agency's INTEGRAL spacecraft to record gamma-ray light, which is high-energy radiation undetectable from Earth's surface. (
  • An international team of astronomers has for the first time measured circular polarization in the afterglow of gamma-ray bursts , the powerful flashes of radiation originating from massive dying stars as they collapse into black holes . (
  • In rare instances, a jet is formed along the black hole's rotation axis, and processes that take place in that jet emit gamma radiation in the form of gamma-ray bursts. (
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery, known as gamma-knife surgery, is a highly precise form of radiation therapy used to treat tumours and other abnormalities of the brain. (
  • When Kelly goes in for her surgery, 201 beams of gamma radiation will be targeted at the precise spot in her brain where her tumour is, shrinking the tumour from its current size, which resembles that of a golf ball, to the size of a pea. (
  • Our study provides convincing evidence that the prompt gamma-ray burst emission is driven by synchrotron radiation. (
  • Gamma rays of specific frequencies are produced during electron-positron annihilation, radioactive decay (nuclear disintegration), and as synchrotron radiation from elementary particles or nuclei accelerated in high energy regions of the universe. (
  • In passing through matter, gamma radiation ionizes atoms in that matter via three main processes: directly through the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering and indirectly through pair production. (
  • This describes the case in which a photon of gamma radiation interacts with and transfers its energy to an atomic electron giving that electron enough of an energy boost for it to escape from the atom. (
  • Compton scattering is thought to be the principal absorption mechanism for gamma rays in the intermediate energy range 100 keV to 10 MeV (megaelectronvolts), an energy range comprising most of the gamma radiation produced in a nuclear explosion. (
  • A photon of gamma radiation of a sufficiently high energy penetrating inside the atom close to the intense fields immediately surrounding the nucleus can be spontaneously converted into the mass of an electron-positron pair. (
  • Corning ® Med-Gamma ® Glass is a high-quality, neutral appearance glass for protective shielding from Positron Emission Tomography (PET) gamma-based radiation at various keV levels. (
  • Protective shielding glass against gamma-based PET radiation as specified by IEC 61331:2014 (Standard Gamma Radiation). (
  • Occupational protection from PET gamma radiation used in scanning techniques for diagnostics and treatment. (
  • Data provided by the UK Health Protection Agency, based on Cs137/Co60 standard gamma radiation qualities according to ISO 4037-1. (
  • INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Radiation Safety of Gamma, Electron and X Ray Irradiation Facilities, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-8, IAEA, Vienna (2010). (
  • It gives practical information on the safe design and operation of gamma, electron and X ray irradiators in accordance with these requirements, and discusses the beneficial applications of ionizing irradiation and how to avoid potential radiation hazards at industrial irradiators, including contamination arising from damaged radioactive sources. (
  • A nearby short duration gamma-ray burst may be the cause of an intense blast of high-energy radiation that hit the Earth in the 8th century, according to new research led by astronomers Valeri Hambaryan and Ralph Neuhӓuser. (
  • Gamma rays are high energy electromagnetic radiation. (
  • Researchers believe more knowledge of gamma rays could help them explore distant regions of space, help them look for evidence of dark matter, determine how much electromagnetic radiation the universe has produced and answer questions about the formation of stars and galaxies. (
  • Krennrich said one key to current gamma ray research is the VERITAS telescope system (that's the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System). (
  • Gamma rays (denoted as γ) are a form of electromagnetic radiation or light emission of frequencies produced by sub-atomic particle interactions, such as electron-positron annihilation or radioactive decay. (
  • Gamma rays are generally characterized as electromagnetic radiation having the highest frequency and energy, and also the shortest wavelength, within the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. high energy photons. (
  • In passing through matter, gamma radiation ionizes via three main processes: the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering , and pair production. (
  • Gamma rays are often produced alongside other forms of radiation such as alpha or beta. (
  • But it does much more, including ultraviolet studies of exploding stars, monitoring black holes and neutron stars for surges of high-energy radiation, and carrying out a long-term X-ray survey of the entire sky. (
  • MASTER-IAC gathered critical data on the proportion of polarized optical light relative to the total light produced by the prompt phase,, providing the crucial link between synchrotron radiation and the prompt phase of this gamma-ray burst. (
  • Doctors can use radiation therapy machines which produce gamma rays in hospitals to treat people with some types of cancer . (
  • gamma-ray spectrometry Analytical method used in some branches of chemistry and physics for the measurement of the intensities and energies of gamma radiation. (
  • The X-ray afterglow radiation is produced by accelerated electrons interacting and losing energy within the blast wave magnetic field. (
  • From efforts begun by its predecessor AMANDA, IceCube initiated a gamma-ray follow-up program with MAGIC for sources of electromagnetic radiation emissions with large time variations. (
  • For short transient sources, such as gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovas, X-ray and optical wavelength telescopes might also detect the associated electromagnetic radiation. (
  • Gamma ray measurements involved in monitoring technologies of field conditions are of vital importance for environmental safety and radiation protection. (
  • The design of semiconductor and scintillation gamma ray sensors integrated into aerial robotic platforms is discussed in Section 2, along with the fusion of time-stamped radiation data with position information using the real-time kinematic positioning technique. (
  • Technologies of gamma ray sensing in radiation zones are vital for environmental safety and radiation safety. (
  • In order to accomplish radiation monitoring tasks using UAS, gamma ray sensors should be integrated into a robotic aerial platform. (
  • Even though bright X-rays below mega-electron volt photon energy can be obtained from X-ray free electron lasers and synchrotron radiation facilities, it remains a great challenge to generate collimated bright gamma-ray beams over 10 mega-electron volts. (
  • With significant quantum electrodynamics effects existing even with petawatt lasers, our full 3D simulations show that directional gamma rays can be generated with thousand-fold higher brilliance and thousand-fold higher photon energy than those from synchrotron radiation facilities. (
  • Even though high-quality X- and gamma rays with photon energy below mega-electron volt (MeV) are available from large-scale X-ray free electron lasers and synchrotron radiation facilities, it remains a great challenge to generate bright gamma rays over 10 MeV. (
  • This is the generic class for apparatus and corresponding processes involving the generation or use of electromagnetic radiation within the X-ray spectrum as defined above. (
  • These jets are some of the most extreme sources of gamma-ray radiation in outer space. (
  • However, rather than emitting violent bursts of gamma-ray radiation, like blazars, Seyfert galaxies are known for their strong ultra-violet emissions. (
  • Is it possible for a spiral galaxy to emit jetted gamma-ray radiation? (
  • Gamma-ray bursts were first observed in the late 1960s by the U.S. Vela satellites, which were built to detect gamma radiation pulses emitted by nuclear weapons tested in space. (
  • On July 2, 1967, at 14:19 UTC, the Vela 4 and Vela 3 satellites detected a flash of gamma radiation unlike any known nuclear weapons signature. (
  • During the maintenance period, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) has informed that the gamma radiation intensity of a bolt taken from the nuclear reactor was about 100 mSv/hr, whereas photon energy was 1.3325 MeV that was similar to Co-60 source. (
  • Gamma radiation radiotherapy is one of the widely used treatments for cancer. (
  • A method of determining the decay heat in spent nuclear fuel using the gamma radiation from 137 Cs is presented. (
  • Since we cannot see, smell, or feel gamma radiation, it is sometimes easier to understand its properties by comparing it to one of the more familiar forms of electro-magnetic radiation-visible light. (
  • The same inverse square law applies to gamma radiation. (
  • An important factor which must be considered in gamma radiation measurement is that the radiation measurement coming from a gamma source exhibits statistical variation, similar to a flickering light source. (
  • Another property of the gamma source is that the amount of radiation it emits slowly decreases with time. (
  • When material is interposed between the source and detector, a portion of the gamma radiation is scattered and/or absorbed, so that the radiation reaching the detector is reduced. (
  • The pulsar was identified by analysing fluctuations in gamma-ray maps of the sky made using the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, which launched on 11 June. (
  • NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope first detected the gamma-ray emission from GRB 160625B. (
  • NASA's Swift satellite first detected the burst on March 28, 2011, and both the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory followed the burst's progress. (
  • Using data from the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope , an international team of researchers found the "heartbeat" in a cosmic gas cloud in the constellation Aquila, the eagle. (
  • The jets consist of high-speed particles and ultra-strong magnetic fields that produce X-rays and gamma rays , which are detected by the Fermi Space Telescope. (
  • New observations from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveal that our assumptions about the 'fog' of gamma rays in our universe are not entirely explained by black hole-powered jets emanating from active galaxies - as we previously hypothesized . (
  • NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has completed its primary mission, and it will continue to explore the high-energy cosmos in unprecedented detail. (
  • On June 11, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope celebrates a decade of using gamma rays, the highest-energy form of light in the cosmos, to study black holes, neutron stars, and other extreme cosmic objects and events. (
  • EDT on Aug. 17, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope picked up a pulse of high-energy light from a powerful explosion, which was immediately reported to astronomers around the globe as a short gamma-ray burst. (
  • The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), scheduled for launch in 2006, should resolve gamma-ray haloes around galaxies with unprecedented clarity. (
  • GREENBELT, Md., Aug. 5 (UPI) -- Astronomers say the Hubble Space Telescope has detected a Gamma-ray burst from an explosive event scientists have dubbed a kilonova. (
  • After a Gamma-ray burst came into view of the Swift space telescope June 3, the Hubble Space Telescope looked at the same area nine days later to see if there were any remnants and spotted a faint red object. (
  • NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope first detected the gamma-ray emission from GRB160625B. (
  • A Delta 2 rocket roared to life and successfully boosted a $690 million space telescope into orbit today, the most sophisticated observatory ever built to study the tell-tale high energy gamma rays generated by the most violent explosions and processes in the known universe. (
  • The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope - GLAST - "is going to be a great new instrument for looking at the extreme universe, the high-energy sky, in gamma rays," said Project Scientist Steven Ritz. (
  • When the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, launched in 2008 by NASA, detected gamma ray emission from four spiral galaxies in its first year of orbit, physicists were perplexed. (
  • In interacting with the wind plasma, cosmic-ray protons have three mechanisms to generate gamma-rays (pion production, Bremsstrahlung, and inverse Compton scattering), which can be detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. (
  • In translating the gamma-ray measurements into musical notes, we assigned the photons to be 'played' by different instruments (harp, cello or piano) based on the probabilities that they came from the burst. (
  • The bright object in the center of the false color image above is quasar 3C279 viewed in gamma-rays , photons with more than 40 million times the energy of visible light. (
  • The photoelectric effect is the dominant energy transfer mechanism for X-ray and gamma-ray photons with energies below 50 keV (thousand electron volts), but it is much less important at higher energies. (
  • The entire mass of these two particles is then converted into two gamma photons of 0.51 MeV energy each. (
  • These microwave light particles, or photons, are bumped up to the gamma-ray photon energy level. (
  • Both gamma rays and x-rays are photons with very high energies, and gamma have even more energy. (
  • Photon Calc displays cross sections for gamma / x-ray photons, fluorescence and edge energies, and allows you to calculate the transmission and attenuation for an arbitrary photon energy. (
  • The photons that GLAST will study in gamma rays are literally millions to hundreds of billions of times as energetic. (
  • Three such photons were observed to arrive very close together and the observers believe that these are from the same burst which means that there was nothing diffracting their paths from the gamma-ray burst to Earth. (
  • This enabled the gamma ray photons to outshine any other earthbound source. (
  • The peak brilliance of the gamma rays was measured to be greater than 1023 photons per second, per square milliradian, per square millimetre, per 0.1% bandwidth. (
  • Cassidy and Mills have redefined the concept of awesome by proposing a laser whose two levels are 'Goddamn half-antimatter positronium' and 'KABOOM', with a chain of atomic annihilations producing gamma-ray photons - giving rise to a goddamn gamma ray laser a million times more powerful than anything our primitive mortal science has yet seen. (
  • Packets of gamma ray energy are called photons. (
  • NASA's Fermi telescope has found the first pulsar that can be detected only by the gamma rays it emits - and not by lower-energy radio waves characteristic of most pulsars. (
  • Astronomers at the Fermi Large Area Telescope have created music from the energy of a gamma-ray burst, pictured here in an artist's rendering. (
  • According to Dr. Peter Curran of the Curtin University node of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) and his colleagues, observations of Gamma-ray Burst 121024A made using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile revealed that its light was "circularly polarized," meaning that the waves are moving together in a uniform, corkscrew-style spiral motion as they travel. (
  • Yet, in June of 1991 a gamma-ray telescope onboard NASA's orbiting Compton Gamma Ray Observatory unexpectedly discovered that it was one of the brightest objects in the gamma-ray sky . (
  • Using a wide array of ground- and space-based telescope observations, an international team led by University of Maryland astronomers constructed one of the most detailed descriptions of a gamma-ray burst to date. (
  • Ultrabright Gamma-ray Burst 'Blinded' NASA Telescope. (
  • Fermi's main instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), has observed more than 5,000 individual gamma-ray sources. (
  • AAVSO member/observer Adolfo Darriba (Madrid, Spain) informs us that Dr. Dave Thompson, Multiwavelength Coordinator for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of NASA's Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope, on behalf of the Fermi LAT Collaboration has called for observations of the blazar 3C 279, which is undergoing a major gamma-ray flare. (
  • The ground-based MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescope and space-based GLAST (Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope) could be sensitive enough to detect gamma rays forming halos around clusters, created by electrons accelerated to nearly light speed and colliding with microwave light particles. (
  • In a region about a hundred miles across, the burst created conditions like those in the early universe, about one millisecond [1/1,000 of a second] direction in the sky: unlike visible light, gamma-rays are exceedingly difficult to observe with a telescope, and the bursts' short duration exacerbates the problem. (
  • It should then use a follow-up X-ray telescope and optical-ultraviolet instrument for additional measurements. (
  • On 29 August 2019, the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor and the Swift Burst Alert Telescope detected and localised GRB 190829A. (
  • I took this catalog of 11,101 Seyfert galaxies, and I studied them in the gamma ray band using the data from the Large Area Telescope onboard Fermi satellite," Paliya said. (
  • Design of a Next Generation High-Energy Gamma-ray telescope. (
  • The TIGRE gamma-ray telescope. (
  • TIGRE is an advanced telescope for gamma-ray astronomy with a few arcmin resolution. (
  • MARGIE (Minute-of-Arc Resolution Gamma-ray Imaging Experiment) is a large area (∼10[sup 4] cm[sup 2]), wide field-of-view (∼1 sr), hard X-ray/gamma-ray (∼20â€"600 keV) coded-mask imaging telescope capable of performing a sensitive survey of both steady and transient cosmic. (
  • The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. (
  • The calculations add to a growing body of research linking these great blasts, called gamma-ray bursts, with biological damage and even mass extinctions on Earth. (
  • These bright beams, known as gamma-ray bursts, can last up to 10 seconds, and carry energies equivalent to billions of nuclear bombs going off at once. (
  • 1. A gamma ray collimator assembly comprising a first collimator portion and a second collimator portion, said first and second portions having different gamma acceptance angles and being designed for operation with gamma rays of different energies. (
  • When these gamma rays are measured using a high resolution germanium detector, the energies the gamma rays energies identify the neutron-capturing elements, while the intensities of the peaks at these energies reveal their concentrations. (
  • Shortly after this image was recorded the quasar faded from view at gamma-ray energies. (
  • Fermi detects gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, with energies thousands to billions of times greater than the visible spectrum. (
  • Even with their high energies, gamma rays can't penetrate the earth's atmosphere. (
  • A gamma-ray burst occurring in our cosmic backyard like this one, is a very rare thing, and a fantastic opportunity to understand what is going on at the highest energies" - mentioned Jim Hinton, director at MPIK. (
  • This figure shows a measure of the average energies of gamma-ray bursts as a function of time within the burst. (
  • The blasts emit surges of gamma rays - the most powerful form of light - as well as X-rays, and they produce afterglows that can be observed at optical and radio energies. (
  • And, if our models are right, gamma rays at lower energies could also help identify neutrino sources and, thus, cosmic-ray sources. (
  • Recently, gamma rays with energies up to the MeV level were observed in Compton scattering experiments based on laser wakefield accelerators, but the yield efficiency was as low as 1 0 − 6 , owing to low charge of the electron beam. (
  • Using a version of a common classroom experiment with glass prisms, scientists from Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL) and Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich refracted the rays at the highest energies ever recorded. (
  • This observation finally solves the mystery of the origin of short gamma ray bursts," study lead author Nial Tanvir of the University of Leicester in Britain said. (
  • But gamma-ray bursts are so rare, astronomers expect one to detonate within 6,000 light-years of Earth only once every 15 billion years -- longer than the age of the universe. (
  • The closest Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) yet known is providing astronomers with a rare opportunity to gain information vital to understanding these powerful cosmic explosions. (
  • By collecting gamma rays, astronomers are able to see these violent events and can judge exactly how they shape the Universe. (
  • The new chemicals leave gamma-ray fingerprints in the fireball for astronomers to find. (
  • This complementary data is also helping astronomers identify the celestial object that is releasing the gamma rays and allow it to be more fully analysed. (
  • Our results show that Gamma-ray Bursts are far more complex than we thought," he said, noting that this was the first time astronomers have found circular polarization in the light from a gamma-ray burst. (
  • An international team led by University of Maryland astronomers has constructed a detailed description of a similar gamma-ray burst event, named GRB 160625B. (
  • This has made it tough for astronomers to observe a gamma-ray burst in detail. (
  • Earlier this year astronomers spied a burst of high-energy gamma rays emanating from the center of a dwarf galaxy 3.8 billion light-years away. (
  • The scientists at the National Science Foundation's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves dubbed GW170817 from a pair of smashing stars tied to the gamma-ray burst, encouraging astronomers to look for the aftermath of the explosion. (
  • Astrophysicists have predicted short-duration Gamma-ray bursts would be created when a pair of super-dense neutron stars in a binary system spiral together, and the Hubble observations have proved the long-suspected connection between Gamma-ray bursts and kilonovas, astronomers said. (
  • Many astronomers, including our group, have already provided a great deal of evidence that long-duration gamma ray bursts (those lasting more than two seconds) are produced by the collapse of extremely massive stars," he said. (
  • PASADENA-A team of astronomers from the California Institute of Technology announced today that a recently detected cosmic gamma-ray burst was as bright as the rest of the universe, releasing a hundred times more energy than previously theorized. (
  • In November 2019, astronomers reported a notable gamma ray burst explosion, named GRB 190114C, initially detected in January 2019, which, so far, produced gamma-rays with the highest energy - about 1 Tera electron volts (Tev) - ever observed for such a cosmic event. (
  • Researchers used NASA's Fermi gamma-ray observatory in low-Earth orbit to collect data by observing gamma ray flares from a source 4.35 billion light years away from Earth. (
  • The finding is based on the analysis of a nine-year record of gamma rays arriving at Earth from deep space, collected by NASA's Compton Gamma Ray Observatory throughout the 1990s. (
  • The study reports that researchers using the VERITAS array of four telescopes at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona have detected gamma rays of a trillion electron volts coming from the M 82 galaxy. (
  • An earlier NASA satellite, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, showed that bursts come in long and short varieties, with long bursts (those lasting longer than two seconds) outnumbering short bursts three to one. (
  • Video produced before the launch of ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory, providing a brief history of gamma-ray astronomy. (
  • Interview with Prof. Volker Schoenfelder at MPE, Garching, one of the pioneers of gamma-ray astronomy, who worked on Cos-B, ESA's first gamma-ray observatory. (
  • NASA's Compton Gamma Ray Observatory was launched in 1991, carrying 4 instruments. (
  • Gendre and his colleagues made a detailed study of GRB 111209A, which erupted on Dec. 9, 2011, using gamma-ray data from the Konus instrument on NASA's Wind spacecraft, X-ray observations from Swift and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton satellite, and optical data from the TAROT robotic observatory in La Silla, Chile. (
  • Gamma ray observatory or Gamma Ray Observatory can refer to: Any observatory used for gamma ray astronomy. (
  • The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, an observatory that operated from 1991 to 2000. (
  • This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Gamma ray observatory. (
  • The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory (HAWC) is a detector designed to look at gamma-ray emission coming from astronomical objects such as supernova remnants, quasars and rotating dense stars called pulsars. (
  • In space gamma rays-the most energetic forms of light-are created by violent events, such as supernovae , and powerful objects, such as neutron stars . (
  • It also doesn't help that gamma rays are too energetic for human eyes to perceive. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts are among the most energetic and explosive events in the universe. (
  • 100 GeV) emission - six orders of magnitude more energetic than X-rays - has been a missing piece of the multi-wavelength puzzle. (
  • Using ever more energetic lasers, Lawrence Livermore researchers have produced a record high number of electron-positron pairs, opening exciting opportunities to study extreme astrophysical processes, such as black holes and gamma-ray bursts. (
  • The ability to create a large number of positrons in a laboratory, by using energetic lasers, opens the door to several new avenues of antimatter research, including the understanding of the physics underlying extreme astrophysical phenomena such as black holes and gamma-ray bursts. (
  • Gamma rays are essentially a highly energetic form of light. (
  • A measurement of gamma-rays production from such reactions was performed by using a 30 MeV quasi-mono energetic neutron beam in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. (
  • Gamma rays are the most energetic type of light wave and can penetrate through lead and other thick containers. (
  • before the start of gamma irradiation. (
  • New Rochelle, NY, June 23, 2016 -Replacing dopamine-producing cells in the brain represents a promising therapeutic approach in Parkinson's disease, and a new study shows how post-transplantation gamma-ray irradiation can reduce the risk of tumor formation. (
  • These results will contribute to improved safety of cell replacement therapy using human iPS cells for Parkinson's disease, conclude the researchers in the article "Fail-Safe Therapy by Gamma-Ray Irradiation Against Tumor Formation by Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitors" . (
  • Integral is also studying the mysterious blasts known as gamma-ray bursts. (
  • and the titanic detonations known as gamma ray bursts that emit more energy in one second than Earth's sun over the course of its entire life. (
  • The kinetic energy of the resulting photoelectron is equal to the energy of the incident gamma photon minus the binding energy of the electron. (
  • In this phenomenon an incident gamma photon carries such an excess of the amount of energy required to induce the escape of an electron as a photoelectron, that the gamma photon's interaction induces release of the electron while the remainder of the photon's energy is emitted as a new, lower energy gamma photon with an emission direction different from that of the incident gamma photon. (
  • This is an interaction in which an incident gamma photon loses enough energy to an atomic electron to cause its ejection, with the remainder of the original photon's energy being emitted as a new, lower energy gamma photon with an emission direction different from that of the incident gamma photon. (
  • The large swinging motion and the high energy of the electrons allow a huge increase in the photon energy to produce gamma rays. (
  • 1) When a gamma ray photon pair produces an electron and a positron, do the two particles always have the opposite spin? (
  • So does that mean that a singe gamma ray photon with an energy greater than 2x(.511 MeV) cannot pair produce and electron and a positron? (
  • BeppoSAX and NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer spacecraft detected an X-ray afterglow. (
  • Researchers from the H.E.S.S. Collaboration succeeded to derive the intrinsic spectrum of the very-high-energy gamma-ray afterglow emission of a relatively nearby gamma-ray burst. (
  • The initial flashes, which last a few seconds, are followed by a long-lived afterglow phase that can be detectable for several days in X-rays, and often weeks or even months in the optical and radio bands. (
  • After an initial flash of gamma rays, a longer-lived "afterglow" is usually emitted at longer wavelengths (X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, infrared, microwave and radio). (
  • Incoming gamma rays would smack electrons off of atoms in the atmosphere, which would knock secondary electrons off nearby atoms and trigger a cascade of bright light. (
  • This means that the assumptions we've been making about Gamma-ray Bursts need to be completely reconsidered - assumptions of how electrons are accelerated to the incredible speeds we observe. (
  • The electrons that fuel the gamma-ray production rush into clusters along these rivers or filaments of matter connecting galaxies and clusters. (
  • Gamma rays and X-rays can also be distinguished by their origin: X-rays are emitted by electrons outside the nucleus , while gamma rays are emitted by the nucleus. (
  • In this theory, synchrotron emission up to VHE gamma rays is not possible, since a maximum energy is placed on the electrons. (
  • In 1999, ESA launched XMM-Newton, which is looking at the Universe in X-ray wavelengths. (
  • Gamma rays (γ-rays) are electromagnetic waves with the smallest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum . (
  • Although the dose deposition due to secondary gamma rays is dominant, the relative contributions of thermal neutrons (below 0.5 eV) and fast neutrons are virtually equivalent under typical irradiationconditions in a water and/or acrylic phantom. (
  • Elemental nuclei capture neutrons, emit characteristic prompt gamma rays upon de-excitation. (
  • Samples are irradiated by a beam of neutrons inducing elemental nuclei to capture neutrons and emit characteristic prompt gamma rays upon de-excitation. (
  • Experimental data showing the effects of neutrons, gamma rays, and temperature on the electrical and switching characteristics of phase-control and inverter-type SCRs are presented. (
  • In advance of the measurements, the response of these TLDs to gamma-rays was calibrated with a 60 Co source and that of Mg 2 SiO 4 (Tb) to neutrons was tested. (
  • In order to obtain the absorbed dose of each TLD, the following three components were summed up: (1) prompt gamma-rays, (2) fission product gamma-rays and (3) neutrons. (
  • They measured a 30 parts per billion preference for gamma rays to be emitted antiparallel to the neutron spin when neutrons are captured by protons in liquid hydrogen. (
  • There are several forms of IR, either particulate such as neutrons, α and β-particles or electromagnetic waves as gamma (γ) and x-rays. (
  • We think it's quite possible that the radio beam is narrower than the gamma-ray emission, but we don't yet know how gamma rays are produced in the pulsar," says Fermi project scientist Steve Ritz of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. (
  • The problem is that there is more gamma-ray emission than can be explained by the sources that we know about. (
  • It later discovered lingering X-ray emission -- dubbed "afterglows" -- at burst locations. (
  • There is very little data on polarized emission from gamma-ray bursts," said Kutyrev, who is also an associate scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center . (
  • Most of this emission comes in the form of gamma rays, the highest-energy form of light. (
  • Sur-prisingly, the gamma-ray spectrum resembles that of the much lower-energy X-rays, while the fading emission from both bands was observed to march in parallel over three nights. (
  • If we can identify periods of increased neutrino emission, then we can look for gamma-ray emission later on from the same direction. (
  • During the last few years, IceCube has sent several alerts to VERITAS and MAGIC that have not yet resulted in any significant correlation between neutrino and gamma-ray emission. (
  • Follow-up studies have allowed setting new limits on high-energy gamma-ray emission. (
  • It was unexpected - we have only seen that kind of gamma ray emission from blazars," said Dieter Hartmann, a professor of physics and astronomy and co-author of the study. (
  • Using instruments onboard the International Space Station, researchers have observed millisecond pulses of gamma-rays produced by thunderstorms, clarifying the process by which these flashes are made, and discovering that they can produce an ultraviolet emission known as an "Elve. (
  • 1996), and was motivated by unexplained high latitude Galactic X-ray emission observed by ROSAT, and further tested with radio synchrotron observations. (
  • In this poster, the role of cosmic-ray protons in generating gamma-ray emission in a Galactic wind is explored. (
  • To test the model, we have calculated the gamma-ray intensity from the wind model of Everett et al (2010), and we compare these predictions to the observed emission in the central Milky Way. (
  • Understanding the high latitude gamma-ray emission from relativistic particles in galactic winds may help to constrain dark-matter models as well. (
  • The ray could have several uses, such as in medical imaging, radiotherapy and radioisotope production for PET (positron emission tomography) scanning. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts occur when massive stars collapse or neutron stars or black holes merge and drive jets of particles at nearly the speed of light. (
  • Black holes and neutron stars are also sources of gamma rays. (
  • The merger of neutron stars actually produces an ultra-strong magnetic field structured like the jets needed for a gamma-ray burst. (
  • It will open a new window on phenomena throughout the universe, such as super-massive black holes, neutron stars, gamma ray bursts, and what really excites us is the unknown. (
  • The similarities between the two events, in terms of gamma ray, optical and x-ray emissions, as well as to the nature of the associated host galaxies, are "striking", suggesting the two separate events may both be the result of the merger of neutron stars, and both may be a kilonova, which may be more common in the universe than previously understood, according to the researchers. (
  • Iowa State University astrophysicists contributed to the recent discovery that a galaxy quickly creating new stars is also a source of high energy gamma rays. (
  • Details of the very high energy gamma-ray follow-up program have been submitted to the Journal of Instrumentation . (
  • info "Very High-Energy Gamma-Ray Follow-Up Program Using Neutrino Triggers from IceCube," The IceCube Collaboration, the MAGIC Collaboration, the VERITAS Collaboration. (
  • Scientists have seen about a dozen microquasars in our galaxy and only a couple of them appear to emit high-energy gamma rays. (
  • The Next Generation High-Energy Gamma-ray (NGHEG) mission is a recommended priority for a new mission after GLAST. (
  • Over the past few years, very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy has emerged as a truly observational discipline, with many detected sources representing different galactic and extragalactic source populations-supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae, giant molecular clouds, star formation regions, compact binary systems, and active galactic nuclei. (
  • It is expected that observations with the next generation of stereoscopic arrays of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes over a very broad energy range from 10 10 to 10 15 electron volts will dramatically increase the number of very-high-energy gamma-ray sources, thus having a huge impact on the development of astrophysics, cosmology, and particle astrophysics. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts are tremendous explosions detonated during a massive star's death throes. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts are catastrophic events, related to the explosion of massive stars 50 times the size of our Sun. If you ranked all the explosions in the universe based on their power, gamma-ray bursts would be right behind the Big Bang," said Eleonora Troja, an assistant research scientist in the UMD Department of Astronomy and lead author of the research paper. (
  • If you ranked all the explosions in the universe based on their power, gamma-ray bursts would be right behind the Big Bang, " said Eleonora Troja , an assistant research scientist in the UMD Department of Astronomy and lead author of the research paper. (
  • Just eight days away from launch, NASA's Swift spacecraft is being readied for a mission to scan the sky for gamma-ray bursts, cosmic explosions that can burn with the intensity of billions of suns in less than a second. (
  • Gamma ray bursts are the universe's most luminous explosions. (
  • EDGE will trace the cosmic history of the baryons from the early generations of massive stars by Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) explosions, through the period of galaxy cluster formation, down to the very low redshift Universe, when between a third and one half of the baryons are expected to reside in cosmic filaments undergoing gravitational collapse by dark matter (the so-called warm hot intragalactic medium). (
  • In the Milky Way galaxy, gamma rays are largely produced when cosmic rays, atomic particles moving at near light speed, collide with interstellar gas. (
  • Using also the latest determinations of metallicity [i.e., high levels of elements other than hydrogen and helium] of stars in the Milky Way and those of LGRB [Long Gamma Ray Burst] hosts, we concluded that the likelihood of a GRB producing life extinction on Earth is high. (
  • It has been hypothesized that a gamma-ray burst in the Milky Way, pointing directly towards the Earth, could cause a mass extinction event. (
  • Most early theories of gamma-ray bursts posited nearby sources within the Milky Way Galaxy. (
  • The medium energy γ-ray band accessible from space contains a wealth of scientific promise from the study of γ-ray bursts and active galaxies, dark matter annihilation and decay, particle acceleration and cosmicray production in Galactic and extragalactic sources, cosmic-ray interactions in the Milky Way, rotation powered pulsars and magnetars, acceleration processes in the Sun and more. (
  • Four SCRs were neutron irradiated at 300 K and four at 365 K for fluences up to 3.2 × 10 13 n/cm 2 , and eight were gamma irradiated at 300 K only for gamma doses up to 5.1 Mrads. (
  • Unilateral whole body exposures to mixed gamma-neutron radiations from the reactor or to 250 kVp x rays were carried out over a range of midline tissue doses from 370 to 875 rads. (
  • The 30-day median lethal doses were calculated to be 589 and 432 rads for mice exposed to the x rays and to the reactor radiations, respectively. (
  • The survival times of the mice and rats exposed to reactor radiations were significantly less than those of the animals exposed to similar doses of x rays. (
  • Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) caused spontaneous and dose-dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and elevated IL-12 production with decreased IL-10 release (i.e. (
  • While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e. (
  • In addition, we investigated the exposure of whole murine bodies to different doses of γ-rays and found that the exposure to low dose γ-rays (0.2 Gy) caused a state of immune stimulation terminated by a remarkable tendency for immune suppression. (
  • In hospitals, doctors can give patients radioactive medicine which emits gamma rays. (
  • Cobalt -60 and potassium -40 are two isotopes that emit gamma rays. (
  • In 1949, Enrico Fermi - an Italian-American pioneer in high-energy physics and Nobel laureate for whom the mission was named - suggested that cosmic rays, particles traveling at nearly the speed of light, could be propelled by supernova shock waves. (
  • In 2013, Fermi's LAT used gamma rays to prove these stellar remnants are at least one source of the speedy particles. (
  • This is exactly the configuration needed to power the jets of ultra-fast particles that produce a short gamma-ray burst. (
  • The ones that arrive at Earth collide with molecules in the atmosphere, creating new particles and lower-energy gamma rays. (
  • The results show that gamma-ray attenuation coefficient is inversely proportional with the size of Pb particle size due to the reduction of the spaces between the lead particles. (
  • On Aug. 17, 2017, Fermi detected a gamma-ray burst from a powerful explosion in the constellation Hydra. (
  • R. L. Paul, D. Sahin, J. C. Cook, C. Brocker, R. M. Lindstrom, D. J. O'Kelly, " NGD Cold-Neutron Prompt Gamma-Ray Activation Analysis Spectrometer at NIST ," J. Radioanal. (
  • The instrument is based on the gamma-ray spectrometer developed and flown on the successful MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) mission, and provides the same resolution and capabilities, but reduces the size from 20 pounds (9.2 kilograms) to 4.4 lbs. (2 kg). (
  • For example, the MESSENGER gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) provided the key data demonstrating that Mercury is much more abundant in volatile elements than was ever expected. (
  • One of the primary scientific instruments carried on the spacecraft is a germanium gamma-ray spectrometer that will measure the elemental composition of Mars. (
  • NASA has conducted the first ever gamma-ray study of a gravitational lens. (
  • By converting distant gamma-ray bursts to harp, cello and piano notes, NASA researchers say they've found a new way of 'listening to the universe. (
  • Published Thursday on the Fermi blog , this cosmic concert came from GRB-080916C, an especially strong gamma-ray burst that NASA recorded in September 2008. (
  • Scientists have known for decades that thunderstorms on Earth can also create gamma rays , possibly during lightning production. (
  • Scientists also used another gamma-ray burst detected by Fermi to confirm Einstein's theory that space-time is smooth and continuous. (
  • Scientists at Columbia University and Barnard College have found that the majority of the gamma rays outside of our galaxy are likely emitted by galaxy clusters and other massive structures. (
  • Other scientists, however, have suggested that the bulk of the gamma-ray background is produced not by this mechanism but by quasar-type galaxies, called blazars, each powered by a supermassive black hole. (
  • Special cameras in the tanks detect this light, allowing scientists to determine the origin of incoming gamma rays. (
  • Scientists analyzed the gamma rays emitted during the NPDGamma Experiment and found parity-violating asymmetry, which is a specific change in behavior in the force between a neutron and a proton. (
  • The brightest gamma ray beam ever created -- more than a thousand billion times more brilliant than the sun -- has been produced in research led at the University of Strathclyde, and could open up new possibilities for medicine. (
  • The gamma rays form a halo around the galaxy clusters. (
  • This computer simulation image shows what future gamma-ray observatories might detect, galaxy clusters aglow in a halo of gamma rays. (
  • What this shows is that there is a strong connection between a galaxy with high star formation, high gas density and the production of cosmic rays," Krennrich said. (
  • Launched in 1975, Cos-B kick-started Gamma-ray astronomy, providing the first complete map of the Galaxy in gamma rays. (
  • But when the accretion disk surrounding the black hole begins emitting extreme bursts of energy - in radio, infrared or X-ray bands - the galaxy is said to be "active," opening the door to another galaxy classifier beyond shape. (
  • b) observing and surveying extended sources (galaxy clusters, WHIM) with high sensitivity using two wide field of view X-ray telescopes (one with a high angular resolution and the other with a high spectral resolution). (
  • One of the science goals of the NGHEG mission, mapping our Galaxy, clouds, supernova remnants, and nearby galaxies for cosmic ray sources at arcminute resolution, places stringent. (
  • A gamma-ray burst (GRB) occurring in our own galaxy could decimate life on Earth, destroying the ozone layer, triggering climate change and drastically altering life's evolution. (
  • Most gamma-ray burst researchers thought that the jets were dominated by either matter or the magnetic field, but not both. (
  • Simultaneously, the researchers found the same pattern of behavior in the gamma-ray signal emanating from the inconspicuous gas cloud, which they have named Fermi J1913+0515. (
  • For now, the researchers are representing the source of unaccounted gamma rays with a dragon (as in 'here be') symbol. (
  • Researchers discovered cosmic rays (mostly hydrogen nuclei) from space nearly a century ago and have developed theories about their origins in supernova remnants and star-forming galaxies, but hadn't found evidence to support those theories. (
  • The rays discovered by the VERITAS researchers have a trillion times the energy of visible light. (
  • And now Krennrich says researchers are contemplating the next generation of gamma ray detection systems. (
  • Krennrich said Iowa State researchers are working on image-recognizing technology for the AGIS system that would help researchers by automatically separating gamma ray events from background events. (
  • The spacecraft will be in continuous contact with ground controllers and relay its GRB find through the Gamma-ray Burst Coordinates Network (GCN) for distributions to telescopes, researchers and the public-at-large. (
  • In future work, the researchers plan to use the National Ignition Facility to conduct laser antimatter experiments to study the physics of relativistic pair shocks in gamma-ray bursts by creating even higher fluxes of electron-positron pairs. (
  • In the same way that light beams can be bent and split with glass prisms, the researchers used a silicon prism to bend gamma rays. (
  • Gamma ray have the property to penetrate in materials like wood,cement wall etc. (
  • Gamma and x-rays easily penetrate body tissues and deposit their energy deep in the body ( Mettler and Voelz, 2002 ). (
  • With its 400 cm2 sensitive area and 7 cm drift gap, the liquid xenon detector images γ-rays in the energy range from 200 keV to 25 MeV. (
  • Cruise measurements taken during July and August 2001 are used to characterize the energy resolution of the detector and to measure and identify the background gamma rays. (
  • These gamma rays originate in the detector, in material surrounding the detector, and from the spacecraft. (
  • At the same moment Swift saw the burst, the Russian KONUS instrument on NASA's Wind satellite also sensed the gamma rays and provided a wide view of their spectral structure. (
  • Terrestrial gamma ray flashes were accidentally discovered in the 1990s, when space telescopes designed to study cosmic gamma ray sources began detecting unexpected gamma rays coming from the direction of Earth. (
  • Most other pulsars have been found using radio telescopes, although some also beam energy in visible light and X-rays. (
  • In addition to gamma-ray and X-ray observations, visible light from GRB 030329 was observed by 65 telescopes around the world. (
  • Swift's main job is to quickly localize each gamma-ray burst, report its position so that others can immediately conduct follow-up observations, and then study the burst using its X-ray and Ultraviolet/Optical telescopes. (
  • Equipped with three telescopes to first detect - then observe - gamma-ray bursts, the spacecraft is designed to automatically detect the first flash of an explosion and then target itself at the event in about one minute. (
  • Gamma ray telescopes usually detect a quick spike, and you look for a burst - at how many gamma rays come from the sky," Levan told Universe Today. (
  • IceCube's collaborative efforts with gamma-ray, X-ray, and optical telescopes started long ago. (
  • Updates to this transient follow-up system will use a multistep high-energy neutrino selection to send alerts to gamma-ray telescopes, such as MAGIC and VERITAS, if clusters of neutrinos are observed from a predefined list of potential sources. (
  • For some of those, however, the source was not in the reach of the gamma-ray telescopes, either because it was out of the field of view or due to poor weather conditions. (
  • With the increased sensitivity in the Northern Hemisphere and new alerts to telescopes in the Southern Hemisphere, the discovery potential of these joint searches for neutrino and gamma-ray sources is greatly enhanced. (
  • The energy of the gamma ray is on the y-axis (higher-energy gamma rays are toward the top of the plot) and the arrival time of the gamma ray is on the x-axis (later-arriving gamma rays are farther to the right). (
  • The higher the energy of the gamma rays, the thicker the shielding required. (
  • They discovered that the energy of the gamma rays increased the falling refraction values, then suddenly increased to larger positive refraction values, similar to those of visible light. (
  • Through their observations, they found that gamma ray waves lasted one day longer than the one seen for radio observations and that gamma-ray flares and their playback show brightness, unlike the radio waves. (
  • The group's observations provide the first answers to some long-standing questions about how a gamma-ray burst evolves as the dying star collapses to become a black hole. (
  • A researcher explained that they are certain about this, given Fermi's observations: 'Active galaxies can explain less than 30 percent of the extragalactic gamma-ray background Fermi sees. (
  • The ASIM data captured high-speed observations of the event in optical, ultraviolet, x-ray and gamma-ray bands, which allowed Neubert et al. (
  • The team's observations, described in the October 4, 2018 issue of the journal Nature , strongly suggest that electron acceleration and collisions at the ends of the microquasar's jets produced the powerful gamma rays . (
  • It's not easy to detect those rays. (
  • Progress in this exciting field has been limited largely by the challenges of building sufficiently capable instruments to detect these γ rays as they interact by Compton scattering and pair production. (
  • This particular pulsar sweeps a lighthouse-like beam of gamma rays past Earth roughly three times a minute. (
  • The exponential absorption described above holds, strictly speaking, only for a narrow beam of gamma rays. (
  • If a wide beam of gamma rays passes through a thick slab of concrete, the scattering from the sides reduces the absorption. (
  • The exponential absorption holds only for a narrow beam of gamma rays. (
  • They analyzed the gamma rays produced using ILL's PN-3 facility through two silicon crystals, the first preselecting them as they came out of the reactor and directing them into a very narrow and parallel beam. (
  • Farther along the instrument, a silicon prism was placed at a height where it refracted half of the gamma ray beam. (
  • The refraction of this half-beam was then detected by a second silicon crystal and compared with the half consisting of unrefracted gamma rays. (
  • The degree to which a gamma ray beam is attenuated by any material is reflected to the material density, thickness, and a physical parameter called the mass absorption coefficient. (
  • Gamma Ray Bursts were first detected in 1967 by a satellite monitoring compliance with the 1963 atmospheric nuclear test-ban treaty. (
  • Gamma rays are also used for diagnostics in nuclear medicine and for performing what is called gamma-knife surgery to treat some types of cancer . (
  • Gamma-ray bursts were discovered in 1967 by unclassified military satellites designed to look for clandestine nuclear tests. (
  • An experiment in which gamma rays were bent like ordinary light overturns decades of theoretical predictions and opens the door to a new field of research called nuclear photonics . (
  • A powerful new source of gamma rays will allow officials to search for hidden reactor fuel/nuclear bomb material. (
  • An artist's interpretation of the Swift spacecraft in flight, with a gamma-ray burst exploding behind it. (
  • In the VHE regime, making a detection is particularly challenging since the distant Universe is not fully transparent to VHE gamma rays due to their absorption in the background light that permeates the Universe. (
  • But Krennrich said there's more work to be done to definitively trace gamma rays to cosmic rays in starburst galaxies. (
  • Until recently, it was thought that starburst galaxies were both electron and proton calorimeters, making them especially bright in gamma-rays. (
  • What makes this event even more rare is that we didn't just get a burst of x-ray emissions from the infalling stellar gas, but some of it actually got spit out by the black hole in the form of a gamma ray jet, and we just happen to be looking down the barrel of that jet,' Bloom said. (
  • But it also glows in radio waves, infrared, ultraviolet light and X-rays. (
  • While gamma-ray bursts last only a few seconds, their afterglows can be studied for several months. (
  • You can think of a cosmic gamma ray burst as someone switching on a light, leaving it on for a bit, and turning it off. (
  • If further research proves that terrestrial gamma ray flashes are a threat, there's very little airlines can do to protect passengers. (
  • The results help reveal the process by which terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are generated from thunderstorms, which has been debated. (
  • ESA's Integral satellite is looking at the Universe, mainly concentrating on the gamma rays. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest objects in the entire universe, sending out as much energy in a fraction of a second as our sun will give off during its entire lifespan, the study authors explained. (
  • Gamma-ray bursts occur at cosmological distances, with some dating back to the birth of the universe," said Alexander Kutyrev, an associate research scientist in the UMD Department of Astronomy and a co-author of the research paper. (
  • The satellite has observed over 2,300 gamma-ray bursts, the most luminous events in the universe. (
  • This result not only resolves the question of where all these gamma rays are coming from, but provides a new probe of the gravity-driven picture of structure formation in the Universe," said Scharf. (
  • Thus, gamma rays serve as probes to the early structure-forming epoch of the Universe. (
  • In other words, not only should gamma-ray bursts have exterminated virtually all hope of life elsewhere in the universe, but-assuming evolutionary time-these bursts should have also exterminated life on Earth. (
  • Since gamma rays are at the extreme high end of the electromagnetic spectrum, it's not a surprise that they tell us about the most extreme environments throughout the universe, places where gravitational fields are extremely strong, magnetic fields and electric fields are absolutely enormous, so large that you couldn't possibly make those conditions on the Earth. (
  • Structural and shielding materials for this and neighboring instruments have been chosen to avoid generating a background of capture and decay gamma rays. (
  • Yes, but accretion onto black holes gives of X-rays and radio signals. (
  • The pair suggest that two black holes collided and then merged, releasing an intense but extremely brief burst of gamma rays. (
  • VHE gamma-ray measurements of the Crab nebula and pulsar by MAGIC. (
  • In addition, the laser pulses are short enough -- lasting a quadrillionth of a second -- to capture the response of a nucleus to stimuli, making the rays ideal for use in lab-based study of the nucleus. (
  • It could also act as a powerful tool in medicine for cancer therapy and there is nothing else to match the duration of the gamma ray pulses, which is also why it is so bright. (
  • The distribution of the gamma-rays from fission products was independently calculated. (
  • These jets bore through the collapsing star along its rotational axis and produce a blast of gamma rays after they emerge. (
  • An electron and it's evil anti-twin, a positron, can orbit around each other in a lovely co-operative state of affairs that lasts for a whole ten-millionth of a second before they notice each other, do the tiniest double-take in history, then annihilate in a blast of gamma-rays. (
  • The device used in the research is smaller and less costly than more conventional sources of gamma rays, which are a form of X-rays. (
  • Simulations using Hydra [2] for an Omega CD-lined capsule with a sub-micron layer of the inside surface of the shell pre-mixed into a fraction of the gas region produce gamma reaction history profiles that are sensitive to the depth to which this material is mixed. (
  • Student and Research Associate Silvia Cipiccia with part of the accelerator device used to produce gamma rays. (