Bile Acids and Salts
Common Bile Duct
Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde
Cholagogues and Choleretics
Biliary Tract Neoplasms
Biliary Tract Diseases
Gastric Outlet Obstruction
Receptor, Cholecystokinin A
Bile Duct Diseases
Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases
Common Bile Duct Diseases
Prediction of common bile duct stones by noninvasive tests. (1/734)OBJECTIVE: To define accurate and useful predictors of common bile duct stones (CBDS). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The ability to predict CBDS with noninvasive tests can avoid unnecessary, costly, or risky procedures. METHODS: All patients referred for examination for CBDS by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) from 1993-1996 were prospectively entered in a database. In a first sample selected randomly from the whole population, predictors of CBDS were determined by univariate analysis and logistic regression. Predictors were subsequently tested in that sample and in the rest of the population. A separate analysis was done for patients planned for cholecystectomy. RESULTS: Eight hundred and eighty patients (328 men, 552 women), aged 57.8 +/- 17 years (range 16-94), were included. The prevalence of CBDS was 18.8%. Age, serum levels of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase, and the existence of jaundice and fever, a dilated bile duct, and a pathologic gallbladder were found to be associated with CBDS. Logistic regression was undertaken separately for patients younger than 70 years (predictors: GGT >7 x normal; pathologic gallbladder; dilated bile duct) and older than 70 years (predictors: GGT >7 x normal; fever > 38 degrees C; dilated bile duct). Odds ratios were 3 to 6.7. The model was satisfactorily applicable to the second sample; age <70 years: chi2 = 3.3 (NS); age >70 years: chi2 = 3.8 (NS). In patients younger than age 70 and planned for cholecystectomy, the combination of the level of GGT and dilated bile duct predicted CBDS accurately. CONCLUSIONS: A simple screening of patients at risk for CBDS can be achieved with three predictive criteria adapted for the patient's age. (+info)
Two cases of common bile duct stone after liver transplantation. (2/734)Biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplants are a continuing cause of morbidity and mortality. Biliary stones and sludge are less well known complications of hepatic transplantation, although they have long been recognized. Recently we experienced two cases of biliary stones developed after liver transplantation. One 32-year-old male, who frequently admitted due to recurrent cholangitis, was treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and choledochojejunostomy with cholecystectomy. The other 58-year-old male, who had stones in commone bile duct, was treated by endoscopic manipulation. They are in good condition without recurrent bile duct stones or its accompanying complications. Although stones and sludge are relatively infrequent after liver transplantation, surgical or interventional radiologic treatments are usually performed for treatment. (+info)
Ultrasonographic evaluation of the common bile duct in biliary acute pancreatitis patients: comparison with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. (3/734)We compared the morphologic findings of the common bile duct by ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with biliary acute pancreatitis. Forty-five patients were studied. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was based on the presence of characteristic abdominal pain associated with an elevation of serum amylase and lipase concentrations. All patients underwent ultrasonography and subsequently urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and eventually endoscopic sphincterotomy. Ultrasonography showed gallstones in 33 patients and sludge of the gallbladder in seven patients. In the common bile duct, lithiasis was found in two patients and sludge in 25. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed choledocolithiasis in eight patients and sludge of the common bile duct in 32. In 27 cases (60%) concordance occurred between ultrasonographic and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic detection of lithiasis or sludge of the common bile duct. The average diameter of the common bile duct determined by sonography was significantly smaller (P < 0.001) than that obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The evaluation of this parameter indicated that a good correlation existed between the values obtained with the two techniques (r(s) = 0.765, P < 0.001). Both ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography can provide reliable measurements of the common bile duct diameter. Ultrasonography is the technique of choice in the initial investigation of patients with biliary acute pancreatitis. (+info)
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in elderly patients. (4/734)BACKGROUND: the presentation of common bile duct disease, value of investigations and treatment outcome in elderly patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were assessed. METHODOLOGY: the clinical presentation, liver function tests, full blood counts, abdominal ultrasound and ERCP results were assessed retrospectively in 101 patients (59 women, 42 men; mean age 83 years, range 75-100) sequentially investigated for possible common bile duct disease. RESULTS: 59 patients had common bile duct gallstones, 35 had malignant biliary obstruction (13 with co-existing common bile duct stones) and seven had other outcomes. In the malignant-alone group 68% of those who had jaundice presented painlessly compared with 24% in the gallstones-alone group; 49% of the gallstones-alone group had pain compared with 28% of the malignant group. In the gallstones-alone group 43% had atypical presentations (non-specific symptoms or painless jaundice). Non-specific symptoms were found in 19% of the gallstones-alone group but in only 5% of the malignant group. Of the patients who had common bile duct stones, 18% had pancreatic or biliary malignancy. The co-existence of gallstones and malignancy was emphasized by eight patients in whom the clinical and ultrasound diagnosis was of common bile duct stones but malignancy was detected by ERCP. The sensitivity of ultrasound was 86% for detecting dilated common bile ducts was 86%, but only 69% for diagnosing gallstones within the common bile duct and 67% for diagnosing pancreatic masses. Ultrasound and ERCP were in agreement in 60 patients (60%). Endoscopic clearance of common bile duct gallstones was successful in 53 of 54 attempts (98%). Palliative ERCP treatment was performed in 30 patients who had malignant biliary obstruction and was successful in 22 (73%); in a further four patients (13%) an endoprothesis was successfully inserted percutaneously. The commonest complication of ERCP was cholangitis (four patients); pancreatitis and biliary perforation occurred in one patient each. Twenty-two patients (63%) who had malignancy died during follow-up, the mean survival being 11.3 weeks (range 3 days-2 years). Carcinoma of the ampulla was associated with a relatively good prognosis (three patients survived 18 months or more). CONCLUSION: in elderly patients, common bile duct stones often present atypically and co-existence with malignancy is not unusual; ampullary carcinoma has a relatively good prognosis and ERCP is a safe and effective procedure in the management of biliary obstruction. (+info)
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: experience with 303 patients over the initial four years. (5/734)A total of 303 patients underwent attempted laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) over a four-year period by two consultant surgeons or a senior trainee under their supervision. The procedure was completed in 291 with a conversion rate to open cholecystectomy of 3.9% and a median postoperative length of stay of two days, range zero to nine days. In eighteen patients the indication for LC was failure of symptoms to settle, two of whom required conversion (11.1%). Diathermy dissection was avoided in Calot's triangle and dissection started at the junction of Hartmann's pouch and cystic duct with full mobilisation of this area prior to clip application. Pre-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ERCP was performed in patients suspected of having common bile duct stones without routine intra-operative cholangiography. There was one death in this series (0.3%) and an overall complication rate of 6.3 %. There was no incidence of either bile duct injury or leak. LC can be performed with a low complication rate with attention to careful dissection technique in the region of Calot's triangle. (+info)
Tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human choledochal bile. (6/734)Fibrinolytic properties have been detected in animal and human gallbladder (GB) bile. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been reported in greater concentration in GB stone bile and may be a nucleating factor in the pathogenesis of GB stone formation. It is unknown whether or not human choledochal bile has similar properties, which could have a role in choledocholithiasis. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of fibrinolytic properties of human choledochal bile and to compare those properties among normal, acalculous, and calculous-infected choledochal bile. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and PAI-1 of choledochal bile were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with cholangitis due to acalculous bile duct obstructions (n = 9), choledocholithiasis with cholangitis (n = 20), and normal bile (n = 7). The t-PA concentration of choledochal bile was no different among the three groups (acalculous-infected bile, median 4.61 ng/ml, and calculous-infected bile, 4.61 ng/ml, versus normal bile, 7.33 ng/ml). PAI-1 was detected in choledochal bile in significantly greater concentrations in patients with acalculous cholangitis due to bile duct obstructions and choledocholithiasis with cholangitis (acalculous-infected bile, median 0.36 ng/ml, and calculous-infected bile, 0.1 ng/ml, versus normal bile, 0.02 ng/ml, p < 0.05), but the bile concentration of PAI-1 was no different between the acalculous and calculous-infected choledochal bile. Human choledochal bile possesses t-PA and PAI-1. PAI-1 was present in greater concentrations in both acalculous and calculous-infected choledochal bile. Increased levels of PAI-1 may be an epiphenomenon of cholangitis rather than a factor in the pathogenesis of choledocholithiasis. (+info)
Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy: a reappraisal of its indications and results. (7/734)A critical evaluation is made of 131 patients submitted to choledocho or hepaticojejunostomy. The main indications for hepaticojejunostomy were iatrogenic strictures of CBD (60 patients), and choledocholithiasis with markedly dilated duct (41 patients). The overall mortality rate was 4% representing principally renal hepatic failure, bile peritonitis and bleeding. The complications following hepaticojejunostomy included only in one case biliary fistula which required reoperation. The long-term results of 80 patients available for a followup study were as follows: 63 patients (78.7%) were symptom-free at 2-13 years followup; 8 patients had brief episodes of cholangitis which responded to antibiotic and corticosteroid treatment; 9 patients required reoperation for stricture of anastomosis. These overall results are a strong argument for hepaticojejunostomy which, compared with choledochoduodenostomy, avoids the hazards of the so-called sump syndrome and of the reflux of enteric contents in the CBD. An increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease in the patients submitted to hepaticojejunostomy was not observed. In very high strictures and in reinterventions anastomosis between left hepatic duct and Roux-en-Y jejunal limb was carried out. The results achieved with this technique, which was performed in 26 patients, were about the same following hepaticojejunostomy. (+info)
The importance of intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (8/734)Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) using an electrosurgery energy source was successfully performed in 59 (95%) out of 62 selected patients. The procedures were performed by different surgical teams at Trakya University, Medical Fakulty, in the department of General Surgery and the Karl-Franzens-University School of Medicine, in the department of General Surgery. Cholangiography was routine at Karl Franzens University and selective at Trakya University. Laparoscopic intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was performed in 48 (81.3%) patients, and open IOC was performed in 3 patients. Two patients had common duct stones; one of which was unsuspected preoperatively. These cases underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic papillotomy (EP). One patient had a choledocal tumor, unsuspected preoperatively. Anatomical anomalies were not identified. Cholangiography could not be performed in one case in which there was no suspected pathology. ERCP was performed on one patient 30 days after being discharged because of acute cholangitis. In this case, residual stones were identified in the choledocus. Four patients underwent open cholecystectomy because of tumor, unidentified cystic duct or common bile duct pathology that could not be visualized on the cholangiogram. Our study suggests that cholangiography performed via the cystic duct before any structures are divided can prevent the most serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy--common duct injury. We recommend that cholangiography be attempted on all patients undergoing LC. (+info)
Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bilirubin, or other substances found in bile. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including:
* Abdominal pain (often in the upper right abdomen)
* Nausea and vomiting
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Tea-colored urine
* Pale or clay-colored stools
Gallstones can be classified into several types based on their composition, size, and location. The most common types are:
* Cholesterol gallstones: These are the most common type of gallstone and are usually yellow or green in color. They are made of cholesterol and other substances found in bile.
* Pigment gallstones: These stones are made of bilirubin, a yellow pigment found in bile. They are often smaller than cholesterol gallstones and may be more difficult to detect.
* Mixed gallstones: These stones are a combination of cholesterol and pigment gallstones.
Gallstones can cause a variety of complications, including:
* Gallbladder inflammation (cholecystitis)
* Infection of the bile ducts (choledochalitis)
* Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
* Blockage of the common bile duct, which can cause jaundice and infection.
Treatment for gallstones usually involves surgery to remove the gallbladder, although in some cases, medications may be used to dissolve small stones. In severe cases, emergency surgery may be necessary to treat complications such as inflammation or infection.
Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It can occur at any age but is more common in adults over 40 years old. Women are more likely to develop cholelithiasis than men, especially during pregnancy or after childbirth.
The symptoms of cholelithiasis can vary depending on the size and location of the gallstones. Some people may not experience any symptoms at all, while others may have:
* Abdominal pain, especially in the upper right side of the abdomen
* Nausea and vomiting
* Shaking or chills
* Loss of appetite
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
If left untreated, cholelithiasis can lead to complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholangitis), infection of the bile ducts (biliary sepsis), or blockage of the common bile duct. These complications can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.
The diagnosis of cholelithiasis is usually made through a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and blood tests to check for signs of inflammation and liver function. Treatment options for cholelithiasis include:
* Watchful waiting: If the gallstones are small and not causing any symptoms, doctors may recommend monitoring the condition without immediate treatment.
* Medications: Oral medications such as bile salts or ursodiol can dissolve small gallstones and relieve symptoms.
* Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder through small incisions.
* Open cholecystectomy: An open surgery to remove the gallbladder, usually performed when the gallstones are large or there are other complications.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of cholelithiasis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
There are several types of cholecystolithiasis:
* Pigmented stones (made from bilirubin)
* Cholesterol stones (made from cholesterol and other substances in the bile)
* Mixed stones (a combination of pigmented and cholesterol stones)
* Abdominal pain (especially after meals)
* Nausea and vomiting
* Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)
* Rapid weight loss
* High cholesterol levels
* Low HDL (good) cholesterol levels
* High triglycerides
Diagnosis is made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT or MRI scans. Treatment options include medication to dissolve small stones, surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy) or laparoscopic cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder through small incisions).
Prevention includes maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet, and managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The word 'ileus' comes from the Greek word 'íleos', which means 'intestine'.
Here are some additional details about each of the gallbladder diseases mentioned in the definition:
* Gallstone disease: This is the most common gallbladder disease and occurs when small stones form in the gallbladder. The stones can be made of cholesterol, bilirubin, or other substances. They can cause pain, inflammation, and infection if left untreated.
* Cholecystitis: This is inflammation of the gallbladder that can occur when gallstones block the ducts and cause bile to build up. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, fever, and chills. If left untreated, cholecystitis can lead to more serious complications such as gangrene or perforation of the gallbladder.
* Choledocholithiasis: This is the presence of stones in the bile ducts that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. These stones can cause blockages and lead to inflammation, infection, and damage to the liver and pancreas.
* Pancreatitis: This is inflammation of the pancreas that can occur when the pancreatic ducts become blocked by gallstones or other substances. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. If left untreated, pancreatitis can lead to serious complications such as infection, organ failure, and death.
* Gallbladder cancer: This is a rare but aggressive type of cancer that occurs in the gallbladder. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, jaundice, and weight loss. If left untreated, gallbladder cancer can spread to other parts of the body and lead to death.
Overall, these gallbladder diseases can have a significant impact on quality of life and can be fatal if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Cholecystitis can be acute or chronic. Acute cholecystitis occurs when the gallbladder becomes inflamed suddenly, usually due to a blockage in the bile ducts. This can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Chronic cholecystitis is a long-standing inflammation of the gallbladder that can lead to scarring and thickening of the gallbladder wall.
The causes of cholecystitis include:
1. Gallstones: The most common cause of cholecystitis is the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. These stones can block the bile ducts and cause inflammation.
2. Infection: Bacterial infection can spread to the gallbladder from other parts of the body, causing cholecystitis.
3. Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas can spread to the gallbladder and cause cholecystitis.
4. Incomplete emptying of the gallbladder: If the gallbladder does not empty properly, bile can become stagnant and cause inflammation.
5. Genetic factors: Some people may be more susceptible to developing cholecystitis due to genetic factors.
Symptoms of cholecystitis may include:
1. Abdominal pain, especially in the upper right side of the abdomen
2. Nausea and vomiting
4. Loss of appetite
5. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
6. Tea-colored urine
7. Pale or clay-colored stools
If you suspect that you or someone else may have cholecystitis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare provider can diagnose cholecystitis based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment for cholecystitis usually involves antibiotics to clear up any infection, and in severe cases, surgery to remove the gallbladder may be necessary.
There are several causes of pancreatitis, including:
1. Gallstones: These can block the pancreatic duct, causing inflammation.
2. Alcohol consumption: Heavy alcohol use can damage the pancreas and lead to inflammation.
3. High triglycerides: Elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood can cause pancreatitis.
4. Infections: Viral or bacterial infections can infect the pancreas and cause inflammation.
5. Genetic factors: Some people may be more susceptible to pancreatitis due to inherited genetic mutations.
6. Pancreatic trauma: Physical injury to the pancreas can cause inflammation.
7. Certain medications: Some medications, such as certain antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs, can cause pancreatitis as a side effect.
Symptoms of pancreatitis may include:
1. Abdominal pain
2. Nausea and vomiting
4. Diarrhea or bloating
5. Weight loss
6. Loss of appetite
Treatment for pancreatitis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and address any complications. Treatment options may include:
1. Pain management: Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids may be used to manage abdominal pain.
2. Fluid replacement: Intravenous fluids may be given to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
3. Antibiotics: If the pancreatitis is caused by an infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
4. Nutritional support: Patients with pancreatitis may require nutritional support to ensure they are getting enough calories and nutrients.
5. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy: In some cases, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy may be necessary to help the body digest food.
6. Surgery: In severe cases of pancreatitis, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair damaged blood vessels.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience persistent abdominal pain or other symptoms of pancreatitis, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
The most common types of biliary fistulas are:
1. Bile duct-enteric fistula: This type of fistula connects the bile ducts to the small intestine.
2. Bile duct-skin fistula: This type of fistula connects the bile ducts to the skin, which can lead to a bile leak and infection.
3. Bile duct-liver fistula: This type of fistula connects the bile ducts to the liver, which can cause bleeding and infection.
Symptoms of biliary fistula may include:
* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes)
* Pale or clay-colored stools
* Dark urine
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
Diagnosis of biliary fistula is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as endoscopy, CT scan, and MRI. Treatment options for biliary fistula include:
1. Endoscopic therapy: This may involve the use of an endoscope to repair or close off the fistula.
2. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the damaged bile ducts.
3. Stent placement: A stent may be placed in the bile ducts to help keep them open and allow for proper drainage.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of biliary fistula, as it can lead to serious complications such as infection or bleeding.
Types of Gallbladder Neoplasms:
1. Adenoma: A benign tumor that grows in the gallbladder wall and can become malignant over time if left untreated.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: A rare and aggressive malignant tumor that arises in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
3. Gallbladder cancer: A general term used to describe any type of cancer that develops in the gallbladder, including adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and other rare types.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetics: A family history of gallbladder disease or certain genetic conditions can increase the risk of developing gallbladder neoplasms.
2. Chronic inflammation: Long-standing inflammation in the gallbladder, such as that caused by gallstones or chronic bile duct obstruction, can increase the risk of developing cancer.
3. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing gallbladder neoplasms.
4. Age: The risk of developing gallbladder neoplasms increases with age, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 50.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
1. Abdominal pain: Pain in the upper right abdomen is a common symptom of gallbladder neoplasms.
2. Jaundice: Yellowing of the skin and eyes can occur if the cancer blocks the bile ducts.
3. Weight loss: Unexplained weight loss can be a symptom of some types of gallbladder neoplasms.
4. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak can be a symptom of some types of gallbladder neoplasms.
Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
1. Surgery: Surgery is the primary treatment for gallbladder neoplasms. The type of surgery depends on the stage and location of the cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with surgery to treat advanced or aggressive cancers.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used in combination with surgery to treat advanced or aggressive cancers.
4. Watchful waiting: For early-stage cancers, a wait-and-watch approach may be taken, where the patient is monitored regularly with imaging tests to see if the cancer progresses.
The prognosis for gallbladder neoplasms depends on the stage and location of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the prognosis. For early-stage cancers, the 5-year survival rate is high, while for advanced cancers, the prognosis is poor.
1. Bile duct injury: During surgery, there is a risk of damaging the bile ducts, which can lead to complications such as bile leakage or bleeding.
2. Infection: There is a risk of infection after surgery, which can be serious and may require hospitalization.
3. Pancreatitis: Gallbladder cancer can cause inflammation of the pancreas, leading to pancreatitis.
4. Jaundice: Cancer of the gallbladder can block the bile ducts, leading to jaundice and other complications.
5. Spread of cancer: Gallbladder cancer can spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lymph nodes, which can reduce the chances of a cure.
Inflammation of the gallbladder that develops rapidly and usually as a result of obstruction of the cystic duct by a gallstone or rarely by tumors, parasites, or external pressure. Symptoms include right upper quadrant abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and Murphy's sign (tenderness over the gallbladder). Treatment is with antibiotics, analgesics, and supportive care; surgical intervention may be required in severe cases or if there are complications. See: biliary colic; cholelithiasis; cholangitis.
There are several types of intestinal obstruction, including:
1. Mechanical bowel obstruction: This type of obstruction is caused by a physical blockage in the intestine, such as adhesions or hernias.
2. Non-mechanical bowel obstruction: This type of obstruction is caused by a decrease in the diameter of the intestine, such as from inflammation or scarring.
3. Paralytic ileus: This type of obstruction is caused by a delay in the movement of food through the intestine, usually due to nerve damage or medication side effects.
4. Intestinal ischemia: This type of obstruction is caused by a decrease in blood flow to the intestine, which can lead to tissue damage and death.
Intestinal obstructions can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:
1. Abdominal X-rays: These can help identify any physical blockages in the intestine.
2. CT scans: These can provide more detailed images of the intestine and help identify any blockages or other issues.
3. Endoscopy: This involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the mouth and down into the intestine to visualize the inside of the intestine.
4. Biopsy: This involves removing a small sample of tissue from the intestine for examination under a microscope.
Treatment for intestinal obstructions depends on the underlying cause and severity of the blockage. Some common treatments include:
1. Fluid and electrolyte replacement: This can help restore hydration and electrolyte balance in the body.
2. Nasojejunal tube placement: A small tube may be inserted through the nose and into the jejunum to allow fluids and medications to pass through the blockage.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blockage or repair any damage to the intestine.
4. Medication: Depending on the underlying cause of the obstruction, medications such as antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed to help resolve the issue.
Preventing intestinal obstructions is often challenging, but some strategies can help reduce the risk. These include:
1. Avoiding foods that can cause blockages, such as nuts or seeds.
2. Eating a balanced diet and avoiding constipation.
3. Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated.
4. Managing underlying medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease or diabetes.
5. Avoiding medications that can cause constipation or other digestive problems.
The term choledocholithiasis is derived from the Greek words "chole" meaning bile, "dochos" meaning duct, and "-iasis" meaning condition or disease. It is used to describe a specific type of gallstone that forms within the common bile duct, rather than in the gallbladder or liver.
Choledocholithiasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, inflammation of the bile ducts (cholangitis), and blockages within the ducts. Treatment options for choledocholithiasis include endoscopic therapy, surgery, and medications to dissolve the gallstones.
In summary, choledocholithiasis is a condition characterized by the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct, which can cause a range of symptoms and may require medical intervention to treat.
The term "intestinal fistula" encompasses several different types of fistulas that can occur in the gastrointestinal tract, including:
1. Enterocutaneous fistula: This type of fistula occurs between the intestine and the skin, typically on the abdominal wall.
2. Enteroenteric fistula: This type of fistula occurs between two segments of the intestine.
3. Enterofistulous intestinal tract: This type of fistula occurs when a segment of the intestine is replaced by a fistula.
4. Fecal fistula: This type of fistula occurs between the rectum and the skin, typically on the perineum.
The causes of intestinal fistulas are varied and can include:
1. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis can lead to the development of intestinal fistulas.
2. Diverticulitis: This condition can cause a fistula to form between the diverticula and the surrounding tissues.
3. Infection: Bacterial or parasitic infections can cause the formation of fistulas in the intestine.
4. Radiation therapy: This can damage the intestinal tissue and lead to the formation of a fistula.
5. Trauma: Blunt or penetrating trauma to the abdomen can cause a fistula to form between the intestine and surrounding tissues.
6. Cancer: Malignancies in the intestine or surrounding tissues can erode through the bowel wall and form a fistula.
7. Rare genetic conditions: Certain inherited conditions, such as familial polyposis syndrome, can increase the risk of developing intestinal fistulas.
8. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as tuberculosis or syphilis, can also cause intestinal fistulas.
The symptoms of intestinal fistulas can vary depending on the location and severity of the fistula. Common symptoms include:
1. Abdominal pain
3. Rectal bleeding
4. Infection (fever, chills, etc.)
5. Weakness and fatigue
6. Abdominal distension
7. Loss of appetite
8. Nausea and vomiting
The diagnosis of an intestinal fistula is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
1. Imaging studies (X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans) to visualize the fistula and surrounding tissues.
2. Endoscopy to examine the inside of the intestine and identify any damage or abnormalities.
3. Biopsy to obtain a tissue sample for further examination.
4. Blood tests to check for signs of infection or inflammation.
Treatment of an intestinal fistula depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Treatment options may include:
1. Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections.
2. Surgery to repair the fistula and remove any damaged tissue.
3. Nutritional support to help the body heal and recover.
4. Management of any underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or Crohn's disease.
5. Supportive care to manage symptoms such as pain, nausea, and vomiting.
The prognosis for intestinal fistulas varies depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In general, with prompt and appropriate treatment, many people with intestinal fistulas can experience a good outcome and recover fully. However, in some cases, complications such as infection or bleeding may occur, and the condition may be challenging to treat.
Biliary tract neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the biliary tract, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
There are several types of biliary tract neoplasms, including:
1. Cholangiocarcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the cells lining the bile ducts. It can occur in the liver or outside the liver.
2. Gallbladder cancer: This type of cancer occurs in the gallbladder and is relatively rare.
3. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer, which means it originates in the liver rather than spreading from another part of the body.
4. Bile duct cancer: This type of cancer occurs in the bile ducts that carry bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine.
Biliary tract neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), weight loss, fatigue, and itching. These symptoms can be non-specific and may resemble those of other conditions, making diagnosis challenging.
Diagnosis of biliary tract neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, MRI, and PET scans, as well as biopsies to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for biliary tract neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.
If left untreated, an abdominal abscess can lead to serious complications such as perforation of the organ, sepsis, and death. In some cases, the infection may spread to other parts of the body, such as the bloodstream or brain. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
When dysbiosis occurs, it can lead to a wide range of health problems, including allergies, autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and even mental health issues such as depression and anxiety.
Dysbiosis can affect various parts of the body, including the gut, skin, respiratory tract, and vagina. The gut microbiome is particularly susceptible to dysbiosis, as it is exposed to a wide variety of factors that can disrupt its balance, such as antibiotics, alcohol, and certain medications.
There are several types of dysbiosis, including:
1. Intestinal dysbiosis: This occurs when there is an imbalance in the gut microbiome, leading to changes in the composition of the bacteria that live there.
2. Vaginal dysbiosis: This occurs when there is an imbalance in the vaginal microbiome, leading to changes in the composition of the bacteria that live there.
3. Skin dysbiosis: This occurs when there is an imbalance in the skin microbiome, leading to changes in the composition of the bacteria that live on the skin.
4. Respiratory dysbiosis: This occurs when there is an imbalance in the respiratory tract microbiome, leading to changes in the composition of the bacteria that live there.
Dysbiosis can be diagnosed through various methods, including stool tests, skin swabs, and biopsies. Treatment for dysbiosis typically involves restoring balance to the microbiota by making dietary changes, taking probiotics, and avoiding exposure to factors that disrupt the balance of the microbiome. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to kill off harmful bacteria.
It is important to note that dysbiosis is a complex condition, and more research is needed to fully understand its causes, symptoms, and treatment options. However, by working with a healthcare provider and taking steps to restore balance to the microbiome, it is possible to manage the symptoms of dysbiosis and improve overall health.
In conclusion, dysbiosis is a condition that occurs when there is an imbalance in the microbiome, leading to changes in the composition of the bacteria that live on or inside the body. It can affect various parts of the body, including the gut, vagina, skin, and respiratory tract. Diagnosis and treatment options for dysbiosis are available, but more research is needed to fully understand this condition and its potential impact on human health. By working with a healthcare provider, individuals can take steps to manage the symptoms of dysbiosis and improve their overall health.
Subphrenic abscesses are relatively rare but can be serious complications of conditions such as perforated peptic ulcers, appendicitis, or diverticulitis. They can also occur due to hollow organ perforation or direct inoculation of bacteria into the abdominal cavity during surgical procedures.
Symptoms of subphrenic abscesses include fever, chills, abdominal pain, and difficulty breathing. Diagnosis is made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT scans or ultrasound. Treatment involves drainage of the abscess, antibiotics, and supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair any underlying injuries.
Early recognition and treatment of subphrenic abscesses are critical to prevent complications such as sepsis, organ failure, and death. Prompt management can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of long-term sequelae.
There are several types of biliary tract diseases, including:
1. Gallstones: Small, pebble-like deposits that form in the gallbladder and can cause pain and blockages.
2. Cholangitis: An infection of the bile ducts that can cause fever, chills, and abdominal pain.
3. Biliary cirrhosis: Scarring of the liver and bile ducts that can lead to liver failure.
4. Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas that can cause abdominal pain and digestive problems.
5. Cancer of the biliary tract: Cancer that affects the liver, gallbladder, or bile ducts.
Biliary tract diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, obesity, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans and endoscopic ultrasound, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests and liver function tests.
Treatment for biliary tract diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve medications to dissolve gallstones or treat infections. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the gallbladder or repair damaged bile ducts.
Prevention is key in avoiding biliary tract diseases, and this includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, managing risk factors such as obesity and alcohol consumption, and getting regular medical check-ups. Early detection and treatment of biliary tract diseases can help to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
Types of Cholangitis:
There are two types of cholangitis:
1. Acute cholangitis: This type of cholangitis occurs suddenly and is usually caused by a blockage in the bile ducts, such as a gallstone or a tumor.
2. Chronic cholangitis: This type of cholangitis develops gradually over time and can be caused by recurring inflammation or scarring of the bile ducts.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The most common cause of cholangitis is a blockage in the bile ducts, which allows bacteria to grow and multiply, leading to infection. Other causes include:
* Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
* Trauma to the abdomen
* Inflammatory bowel disease
The symptoms of cholangitis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:
* Abdominal pain
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools
* Nausea and vomiting
Cholangitis is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans or endoscopic ultrasound, and laboratory tests to determine the presence of infection. A liver biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis.
The treatment of cholangitis depends on the cause and severity of the infection, but may include:
* Antibiotics to treat bacterial or fungal infections
* Supportive care, such as fluids and nutrition, to manage symptoms
* Surgical drainage of the bile ducts to relieve blockages
* Endoscopic therapy, such as stent placement or laser lithotripsy, to remove gallstones or other obstructions
* Liver transplantation in severe cases
The prognosis for cholangitis depends on the severity of the infection and the underlying cause. If treated promptly and effectively, the prognosis is generally good. However, if left untreated or if there are complications, the prognosis can be poor.
Preventing cholangitis involves managing any underlying conditions that may increase the risk of infection, such as gallstones or liver disease. Other preventive measures include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause cholangitis
* Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or liver disease
Cholangitis can lead to several complications, including:
* Bile duct damage, which can lead to bile leaking into the abdomen and causing an infection called peritonitis
* Spread of the infection to other parts of the body, such as the bloodstream or lungs
* Sepsis, a severe and life-threatening reaction to the infection
* Organ failure, particularly liver and kidney failure
It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of cholangitis, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
1. Sigmoiditis: This is an inflammation of the sigmoid colon that can be caused by infection or inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
2. Diverticulosis: This is a condition where small pouches form in the wall of the sigmoid colon. These pouches can become inflamed (diverticulitis) and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel movements.
3. Ulcerative colitis: This is an inflammatory condition that affects the lining of the sigmoid colon and rectum. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
4. Crohn's disease: This is a chronic inflammatory condition that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, including the sigmoid colon. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss.
5. Cancer: Colon cancer can occur in the sigmoid colon, and symptoms may include blood in the stool, changes in bowel movements, and abdominal pain.
6. Hirschsprung's disease: This is a congenital condition where the nerve cells that control the movement of food through the colon are missing or do not function properly. Symptoms include constipation, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
7. Intestinal obstruction: This is a blockage that prevents food, fluids, and gas from passing through the intestine. Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and constipation.
8. Ischemic colitis: This is a condition where there is a reduction in blood flow to the colon, which can cause inflammation and symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
9. Ulcerative colitis: This is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the colon and symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
10. Diverticulosis: This is a condition where small pouches form in the wall of the colon, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea.
It's important to note that some of these conditions may not have any symptoms at all, so it's important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual changes in your bowel movements or abdominal pain. A healthcare professional can perform a physical examination and order diagnostic tests such as a colonoscopy or CT scan to determine the cause of your symptoms and recommend appropriate treatment.
1. Crohn's disease: A chronic inflammatory condition that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most commonly affects the ileum.
2. Ulcerative colitis: A chronic inflammatory condition that affects the large intestine and rectum, but can also affect the ileum.
3. Ileal tumors: Such as carcinoid tumors, lymphoma, and sarcomas.
4. Ileal polyps: Growths of abnormal tissue in the ileum that can cause bleeding, obstruction, or cancer.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, that cause inflammation in the digestive tract.
6. Ileal strictures: Narrowing of the ileum that can cause obstruction and blockage of food passage.
7. Ileal dilatation: Expansion of the ileum beyond its normal size, which can cause abdominal pain and discomfort.
8. Ileal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the ileum, which can cause damage and inflammation.
9. Ileal infections: Such as bacterial or viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the ileum.
10. Ileal varices: Enlarged veins in the ileum that can cause bleeding and other complications.
These are some of the common ileal diseases, but there may be others depending on the individual case and specific symptoms. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe abdominal symptoms to get an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Treatment options for duodenal obstruction depend on the underlying cause of the condition. Surgery may be required to remove any blockages or scar tissue that is causing the obstruction. In some cases, a stent may be placed in the duodenum to help keep it open. Medications such as proton pump inhibitors and anti-inflammatory drugs may also be used to manage symptoms.
Early diagnosis and treatment of duodenal obstruction are important to prevent complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, and potentially life-threatening infections. It is essential for individuals with suspected duodenal obstruction to seek medical attention promptly if they experience any symptoms.
What is the medical definition of 'Duodenal Obstruction'?
Duodenal obstruction is defined as a blockage or narrowing of the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.
The primary symptom of Gilbert disease is jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), which can be triggered by alcohol consumption or certain medications. Other symptoms may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, and joint pain. If left untreated, the condition can lead to more serious complications such as liver damage, heart problems, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.
Treatment for Gilbert disease typically involves avoiding alcohol and taking vitamin supplements to reduce iron levels in the body. In severe cases, medications such as deferoxamine may be prescribed to remove excess iron from the body. Regular monitoring of iron levels and liver function is also important to prevent complications.
Gilbert disease is relatively rare, affecting about one in 100 people of Northern European ancestry. However, it is often misdiagnosed or undiagnosed, as its symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions such as anemia or liver disease. A blood test can confirm the presence of the HFE gene mutation and diagnose Gilbert disease.
Overall, while Gilbert disease can cause significant discomfort and health risks if left untreated, it is a manageable condition with proper medical care and lifestyle adjustments.
Symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction may include:
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain and tenderness
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Bloating and gas
* Diarrhea or constipation
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may order diagnostic tests, such as an endoscopy or imaging studies, to determine the cause of the obstruction.
Treatment for gastric outlet obstruction will depend on the underlying cause. In some cases, medications such as proton pump inhibitors or antacids may be prescribed to reduce acid production and relieve symptoms. In other cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the blockage.
Preventing gastric outlet obstruction involves managing any underlying conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and avoiding foods and substances that can irritate the stomach lining. It is also important to maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle, including eating smaller, more frequent meals and avoiding excessive alcohol consumption.
In summary, gastric outlet obstruction is a blockage that prevents food and fluids from passing through the opening of the stomach into the small intestine, and can be caused by a variety of factors. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause, and prevention involves managing any underlying conditions and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
There are many different types of polyps that can occur in various parts of the body, including:
1. Colon polyps: These are the most common type of polyp and typically occur in the colon or rectum. They are usually small and can be removed during a colonoscopy.
2. Thyroid polyps: These occur in the thyroid gland and are often benign. However, some can become cancerous if left untreated.
3. Nasal polyps: These occur in the nasal passages and are often associated with chronic sinusitis.
4. Ovarian polyps: These occur on the ovaries and are typically benign.
5. Uterine polyps: These occur in the uterus and are usually benign, but can occasionally become cancerous.
Polyps are often asymptomatic, meaning they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, some people may experience symptoms such as bleeding, abdominal pain, or difficulty swallowing if the polyp is large enough to interfere with normal bodily functions.
If you suspect you have a polyp, it is important to seek medical attention. Your healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may order imaging tests such as an endoscopy or a CT scan to confirm the presence of the polyp. Treatment options for polyps depend on the type, size, and location of the polyp, as well as your overall health. Some polyps can be removed during an endoscopy or surgery, while others may require no treatment at all.
In summary, polyps are abnormal growths that can occur in various parts of the body. They are typically benign but can occasionally become cancerous if left untreated. If you suspect you have a polyp, it is important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Here are some examples of jejunal diseases:
1. Crohn's disease: This is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, including the jejunum. It causes inflammation and damage to the lining of the intestine, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue.
2. Ulcerative colitis: This is a chronic condition that causes inflammation and sores in the lining of the colon and rectum, but can also affect the jejunum. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bloody stools.
3. Jejunoileal bypass surgery: This is a type of bariatric surgery that involves rerouting the small intestine to reduce the amount of food that can be absorbed. While it can lead to weight loss, it can also cause nutrient deficiencies and other complications.
4. Jejunal tumors: These are growths that can occur in the jejunum, which can be benign or malignant. Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, and obstruction of the intestine.
5. Jejunal strictures: These are narrowing of the jejunum that can cause obstruction of food passage and lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
6. Jejunal inflammatory fibrosis: This is a condition where the jejunum becomes inflamed and scarred, leading to thickening of the intestinal walls and narrowing of the intestine. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and malabsorption.
7. Jejunal enteropathy: This is a condition where the jejunum becomes damaged, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, inflammation, and autoimmune disorders.
8. Jejunal ulcers: These are open sores that can occur in the lining of the jejunum, often as a result of infection or inflammation. Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
9. Jejunal ischemia: This is a condition where the blood supply to the jejunum is reduced, leading to damage to the intestinal tissue. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
10. Jejunal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that can occur in the jejunum. Symptoms include abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.
These are just a few examples of the many different conditions that can affect the jejunum. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a condition affecting the jejunum, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Some common examples of duodenal diseases include:
1. Peptic ulcers: These are open sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum and can be caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
2. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that develops in the lining of the duodenum. It can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a chronic condition that causes inflammation in the digestive tract, including the duodenum. Symptoms of IBD include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
4. Duodenal webs or rings: These are congenital abnormalities that can cause blockages or narrowing in the duodenum.
5. Pancreatitis: This is inflammation of the pancreas, which can spread to the duodenum and cause damage to the lining of the duodenum.
6. Gastrointestinal hormone deficiency: This is a condition where the body does not produce enough gastrointestinal hormones, which can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
7. Duodenal polyps: These are growths that develop in the lining of the duodenum and can be benign or cancerous.
8. Duodenal obstruction: This is a blockage that develops in the duodenum and can be caused by a variety of factors, including tumors, adhesions, and inflammation.
Duodenal diseases can be diagnosed through a range of tests, including:
1. Endoscopy: This is a procedure where a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted into the duodenum to visualize the inside of the duodenum and collect tissue samples.
2. Biopsy: This is a procedure where a small sample of tissue is removed from the duodenum and examined under a microscope for signs of disease.
3. CT scan or MRI: These are imaging tests that use X-rays or magnetic fields to produce detailed images of the duodenum and surrounding tissues.
4. Blood tests: These can be used to check for signs of infection, inflammation, or other conditions affecting the duodenum.
5. Stool tests: These can be used to check for signs of infection or inflammation in the duodenum.
Treatment for duodenal diseases will depend on the specific condition and its cause, but may include:
1. Medications: Such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and acid-suppressing medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation.
2. Lifestyle changes: Such as avoiding trigger foods, eating smaller meals, and managing stress.
3. Endoscopy: To remove any blockages or abnormal growths in the duodenum.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or remove affected tissue.
5. Nutritional support: To ensure that the patient is getting enough nutrients and electrolytes.
It's important to note that a proper diagnosis from a medical professional is essential for effective treatment of duodenal diseases.
Examples of bile duct diseases include:
1. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC): An inflammatory condition that damages the bile ducts, leading to scarring and narrowing of the ducts.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the bile ducts.
3. Gallstones: Small, pebble-like deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts and can cause blockages and inflammation.
4. Bile duct injuries: Damage to the bile ducts during surgery or other medical procedures.
5. Biliary atresia: A congenital condition where the bile ducts are blocked or absent, leading to jaundice and other symptoms in infants.
Treatment for bile duct diseases depends on the underlying cause and can include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, and in some cases, liver transplantation.
1. Gallstones: Small, pebble-like deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts and can cause blockages and inflammation.
2. Cholangitis: An infection of the bile ducts that can cause fever, chills, and abdominal pain.
3. Bile duct cancer: A type of cancer that affects the cells lining the bile ducts.
4. Stricture: A narrowing of the bile duct that can cause obstruction and block the flow of bile.
5. Cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that can form in the bile ducts and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and jaundice.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Combined oral contraceptive pill
Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase
Common bile duct stone
Methyl tert-butyl ether
Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis
Edmund von Neusser
Hyperbilirubinemia in adults
List of pathology mnemonics
Marie Louis Victor Galippe
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
Charles Thurstan Holland
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Formation of gallstones3
- It is likely that the study of the process of gallstone formation in humans at high risk would lead to effective prevention strategies, and thus, eliminate the substantial morbidity associated with the formation of gallstones. (nih.gov)
- Modern medicine deals with the problem by removing the diseased gall bladder surgically, but it would be better if we alter our dietary habits and lifestyle to prevent the formation of gallstones in the first place. (diethealthclub.com)
- Vata, Pitta, and Kapha play a role in the formation of gallstones. (ayursathya.com)
- Some may have gallstones and experience biliary colic, nausea , vomiting and diarrhea , whilst others will have complications due to gallstones, such as acute cholecystitis and acute pancreatitis . (wikidoc.org)
- Cholecystitis refers to severe abdominal pain associated with gallbladder inflammation or gallstones . (targetwoman.com)
- Gallstones are hard, pebble-like pieces of material, usually made of cholesterol or bilirubin, that develop in your gallbladder. (nih.gov)
- gallstones may form if bile contains too much cholesterol, too much bilirubin, or not enough bile salts. (nih.gov)
- Despite the general acceptance that gallstone formation is caused by defects in hepatic cholesterol processing, nucleation in the gallbladder, and gallbladder motility, these and other factors have not been systematically and prospectively evaluated in humans. (nih.gov)
- Normally a balance of bile salts, lecithin and cholesterol keep gallstones from forming. (mountsinai.org)
- There is also medicine that can dissolve cholesterol gallstones, but it isn't that effective because it can take two years or more to work, and often the stones form again after you're done taking it. (mountsinai.org)
- The dissolving of cholesterol gallstones. (nih.gov)
- Current status of chenodeoxycholic acid (chenodiol) therapy of cholesterol gallstones. (nih.gov)
- Gallstones develop when the bile contains excess cholesterol. (diethealthclub.com)
- Gallstones form from the thick bile sludge made up of bile salts and cholesterol. (diethealthclub.com)
- Ursodiol, a naturally occurring bile acid, has gained Food and Drug Administration approval for the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. (nih.gov)
- Enterohepatic recirculation of ursodiol and its metabolites occurs and is essential to the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. (nih.gov)
- Complete dissolution has been achieved in 17 percent of patients with noncalcified, radiolucent, floating, cholesterol gallstones. (nih.gov)
- Recurrence of cholesterol gallstones may occur in over one-half of initial responders. (nih.gov)
- Changes in serum bile acids during treatment with chenodiol or ursodiol for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. (nih.gov)
- Cholesterol gallstones are more often noticed in women who are obese, on HRT or with elevated blood triglyceride. (targetwoman.com)
- Gallstones are solid crystalized deposits that form from cholesterol and bile pigments in the gallbladder. (belmarrahealth.com)
- There are two types of gallstones: cholesterol gallstones and pigment gallstones. (belmarrahealth.com)
- Cholesterol gallstones account for 80 percent of gallstones and are usually yellow-green in color. (belmarrahealth.com)
- If you are having a gallbladder attack or other symptoms, you need to have your gallstones treated right away, most likely with surgery to remove the gallbladder. (nih.gov)
- Symptoms and complications of gallstone disease result from effects occurring within the gallbladder or from stones that escape the gallbladder to lodge in the common bile duct. (medscape.com)
- Gallstones may be present in the gallbladder for decades without causing symptoms or complications. (medscape.com)
- In patients with asymptomatic gallstones discovered incidentally, the likelihood of developing symptoms or complications is 1%-2% per year. (medscape.com)
- Gallstones discovered during an evaluation for nonspecific symptoms are usually innocent bystanders, and treatment directed at the gallstones is unlikely to relieve these symptoms. (medscape.com)
- Symptoms usually occur when the stones block one of the biliary ducts or gallstones may be discovered upon routine x-ray or abdominal CT study. (mountsinai.org)
- Most people don't have any symptoms or complications from them, and those who do have symptoms usually recover completely and don't get gallstones again after their surgery. (mountsinai.org)
- You may continue to have pain and other symptoms if your gallstones return or were not removed. (mountsinai.org)
- Most people with gallstones have no symptoms at all. (healthinfo.org.nz)
- There's no special diet for preventing or treating gallstones but low-fat eating may help to reduce your symptoms. (healthinfo.org.nz)
- If you have no symptoms from your gallstones, then you don't need any treatment. (healthinfo.org.nz)
- Below you will find some natural treatment options for gallstones to help you relieve the symptoms and speed up the recovery. (belmarrahealth.com)
- There are a variety of natural treatments for gallstones that you can try to relieve symptoms and help break down gallstones. (belmarrahealth.com)
- There is currently no scientific evidence to support that yoga can help remove gallstones, but it may help improve symptoms and it's a good exercise to perform for overall health. (belmarrahealth.com)
- There are small studies that show acupuncture may relieve gallstone symptoms and volume, but additional research is needed. (belmarrahealth.com)
- Whole grains are a great source of fiber and fiber may help prevent gallstones along with reducing symptoms if you already have them. (belmarrahealth.com)
- If gallstones do cause symptoms, the best treatment is surgery to remove the gallbladder(cholecystectomy). (doctorchristodoulou.com)
- If gallstones do not cause symptoms, you and your doctor may need to decide whether to go for surgery or watchfully wait until you have an attack of gallstone pain. (doctorchristodoulou.com)
Causes of gallstones2
- Obesity is one of the main causes of gallstones, and people with stones in the gallbladder should avoid animal fats in their food. (diethealthclub.com)
- The causes of gallstones are unclear, but you're more likely to have gallstone problems if you have too much body fat, especially around your waist, or if you're losing weight very quickly. (nih.gov)
People with gallstones1
- In most cases, though, people with gallstones don't realize they have them. (nih.gov)
Development of gallstones2
Pain in the upper right abdomen2
- When gallstones move from the gallbladder into the cystic duct of common bile duct ( Choledocholithiasis ), it can lead to a severe cramping pain in the upper right abdomen which can radiate to the right shoulder as a result of the blocked bile flow. (targetwoman.com)
- Gallstones can cause sudden pain in the upper right abdomen, called a gallbladder attack (or biliary colic). (nih.gov)
- DNA was extracted from gallbladder, bile and gallstone samples from 50 patients undergoing cholecystectomy. (who.int)
- Typically Cholecystectomy is resorted in cases where the patient suffers gallstones in the gallbladder or bile duct. (targetwoman.com)
- Nowadays, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (see the video) is considered to be the 'gold standard' for the treatment of gallstones and is the best method to remove the gallbladder as it causes less pain and requires less days in hospital than open surgery. (doctorchristodoulou.com)
- The following are among the situations that acutely increase the risk of gallstones: (1) substantial, rapid weight loss, (2) pregnancy, (3) total parenteral nutrition, (4) major abdominal surgery, (5) treatment with the somatostatin analogue octreotide, and (6) the period following dissolution of gallstones. (nih.gov)
- Dissolution of gallstones: reality and prospects]. (nih.gov)
- Medical dissolution of gallstones by oral bile acid therapy. (nih.gov)
Prevalence of gallstone disease2
- To study the prevalence of gallstone disease and related risk factors in a Saudi Arabian population a cross-sectional community-based study was made of 291 people from Abha district, Asir region. (who.int)
- A further community based and multi centered study is recommended to determine the prevalence of gallstone disease in Ethiopia. (who.int)
- MTBE is also used to dissolve gallstones. (cdc.gov)
- Hi, I read here about the Epsom salt together with lemon, olive oil and apple juice for Gallstone flush. (earthclinic.com)
- If you want to do more specific liver cleansing, you can try a Liver/Gallstone Flush at home. (healthybliss.net)
- On my first Gallstone/Liver Flush, I released 600 stones - no joke! (healthybliss.net)
- Please note that with Dr. Clark's recipe, she recommends using ornithine to help you sleep and she also recommends to do a parasite cleanse before you do the Gallstone Flush. (healthybliss.net)
- Conducting a gallbladder cleanse can help break down gallstones and flush out excess bile, which can contribute to gallstones. (belmarrahealth.com)
- You can't really prevent gallstones, except by avoiding rapid weight loss or health conditions that can cause gallstones such as obesity, diabetes, or cirrhosis. (mountsinai.org)
- And that means reducing the level of risk in the first place, or once gallstones have developed, making sure you stay away from foods which aggravate the condition and employ measures diet and use of certain herbs and supplements which increase the solubility of the bile in the gall bladder. (healthy.net)
- Gall bladder disease occurs when the gallstones formed can block the duct that leads from the gall bladder. (diethealthclub.com)
- Gallbladder Cleanse: A 'Natural' Remedy for Gallstones? (medlineplus.gov)
- Signs of a gallstone attack may include nausea, vomiting, or pain in the abdomen, back, or just under the right arm. (medlineplus.gov)
- Gallstones form when substances in bile harden. (medlineplus.gov)
- But gallstones sometimes form in the bile ducts years after surgery. (kaiserpermanente.org)
- Gallstones can form when the gallbladder does not empty bile properly. (targetwoman.com)
- Over time, these crystals can combine and form gallstones. (nih.gov)
- Gallstones are hard deposits that form inside the gallbladder. (nih.gov)
- Gallstone attacks usually happen after you eat. (medlineplus.gov)
- A healthy well-planned diet with special gallbladder foods to avoid gallstones can help those who have gallbladder attacks lead a normal life. (diethealthclub.com)
- Eating eggs, poultry, pork, beans, and nuts is also known to cause gallbladder attacks in people who have gallstones. (diethealthclub.com)
- There are several things you can do to reduce the chance of having more gallstone attacks. (healthinfo.org.nz)
- If you're overweight, it's best to lose weight slowly - up to 1 kg per week - as losing weight quickly can increase your risk of having gallstone attacks. (healthinfo.org.nz)
- This PA, Etiology and Prevention of Gallstones During Periods of High Risk, is related to the priority areas of chronic disabling conditions and nutrition. (nih.gov)
- You're more likely to get gallstones if you're over age 40, or if you have a chronic condition like diabetes, anemia, or cirrhosis of the liver. (mountsinai.org)
- When gallstones block your bile ducts, they can cause sudden pain, which means you need medical attention right away. (nih.gov)
- When gallstones block your bile ducts, bile builds up in your gallbladder, causing a gallbladder attack. (nih.gov)
- If the gallstone is very large, though, it may get stuck in one of the tubes, called ducts, which connect to the gallbladder. (mountsinai.org)
- These gallstones are detected incidentally. (wikidoc.org)
- It isn't uncommon to find out you have gallstones when you have an abdominal ultrasound or CT scan for another reason. (healthinfo.org.nz)
- Pain termed biliary colic occurs when gallstones or sludge fortuitously impact in the cystic duct during gallbladder contraction, increasing the gallbladder wall tension. (medscape.com)
- Treatment of gallstone disease. (kaiserpermanente.org)
- Gallstone disease can manifest in a number of ways. (wikidoc.org)
- The majority of patients with gallstone disease are asymptomatic . (wikidoc.org)
- Gallstone disease is a world wide problem and remains to be one of the most common health problems leading to surgical intervention. (who.int)
- The magnitude of Gallstone disease in Ethiopia is not well known. (who.int)
- Of the patients with gallstone disease 55 were females and 28 were males with a ratio of 2:1. (who.int)
- Gallstone disease (GSD) is a world wide disease and it rare conditions (8, 9,16). (who.int)
- Gallstones can occur in anyone, though women over forty are more susceptible to them. (diethealthclub.com)
- You can lower your risk of gallstones by maintaining a healthy weight through proper diet and nutrition. (nih.gov)
- Situations in which the risk of gallstone formation is high and well-defined lend themselves to the prospective study of gallstone pathophysiology. (nih.gov)
- Studies that would better define the risk of gallstones in high risk populations are also encouraged. (nih.gov)
- Surgery reduces the risk that gallstones will come back. (kaiserpermanente.org)
- A study found that those who drank two units of wine a day reduced their risk of gallstone formation by one-third. (belmarrahealth.com)
- An alternative study found that men who consumed two to three cups of coffee a day had a 40 percent lesser risk of developing gallstones. (belmarrahealth.com)
- A study found that consuming saturated fat worsens your risk of gallstones and so consuming healthy fats, such as those found in nuts, seeds, and oily fish can help reduce your risk. (belmarrahealth.com)
- Cholecystotomy is a surgical procedure where the gallbladder is opened for removal of the gallstones and the excess bile is drained - but the gallbladder itself is not removed. (targetwoman.com)
- Dyspepsia that occurs reproducibly following ingestion of fatty foods is often wrongly attributed to gallstones, when irritable bowel syndrome or gastroesophageal reflux is the true culprit. (medscape.com)
- It's uncommon for the gallbladder to cause problems other than gallstones. (nih.gov)
- If you've got pain in the upper part of your belly, a fever, or yellow skin, they could be signs that you've got gallstones. (mountsinai.org)
- Thanks to its sedative, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties, ox gallstone is the effective pharmaceutical raw material for the treatment of stroke, persistent fever, etc. (buy-ox-gallstones.com)
- Additional tests discovered that Atlas' blockage was due to a gallstone that was 5 millimeters, half the size of a penny - which is extremely rare in babies. (luriechildrens.org)