Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Gallbladder Diseases: Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Cholecystography: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Imino AcidsGallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Arabinonucleotides: Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin: A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)Larva Migrans: Infections caused by nematode larvae which never develop into the adult stage and migrate through various body tissues. They commonly infect the skin, eyes, and viscera in man. Ancylostoma brasiliensis causes cutaneous larva migrans. Toxocara causes visceral larva migrans.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).N-Acetyllactosamine Synthase: The A protein of the lactose synthase complex. In the presence of the B protein (LACTALBUMIN) specificity is changed from N-acetylglucosamine to glucose. EC Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral: A group of highly cellular primitive round cell neoplasms which occur extracranially in soft tissue and bone and are derived from embryonal neural crest cells. These tumors occur primarily in children and adolescents and share a number of characteristics with EWING SARCOMA.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Acalculous Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall in the absence of GALLSTONES.Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin: A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING for the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Biliary Tract Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Necturus: A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Adenomyoma: A benign neoplasm of muscle (usually smooth muscle) with glandular elements. It occurs most frequently in the uterus and uterine ligaments. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neurilemma: The outermost cytoplasmic layer of the SCHWANN CELLS covering NERVE FIBERS.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Torsion Abnormality: An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Sincalide: An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Necturus maculosus: A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Technetium Tc 99m Diethyl-iminodiacetic Acid: A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.Cholecystostomy: Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.

Gallstones, cholecystectomy and risk of cancers of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas. (1/630)

To examine the association between gallstones and cholecystectomy, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of gallstones from 1977 to 1989 were identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients and followed up for cancer occurrence until death or the end of 1993 by record linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Included in the cohort were 60 176 patients, with 471 450 person-years of follow-up. Cancer risks were estimated by standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) stratified by years of follow-up and by cholecystectomy status. Among patients without cholecystectomy, the risks at 5 or more years of follow-up were significantly elevated for cancers of liver (SIR = 2.0, CI = 1.2-3.1) and gallbladder (SIR = 2.7, CI = 1.5-4.4) and near unity for cancers of extrahepatic bile duct (SIR = 1.1), ampulla of Vater (SIR = 1.0) and pancreas (SIR = 1.1). The excess risk of liver cancer was seen only among patients with a history of hepatic disease. Among cholecystectomy patients, the risks at 5 or more years of follow-up declined for cancers of liver (SIR = 1.1) and extrahepatic bile duct (SIR = 0.7), but were elevated for cancers of ampulla of Vater (SIR = 2.0, CI = 1.0-3.7) and pancreas (SIR = 1.3, CI = 1.1-1.6). These findings confirm that gallstone disease increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, whereas cholecystectomy appears to increase the risk of cancers of ampulla of Vater and pancreas. Further research is needed to clarify the carcinogenic risks associated with gallstones and cholecystectomy and to define the mechanisms involved.  (+info)

Obstructive cholecystitis due to metastatic melanoma. (2/630)

A patient with isolated metastases from cutaneous melanoma to the gall-bladder is reported. The patient presented clinically with obstructive cholecystitis. The course of melanoma is unpredictable and the possibility that an apparently unassociated condition is due to metastases should always be considered. Isolated metastases may respond well to radical surgery and reward the surgeon's efforts.  (+info)

Differential diagnosis of small polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: the value of endoscopic ultrasonography. (3/630)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in making a differential diagnosis of small (< or =20 mm) polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Differential diagnosis of these lesions is often difficult using conventional imaging modalities. METHODS: The findings of EUS and transabdominal ultrasonography were retrospectively analyzed in 65 surgical cases of small polypoid lesions (cholesterol polyp in 40, adenomyomatosis in 9, adenoma in 4, and adenocarcinoma in 12). RESULTS: Polypoid lesions exceeding 10 mm suggested malignancy. EUS showed a tiny echogenic spot or an aggregation of echogenic spots with or without echopenic areas in 95% of patients with cholesterol polyps. EUS showed multiple microcysts or comet tail artifact in all adenomyomatosis cases. Adenomas and adenocarcinomas were not associated with the echogenic spots, microcysts, or artifacts. Among adenomas and adenocarcinomas, all sessile lesions were adenocarcinomas. EUS differentiated among polypoid lesions more precisely than ultrasonography (97% vs. 71%). CONCLUSIONS: A tiny echogenic spot or an aggregation of echogenic spots and multiple microcysts or comet tail artifact is pathognomonic for cholesterol polyp and adenomyomatosis, respectively. Polypoid lesions without these findings indicate adenoma or adenocarcinoma on EUS. Routine use of EUS is recommended for differential diagnosis of polypoid gallbladder lesions when ultrasonography shows no signs indicative of either cholesterol polyp or adenomyomatosis.  (+info)

Problems and perspective in epidemiological study of occupational health hazards in the rubber industry. (4/630)

An epidemiological analysis of the problems in the study of companies engaged in the manufacture of rubber products in different countries and in different time periods is given. Selected findings on cancer of gallbladder and biliary system, cancer of the lung, and tumors of the central nervous system among rubber workers are presented.  (+info)

A long-term survival patient with advanced gallbladder cancer massively metastasizing to the liver. (5/630)

A case of gallbladder carcinoma was reported. A 42-year-old woman was admitted with epigastralgia. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and other diagnostic modalities suggested gallbladder carcinoma with multiple liver metastases. These findings indicated no surgical procedure because of the advanced nature of her disease. After the hepatic arterial chemoinfusion therapy, her multiple liver metastatic lesions showed a decrease in size and number. Therefore, extended left lobectomy of the liver with gallbladder and bile duct resection were performed. Five years after initial operation, a solitary liver metastatic lesion (S5) was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Partial resection of the liver was performed for the liver metastasis, and her postoperative recovery was uneventful and had a good follow-up course. One year after the second operation bone metastases occurred, therefore, peroral administration of UFT (Tegafur + Uracil) and radiation therapy for the metastatic lesions of sternum and lumbar vertebra (L1) were performed.  (+info)

Clinical epidemiologic characteristics of 430 cases of gallbladder cancer. (6/630)

OBJECTIVE: To make clear the incidence, clinical characteristics and possible regional difference of gallbladder cancer in China. METHODS: A total of 430 cases of gallbladder cancer from 28 hospitals between 1986-1996 were reviewed, according to a standard protocol called "the clinical epidemiological list of gallbladder cancer". RESULTS: The incidence of gallbladder cancer was higher in the females than in the males. There was significant difference in the incidence between the north and south of China, and between the mountain area and flatlands. Gallbladder cancer accounted for 1.6% of bile tract disease in the same period. Gallstones were found in about 50% of the cases of gallbladder cancer. The clinical symptoms included abdominal pain, ictus, etc. The major pathohistologic type was adenocarcinoma, and 58% of tumors were localized in the whole gallbladder. Metastasis occurred mainly along the biliary tract or directly to the bed of gallbladder and liver. Ultrasonography and CT were useful to diagnosis. The positive imaging diagnostic rate was higher in 1991-1996 than in 1986-1990 P < 0.05) [corrected]. The rate of operative resection was 100% for stage I and II disease, 75% for stage III and IV, and significantly lower for stage V (P < 0.05). The 3-year survival rate in patients with stage I or II disease was significantly higher than that in those with terminal cancer (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is specific populational, time and regional difference in the distribution of gallbladder cancer. Ultrasonography and CT are the most important diagnostic methods. Early diagnosis and early radical resection are the key to increasing the 5-year survival rate.  (+info)

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma of the gallbladder associated with acute myeloid leukemia. (7/630)

We describe a patient with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma of the gallbladder who developed concurrent acute myeloid leukemia (M2). She was admitted because of progressive jaundice and underwent cholecystectomy. Histologic examination of the gallbladder showed diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells and a formed lymphoepithelial lesion. Because of progressive thrombocytopenia, a bone marrow tap was performed 25 days after the operation. Bone marrow contained 65.5% blasts, and was positive for peroxidase, CD33 and HLA-DR, and negative for lymphoid markers. We discuss the rare association of these disorders.  (+info)

Family consent, communication, and advance directives for cancer disclosure: a Japanese case and discussion. (8/630)

The dilemma of whether and how to disclose a diagnosis of cancer or of any other terminal illness continues to be a subject of worldwide interest. We present the case of a 62-year-old Japanese woman afflicted with advanced gall bladder cancer who had previously expressed a preference not to be told a diagnosis of cancer. The treating physician revealed the diagnosis to the family first, and then told the patient: "You don't have any cancer yet, but if we don't treat you, it will progress to a cancer". In our analysis, we examine the role of family consent, communication patterns (including ambiguous disclosure), and advance directives for cancer disclosure in Japan. Finally, we explore the implications for Edmund Pellegrino's proposal of "something close to autonomy" as a universal good.  (+info)

  • In the period of 1992- 2001, a total of 1,536 cholecystectomies took place and 14 cases of gallbladder cancer were diagnosed postoperatively. (
  • People with Native American ancestry have a much elevated incidence of gallbladder cancer compared to Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations of New Mexico. (
  • The increase in survival in many malignant neoplasms means that, in addition to mortality, it is increasingly necessary to take into account the non-mortal consequences of disease (disability due to the disease itself or to treatment, and the worsening of the patient's quality of life). (
  • The 5-year disease-free survival rate (for gallbladder carcinoma patients) favored adjuvant chemotherapy (20.3% vs 11.6%, P = .02), and the 5-year overall survival rate was also improved (26% vs 14.4%, P = .03). (
  • A meta-analysis of publications concerning the role of radiation therapy in gallbladder carcinoma from 1974 to 2000 reported a slight improvement in survival after adjuvant or palliative radiotherapy. (
  • Adjuvant chemoradiation consisting of concurrent 5-FU plus EBRT in 21 resected patients with gallbladder carcinoma was associated with a 5-year survival rate of 64% in the completely resected (negative-margins) group, compared with 33% associated with surgery alone in historical controls. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS) in the diagnosis of the fundal localized type of gallbladder adenomyomatosis. (
  • We performed a retrospective study of 21 patients with pathologically proven fundal localized type of gallbladder (GB) adenomyomatosis. (
  • The small non-enhancement space is a characteristic finding of the fundal localized type of gallbladder adenomyomatosis on CEUS. (
  • This histologic type of gallbladder carcinoma is more common in women than in men, usually coexists with lithiasis, and has a highly aggressive clinical behavior. (
  • Only after an exploratory laporatomy did it become clear that the initial symptoms were related to a metastatic gallbladder carcinoma. (
  • There are many risk factors including genetic and environmental that are related to gallbladder carcinogenesis [12- (
  • Terzi C, Sökmen S, Seçkin S (2000) Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: report of 100 cases with special reference to operative indications. (