Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.
A process whereby bile is delivered from the gallbladder into the duodenum. The emptying is caused by both contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter mechanism at the choledochal terminus.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Imino acids are organic compounds containing a nitrogen atom in their structure, classified as derivatives of amino acids, where the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxyl group is bonded to a nitrogen atom instead of a hydrogen atom, forming a characteristic imino functional group.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the GALLBLADDER.
A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.
The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall in the absence of GALLSTONES.
A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING for the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.
Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.
Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
A motility disorder characterized by biliary COLIC, absence of GALLSTONES, and an abnormal GALLBLADDER ejection fraction. It is caused by gallbladder dyskinesia and/or SPHINCTER OF ODDI DYSFUNCTION.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
A benign neoplasm of muscle (usually smooth muscle) with glandular elements. It occurs most frequently in the uterus and uterine ligaments. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.
Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.
Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.

Gallstones, cholecystectomy and risk of cancers of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas. (1/630)

To examine the association between gallstones and cholecystectomy, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of gallstones from 1977 to 1989 were identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients and followed up for cancer occurrence until death or the end of 1993 by record linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Included in the cohort were 60 176 patients, with 471 450 person-years of follow-up. Cancer risks were estimated by standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) stratified by years of follow-up and by cholecystectomy status. Among patients without cholecystectomy, the risks at 5 or more years of follow-up were significantly elevated for cancers of liver (SIR = 2.0, CI = 1.2-3.1) and gallbladder (SIR = 2.7, CI = 1.5-4.4) and near unity for cancers of extrahepatic bile duct (SIR = 1.1), ampulla of Vater (SIR = 1.0) and pancreas (SIR = 1.1). The excess risk of liver cancer was seen only among patients with a history of hepatic disease. Among cholecystectomy patients, the risks at 5 or more years of follow-up declined for cancers of liver (SIR = 1.1) and extrahepatic bile duct (SIR = 0.7), but were elevated for cancers of ampulla of Vater (SIR = 2.0, CI = 1.0-3.7) and pancreas (SIR = 1.3, CI = 1.1-1.6). These findings confirm that gallstone disease increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, whereas cholecystectomy appears to increase the risk of cancers of ampulla of Vater and pancreas. Further research is needed to clarify the carcinogenic risks associated with gallstones and cholecystectomy and to define the mechanisms involved.  (+info)

Obstructive cholecystitis due to metastatic melanoma. (2/630)

A patient with isolated metastases from cutaneous melanoma to the gall-bladder is reported. The patient presented clinically with obstructive cholecystitis. The course of melanoma is unpredictable and the possibility that an apparently unassociated condition is due to metastases should always be considered. Isolated metastases may respond well to radical surgery and reward the surgeon's efforts.  (+info)

Differential diagnosis of small polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: the value of endoscopic ultrasonography. (3/630)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in making a differential diagnosis of small (< or =20 mm) polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Differential diagnosis of these lesions is often difficult using conventional imaging modalities. METHODS: The findings of EUS and transabdominal ultrasonography were retrospectively analyzed in 65 surgical cases of small polypoid lesions (cholesterol polyp in 40, adenomyomatosis in 9, adenoma in 4, and adenocarcinoma in 12). RESULTS: Polypoid lesions exceeding 10 mm suggested malignancy. EUS showed a tiny echogenic spot or an aggregation of echogenic spots with or without echopenic areas in 95% of patients with cholesterol polyps. EUS showed multiple microcysts or comet tail artifact in all adenomyomatosis cases. Adenomas and adenocarcinomas were not associated with the echogenic spots, microcysts, or artifacts. Among adenomas and adenocarcinomas, all sessile lesions were adenocarcinomas. EUS differentiated among polypoid lesions more precisely than ultrasonography (97% vs. 71%). CONCLUSIONS: A tiny echogenic spot or an aggregation of echogenic spots and multiple microcysts or comet tail artifact is pathognomonic for cholesterol polyp and adenomyomatosis, respectively. Polypoid lesions without these findings indicate adenoma or adenocarcinoma on EUS. Routine use of EUS is recommended for differential diagnosis of polypoid gallbladder lesions when ultrasonography shows no signs indicative of either cholesterol polyp or adenomyomatosis.  (+info)

Problems and perspective in epidemiological study of occupational health hazards in the rubber industry. (4/630)

An epidemiological analysis of the problems in the study of companies engaged in the manufacture of rubber products in different countries and in different time periods is given. Selected findings on cancer of gallbladder and biliary system, cancer of the lung, and tumors of the central nervous system among rubber workers are presented.  (+info)

A long-term survival patient with advanced gallbladder cancer massively metastasizing to the liver. (5/630)

A case of gallbladder carcinoma was reported. A 42-year-old woman was admitted with epigastralgia. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and other diagnostic modalities suggested gallbladder carcinoma with multiple liver metastases. These findings indicated no surgical procedure because of the advanced nature of her disease. After the hepatic arterial chemoinfusion therapy, her multiple liver metastatic lesions showed a decrease in size and number. Therefore, extended left lobectomy of the liver with gallbladder and bile duct resection were performed. Five years after initial operation, a solitary liver metastatic lesion (S5) was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Partial resection of the liver was performed for the liver metastasis, and her postoperative recovery was uneventful and had a good follow-up course. One year after the second operation bone metastases occurred, therefore, peroral administration of UFT (Tegafur + Uracil) and radiation therapy for the metastatic lesions of sternum and lumbar vertebra (L1) were performed.  (+info)

Clinical epidemiologic characteristics of 430 cases of gallbladder cancer. (6/630)

OBJECTIVE: To make clear the incidence, clinical characteristics and possible regional difference of gallbladder cancer in China. METHODS: A total of 430 cases of gallbladder cancer from 28 hospitals between 1986-1996 were reviewed, according to a standard protocol called "the clinical epidemiological list of gallbladder cancer". RESULTS: The incidence of gallbladder cancer was higher in the females than in the males. There was significant difference in the incidence between the north and south of China, and between the mountain area and flatlands. Gallbladder cancer accounted for 1.6% of bile tract disease in the same period. Gallstones were found in about 50% of the cases of gallbladder cancer. The clinical symptoms included abdominal pain, ictus, etc. The major pathohistologic type was adenocarcinoma, and 58% of tumors were localized in the whole gallbladder. Metastasis occurred mainly along the biliary tract or directly to the bed of gallbladder and liver. Ultrasonography and CT were useful to diagnosis. The positive imaging diagnostic rate was higher in 1991-1996 than in 1986-1990 P < 0.05) [corrected]. The rate of operative resection was 100% for stage I and II disease, 75% for stage III and IV, and significantly lower for stage V (P < 0.05). The 3-year survival rate in patients with stage I or II disease was significantly higher than that in those with terminal cancer (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is specific populational, time and regional difference in the distribution of gallbladder cancer. Ultrasonography and CT are the most important diagnostic methods. Early diagnosis and early radical resection are the key to increasing the 5-year survival rate.  (+info)

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type lymphoma of the gallbladder associated with acute myeloid leukemia. (7/630)

We describe a patient with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma of the gallbladder who developed concurrent acute myeloid leukemia (M2). She was admitted because of progressive jaundice and underwent cholecystectomy. Histologic examination of the gallbladder showed diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells and a formed lymphoepithelial lesion. Because of progressive thrombocytopenia, a bone marrow tap was performed 25 days after the operation. Bone marrow contained 65.5% blasts, and was positive for peroxidase, CD33 and HLA-DR, and negative for lymphoid markers. We discuss the rare association of these disorders.  (+info)

Family consent, communication, and advance directives for cancer disclosure: a Japanese case and discussion. (8/630)

The dilemma of whether and how to disclose a diagnosis of cancer or of any other terminal illness continues to be a subject of worldwide interest. We present the case of a 62-year-old Japanese woman afflicted with advanced gall bladder cancer who had previously expressed a preference not to be told a diagnosis of cancer. The treating physician revealed the diagnosis to the family first, and then told the patient: "You don't have any cancer yet, but if we don't treat you, it will progress to a cancer". In our analysis, we examine the role of family consent, communication patterns (including ambiguous disclosure), and advance directives for cancer disclosure in Japan. Finally, we explore the implications for Edmund Pellegrino's proposal of "something close to autonomy" as a universal good.  (+info)

Gallbladder neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the gallbladder, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, also known as gallbladder cancer, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. Gallbladder neoplasms can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and nausea, but they are often asymptomatic until they have advanced to an advanced stage. The exact causes of gallbladder neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include gallstones, chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, and certain inherited genetic conditions.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just under the liver in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive enzyme produced by the liver, which helps in the breakdown of fats during the digestion process. When food, particularly fatty foods, enter the stomach and small intestine, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile through the common bile duct into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, to aid in fat digestion.

The gallbladder is made up of three main parts: the fundus, body, and neck. It has a muscular wall that allows it to contract and release bile. Gallstones, an inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), or other gallbladder diseases can cause pain, discomfort, and potentially serious health complications if left untreated.

Gallbladder diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the function and structure of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver. The primary role of the gallbladder is to store, concentrate, and release bile into the small intestine to aid in digesting fats. Gallbladder diseases can be chronic or acute and may cause various symptoms, discomfort, or complications if left untreated. Here are some common gallbladder diseases with brief definitions:

1. Cholelithiasis: The presence of gallstones within the gallbladder. Gallstones are small, hard deposits made of cholesterol, bilirubin, or a combination of both, which can vary in size from tiny grains to several centimeters.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by obstruction of the cystic duct (the tube connecting the gallbladder and the common bile duct) due to a gallstone. This condition can be acute or chronic and may cause abdominal pain, fever, and tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.
3. Choledocholithiasis: The presence of gallstones within the common bile duct, which can lead to obstruction, jaundice, and potential infection of the biliary system (cholangitis).
4. Acalculous gallbladder disease: Gallbladder dysfunction or inflammation without the presence of gallstones. This condition is often seen in critically ill patients and can lead to similar symptoms as cholecystitis.
5. Gallbladder polyps: Small growths attached to the inner wall of the gallbladder. While most polyps are benign, some may have malignant potential, especially if they are larger than 1 cm in size or associated with certain risk factors.
6. Gallbladder cancer: A rare form of cancer that originates in the gallbladder tissue. It is often asymptomatic in its early stages and can be challenging to diagnose. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, jaundice, or a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if experiencing symptoms related to gallbladder disease for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Gallbladder emptying refers to the process by which the gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine through the bile duct. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ that stores and concentrates bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. After eating, especially when fatty or greasy foods are consumed, the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) is released into the bloodstream, which stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi, a muscle that controls the opening and closing of the bile duct. This allows the concentrated bile to flow from the gallbladder into the small intestine, where it helps break down fats for absorption.

Gallbladder emptying can be assessed through various diagnostic tests, such as ultrasound or cholescintigraphy (also known as a HIDA scan), which measures the rate and degree of gallbladder emptying in response to CCK stimulation. Abnormalities in gallbladder emptying can contribute to conditions such as gallstones, biliary dyskinesia, and other functional gallbladder disorders.

Cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid that helps break down fats in the small intestine during digestion.

Acute cholecystitis is a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder to the common bile duct. This blockage can cause bile to build up in the gallbladder, leading to inflammation, swelling, and pain.

Chronic cholecystitis is a long-term inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by repeated attacks of acute cholecystitis or the presence of gallstones that cause ongoing irritation and damage to the gallbladder wall. Over time, chronic cholecystitis can lead to thickening and scarring of the gallbladder wall, which can reduce its ability to function properly.

Symptoms of cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often in the upper right or center of the abdomen, that may worsen after eating fatty foods; fever; nausea and vomiting; bloating and gas; and clay-colored stools. Treatment for cholecystitis typically involves antibiotics to treat any infection present, pain relief, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, a nonsurgical procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be used to remove gallstones from the bile duct.

Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The primary function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. During a cholecystectomy, the surgeon removes the gallbladder, usually due to the presence of gallstones or inflammation that can cause pain, infection, or other complications.

There are two primary methods for performing a cholecystectomy:

1. Open Cholecystectomy: In this traditional surgical approach, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access and remove the gallbladder. This method is typically used when there are complications or unique circumstances that make laparoscopic surgery difficult or risky.
2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen, through which a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) and specialized surgical instruments are inserted. The surgeon then guides these tools to remove the gallbladder while viewing the internal structures on a video monitor.

After the gallbladder is removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine through the common bile duct, and the body continues to function normally without any significant issues.

Cholecystography is a medical procedure that involves the use of X-rays to examine the gallbladder and bile ducts. It is also known as an oral cholecystogram (OCG).

The procedure involves administering a contrast agent, typically a iodine-based dye, which is absorbed by the liver and excreted into the bile ducts and gallbladder. The dye makes the bile ducts and gallbladder visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation of the gallbladder.

Cholecystography is not commonly used today due to the development of more advanced imaging techniques, such as ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans, which are non-invasive and do not require the use of contrast agents. However, it may still be used in certain cases where other imaging tests are inconclusive or unavailable.

Cholelithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size and may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Some people with gallstones may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) if the gallstones block the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly women over the age of 40 and those with certain medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and rapid weight loss. If left untreated, gallstones can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, shock wave lithotripsy (breaking up the gallstones with sound waves), and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).

Imino acids are organic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom as part of an amide-like structure. They are structurally similar to amino acids, which contain a carboxyl group and an amino group, but instead of the amino group, imino acids have a structural unit known as an imine or Schiff base, which is a carbon-nitrogen double bond with a hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen atom.

One example of an imino acid is proline, which is a cyclic imino acid that plays important roles in protein structure and function. Proline is unique among the 20 standard amino acids because its side chain is linked to the nitrogen atom of the backbone, forming a ring-like structure. This structural feature gives proline unique properties, such as restricted rotation around the bond between the nitrogen and alpha carbon atoms, which can affect protein folding and stability.

Other imino acids may be formed through chemical reactions or enzymatic processes, and they can play important roles in various biological pathways, including the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. However, imino acids are not typically considered to be part of the standard set of 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Gallstones are small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. They can range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bile pigments, or calcium salts, or a combination of these substances.

There are two main types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Cholesterol stones are the most common type and are usually yellow-green in color. They form when there is too much cholesterol in the bile, which causes it to become saturated and form crystals that eventually grow into stones. Pigment stones are smaller and darker in color, ranging from brown to black. They form when there is an excess of bilirubin, a waste product produced by the breakdown of red blood cells, in the bile.

Gallstones can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating, especially after eating fatty foods. In some cases, gallstones can lead to serious complications, such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The exact cause of gallstones is not fully understood, but risk factors include being female, older age, obesity, a family history of gallstones, rapid weight loss, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as cirrhosis or sickle cell anemia. Treatment for gallstones may involve medication to dissolve the stones, shock wave therapy to break them up, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Cholecystolithiasis is the medical term for the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, become concentrated and crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size, from tiny grains of sand to large stones several centimeters in diameter. Some people may have a single gallstone, while others may have many. Gallstones may cause no symptoms at all, but if they block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, they can cause pain, inflammation, and infection.

Symptoms of cholecystolithiasis may include abdominal pain, often in the upper right or center of the abdomen, that may be sharp or crampy and may occur after eating fatty foods. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, fever, and chills. If gallstones are left untreated, they can lead to serious complications such as cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), or cholangitis (infection of the bile ducts). Treatment for cholecystolithiasis may include medication to dissolve the gallstones, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stones, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin is not a medical condition, but rather a radiopharmaceutical used in diagnostic imaging. It is a radioactive tracer used in nuclear medicine scans, specifically for liver and biliary system imaging. The compound consists of the radioisotope Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) bonded to the pharmaceutical Disofenin.

The Tc-99m is a gamma emitter with a half-life of 6 hours, making it ideal for diagnostic imaging. When administered to the patient, the compound is taken up by the liver and excreted into the bile ducts and gallbladder, allowing medical professionals to visualize these structures using a gamma camera. This can help detect various conditions such as tumors, gallstones, or obstructions in the biliary system.

It's important to note that Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin is used diagnostically and not for therapeutic purposes. The radiation exposure from this compound is generally low and considered safe for diagnostic use. However, as with any medical procedure involving radiation, the benefits and risks should be carefully weighed and discussed with a healthcare professional.

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder using a laparoscope, a thin tube with a camera, which allows the surgeon to view the internal structures on a video monitor. The surgery is performed through several small incisions in the abdomen, rather than a single large incision used in open cholecystectomy. This approach results in less postoperative pain, fewer complications, and shorter recovery time compared to open cholecystectomy.

The procedure is typically indicated for symptomatic gallstones or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), which can cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard of care for gallbladder removal due to its minimally invasive nature and excellent outcomes.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Acute cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) that develops suddenly (acute). The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located in the upper right part of the abdomen, beneath the liver. It stores bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, which helps break down fats in the food we eat.

Acute cholecystitis occurs when the gallbladder becomes inflamed and irritated, often due to the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder into the small intestine. When the cystic duct is obstructed, bile builds up in the gallbladder, causing it to become swollen, inflamed, and infected.

Symptoms of acute cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often located in the upper right or middle part of the abdomen, that may radiate to the back or shoulder blade area. Other symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal tenderness or swelling.

Acute cholecystitis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment may involve hospitalization, antibiotics to treat infection, pain relief medications, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, nonsurgical treatments such as endoscopic sphincterotomy or percutaneous cholecystostomy may be used to relieve obstruction and inflammation.

The cystic duct is a short tube that connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. The cystic duct allows bile to flow from the gallbladder into the common bile duct when it is needed for digestion. It is a part of the biliary system and plays an important role in the digestive process.

A polyp is a general term for a small growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane, such as the lining of the nose or the digestive tract. Polyps can vary in size and shape, but they are usually cherry-sized or smaller and have a stalk or a broad base. They are often benign (noncancerous), but some types of polyps, especially those in the colon, can become cancerous over time.

In the digestive tract, polyps can form in the colon, rectum, stomach, or small intestine. Colorectal polyps are the most common type and are usually found during routine colonoscopies. There are several types of colorectal polyps, including:

* Adenomatous polyps (adenomas): These polyps can become cancerous over time and are the most likely to turn into cancer.
* Hyperplastic polyps: These polyps are usually small and benign, but some types may have a higher risk of becoming cancerous.
* Inflammatory polyps: These polyps are caused by chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, such as from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Polyps can also form in other parts of the body, including the nose, sinuses, ears, and uterus. In most cases, polyps are benign and do not cause any symptoms. However, if they become large enough, they may cause problems such as bleeding, obstruction, or discomfort. Treatment typically involves removing the polyp through a surgical procedure.

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone that is produced in the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) and in the brain. It is released into the bloodstream in response to food, particularly fatty foods, and plays several roles in the digestive process.

In the digestive system, CCK stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder, which releases bile into the small intestine to help digest fats. It also inhibits the release of acid from the stomach and slows down the movement of food through the intestines.

In the brain, CCK acts as a neurotransmitter and has been shown to have effects on appetite regulation, mood, and memory. It may play a role in the feeling of fullness or satiety after eating, and may also be involved in anxiety and panic disorders.

CCK is sometimes referred to as "gallbladder-stimulating hormone" or "pancreozymin," although these terms are less commonly used than "cholecystokinin."

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Acalculous cholecystitis is a form of inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs in the absence of gallstones, which are commonly associated with gallbladder inflammation. It mainly affects critically ill or debilitated patients and can be caused by various factors such as bacterial or viral infection, reduced blood flow to the gallbladder, and injury to the bile ducts.

The symptoms of acalculous cholecystitis may include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. The diagnosis is often made through imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan, which may show gallbladder wall thickening, fluid accumulation around the gallbladder, and other signs of inflammation.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics to manage infection, intravenous fluids, and pain management. In severe cases, cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder) may be necessary. If left untreated, acalculous cholecystitis can lead to serious complications such as gangrene, perforation of the gallbladder, and sepsis.

Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin is a radiopharmaceutical used in nuclear medicine imaging procedures, specifically for hepatobiliary scintigraphy. It is a technetium-labeled compound, where the radioisotope technetium-99m (^99m^Tc) is bound to lidofenin, a liver-imaging agent.

The compound is used to assess the function and anatomy of the liver, gallbladder, and biliary system. After intravenous administration, Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin is taken up by hepatocytes (liver cells) and excreted into the bile ducts and ultimately into the small intestine. The distribution and excretion of this radiopharmaceutical can be monitored using a gamma camera, providing functional information about the liver and biliary system.

It is essential to note that the use of Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin should be under the guidance and supervision of healthcare professionals trained in nuclear medicine, as its administration and handling require specific expertise and safety measures due to the radioactive nature of the compound.

Neoplasms: Neoplasms refer to abnormal growths of tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They occur when the normal control mechanisms that regulate cell growth and division are disrupted, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Cystic Neoplasms: Cystic neoplasms are tumors that contain fluid-filled sacs or cysts. These tumors can be benign or malignant and can occur in various organs of the body, including the pancreas, ovary, and liver.

Mucinous Neoplasms: Mucinous neoplasms are a type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of mucin, a gel-like substance produced by certain types of cells. These tumors can occur in various organs, including the ovary, pancreas, and colon. Mucinous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and malignant forms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

Serous Neoplasms: Serous neoplasms are another type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of serous fluid, which is a thin, watery fluid. These tumors commonly occur in the ovary and can be benign or malignant. Malignant serous neoplasms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

In summary, neoplasms refer to abnormal tissue growths that can be benign or malignant. Cystic neoplasms contain fluid-filled sacs and can occur in various organs of the body. Mucinous neoplasms produce a gel-like substance called mucin and can also occur in various organs, while serous neoplasms produce thin, watery fluid and commonly occur in the ovary. Both mucinous and serous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, with malignant forms often being aggressive and having a poor prognosis.

Biliary tract neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts inside and outside the liver, and the ducts that connect the liver to the small intestine. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant biliary tract neoplasms are often referred to as cholangiocarcinoma if they originate in the bile ducts, or gallbladder cancer if they arise in the gallbladder. These cancers are relatively rare but can be aggressive and difficult to treat. They can cause symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, weight loss, and dark urine.

Risk factors for biliary tract neoplasms include chronic inflammation of the biliary system, primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis B or C infection, parasitic infections, and certain genetic conditions. Early detection and treatment can improve outcomes for patients with these neoplasms.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

The biliary tract is a system of ducts that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats in the small intestine. The main components of the biliary tract are:

1. Intrahepatic bile ducts: These are the smaller branches of bile ducts located within the liver that collect bile from the liver cells or hepatocytes.
2. Gallbladder: A small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver, which stores and concentrates bile received from the intrahepatic bile ducts. The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine when food is ingested, particularly fats, to aid digestion.
3. Common hepatic duct: This is a duct that forms by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively.
4. Cystic duct: A short duct that connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, forming the beginning of the common bile duct.
5. Common bile duct: This is a larger duct formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic duct: A separate duct that originates from the pancreas, a gland located near the liver and stomach. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just before they both enter the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
7. Ampulla of Vater: This is the dilated portion where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join together and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the papilla of Vater.

Disorders related to the biliary tract include gallstones, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), bile duct stones, bile duct strictures or obstructions, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others.

"Necturus" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a genus of aquatic salamanders found in North America, also known as mudpuppies or waterdogs. If you have any confusion regarding a medical or healthcare related term, I would be happy to help clarify!

Biliary dyskinesia is a medical condition characterized by abnormal or impaired motility of the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder and the bile ducts. This can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting, particularly after eating fatty foods.

In biliary dyskinesia, the gallbladder may not contract properly or may contract too much, leading to a backup of bile in the liver or bile ducts. This can cause inflammation and irritation of the biliary system and surrounding tissues.

The condition is often diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, nuclear medicine scans, or MRI, which can help assess gallbladder function and detect any abnormalities in the biliary system. Treatment for biliary dyskinesia may include medications to improve gallbladder motility, dietary modifications, or in some cases, surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

The Sphincter of Oddi is a muscular valve that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice from the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is named after Ruggero Oddi, an Italian physiologist who discovered it in 1887. The Sphincter of Oddi has two parts: the sphincter papillae, which surrounds the common opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, and the sphincter choledochus, which is located more proximally in the bile duct. The contraction and relaxation of these muscles help regulate the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and the flow of bile from the liver to aid in digestion.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Incidental findings are diagnoses or conditions that are discovered unintentionally while evaluating a patient for a different condition or symptom. These findings are not related to the primary reason for the medical examination, investigation, or procedure. They can occur in various contexts such as radiology studies, laboratory tests, or physical examinations.

Incidental findings can sometimes lead to further evaluation and management, depending on their nature and potential clinical significance. However, they also pose challenges related to communication, informed consent, and potential patient anxiety or harm. Therefore, it is essential to have clear guidelines for managing incidental findings in clinical practice.

Adenomyoma is a benign (non-cancerous) growth that occurs when the glands and muscle tissue from the lining of the uterus (endometrium) become embedded in the muscular wall of the uterus (myometrium). This condition most commonly affects women in their 40s and 50s, and it can cause symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, painful periods, and pelvic pain or discomfort.

The term "adenomyoma" is derived from two words: "adeno," which means gland, and "myoma," which refers to a benign muscle tumor. Therefore, an adenomyoma can be thought of as a benign growth that contains both glandular tissue and muscle tissue.

Adenomyomas are typically found in the lower part of the uterus, near the cervix, and they can vary in size from small nodules to larger masses. In some cases, adenomyomas may cause no symptoms at all, while in other cases, they can lead to significant discomfort and pain.

The exact cause of adenomyoma is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to hormonal factors, as well as trauma or injury to the uterus. Treatment options for adenomyoma may include medication to manage symptoms, such as pain relievers or hormone therapy, or surgical intervention, such as a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. This diagnostic test does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

During an MRCP, the patient lies on a table that slides into the MRI machine. Contrast agents may be used to enhance the visibility of the ducts. The MRI machine uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures, allowing radiologists to assess any abnormalities or blockages in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

MRCP is often used to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or strictures in the bile or pancreatic ducts. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it does not allow for therapeutic interventions like ERCP, which can remove stones or place stents.

Adenocarcinoma, mucinous is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells that line certain organs and produce mucin, a substance that lubricates and protects tissues. This type of cancer is characterized by the presence of abundant pools of mucin within the tumor. It typically develops in organs such as the colon, rectum, lungs, pancreas, and ovaries.

Mucinous adenocarcinomas tend to have a distinct appearance under the microscope, with large pools of mucin pushing aside the cancer cells. They may also have a different clinical behavior compared to other types of adenocarcinomas, such as being more aggressive or having a worse prognosis in some cases.

It is important to note that while a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, mucinous can be serious, the prognosis and treatment options may vary depending on several factors, including the location of the cancer, the stage at which it was diagnosed, and the individual's overall health.

Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the kidney tissues that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various types of kidney cells, including the renal tubules, glomeruli, and the renal pelvis.

Malignant kidney neoplasms are also known as kidney cancers, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common type. Benign kidney neoplasms include renal adenomas, oncocytomas, and angiomyolipomas. While benign neoplasms are generally not life-threatening, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to compromise kidney function or if they undergo malignant transformation.

Early detection and appropriate management of kidney neoplasms are crucial for improving patient outcomes and overall prognosis. Regular medical check-ups, imaging studies, and urinalysis can help in the early identification of these growths, allowing for timely intervention and treatment.

Adenocarcinoma, papillary is a type of cancer that begins in the glandular cells and grows in a finger-like projection (called a papilla). This type of cancer can occur in various organs, including the lungs, pancreas, thyroid, and female reproductive system. The prognosis and treatment options for papillary adenocarcinoma depend on several factors, such as the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment plan.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

A "torsion abnormality" is not a standard medical term, but I believe you are asking about torsional deformities or abnormalities related to torsion. Torsion refers to a twisting force or movement that can cause structures to rotate around their long axis. In the context of medical definitions:

Torsional abnormality could refer to a congenital or acquired condition where anatomical structures, such as blood vessels, muscles, tendons, or bones, are twisted or rotated in an abnormal way. This can lead to various complications depending on the structure involved and the degree of torsion.

For instance, in congenital torsional deformities of long bones (like tibia or femur), the rotation of the bone axis can cause issues with gait, posture, and joint function. In some cases, this may require surgical intervention to correct the abnormality.

In the context of vascular torsion abnormalities, such as mesenteric torsion, it could lead to bowel ischemia due to the twisting of blood vessels that supply the intestines. This can be a surgical emergency and requires immediate intervention to restore blood flow and prevent further damage.

It's essential to consult with a medical professional for a precise diagnosis and treatment options if you or someone else experiences symptoms related to torsional abnormalities.

Bile acids and salts are naturally occurring steroidal compounds that play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of lipids (fats) in the body. They are produced in the liver from cholesterol and then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form bile acids, which are subsequently converted into bile salts by the addition of a sodium or potassium ion.

Bile acids and salts are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion, where they help emulsify fats, allowing them to be broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body. They also aid in the elimination of waste products from the liver and help regulate cholesterol metabolism.

Abnormalities in bile acid synthesis or transport can lead to various medical conditions, such as cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and diarrhea. Therefore, understanding the role of bile acids and salts in the body is essential for diagnosing and treating these disorders.

Extrahepatic bile ducts refer to the portion of the biliary system that lies outside the liver. The biliary system is responsible for producing, storing, and transporting bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

The extrahepatic bile ducts include:

1. The common hepatic duct: This duct is formed by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which drain bile from the corresponding lobes of the liver.
2. The cystic duct: This short duct connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, allowing bile to flow into the gallbladder for storage and concentration.
3. The common bile duct: This is the result of the fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It transports bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where it aids in fat digestion.
4. The ampulla of Vater (or hepatopancreatic ampulla): This is a dilated area where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the major duodenal papilla.

Extrahepatic bile ducts can be affected by various conditions, such as gallstones, inflammation (cholangitis), strictures, or tumors, which may require medical or surgical intervention.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Sincalide is a synthetic hormone that stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder and the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas. It is used in diagnostic procedures to help diagnose conditions such as gallstones or obstructions of the bile ducts.

Sincalide is a synthetic form of cholecystokinin (CCK), a hormone that is naturally produced in the body and stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder and the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas. When sincalide is administered, it mimics the effects of CCK and causes the gallbladder to contract and release bile into the small intestine. This can help doctors see if there are any obstructions or abnormalities in the bile ducts or gallbladder.

Sincalide is usually given as an injection, and its effects can be monitored through imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scans. It is important to note that sincalide should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can cause side effects such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

"Necturus maculosus" is not a medical term, but a scientific name for a type of salamander. It's commonly known as the mudpuppy or waterdog. While it may not have a direct application in human medicine, studying these animals can contribute to our overall understanding of biology and ecology, which can indirectly inform various medical and health-related fields.

A "second primary neoplasm" is a distinct, new cancer or malignancy that develops in a person who has already had a previous cancer. It is not a recurrence or metastasis of the original tumor, but rather an independent cancer that arises in a different location or organ system. The development of second primary neoplasms can be influenced by various factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and previous treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that the definition of "second primary neoplasm" may vary slightly depending on the specific source or context. In general medical usage, it refers to a new, separate cancer; however, in some research or clinical settings, there might be more precise criteria for defining and diagnosing second primary neoplasms.

A choristoma is a type of growth that occurs when normally functioning tissue is found in an abnormal location within the body. It is not cancerous or harmful, but it can cause problems if it presses on surrounding structures or causes symptoms. Choristomas are typically congenital, meaning they are present at birth, and are thought to occur due to developmental errors during embryonic growth. They can be found in various organs and tissues throughout the body, including the brain, eye, skin, and gastrointestinal tract.

Technetium Tc 99m Diethyl-iminodiacetic Acid (Tc 99m DTPA) is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in medical imaging. It is a technetium-labeled compound, where the radioisotope technetium-99m is bound to diethyl-iminodiacetic acid (DTPA). This complex is used as a renal agent for performing nuclear medicine imaging studies to assess kidney function and structure.

Technetium-99m is a metastable isotope of technetium that emits gamma rays, making it suitable for medical imaging. When Tc 99m DTPA is injected into the patient's body, it is excreted primarily by the kidneys through glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. The gamma rays emitted by technetium-99m are detected by a gamma camera, which generates images of the distribution and excretion of the radiopharmaceutical within the kidneys. This information helps physicians evaluate kidney function, detect abnormalities such as obstructions or tumors, and monitor the effectiveness of treatments.

It is essential to handle and administer Tc 99m DTPA with care due to its radioactive nature, following proper safety guidelines and regulations to ensure patient and staff safety.

Cholecystostomy is a medical procedure that involves the creation of an opening or fistula between the gallbladder and the stomach or the skin surface to drain bile from the gallbladder. This procedure is typically performed when there is an obstruction in the cystic duct or common bile duct, leading to inflammation or infection of the gallbladder (cholecystitis).

There are two types of cholecystostomy: percutaneous and open. Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a small tube through the skin and into the gallbladder under the guidance of imaging techniques such as ultrasound or CT scan. Open cholecystostomy, on the other hand, requires an open surgical incision to access the gallbladder and create the fistula.

Cholecystostomy is usually a temporary measure to manage acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients who are not suitable candidates for surgery or until they become stable enough to undergo a more definitive treatment, such as cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder).

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor (not cancerous), which arises from glandular epithelial cells and is covered by a thin layer of connective tissue. These tumors can develop in various locations within the body, including the ovaries, pancreas, and other organs that contain glands.

There are two main types of cystadenomas: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenomas are filled with a clear or watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenomas contain a thick, gelatinous material. Although they are generally not harmful, these tumors can grow quite large and cause discomfort or other symptoms due to their size or location. In some cases, cystadenomas may undergo malignant transformation and develop into cancerous tumors, known as cystadenocarcinomas. Regular medical follow-up and monitoring are essential for individuals diagnosed with cystadenomas to ensure early detection and treatment of any potential complications.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

The term "DNA, neoplasm" is not a standard medical term or concept. DNA refers to deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the genetic material present in the cells of living organisms. A neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor or growth of abnormal tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

In some contexts, "DNA, neoplasm" may refer to genetic alterations found in cancer cells. These genetic changes can include mutations, amplifications, deletions, or rearrangements of DNA sequences that contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Identifying these genetic abnormalities can help doctors diagnose and treat certain types of cancer more effectively.

However, it's important to note that "DNA, neoplasm" is not a term that would typically be used in medical reports or research papers without further clarification. If you have any specific questions about DNA changes in cancer cells or neoplasms, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or conducting further research on the topic.

Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are a group of rare, chronic blood cancers that originate from the abnormal proliferation or growth of one or more types of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow. These disorders result in an overproduction of mature but dysfunctional blood cells, which can lead to serious complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and organ damage.

There are several subtypes of MPDs, including:

1. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of mature granulocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CML is caused by a genetic mutation that results in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion protein, which drives uncontrolled cell growth and division.
2. Polycythemia Vera (PV): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of all three types of blood cells - red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets - in the bone marrow. This can lead to an increased risk of blood clots, bleeding, and enlargement of the spleen.
3. Essential Thrombocythemia (ET): A disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to an increased risk of blood clots and bleeding.
4. Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF): A disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with scar tissue, leading to impaired blood cell production and anemia, enlargement of the spleen, and increased risk of infections and bleeding.
5. Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia (CNL): A rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bone marrow, leading to an increased number of these cells in the blood. CNL can lead to an increased risk of infections and organ damage.

MPDs are typically treated with a combination of therapies, including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. The choice of treatment depends on several factors, including the subtype of MPD, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any comorbidities.

Ultrasonography, also known as sonography, is a diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to produce dynamic images of organs, tissues, or blood flow inside the body. These images are captured in real-time and can be used to assess the size, shape, and structure of various internal structures, as well as detect any abnormalities such as tumors, cysts, or inflammation.

During an ultrasonography procedure, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the patient's skin, which emits and receives sound waves. The transducer sends high-frequency sound waves into the body, and these waves bounce back off internal structures and are recorded by the transducer. The recorded data is then processed and transformed into visual images that can be interpreted by a medical professional.

Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, painless, and safe procedure that does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as CT scans or X-rays. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions in various parts of the body, including the abdomen, pelvis, heart, blood vessels, and musculoskeletal system.

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Xanthomatosis is a medical term that refers to the condition characterized by the presence of xanthomas, which are yellowish, fat-laden deposits that form under the skin or in other tissues. These deposits consist of lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, and immune cells called macrophages, which have engulfed the lipids.

Xanthomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the eyelids, tendons, joints, and other areas with connective tissue. They may appear as small papules or larger nodules, and their size and number can vary depending on the severity of the underlying disorder.

Xanthomatosis is often associated with genetic disorders that affect lipid metabolism, such as familial hypercholesterolemia, or with acquired conditions that cause high levels of lipids in the blood, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and certain liver diseases. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying disorder and controlling lipid levels through dietary changes, medications, or a combination of both.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a medical procedure that combines upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the bile ducts and pancreas.

During ERCP, a flexible endoscope (a long, thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) is passed through the patient's mouth and throat, then through the stomach and into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A narrow plastic tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope and into the bile ducts and/or pancreatic duct. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter, and X-rays are taken to visualize the ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions affecting the bile ducts and pancreas, including gallstones, tumors, strictures (narrowing of the ducts), and chronic pancreatitis. It can also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing gallstones from the bile duct or placing stents to keep the ducts open in cases of stricture.

ERCP is an invasive procedure that carries a risk of complications, including pancreatitis, infection, bleeding, and perforation (a tear in the lining of the GI tract). It should only be performed by experienced medical professionals in a hospital setting.

Parotid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the parotid gland, which is the largest of the salivary glands and is located in front of the ear and extends down the neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parotid neoplasms are typically slow-growing, painless masses that may cause facial asymmetry or difficulty in chewing or swallowing if they become large enough to compress surrounding structures. The most common type of benign parotid tumor is a pleomorphic adenoma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. They may present as rapidly growing masses that are firm or fixed to surrounding structures. Common types of malignant parotid tumors include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The diagnosis of parotid neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the nature of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the gastrointestinal tract, which can be benign or malignant. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. They can sometimes be removed completely and may not cause any further health problems.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths that can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These types of neoplasms can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

GI neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. The specific symptoms may depend on the location and size of the neoplasm.

There are many types of GI neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), lymphomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of GI neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Neoplasms of connective and soft tissue are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the body's supportive tissues, such as cartilage, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and fat. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign connective and soft tissue neoplasms include:
- Lipomas: slow-growing, fatty tumors that develop under the skin.
- Fibromas: firm, benign tumors that develop in connective tissue such as tendons or ligaments.
- Nevi (plural of nevus): benign growths made up of cells called melanocytes, which produce pigment.

Malignant connective and soft tissue neoplasms include:
- Sarcomas: a type of cancer that develops in the body's supportive tissues such as muscle, bone, fat, cartilage, or blood vessels. There are many different types of sarcomas, including liposarcoma (fatty tissue), rhabdomyosarcoma (muscle), and osteosarcoma (bone).
- Desmoid tumors: a rare type of benign tumor that can become aggressive and invade surrounding tissues. While not considered cancerous, desmoid tumors can cause significant morbidity due to their tendency to grow and infiltrate nearby structures.

Connective and soft tissue neoplasms can present with various symptoms depending on their location and size. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis (spread) of the tumor.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). When referring to "Complex and Mixed Neoplasms," it is typically used in the context of histopathology, where it describes tumors with a mixture of different types of cells or growth patterns.

A complex neoplasm usually contains areas with various architectural patterns, cell types, or both, making its classification challenging. It may require extensive sampling and careful examination to determine its nature and behavior. These neoplasms can be either benign or malignant, depending on the specific characteristics of the tumor cells and their growth pattern.

A mixed neoplasm, on the other hand, is a tumor that contains more than one type of cell or tissue component, often arising from different germ layers (the three primary layers of embryonic development: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm). A common example of a mixed neoplasm is a teratoma, which can contain tissues derived from all three germ layers, such as skin, hair, teeth, bone, and muscle. Mixed neoplasms can also be benign or malignant, depending on the specific components of the tumor.

It's important to note that the classification and behavior of complex and mixed neoplasms can vary significantly based on their location in the body, cellular composition, and other factors. Accurate diagnosis typically requires a thorough examination by an experienced pathologist and may involve additional tests, such as immunohistochemistry or molecular analysis, to determine the appropriate treatment and management strategies.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

Plasma cell neoplasms are a type of cancer that originates from plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. These cells are responsible for producing antibodies to help fight off infections. When plasma cells become cancerous and multiply out of control, they can form a tumor called a plasmacytoma.

There are two main types of plasma cell neoplasms: solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma. Solitary plasmacytoma is a localized tumor that typically forms in the bone, while multiple myeloma is a systemic disease that affects multiple bones and can cause a variety of symptoms such as bone pain, fatigue, and anemia.

Plasma cell neoplasms are diagnosed through a combination of tests, including blood tests, imaging studies, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the stage and extent of the disease, but may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

A biliary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the biliary system (which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver) and another organ or structure, usually in the abdominal cavity. This connection allows bile, which is a digestive fluid produced by the liver, to leak out of its normal pathway and into other areas of the body.

Biliary fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammation in the biliary system. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and clay-colored stools. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula, such as draining an infection or repairing damaged tissue, and diverting bile flow away from the site of the leak. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula.

Appendiceal neoplasms refer to various types of tumors that can develop in the appendix, a small tube-like structure attached to the large intestine. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can include:

1. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms.
2. Carcinoids: These are neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the hormone-producing cells in the appendix. They are typically small and slow-growing, but some can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Mucinous neoplasms: These are tumors that produce mucin, a slippery substance that can cause the appendix to become distended and filled with mucus. They can be low-grade (less aggressive) or high-grade (more aggressive) and may spread to other parts of the abdomen.
4. Adenocarcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the glandular cells lining the appendix. They are relatively rare but can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.
5. Pseudomyxoma peritonei: This is a condition in which mucin produced by an appendiceal neoplasm leaks into the abdominal cavity, causing a jelly-like accumulation of fluid and tissue. It can be caused by both benign and malignant tumors.

Treatment for appendiceal neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

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... bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.130.320.120.280 - common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.130.320.401 - gallbladder neoplasms MeSH ... bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.301.120.250.250 - common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.301.120.401 - gallbladder neoplasms MeSH ... rectal neoplasms MeSH C06.301.371.411.307.790.040 - anus neoplasms MeSH C06.301.371.411.307.790.040.040 - anal gland neoplasms ... rectal neoplasms MeSH C06.405.249.411.307.790.040 - anus neoplasms MeSH C06.405.249.411.307.790.040.040 - anal gland neoplasms ...
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Laparoscope was used in the diagnosis of liver and gallbladder disease by Heinz Kalk in the 1930s. Hope reported in 1937 on the ... Small intestine: small intestine neoplasms, smooth muscle tumors, sarcomas, polyps, lymphomas, inflammation, etc. Large ...
... a porcelain gallbladder appearance on ultrasound, and the presence of polyps within the gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer may ... from patients who had never had a gastric malignant neoplasm), non-tumor tissue adjacent to a gastric cancer, and gastric ... The prognosis for gallbladder cancer is poor.: 981 MALT lymphoma is a cancer of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, usually ... Overall, the GI tract and the accessory organs of digestion (pancreas, liver, gall bladder) are responsible for more cancers ...
Bile from the gallbladder is carried to the CBD and emptied into the duodenum. CBD drainage might be obstructed due to distal ... Gore RM, Shelhamer RP (October 2007). "Biliary tract neoplasms: diagnosis and staging". Cancer Imaging. 7 Spec No A (Special ... The gallbladder is removed (cholecystectomy). Kocherization of the duodenum is performed, which involves mobilisation of the ... In the United States, an estimated 6000-7000 new cases of gallbladder carcinoma and 3000-4000 new cases of bile ducts carcinoma ...
He and Philip D. McMaster worked out the main function of gall bladder as the site of bile concentration. He showed that bile ... Rous, Peyton (1910-09-01). "A transmissible avian neoplasm.(Sarcoma of the common fowl.)". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 12 ... Rous also made important contributions in the physiology of digestion focussing on the liver and gall bladder. With Louise D. ... Rous, Peyton; McMaster, Philip D. (1921-07-01). "The concentrating activity of the gall bladder". Journal of Experimental ...
... unresectable gallbladder cancer-see gallbladder cancer - unsealed internal radiation therapy-see radiation therapy - upper GI ... neoplasm - nephrotomogram - nephrotoxic - nephroureterectomy - nerve block - nerve grafting - nerve-sparing radical ... localized gallbladder cancer - locally advanced cancer - lometrexol - lomustine - lonafarnib - loop electrosurgical excision ... Hürthle cell neoplasm - hydrazine sulfate - hydromorphone - hydronephrosis - hydroureter - hydroxychloroquine - hydroxyurea - ...
Neoplasms Sarcomas Precancerous lesions Coinfectious agent promoting the above growths Carcinogenic bacteria Sexually ... "Genotoxic Effect of Salmonella Paratyphi A Infection on Human Primary Gallbladder Cells". mBio. 11 (5): e01911-20, /mbio/11/5/ ... "Salmonella Manipulation of Host Signaling Pathways Provokes Cellular Transformation Associated with Gallbladder Carcinoma". ...
Gallbladder cancer is difficult to diagnose because there are no symptoms in its early stages. Read about tests, treatment ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Gallbladder Neoplasms (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and abstracts from ... Can Gallbladder Cancer Be Prevented? (American Cancer Society) Also in Spanish * Risk Factors for Gallbladder Cancer (American ... Stages of Gallbladder Cancer (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish * Tests for Gallbladder Cancer (American Cancer ...
Soga J (March 2003). "Primary endocrinomas (carcinoids and variant neoplasms) of the gallbladder. A statistical evaluation of ... G1 and G2 neuroendocrine neoplasms are called neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) - formerly called carcinoid tumours. G3 neoplasms ... Although there are many kinds of NETs, they are treated as a group of tissue because the cells of these neoplasms share common ... Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems. They most ...
In addition, small neoplasms of the gallbladder and the bile duct may be missed. ... gallbladder or biliary neoplasms, pancreatitis, and hepatic abscesses. ... Nonvisualization of the gallbladder occurred in 18 (67%) of 27 patients at 4 hours after injection of radionuclide. Most ... CT scans of a choledochal cyst show a dilated cystic mass with clearly defined walls that is separate from the gallbladder. The ...
Malignant neoplasm of gallbladder. C24.0. Malignant neoplasm of extrahepatic bile duct. C24.1. Malignant neoplasm of ampulla of ... Malignant neoplasm of pancreatic duct. .... and many more. Sorry, you need to login or register to view additional sections of ... Malignant neoplasm of tail of pancreas. C25.3. ... Malignant neoplasm of overlapping sites of biliary tract. C24.9 ... Malignant neoplasm of body of pancreas. C25.2. ... Malignant neoplasm of biliary tract, unspecified. C25.0. ...
Gallbladder Neoplasms 1 0 Intestinal Neoplasms 1 0 Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations 1 0 ...
Carcinoma of gallbladder C23 (c) Metastatic carcinoma of colon C785 Code to malignant neoplasm of gallbladder (C23). Tubercular ...
Biliary Tract Neoplasms 100% * Gallbladder Neoplasms 74% * Disease-Free Survival 66% * Cholangiocarcinoma 65% ...
Prostatic Neoplasms Medicine & Life Sciences 59% * Blood Pressure Medicine & Life Sciences 58% ...
Gallbladder neoplasm:1,,Gender:1,,General practice:1,,Graded prognostic assessment:1,,Heart:1,,Hepatic arterial infusion ... Liver neoplasm:5,,Metaanalysis:5,,Breast cancer:5,,liver neoplasm:4,,Oligometastasis:4,,Radiation therapy:4,,lung cancer:4,, ... Breast neoplasm:2,,Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association:1,,Open access:1,,Overall survival:1,,Physical activity:1,, ... Colorectal neoplasms:3,,Radiofrequency ablation:3,,prevention:3,,Cholangiocarcinoma:3,,sorafenib:3,,stereotactic body ...
Health Condition 1: C23- Malignant neoplasm of gallbladder Intervention(s) Intervention1: Rilvegostomig IV infusion + ... 2 Ampullary cancer, neuroendocrine, mixed neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine neoplasms and nonepithelial tumors. 3 Any anti- ...
Gallbladder Neoplasms. *Gene Expression Profiling. *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. *Gene Frequency. *Genes, BRCA1 ...
PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the gallbladder are very rare. As a result, the classification of pathologic ... Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gallbladder: early detection and surgery is key to improved outcome. ... CONCLUSION: Gallbladder NENs are a rare histopathological variant of gallbladder cancer that is showing a rising incidence in ... With the wide spread treatment of gallbladder disease with minimally invasive techniques, the rate of incidental gallbladder ...
A general surgeon performs a wide range of abdominal surgeries for many forms of intestinal and abdominal wall neoplasms, ... gallbladder disease, and gastric and pancreatic disease. They follow the patient through critical care and surgical recovery ... gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland. ...
... gallbladder, and urinary tract of an immunodeficient man with HIV (6). Although not confirmed by sequence analysis, the finding ... Cryptosporidium baileyi Pulmonary Infection in Immunocompetent Woman with Benign Neoplasm On This Page ... Findings from a 51-year-old immunocompetent woman with a benign neoplasm and Cryptosporidium baileyi pulmonary infection, ... Cryptosporidium baileyi Pulmonary Infection in Immunocompetent Woman with Benign Neoplasm. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020; ...
... and gallbladder cancer. All subtypes of biliary tract cancers are rare and have an overall poor prognosis. ... Douglas HO, Tepper JE, Leichman L. Neoplasms of the Gallbladder. Holland JF, et al, eds. Cancer Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia ... The incidence of gallbladder cancer rises with age. Seventy-five percent of patients with gallbladder cancer are older than 64 ... However, chronic gallbladder inflammation is likely only part of the cause of the malignant transformation seen in gallbladder ...
Adenocarcinoma is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the most common malignant neoplasm of the gallbladder.1 Although ... of all gallbladder malignancies.1 The histogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder PAK6 has not been well ... Carcinoma of the gallbladder is more common in women and usually Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical seen in patients older ... Some researchers have stated that squamous cell carcinoma originates from pre-existing squamous metaplasia of the gallbladder ...
Malignant neoplasm of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts 156.0 Gallbladder 156.1 Extrahepatic bile ducts Biliary duct or ... Hydrops of gallbladder Mucocele of gallbladder 575.4 Perforation of gallbladder Rupture of cystic duct or gallbladder 575.5 ... gallbladder Atrophy (of) cystic duct, gallbladder Cyst (of) cystic duct, gallbladder Hypertrophy (of) cystic duct, gallbladder ... Benign neoplasms 230-234 Carcinoma in situ 235-238 Neoplasms of uncertain behavior [see Note, page 140] 239 Neoplasms of ...
Malignant neoplasms of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (155) 100 070 Malignant neoplasms of gallbladder and extrahepatic ... Malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri (180) 200 2 044 Malignant neoplasm of body of uterus (182) 210 2 061 Malignant neoplasms of ... Malignant neoplasm of test is (186) 240 037 Malignant neoplasm of bladder (188) 250 078 Malignant neoplasms of kidney and other ... Malignant neoplasm of breast (174-175) 200 049 Malignant neoplasms of genital organs (179-187) 210 049 Malignant neoplasms of ...
Our study constitutes the most comprehensive methylation profile report available in GBC and demonstrates that this neoplasm ... Whereas gallbladders from healthy individual were not available, our finding of methylation in CC cases without cancer suggests ... There is limited information about the molecular changes involved in the pathogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), including ... Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of multiple genes in gallbladder carcinoma and chronic cholecystitis.. ...
Intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasm in a patient with choledochal cyst: a link between choledochal cyst and gallbladder ... Neoplasm*Neoplasm by Special Category*Benign neoplasm*Benign gastrointestinal tract tumors*Benign Extrahepatic Bile Duct ... Intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasm in a patient with choledochal cyst: a link between choledochal cyst and gallbladder ...
Bone neoplasms * Carcinogens * Combined modality th... * Esophageal neoplasms * Gallbladder neoplasm... * Gastrointestinal neo ... Histological typing of tumours of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts / J. Albores-Saavedra, D. E. Henson, and L. H. ...
Gallbladder Cancer use Gallbladder Neoplasms Gallbladder Cancers use Gallbladder Neoplasms Gallbladder Disease use Gallbladder ... Gall Bladder Cancer use Gallbladder Neoplasms Gall Bladder Cancers use Gallbladder Neoplasms Gall Bladder Disease use ... Gallbladder Inflammation, Acalculous use Acalculous Cholecystitis Gallbladder Neoplasm use Gallbladder Neoplasms Gallbladder ... Gall Bladder Diseases use Gallbladder Diseases Gall Bladder Emptying use Gallbladder Emptying Gall Bladder Empyema use ...
Gallbladder Cancer use Gallbladder Neoplasms Gallbladder Cancers use Gallbladder Neoplasms Gallbladder Disease use Gallbladder ... Gall Bladder Cancer use Gallbladder Neoplasms Gall Bladder Cancers use Gallbladder Neoplasms Gall Bladder Disease use ... Gallbladder Inflammation, Acalculous use Acalculous Cholecystitis Gallbladder Neoplasm use Gallbladder Neoplasms Gallbladder ... Gall Bladder Diseases use Gallbladder Diseases Gall Bladder Emptying use Gallbladder Emptying Gall Bladder Empyema use ...
Hemocholecyst - Acute presentation of carcinoma of gallbladder. Gimmon, Z. & Okon, E., 1983, In: American Journal of Proctology ... Duplication of the gallbladder associated with childhood obstructive biliary disease and biliary cirrhosis. Granot, E., ...
Adults: Excess red blood cells (polycythemia Polycythemia Vera Polycythemia vera is a myeloproliferative neoplasm of the blood- ... see Imaging Tests of the Liver and Gallbladder Imaging Tests of the Liver and Gallbladder Imaging tests of the liver, ... gallbladder, and biliary tract include ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ...
Neoplasms Neoplasms Breast Male Neoplasms Connective and Soft Tissue Neoplasms Dental Tissue Neoplasms Nervous System Neoplasms ... Emphysema Pulmonary Empty Sella Syndrome Empty Sella Syndrome Primary Empty Sella Syndrome Secondary Empyema Gallbladder ... Ear Cancer Ear Diseases Ear Neoplasms Eating Disorders Eaton-Lambert Syndrome Ebola Virus Infections Ebsteins Anomaly EBV ... Magnesium Deficiency Mal de Debarquement Malaria Male Breast Neoplasms Male Genital Diseases Male Genital Neoplasms Male ...
However, several health problems showed increased risks among farm workers of both sexes: diseases of the gall bladder; ... and neoplasms. Females over 65 years of age with 20 or more years of agricultural exposure exhibited the largest number of ...
result sql = Gall bladder. Gall bladder 46. char = N;code = 78. char = e;code = 101. char = o;code = 111. char = p;code = 112. ... result sql = Neoplasm. Neoplasm 44. char = s;code = 115. char = m;code = 109. char = o;code = 111. char = k;code = 107. char = ... See more studies on Gallbladder Cancer and.... How is this determined? The order of these related concepts is determined by a ...
Hypersensitivity, pregnancy, estrogen depending malignant neoplasms, unusual or undiagnosed genital and uterine bleeding, ... gallbladder r disease in history, severe liver failure, jaundice, hepatic porphyria, hypercalcemia associated with metastases ...
  • An association exists between an anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ) and choledochal cysts, cholangiocarcinoma, and carcinoma of the gallbladder. (medscape.com)
  • Carcinoma of the gallbladder is more common in women and usually Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical seen in patients older than 50 years of age. (mirnamimics.com)
  • Adenocarcinoma is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the most common malignant neoplasm of the gallbladder.1 Although areas of squamous differentiation is seen in adenocarcinoma, pure primary squamous cell carcinoma is rarely reported and accounts for less than 1% of all gallbladder malignancies.1 The histogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder PAK6 has not been well understood. (mirnamimics.com)
  • Hepatic resection in 485 R0 pT2 and pT3 cases of advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder: results of a Japanese Society of Biliary Surgery survey--a multicenter study. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Your gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ under your liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The duct connects your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Oncological diseases of the liver are accompanied by an increase in the level of bilirubin and ALT, and an increased level of alkaline phosphatase is a sign of bone tumors, gallbladder or liver damage. (alamedacsw.org)
  • A schematic drawing of the extent of lymphadenectomy for gallbladder cancer, especially when the extrahepatic biliary tree is resected. (medscape.com)
  • Carcinoid tumors and small-cell carcinomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts: a comparative study based on 221 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Should the extrahepatic bile duct be resected or preserved in R0 radical surgery for advanced gallbladder carcinoma? (cancercentrum.se)
  • Cancers of the biliary tract include cholangiocarcinoma (cancers arising from the bile duct epithelium), ampulla of Vater cancer , and gallbladder cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Hypersensitivity, pregnancy, estrogen depending malignant neoplasms, unusual or undiagnosed genital and uterine bleeding, thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disease in active phase (excluding treatment of breast and prostate cancer). (blueorangepharma.cc)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 Ampullary cancer, neuroendocrine, mixed neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine neoplasms and nonepithelial tumors. (who.int)
  • Findings from a 51-year-old immunocompetent woman with a benign neoplasm and Cryptosporidium baileyi pulmonary infection, Poland, 2015. (cdc.gov)
  • The term neoplasm includes both benign and malignant "new growths) A carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm of epithelial cells. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Some researchers have stated that squamous cell carcinoma originates from pre-existing squamous metaplasia of the gallbladder epithelium, while others concluded that it originates from squamous differentiation of neoplastic cells of adenocarcinoma.1,2 We present a pure case of squamous cell carcinoma with some areas of squamous metaplasia in the vicinity of the invasive tumor. (mirnamimics.com)
  • The American Cancer Society estimates that approximately 10,000 new cases of gallbladder cancer and other biliary cancers will be diagnosed in 2013. (medscape.com)
  • Stage IVB : Cancer has spread to either lymph nodes along large arteries in the abdomen and/or near the lower part of the backbone or to organs or areas far away from the gallbladder. (medscape.com)
  • Although complete surgical resection is the only therapy to afford a chance of cure, en bloc resections of the gallbladder and portal lymph nodes carry a high morbidity and mortality (similar to bile duct carcinoma). (medscape.com)
  • The image below is a schematic drawing of the extent of lymphadenectomy for gallbladder cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Indications for pancreatoduodenectomy in patients undergoing lymphadenectomy for advanced gallbladder carcinoma. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Lung and thymic neuroendocrine neoplasms are classified in a similar manner, including typical and atypical carcinoids, small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carincomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • A general surgeon performs a wide range of abdominal surgeries for many forms of intestinal and abdominal wall neoplasms, gallbladder disease, and gastric and pancreatic disease. (yourdigitalwall.com)
  • Neuroendocrine carcinomas are poorly differentiated high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms and a designation of tumor grade is therefore redundant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracholecystic papillary-tubular neoplasm in a patient with choledochal cyst: a link between choledochal cyst and gallbladder cancer? (nih.gov)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scans also may be useful in patients with upper abdominal pain and can demonstrate tumor invasion outside of the gallbladder and identify metastatic disease elsewhere in the abdomen or pelvis. (medscape.com)
  • At the same time, at the gastroenterology clinic, a 64- year old Caucasian female, named Ashley, is incidentally found to have diffuse gallbladder calcification on an abdominal x- ray. (osmosis.org)
  • Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) may establish the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer by bile cytology. (medscape.com)
  • As your stomach and intestines digest food, your gallbladder releases bile through a tube called the common bile duct. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Polycythemia Vera Polycythemia vera is a myeloproliferative neoplasm of the blood-producing cells of the bone marrow that results in overproduction of all types of blood cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our study constitutes the most comprehensive methylation profile report available in GBC and demonstrates that this neoplasm has a distinct pattern of abnormal gene methylation. (nih.gov)
  • Female farm workers showed increased risks for uterovaginal prolapse, acute myocardial infarction, diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, and neoplasms. (cdc.gov)
  • Both Valencia and Ashley have gallbladder diseases. (osmosis.org)
  • Another purpose of this case presentation was to emphasize on the vague clinical presentation of gallbladder carcinoma. (mirnamimics.com)
  • Ultrasound is a harmless research method that allows you to get an image of internal organs and identify neoplasms in the body cavities. (alamedacsw.org)
  • Adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the gallbladder with perineural invasion: revisited. (cancercentrum.se)
  • It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gallbladder cancer is difficult to detect and diagnose. (medscape.com)
  • Gallbladder cancer is a rare disease that often arises in the setting of chronic inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of multiple genes in gallbladder carcinoma and chronic cholecystitis. (nih.gov)
  • Risk factors for that include pregnancy, since progesterone also slows gallbladder emptying, rapid weight loss, medications like octreotide , and high spinal cord injuries . (osmosis.org)
  • Although there are many kinds of NETs, they are treated as a group of tissue because the cells of these neoplasms share common features, including a similar histological appearance, having special secretory granules, and often producing biogenic amines and polypeptide hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholecystokinin, in turn, makes its way to the gallbladder and tells it to squeeze bile out into the small intestine . (osmosis.org)
  • A mass can be identified in 50-75% of patients with gallbladder cancer. (medscape.com)
  • The role of staging laparoscopy in primary gall bladder cancer--an analysis of 409 patients: a prospective study to evaluate the role of staging laparoscopy in the management of gallbladder cancer. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Factors influencing recurrence after surgical treatment for T2 gallbladder carcinoma. (cancercentrum.se)
  • Whereas gallbladders from healthy individual were not available, our finding of methylation in CC cases without cancer suggests that this phenomenon represents an early event in the pathogenesis of GBC. (nih.gov)