Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Infant, Premature, DiseasesFetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Illegitimacy: The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.United StatesPregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).NorwayPlacenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.BrazilReproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Maternal-Fetal Relations: The bond or lack thereof between a pregnant woman and her FETUS.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Leukomalacia, Periventricular: Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Paternal Age: Age of the biological father.Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Milk, HumanCerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.SwedenGrowth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.DenmarkQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.EnglandPostpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Vaginal Birth after Cesarean: Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.IllinoisIntelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Infant, Extremely Premature: A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.IndiaConfidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.GuatemalaFetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Full-service community schools in the United States
... low birth weight, environmental damage (e.g., exposure to lead or mercury); hunger and nutrition, talking and reading to babies ... gain further legislative support around community schools, and convert public schools to community schools. In addition to the ... birth weight, and nutrition-and have difficulty attaining and fully utilizing government aid. While these differences, may not ... and are more likely to be born premature or with low birth weights. In order to raise student academic achievement, lower-class ...
... and preterm birth is unclear. The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies. Weight gain is related to the weight ... Final weight gain takes place, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy. The woman's abdomen will transform in ... Most needed weight gain occurs later in pregnancy. The Institute of Medicine recommends an overall pregnancy weight gain for ... Excessive weight gain can make losing weight after the pregnancy difficult. Around 50% of women of childbearing age in ...
This resulted in increased stillbirths, decreased offspring survival after birth, and decreased body weight gain. In another ... The weight loss could also be due to decreased daytime appetite (experienced by many users) and the instructions to not eat for ... Some patients treated with sodium oxybate have also experienced moderate to significant weight loss. This may be due to the ... Husain, AM; Ristanovic, RK; Bogan, RK (2009). "Weight loss in narcolepsy patients treated with sodium oxybate". Sleep medicine ...
The excess weight gain was not apparent at birth or in infancy, but occurred in adulthood. Initially, fewer studies documented ... DES turned out to be an obesogen capable of causing adult weight gain in female mice which had been exposed to DES during ... DES gained notoriety when it was shown to cause a rare vaginal tumor in girls and young women who had been exposed to this drug ... The NCI study provides limited evidence of an increased risk of birth defects in the sons or daughters of women who were ...
While exposure didn't lead to an abnormal birth weight, significant weight gain occurred much later in adulthood. SSRI (e.g. ... While an increase in food intake is often the case after exposure, weight gain involves the body's maintenance of its metabolic ... The chronic burden of obesity doesn't stop with weight gain. It can also lead to potentially debilitating chronic diseases such ... Kim SF, Huang AS, Snowman AM, Teuscher C, Snyder SH (February 2007). "From the Cover: Antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain ...
One Big Happy Family
She tells the viewers that she began to gain weight after giving birth to Amber and Shayne. Norris Coles - (41 years old, 340 ... The show deals with their family life and with their efforts to lose weight, (each family member, at the initial episode, ... weighed in excess of 330 pounds). The numbers in parentheses are the age and weight of each family member when the first ...
Data mining in agriculture
... "neural network model to describe weight gain of sheep from genes polymorphism, birth weight and birth type". Livestock science ... birth weight, and birth type. The results revealed that the ANN-model is an appropriate tool to recognize the patterns of data ... birth weight, and birth type. The platform of PCR-SSCP approach and ANN-based model analyses may be used in molecular marker- ... Analyses of the artificial neural network models for weight gain and feed efficiency from a compiled data set suggested that ...
Prenatal cocaine exposure
In association with prematurity, growth in the womb is reduced, and low birth weight is connected to PCE. There are also data ... Cocaine reduces the appetite and has been linked with reduced maternal weight gain during pregnancy; in addition, constriction ... When researchers control for use of other drugs, many of the seeming effects of cocaine on head size, birth weight, Apgar ... However, PCE is associated with premature birth, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other conditions ...
... whereas an underweight woman needs to gain up to 18 kilograms in weight. . In order to have a good estimate of birth weight, ... Their babies are least likely to either be low-birth weight or high-birth weight. It is advised that women with a normal weight ... The amount of weight gain depends strongly on their pre-pregnant weight. Generally, a normal weight is strongly recommended for ... Gestational weight gain should also be progressive and the recommended weight depends on pre-pregnant body weight. Since the ...
... and preterm birth is unclear.. Weight gain. The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies. Weight gain ... Final weight gain takes place, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy. The woman's abdomen will transform in ... Most needed weight gain occurs later in pregnancy.. The Institute of Medicine recommends an overall pregnancy weight gain ... Excessive weight gain can make losing weight after the pregnancy difficult. ...
Expected progeny difference
Birth weight measures how much above or below the breed's average an offspring will gain due to the parent. It does not ... High birth weight is the biggest cause of difficulty in calving, so having a bull with a low birth weight EPD is high ... Weaning and yearling weight measure the amount of weight an offspring has gained by the time it is weaned and at the one year ... This EDP is different in that it is measured in units of marbling score, and not in weight gained by an animal. Higher values ...
Low milk supply
The infant should be consistently gaining weight and growing. In newborns, a loss of more than 5 to 7 percent of birth weight ... and subsequently inflate the baby's weight loss. Newborns should regain their birth weight by two weeks of age, and gain at ... The use of IV fluids in labour tends to artificially increase the birth weight of the baby, ... The first week after birth is a critical window for establishing milk supply. The Ten Steps of the Baby Friendly Hospital ...
The iron-deficiency anaemia increases the risk of low weight in birth and transmits the iron-deficiency to infants. One benefit ... A 2009 study showed that over 52 percent of pregnant women gain more weight than the recommended, 23-35 pounds. During the ... is the possibility of minimizing pregnancy weight gain. Because being a vegetarian is a choice less often chosen, many have ... "Weight Gain during Pregnancy: Trends and Outcomes," Focus, January 2011, http://health.mo.gov/data/focus/pdf/FOCUS_Jan11.pdf ...
Weight gain is often quite fast and the lambs may weigh 10 times their birth weight by their first birthday. Females often ... At birth, the lambs weigh 2.7-4.6 kg (6.0-10.1 lb). The newborn lamb and mother ewe stay around where the birth occurs ... Most subspecies give birth to a single lamb, though in some races, twins are not uncommon and even as many as five have been ... The North American bighorn sheep may approach comparable weights but is normally considerably outsized by the argali. Argali ...
These may include: Birth defects Low birth weight Premature birth Small head circumference Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) ... After the infant is born it may have poor weight gain, frequent infections, developmental delays and emotional problems. Though ... Clinicians will watch the newborn carefully for up to a week after birth for signs of withdrawal, feeding problems, and weight ... the baby will be dependent on the drug at birth. Because the baby is no longer getting the drug after birth, withdrawal ...
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus
Persistent organic pollutant
... maternal gestational weight gain, and birth outcomes in the mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (RHEA study)". Environ Int. 64 ... their birth weight, gestational age, and head circumference. The birth weight and head circumference of the infants was the ... A Greek study from 2014 investigated the link between maternal weight gain during pregnancy, their PCB-exposure level and PCB ... reduced the birth weight, length, head circumference and chest circumference. Traditionally it was thought that human exposure ...
They are 1.5 to 4.5 g (0.05 to 0.16 oz) in weight at birth. Newborn kits are born pink, naked, blind and deaf, but gain a white ... Despite its small size, the least weasel is a fierce hunter, capable of killing a rabbit five to ten times its own weight. ... The average daily food intake is 35 g (1 oz), which is equivalent to 30-35% of the animal's body weight. The least weasel is ...
Mites of domestic animals
Obesity and the environment
Effects of obesogens in animals are the same effects researchers see later in life for low-birth weight babies - glucose ... The study concludes that obesogens change an individual's metabolic set points for gaining weight. What little research has ... Such weight stigma can be defined as derogatory comments, preferential treatment towards normal-weight colleagues, and denial ... curve are gaining weight. Whatever is happening is happening to everyone, suggesting an environmental trigger." The theory of ...
Donna Simpson (internet celebrity)
Gouamba said he supports her goal: "Gaining weight makes Donna happy and seeing her happy makes me happy." He is one of her ... At the time she weighed 532 pounds (241 kg). Six months after giving birth, she decided that her target weight would be 1,000 ... Her birth required a team of 30 doctors. She became the heaviest woman ever to give birth. ... At around this time, her father was upset by her weight and encouraged her to go on a diet; she lost 70 pounds (32 kg) in six ...
Copper in health
However, supplementation under the care of a physician may be necessary for premature infants or those with low birth weights, ... Copper deficiencies in these populations may result in anemia, bone abnormalities, impaired growth, weight gain, frequent ... Fetuses and infants of severely copper deficient women have increased risk of low birth weights, muscle weaknesses, and ... Populations susceptible to copper deficiency include those with genetic defects for Menkes disease, low-birth-weight infants, ...
S Scott, P Lucas, T Cole and M Richards, Weight gain and movement patterns of very low birthweight babies nursed on lambswool. ... found that low birthweight babies in incubators had greater daily weight gain when on a 22 mm lambswool pile fabric with ... 3.1 Weight and thickness. Fabric weight and thickness reflect the differing fabric constructions of the two products. The ... Note: The term fabric 'weight' is used in this document (and throughout the textile industry) to refer to the 'weight per unit ...
North American porcupine
At birth, they weigh about 450 g, which increases to nearly 1 kg after the first two weeks. They do not gain full adult weight ... Weight can range from 3.5 to 18 kg (7.7 to 39.7 lb). Weight in adult females can average some 7 kg (15 lb) while 5 wild ... Their quills harden soon after birth.. Female porcupines provide all the maternal care. For the first two weeks, the young rely ... Porcupines give birth to a single young. ...
... and preterm birth is unclear.. Weight gain. The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies. Weight gain ... Final weight gain takes place during the third trimester, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy. The woman's ... Most needed weight gain occurs later in pregnancy.. The Institute of Medicine recommends an overall pregnancy weight gain ... Excessive weight gain can make losing weight after the pregnancy difficult. ...
Mutant mice are phenotypically indistinguishable from their unaffected littermates at birth, but gain weight rapidly throughout ... Friedman JM, Halaas JL (October 1998). "Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals". Nature. 395 (6704): 763-70. doi: ... their lives, reaching a weight three times that of unaffected mice. ob/ob mice develop high blood sugar, despite an enlargement ...
A change in the composition of the microbiota in the placenta is associated with excess gestational weight gain, pre-term birth ... The placental microbiota varies between low birth weights and normal birth weights. While bacteria are often found in the ... Zheng J, Xiao X, Zhang Q, Mao L, Yu M, Xu J (2015). "The Placental Microbiome Varies in Association with Low Birth Weight in ... "The preterm placental microbiome varies in association with excess maternal gestational weight gain". American Journal of ...
Brachial plexus injury
... risks for newborns are increased with gained birth weight, birth delivery where a vacuum is assisted, ... Ecker, J; Greenberg, J. A.; Norwitz, E. R.; Nadel, A. S.; Repke, J. T. (1997). "Birth Weight as a Predictor of Brachial Plexus ... The risk of BPI at birth is highest for infants weighing more than 4.5 kg at birth born to diabetic women. Type of delivery ... in young children at a rate of 0.38 to 1.56 per 1000 live births depending on the type of care and the average birth weight of ...
... that some materials gain weight on strong heating. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) and others later interpreted this gain in ... There has been controversy over both the location and year of Mayow's birth, with both Cornwall and London claimed, along with ... Mayow perceived the part "spiritus nitro-aereus" plays in combustion and in increasing the weight of the calces (oxides) of ... undergoes an increase of weight which can be attributed to nothing else but these particles. Mayow argued that the same ...
Continuous studies have shown that increased BMI and weight gain are associated with people who spend long hours online and not ... Mannix, Loretta H.; Stratton, Julius Adams (2005). Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 190-92. ISBN ... Science is systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation. ... "The First Baby Boom: Skeletal Evidence Shows Abrupt Worldwide Increase In Birth Rate During Neolithic Period". ScienceDaily ...
Internet of things
In Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison Foucault asserts that the panopticon was a central element of the discipline ... The field gained momentum when Bill Joy envisioned device-to-device communication as a part of his "Six Webs" framework, ... Light-weight Linux distribution. *Real-time operating system. *Windows IoT *Win CE ... GE Digital CEO William Ruh speaking about GE's attempts to gain a foothold in the market for IoT services at the first IEEE ...
Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development
Birth to adulthood. New York: Academic Press. *^ a b Case, R., Okamoto, Y., Griffin, S., McKeough, A., Bleiker, C., Henderson, ... Individual differences in intellectual growth are related to both the ability to gain insight about mental processes and ... weight, volume, etc., and, in adolescence, hypothesis testing, controlled experimentation, and abstract concepts, such as ... In the age span from birth to middle adolescence, the changes are faster in all of the domains. With development, thought in ...
"Global weight gain more damaging than rising numbers". BBC. June 18, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2013.. ... Average global birth rates are declining fast, but vary greatly between developed countries (where birth rates are often at or ... Total annual births were highest in the late 1980s at about 139 million, and as of 2011 were expected to remain essentially ... Haub also stated that "life expectancy at birth probably averaged only about ten years for most of human history", which ...
肥胖症 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Changes in Diet and Lifestyle and Long-Term Weight Gain in Women and Men. The New England Journal of Medicine (Meta-analysis). ... A birth of inactivity? A review of physical activity and parenthood. Prev Med (Review). 2008-02, 46 (2): 99-110. PMID 17919713 ... Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (Review). 2006-08, 84 (2): 274-88 ... Weight regain in U.S. adults who experienced substantial weight loss, 1999-2002. Am J Prev Med. 2007-07, 33 (1): 34-40. PMID ...
He gained honorary degrees from Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh. In Trinity College Dublin he moved the first-ever motion at ... Darwin and Wallace would not be worthy of note were it not for the weight of authority of the names under whose auspices it has ... 1821 births. *1897 deaths. *People from County Carlow. *Irish geologists. *Irish zoologists ...
He quickly gained mount, where he rained down punches before transitioning to an arm-triangle choke, forcing de Paula to tap at ... Only a month later, in November 2005, Aldo went up a weight class to lightweight and fought respected Luta Livre black belt ... 1986 births. *Living people. *Ultimate Fighting Championship champions. *People awarded a black belt in Brazilian jiu-jitsu ... Aldo used to train capoeira on the streets after the classes, once gaining attention of a Brazilian jiu-jitsu trainer. He ...
Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine
As the war progressed, the Israeli forces gained an advantage due to a growing stream of arms and military equipment from ... and to lend weight to the threat to the lives of the remaining three officers. The Irgun released the two officers in Tel Aviv ... wanted to strangle the incipient Jewish state at birth. Instead, his main concern seems to have been to ensure that Egypt ... The Haganah tortured Irgun men in its captivity to gain information. The Saison effectively suspended the Irgun's activities.[ ...
多囊卵巢綜合症 - 维基百科，自由的百
體重增加（英语：Weight gain）. *流產 ... First-trimester exposure to metformin and risk of birth defects ... Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipid transfer to high-density lipoprotein in young obese and normal-weight ... Insulin resistance can be observed in both normal weight and overweight people, although it is more common in the latter (and ...
Barraclough, K. C. (1984) Steel before Bessemer: I Blister Steel: the birth of an industry. The Metals Society, London. pp. 48- ... The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for plain iron-carbon alloys. These values vary depending ... gaining an ultimate product of a carbon-intermediate steel by the 1st century AD. ... The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight. Varying the amount of carbon and many other ...
Birth. New Carlisle, Ohio.. Date of issue. February 14, 1900.. Citation. Crossed the river on a raft and by his skill and ... After a bout of malaria, Funston's weight dropped to an alarming 95 pounds and he was given a leave of absence by the Cubans. ... Funston's party, escorted by a company of Macabebe scouts, had gained access to Aguinaldo's camp by posing as prisoners of ...
Huey, L. M. (1962). Comparison of the weight-lifting capacities of a house finch and a golden eagle. The Auk, 79(3), 485-485. ... This may be repeated or gain intensity until they are talon-grappling or "mutual cartwheeling", consisting of the pair locking ... at birth. In one instance, a white-tailed eagle reportedly tried to attack an adult harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) but was ... Furthermore, weights of fully grown eagles from Greenland are not known. Unlike many accipitrids, in white-tailed ...
... and four field goals to gain their first win against the New Orleans Saints, as even with excellent field position throughout ... Weight:. 228 lb (103 kg). Career information. High school:. Chatsworth (CA). College:. USC. ... 1982 births. *American football quarterbacks. *Buffalo Bills players. *Dallas Cowboys players. *Detroit Lions players ...
Healthcare in Cuba
The difficulty in gaining access to certain medicines and treatments has led to healthcare playing an increasing role in Cuba's ... infant mortality in Cuba had fallen to 4.83 deaths per 1,000 live births compared with 6.0 for the United States and just ... cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality have been related to sustained population-wide weight loss as a result of ... the World Health Organisation reported the average life expectancy at birth for Cubans as being 77 years for males and 81 for ...
Weight loss. Although fasting may lead to weight loss, some researchers argue that using fasting for weight loss ... A woman till forty days after giving birth to child or miscarriage. But she must count the day she missed in Ramadan or they ... In Protestantism, the continental reformers criticized fasting as a purely external observance that can never gain a person ...
"Accord on Flight Attendants' Weight". New York Times. August 30, 1991.. *^ "Occupational Outlook Handbook -- Flight Attendants" ... On August 9, 2010, Steven Slater gained immediate global fame when he claimed he was injured by the luggage of a passenger whom ... on-board births and deaths, dangerous goods and spills in the cabin, emergency evacuations, hijackings, and water landings.[ ... They assist with the loading of carry-on baggage, checking for weight, size and dangerous goods. They make sure those sitting ...
Despite the disappointment of failing to gain access to the knockout stages of the Heineken cup that year, Sexton helped ... Date of birth. (1985-07-11) 11 July 1985 (age 35). Place of birth. Dublin, Ireland. ... Weight. 90 kg (14 st; 200 lb). School. St Mary's College. University. University College Dublin. ...
Health in India
... which can lead to serious mental or physical complaints Foliate deficiency can lead to insufficient birth weight or congenital ... Although 211 million people gained access to improved sanitation from 1990-2008, only 31% use the facilities provided. Only 11 ... from 202 and 190 deaths per thousand live births respectively in 1970 to 64 and 50 deaths per thousand live births in 2009. ... Infant mortality in Kerala is 12 per thousand live births, but in Assam it is 56. According to World Bank, the total ...
Weight of the soulEdit. In 1901 Duncan MacDougall conducted an experiment in which he made weight measurements of patients as ... 2015). The Soul Fallacy: What Science Shows We Gain from Letting Go of Our Soul Beliefs. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-61614-962 ... Until the time the soul is liberated from the saṃsāra (cycle of repeated birth and death), it gets attached to one of these ... "How much does the soul weights?".. *^ Park, Robert L. (2009). Superstition: Belief in the Age of Science. Princeton University ...
Urinary tract infection
... of mothers to develop pyelonephritis and increases risk of low birth weight and preterm birth. Some also support treatment ... After gaining entry to the bladder, E. Coli are able to attach to the bladder wall and form a biofilm that resists the body's ... In a group of children with a fever, ranging in age between birth and two years, two to 20% were diagnosed with a UTI. ... A kidney infection during pregnancy may result in premature birth or pre-eclampsia (a state of high blood pressure and kidney ...
A replicating, low molecular weight RNA". Virology. 45 (2): 411-28. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(71)90342-4. PMID 5095900.. ... Holmes, Bob (2012) "First Glimpse at the birth of DNA" (New Scientist April 12, 2012) ... the evidence for an RNA world is strong enough that the hypothesis has gained wide acceptance. The concurrent ...
Ziegler EE, Carlson SJ (March 2009). "Early nutrition of very low birth weight infants". J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 22 (3 ... includes 10-14 days or more without oral intake and then demonstrated ability to resume feedings and gain weight. Recovery from ... Preterm birth, congenital heart disease, birth asphyxia, exchange transfusion, prolonged rupture of membranes. ... In the United States of America it caused 355 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013, down from 484 per 100,000 live births in ...
... when she gains weight after increasing her own food intake and relinquishing much of her infant-carrying duties. ... "Costs of caregiving: weight loss in captive adult male cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) following the birth of infants" ... This burden may cause some male cotton-tops to lose up to 10-11% of their total body weight. The large weight loss may ... The female normally gives birth to twins and uses pheromones to prevent other females in the group from breeding. These ...
Smoking and pregnancy
Premature and low birth weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems as newborns have chronic lifelong ... it causes stress as the premature child may have to stay in the hospital to gain health and strength to be able to sustain life ... babies born to smoking mothers are usually born too early and have low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds), ... Smoking during pregnancy can result in lower birth weight as well as deformities in the baby. Smoking nearly doubles the risk ...
Practical Birth Control. 1935.. *. Woman's Sex Life. 1935.. *. How to Gain Weight. 1936.. ... These institutions offered educational programs such as "The Physical Culture Training School". Although he gained his ... "Strong Circulation: How a weight-lifting and diet fanatic built a publishing empire a century ago". The Wall Street Journal ... reputation for physical culture and fitness, he gained much notoriety for his views on sexual behavior. He viewed intercourse ...
The Hound of Death
She now assists the police to gain entry to the house and the locked room. Jack shoots himself before they can take him. ... He ignored her and the wooden bridge he was crossing broke beneath his weight, casting him into the fast-running stream below ... In a flash of intuition Cleveland remarks that they are not both Dinsmead's daughters by birth. Dinsmead admits that one is a ...
In later years he also used his reach to more often grab his opponent's mawashi, or belt, and then use his weight and power to ... also gained comparisons with Japanese professional wrestling legend Rikidōzan in his bouts against The Sharpe Brothers. The ... Birth name. Chadwick Haheo Rowan. Born. (1968-05-08) 8 May 1968 (age 51). Waimānalo, Hawaii. ... Akebono was one of the tallest sumo wrestlers ever, at 203 cm (6 ft 8 in) tall, and also one of the heaviest with a peak weight ...
If infant death records are matched to birth records, it is possible to use birth variables, such as birth weight and ... would provide a more modest gain in positive predictive value and loss in sensitivity, but would create only twelve distinct ... If a value of 0.95 were to be estimated for the m probability, then the match/non-match weights for the birth month identifier ... the match weight is added to the running total whenever a pair of identifiers agree, while the non-match weight is added (i.e. ...
Do birth control pills make women gain weight?
... weight gain. Weight gain is especially pervasive-the average adult gains about a pound per year-so even if people taking a ... So heres the question: If telling a woman that she might gain weight could actually make her gain weight, why dont the ... "weight gain or loss occurs occasionally. If you should gain weight and it is objectionable to you, control your diet and use ... The perceived link between birth-control pills and weight gain actually goes back to Americas very first contraceptive, a ...
Early pregnancy weight gain linked to baby's size at birth | Reuters
Reuters Health) - Women who gain more weight in early pregnancy are more likely to deliver unusually large babies, who may be ... For weight gained from 14-18 weeks, birth weight rose by 26.1 grams for each additional kilogram of maternal weight gain. But ... Mothers pre-pregnancy weight was consistently associated with babies birth weight. But only weight gain from pre-pregnancy to ... so weight gain mainly involves the mothers body. Excess weight gain may expose the fetus to an excess of "maternal fuels," ...
Weight Gain - Birth Control Message Board - HealthBoards
... but I have gained 10 lbs (seriously) within the last week or two. Usually ... Well I have no idea if this is related to the birth control that Im using, ... the weight gain is probably due to maturation/puberty. Birth control, especially the shot is linked to weight gain. Have you ... Weight Gain Well I have no idea if this is related to the birth control that Im using, but I have gained 10 lbs (seriously) ...
Prepregnancy, obesity and gestational weight gain influence risk of preterm birth | EurekAlert! Science News
Health have found that prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth ... In order to investigate the relations of preterm birth with prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain, the BUSM ... Prepregnancy, obesity and gestational weight gain influence risk of preterm birth. Boston University Medical Center ... have found that pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in ...
Birth control pills not a culprit for weight gain | EmaxHealth
... seeking to clarify whether oral contraceptives lead to weight gain, found birth control pills might even help women lose weight ... Women might not need to be concerned about gaining weight from birth control pills, shown in a primate study.. Researchers, ... The researchers note avoiding birth control pills for fear of weight gain puts women at risk for unplanned pregnancy. ... Edelman, studies have been insufficient to prove or disprove birth controls are the culprit for weight gain reported by women ...
Hi I want to know which birth control pills make you gain weight??
... weight, birth control pills, pill - Answer: Since all birth control have that as a side effect there is no way ... ... Birth control pills and weight gain...which ones lead to weight gain?. Posted 31 Oct 2011 • 1 answer ... Home › Q & A › Questions › Hi I want to know which birth.... Hi I want to know which birth control pills make you gain weight?? ... Birth Control - Is this pill going to make me gain weight? Or make me have acne?. Posted 3 Jan 2010 • 9 answers ...
Kylie Jenner Weight Gain, Pregnant Star Hates Body Ahead Of 'KUWTK' Baby Birth
Kylie Jenner Weight Gain, Pregnant Star Hates Body Ahead Of KUWTK Baby Birth. David BeckerGetty Images. Rumors * ... Its evidently clear that Kylie Jenners main goal following the baby birth is to lose the weight she has gained quickly, ... Kylie Jenner is reportedly staying in hiding due to the fact that shes been gaining weight and doesnt want people to see how ... Kylie Jenner is no fan of the weight she has gained throughout her pregnancy, it has been alleged. ...
Excess Weight Gain | Case Examples | Growth Birth to 2 Years | WHO | Growth Chart Training | Nutrition | DNPAO | CDC
Comparing Weight-for-Age Plotted on the WHO and CDC Growth Charts ... to prevent excess weight gain in all children starting at birth ... Using the WHO Weight-for-Age Growth Chart. When Bradys weight is plotted on the WHO weight-for-age growth chart, his weight is ... Using the WHO Weight-for-Length Growth Chart. When Bradys weight and length are plotted on the WHO weight-for-length growth ... Brady has been seen by his health care provider regularly since birth (date of birth: April 8, 2009). His weight and length ...
Weight Gain And Bigger Boobs Are Birth Control Myths - The Frisky
Many girls begin taking the Pill at a time in their lives when weight gain happens naturally during adolescence and while in ... So, if you gain weight while on the Pill, its important to look at different factors that could be causing you to gain weight ... Weight Gain And Bigger Boobs Are Birth Control Myths. by Dragana Stepic December 17, 2019. ... Only three to four percent of women actually gain weight on the birth control pill, according to Dr. Anne Burke, associate ...
Will I Gain Weight On Birth Control? - Expert Speaks - Hollywood Life
... theres the pill and other forms of birth control available these days. A gynecologist breaks it all down, right here! ... Will the scale increase if you decide to use birth control? Well, it depends; ... Will birth control make me gain weight? - Dr. Dweck explains: "The pill is kind of split up into a third, a third and a third. ... "One birth control we know many people gain weight on, is the shot. The Depo-Provera shot, you can typically count on gaining a ...
birth control pills weight gain Archives | Personal Life Media
Gained Weight with Birth Control Pill
It is unlikely for a woman of today who are using birth control pills to gain weight. Different from the older birth control ... they believed that it causes them to gain weight however a study have shown that birth control pills do not cause weight gain ... if you gained weight blame not all to the birth control pills. partly because you lack physical activities to keep you from ... I stopped taking my birth control pills because I feel like Ive gained a lot of weight. Anyone who has the same experience as ...
Gained Weight with Birth Control Pill
... came off the pill and eventually still gaining weight... has anyone had success on taking this weight off??? ... i used to be chubby even before i started using pills and while using it makes me more gain weight. but now im off pill, i ... i mean, i did gain weight but never really thought it was as a result of discontinuing the pill. does anyone have any info for ... same thing happened to me, i went off pill for the thought that somehow i would lose weight which the pill has caused me. but ...
Study finds injectable birth control causes significant weight gain and changes in body mass | EurekAlert! Science News
... gained an average of 11 pounds and increased their body fat by 3.4 percent over three years, according to researchers at the ... Study finds injectable birth control causes significant weight gain and changes in body mass Weight gain reversible for those ... The amount of weight gain was dependent on the length of time DMPA was used, as the rate of weight gain slowed over time. ... Study finds injectable birth control causes significant weight gain and changes in body mass. University of Texas Medical ...
Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight
... women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within- ... guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8-8.8). GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (,svg xmlns:xlink ... This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG) predictors and association of first-trimester ... birth weight; LBW: low birth weight; HBW: high birth weight.. ... and weight gain at the time of the weight measure. For each ...
Rapid Weight Gain and Mood Swings with Loestrin 24Fe - Birth Control Message Board - HealthBoards
I gained about 20lbs in 3 mos... my appetite became out of control as did cravings ... Has anyone had the problem of rapid weight gain with Loestrin.... ... Birth Control. 13. 06-03-2007 08:20 AM. BIRTH CONTROL PILL WITH NO WEIGHT GAIN???? fawnb2. Birth Control. 10. 05-17-2007 04:05 ... Rapid Weight Gain and Mood Swings with Loestrin 24Fe Has anyone had the problem of rapid weight gain with Loestrin.... I gained ...
Weight Gain in Pregnancy Chart | Birth International
... describing the main factors contributing to weight gain in pregnancy. Laminated A2 420mm x 594mm. ... Weight Gain in Pregnancy Chart complements the Pregnancy charts, ... Weight Gain in Pregnancy Chart quantity. Add to cart. Add to ... Weight Gain in Pregnancy Chart complements the Pregnancy charts, and describes the main factors contributing to weight gain in ... Weight Gain in Pregnancy Chart complements the Pregnancy charts, describing the main factors contributing to weight gain in ...
Gestational Weight Gain Associated with Infant Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetes Mothers
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Do birth control pills lead to weight gain?
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TriNessa - can anyone suggest a birth control that won't cause weight gain or make my hair fall out?
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Energy intake and weight gain of very low birthweight babies fed raw expressed breast milk | The BMJ
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Weight gain in low birth weight babies - Breast & bottle feeding - MadeForMums Chat
We were referred to a consultant at the hospital due to her weight gain and I have been reassured that she is not over weight. ... I have a question regarding my los excessive weight gain.. He was born 3 wks early and weighed 6lb8oz but then dropped to ... He finally made his birth weight at 2 weeks. Since then he has been putting on around 14oz a week (!!!) and weighs 10lb1oz at 6 ... My HV hasnt shown any concern so wondered if this excessive weight gain is normal with smaller babies? I have been told they ...
Aleck Bovick gains weight after giving birth | PEP.ph
Prepregnancy Obesity And Gestational Weight Gain Influence Risk Of Preterm Birth - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Home Pregnancy and Childbirth Prepregnancy Obesity And Gestational Weight Gain Influence Risk Of Preterm Birth ... In order to investigate the relations of preterm birth with prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain, the BUSM ... and that underweight increased risk of both preterm birth subtypes. Among obese women, gestational weight gain within the range ... important for obese women to adhere to the IOM guidelines for pregnancy weight gain to reduce their risk of preterm birth," ...
Your Pregnancy Weight Gain | Natural Birth and Baby Care.com
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mirena iud weight gain | Birth Control (Contraception) discussions | Family Health center | SteadyHealth.com
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Gestational weight gain as a predictor of birth and placenta weight according to pre-pregnancy body mass index
The potential benefit of a high gestational weight gain in obese patients should be balanced by the higher risk of giving birth ... to babies with a birth weight of more than 4,500 grams and the risk of exaggerating a pre-existing state of obesity. ... Gestational weight gain as a predictor of birth and placenta weight according to pre-pregnancy body mass index Acta Obstet ... Results: Birth and placenta weight were associated with gestational weight gain but with lower regression coefficients at ...
Gaining Weight - November 2018 Birth Club - BabyCenter Canada
... the type of person who weighs themselves religiously or anything but Im really stuggling with the fact that Im gaining weight ... Some weeks you might gain 2 lbs some weeks you might gain nothing. It sounds to me like a healthy weight gain though. ... If you live a healthy lifestyle The weight will fall off after the birth, especially if youre breastfeeding! The weight youre ... If you live a healthy lifestyle The weight will fall off after the birth, especially if youre breastfeeding! The weight youre ...
Kim Kardashian Distraught Over Weighing Nearly 200 Pounds: Weight Gain Since Saint West Birth
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Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk: A meta-analysis of 147,000 European children - RIVM
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- According to a review published in a recent issue of the journal Contraception , concern about weight gain is among the most common reasons people quit the pill (or decide not to take it in the first place), and most women who discontinue the pill switch to something less effective or nothing at all. (slate.com)
- As it turns out, there's never been convincing evidence that the pill in any of its forms provokes weight gain. (slate.com)
- According to a 1997 study, users of birth control pills have a basal metabolic rate almost 5 percent higher than people who have never used the pill, and a small 2009 trial concluded that the pill reduced body fat in women who took it. (slate.com)
- If the pill doesn't cause weight gain, how did it get its reputation? (slate.com)
- The perceived link between birth-control pills and weight gain actually goes back to America's very first contraceptive, a combination pill called Enovid . (slate.com)
- I'm really not sure if this is true but my friend said, that if you gain a lot of weight on birth control the doctors can give you this 'water pill' to help you lose that weight again. (healthboards.com)
- The pill = weight gain? (healthboards.com)
- Scientists at Oregon National Primate Research Center at Oregon Health & Science University conducted a year long study on a group a of rhesus macaque monkeys that found weight gain associated with taking birth control pill may be nothing but a myth. (emaxhealth.com)
- Birth Control - Is this pill going to make me gain weight? (drugs.com)
- Will minastrin make me gain weight even though this is my first birth control pill? (drugs.com)
- Only three to four percent of women actually gain weight on the birth control pill , according to Dr. Anne Burke, associate professor of gynecology at Johns Hopkins. (thefrisky.com)
- As the blog Her Campus reports, "Many girls begin taking the Pill at a time in their lives when weight gain happens naturally - during adolescence and while in college. (thefrisky.com)
- So, if you gain weight while on the Pill, it's important to look at different factors that could be causing you to gain weight. (thefrisky.com)
- There's the pill and other forms of birth control available these days. (hollywoodlife.com)
- Many years ago, birth control came in its most common form, a pill. (hollywoodlife.com)
- A third of women on the pill will lose weight, a third will gain weight and a third will stay the same," she says. (hollywoodlife.com)
- But, keep in mind that a lot of women who start the pill, start it at a time in their lives when they may be naturally gaining weight. (hollywoodlife.com)
- It's not so easy to tease out whether they're gaining weight from a pill. (hollywoodlife.com)
- If you are on a higher-dose pill,better if you switch to a low-estrogen birth control pill, it can help reduce fluid retention. (womens-health.co.uk)
- i do not experience gaining weight with my pill. (womens-health.co.uk)
- i'm off the pill but still have not lose weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
- i honestly do hope that this is a rare condition.i just came off the pill yesterday because of weight gain. (womens-health.co.uk)
- i mean, i did gain weight but never really thought it was as a result of discontinuing the pill. (womens-health.co.uk)
- same thing happened to me, i went off pill for the thought that somehow i would lose weight which the pill has caused me. (womens-health.co.uk)
- but since i went off the pill, i have gained 10 more pounds. (womens-health.co.uk)
- came off the pill and eventually still gaining weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
- but now i'm off pill, i started losing weight. (womens-health.co.uk)
- However, weight gain and mood problems are common complaints of the pill. (healthboards.com)
- Hi, I'm 21 years old and I have been thinking about going on some kind of a birth control pill for a longer period of time now. (steadyhealth.com)
- I have heard about this new pill Yasmin, I have heard some good things about it one of them is that birth control doesn't make you gain weight . (steadyhealth.com)
- Yasmin is relatively new pill on the market, and it is marketed as a good replacement for other birth control pills. (steadyhealth.com)
- Yasmin, just like any other pill may cause weight gain in some women because taking estrogen usually increases weight but Yasmin also has a good property, one of its ingredients drospirenone is a mild diuretic and it prevents bloating and fluid retention that usually happens with other contraceptive pills. (steadyhealth.com)
- is it okay to take yasmin and laxative at the same time?i've been taking laxative tea to loss my weight and at the same time taking yasmin pill as my contraceptive .wen i read the leaflet of yasmin,ive read that excessive diarrhea affects the effectiveness of the pill.can my laxative tea affects the effectiveness of my yasmin pill?pls help!thanks. (steadyhealth.com)
- Sara Grace over at The Flying Trapeze has a couple featured posts written by two different women who experienced weight gain after going 'off' the pill after each had been taking the little pregnancy preventers for almost a decade. (backinskinnyjeans.com)
- I personally haven't been on the pill for 10 years now, but when I was on it, my body actually shed some weight. (backinskinnyjeans.com)
- The 'pill' as it's referred to is very reliable that way, and apparently birth control pills are upwards of 98% effective in preventing a woman from becoming pregnant. (birthcontrol.com)
- The general rule is that oral contraceptives with 20mcg of estrogen are less are recommended for women who want to avoid weight gain while on the pill. (birthcontrol.com)
- It's not werid to gain weight on a pill. (healthboards.com)
- On average, women using the birth control pill gain approximately 10 lbs during the first year of use. (birthcontrolbuzz.com)
- If you want to stay with the birth control pill you are currently using, being more aware of your diet and exercising lifestyle can also help prevent unwanted weight gain. (birthcontrolbuzz.com)
- However, it's possible to find a pill that will not cause weight gain for you. (healthboards.com)
- Minimize possible side effects like weight gain while on the birth control pill and tay on track. (popit.io)
- Based on a nationwide survey of women aged 18 to 35 years old who were asked about the link between birth control pills and weight gain, sixty-one percent believed that the pill causes weight gain. (blogspot.com)
- However, the fear of gaining weight is one of the most common reasons why women choose less effective methods of birth control over the pill and other hormonal contraceptives. (blogspot.com)
- But like anything that has reached a certain level of popularity, misconceptions about the birth control pill abound. (businessinsider.com)
- To help separate myth from fact, INSIDER talked to Dr. Jessica Atrio , a board-certified obstetrician-gynecologist at Montefiore and Albert Einstein School of Medicine, to answer common questions about the birth control pill. (businessinsider.com)
- If you've ever considered going on the pill, chances are someone has warned you that doing so could make you gain weight. (businessinsider.com)
- Although some types of hormonal contraceptives have been associated with weight gain, taking combined hormonal contraceptive pills (the most common type of birth control pill) have not been associated with weight gain . (businessinsider.com)
- If you've done some research on birth control pills, you may have seen that there are two types a person can take - the combination pill and the mini-pill. (businessinsider.com)
- 4. Does the birth control pill affect your sex drive? (businessinsider.com)
- However, most of the time, weight gain while on the pill is due to changes in your habits or a bit of water weight in the beginning. (wikihow.life)
- Hormones occasionally alter your appetite, which may mean you choose to eat more, but the pill doesn't directly cause weight gain. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- This is true for the older forms of the progesterone only mini-pill, but not the most common birth control pills that will be prescribed by your GP today. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- pullquote_left]worries about weight gain with pill use appear to be based more on fiction than on fact[/pullquote_left]Researchers tracked weight, food intake, activity levels, body fat and lean muscle mass. (zidbits.com)
- This study suggests that worries about weight gain with pill use appear to be based more on fiction than on fact," said Judy Cameron, Ph.D., senior author of the paper and a researcher at the primate center. (zidbits.com)
- Additionally, there may be a differential affect depending on your starting weight - heavier individuals who keep their diet stable may actually see a weight loss with pill use. (zidbits.com)
- Since the pill makes you gain weight, I drink green tea, which is supposed to increase your metabolism (I'm desperate not to gain weight). (scarleteen.com)
- Still, some women do report gaining a few pounds in the weeks and months after they start taking the pill. (healthline.com)
- Changes in hormonal birth control and advances in combination forms of the pill have addressed this issue. (healthline.com)
- Your weight when you begin taking the pill shouldn't affect your risk, either. (healthline.com)
- obese aren't at a higher risk of gaining weight when taking the pill. (healthline.com)
- Most American women naturally gain about 2 pounds every year, but it's not the pill or intrauterine devices causing it. (yalemedicine.org)
- Weight gain is especially pervasive-the average adult gains about a pound per year-so even if people taking a medication do put on a few pounds, it's hard to pin the effect on a particular drug. (slate.com)
- Life & Style , as cited by Hollywood Life , claims that Kylie has gained a whopping 40 pounds, and her diet isn't exactly the best right now, as she craves nothing but junk food and candy that's only made the weight gain process worse for the TV star. (inquisitr.com)
- Losing the weight naturally will take an additional three months, at the very least, in order to shed 40 pounds on a healthy diet. (inquisitr.com)
- The Depo-Provera shot, you can typically count on gaining a couple of pounds. (hollywoodlife.com)
- GALVESTON, Texas - Women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), commonly known as the birth control shot, gained an average of 11 pounds and increased their body fat by 3.4 percent over three years, according to researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). (eurekalert.org)
- However, women who switched to nonhormonal contraception began to slowly lose the weight and fat mass they gained - nearly four pounds over two years, while those who used oral contraception after the shots gained an average of four additional pounds in the same time span. (eurekalert.org)
- Greater GWG is recommended for women with prepregnancy BMIs in the underweight (28-40 pounds (lbs), 12.7-18.1 kg) or healthy weight (25-35 lbs, 11.3-15.9 kg) range, with less GWG recommended for prepregnancy overweight (15-25 lbs, 6.8-11.3 kg) and obese (11-20 lbs, 5.0-9.1 kg) women. (hindawi.com)
- I've been on trinessa for about a year and a half now and I've gained weight?Ive gained about 7 pounds since being on trinessa to me I look the the same but the scale disagrees. (drugs.com)
- my question is can anyone suggest another birth control that wont make my hair fall out or cause me to gain pounds? (drugs.com)
- During these five months I have gained around 10 pounds. (steadyhealth.com)
- 10 pounds gain is so obvious. (steadyhealth.com)
- I did gain about 7 pounds and got so worried. (steadyhealth.com)
- I had Mirena inserted on May 30 and since then I have gained upward of 8-10 pounds. (steadyhealth.com)
- In the last 18 months I have gained 20-25 pounds and nothing I do seems to help. (steadyhealth.com)
- I also have gained 4 pounds in just one month's time. (steadyhealth.com)
- I started after my twenty week checkup because my doctor got me all paranoid saying five pounds was too much to gain in one month. (babycenter.ca)
- The headline of the tabloid reads, "Kim: 185 Pounds And Gaining! (celebdirtylaundry.com)
- The cover goes on to tease that not only has Kim NOT lost any weight since giving birth to Saint, she actually has gained 45 pounds! (celebdirtylaundry.com)
- The source dished, "When she saw that her weight was still hovering near 200 pounds, she had a full-on meltdown. (celebdirtylaundry.com)
- Cyclen and I gained weight but only a few pounds. (healthboards.com)
- caused me absolutely no ill effects whatsoever, other than a weight gain of maybe 5 pounds. (healthboards.com)
- A while ago I took Ortho-Cyclen 1/35 (which is very similar to the Seasonale) for 5 years, followed by 3 years on Depo, then a 2+ year break with a Paraguard IUD, never having gained more than a couple pounds at a time. (healthboards.com)
- At birth, most babies weigh 6 to 8 pounds. (pedimedicine.com)
- Cardi B is ready to put back on some pounds after losing all the weight she gained while pregnant. (pagesix.com)
- Labor and delivery may mean a sudden and dramatic drop in weight, while some pounds may linger for weeks or months after delivery. (livestrong.com)
- Moms-to-be can look at averages to get an idea of how many pounds they can expect to drop from minutes to months after giving birth. (livestrong.com)
- Not all of the extra pounds a woman gains during pregnancy are because of baby alone. (livestrong.com)
- A woman who was of normal weight prior to getting pregnant can expect to gain between 25 and 35 pounds during her pregnancy, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. (livestrong.com)
- While most of this weight will taper off soon after you give birth, the 5 to 10 pounds of body fat gained during pregnancy may stick around longer. (livestrong.com)
- Immediately after giving birth, moms can expect to shed the weight of the baby, as well as some weight from blood, amniotic fluid and placenta, which may leave you around 12 pounds lighter, according to the Baby Center article, 'Body Changes After Childbirth. (livestrong.com)
- By the end of that week, you may find yourself about 5 pounds lighter -- meaning a total loss of 17 pounds since giving birth. (livestrong.com)
- Whether it's always been a struggle, or a recent life event has caused you to start packing on the pounds, most women experience weight issues at some point in their lives. (helloalpha.com)
- You may have heard that birth control causes weight gain, and it can cause some people to gain a few pounds. (wikihow.life)
- Women who had two copies of the ESR variation on average gained thirty or more pounds using the contraceptive implant. (punnettssquare.com)
- The researchers calculated the average weight gain of 1.94 pounds among the women who had not given birth and 2.89 pounds of women who had given birth. (shine.com)
- The average amount of weight gained is 5 pounds in the first year and 8 pounds after two years. (livestrong.com)
- The potential to put on the pounds remains as long as you take Depo Provera, but that doesn't mean weight gain is inevitable. (livestrong.com)
- For obese women (BMI of 30 or greater), the recommended weight gain during pregnancy is 11 to 20 pounds, and for underweight women (BMI less than 18.5), it's 28 to 40 pounds. (thebump.com)
- Normal total weight gain for a healthy woman is 25 to 35 pounds (11 to 16 kilograms). (medlineplus.gov)
- Overweight women should gain only 10 to 20 pounds (4 to 9 kilograms) during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
- Underweight women or women with multiples (twins or more) should gain 35 to 45 pounds (16 to 20 kilograms) in pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
- In fact, the Mayo Clinic estimates that women gain an average of 2 pounds of tissue in the breasts during pregnancy. (healthline.com)
- One study showed that, over one year, women who used Depo-Provera gained five pounds more than those using a copper IUD. (yalemedicine.org)
- Boston) - Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine's (BUSM) Slone Epidemiology Center and Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH) have found that pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in African American participants from the Black Women's Health Study. (eurekalert.org)
- Obesity is associated with intrauterine infections, systematic inflammation, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia, all of which may increase the risk of preterm birth. (eurekalert.org)
- In order to investigate the relations of preterm birth with prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain, the BUSM researchers used data from the Slone Epidemiology Center's Black Women's Health Study. (eurekalert.org)
- They examined two types of preterm birth: that indicated for medical reasons (medically-indicated) and that occurring for no known reason (spontaneous). (eurekalert.org)
- 32 weeks), and that underweight increased risk of both preterm birth subtypes. (healthcanal.com)
- Among obese women, gestational weight gain within the range recommended by the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report (0.4-0.6 lbs/week in the second and third trimesters) was optimal in reducing risk of preterm birth. (healthcanal.com)
- Our data suggest that it is especially important for obese women to adhere to the IOM guidelines for pregnancy weight gain to reduce their risk of preterm birth," said lead author Lauren A. Wise, ScD, an associate professor of epidemiology at Boston University School of Public Health and a senior epidemiologist at the Slone Epidemiology Center. (healthcanal.com)
- New research presented at ACOG 2014 shows that inadequate weight gain in the second trimester is an independent risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- However, a new award-winning study presented today at ACOG's 2014 Annual Clinical Meeting in Chicago has examined the relationship between inadequate gestational weight gain and preterm birth before 32 weeks' gestation in normal-weight, overweight, and obese women pregnant with dichorionic/diamniotic or monochorionic/diamniotic twins. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- In addition, inadequate weight gain was associated with spontaneous preterm birth but not associated with indicated preterm birth. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- Monochorionicity and cervical length less than 2.5 cm were also associated with preterm birth before 32 weeks' gestation, as expected. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- However, advanced maternal age, BMI category, and inadequate weight gain prior to 20 weeks' gestation was not associated with preterm birth. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- Inadequate weight gain was the strongest predictor of preterm birth before 32 weeks' gestation in this study group. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- However, she suggested that these findings may reveal an opportunity to help reduce the rate of preterm birth. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- Pettit and colleagues did not examine the differences in rates of preterm birth between groups based on conception type, but she did say that the data is there to do so. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- These and related charts cannot be considered a standard as the optimum pattern of growth after preterm birth is unknown. (bmj.com)
- Is the Subject Area "Preterm birth" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- Too little weight gain may be a sign of malnourishment, associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, and other complications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In general, a preterm birth is defined as any birth before 37 weeks. (thebump.com)
- Until now, people have been thinking of preterm birth as one condition, simply by defining it as any birth that happens at least three weeks early," says Gary Shaw, DrPH, a pediatrician who led the study. (thebump.com)
- You can't completely reduce your risk of a preterm birth, but following these relatively easy guidelines will make your pregnancy a lot easier and impact how healthy baby is when he's born. (thebump.com)
- Young women who used injectable hormonal contraceptives like Depo-Provera did pack on extra weight-they gained twice as much, on average, as everyone else. (slate.com)
- The Depo-Provera shot is a hormonal injection that provides birth control. (hollywoodlife.com)
- Note as well that many people claim that the Depo-Provera birth control injection causes significant weight gain that can last longer. (birthcontrol.com)
- Many women who take Depo Provera experience weight gain, according to Virginia Commonwealth University. (livestrong.com)
- These are followed by Depo Provera at 96 percent and birth control pills at 93 percent (theoretic 99 percent, but lower due to missed pills). (stgeorgeutah.com)
- Sold under the brand name Depo-Provera, the birth control injection contains progestin and suppresses ovulation so that you don't release an egg each month and therefore can't get pregnant. (yalemedicine.org)
- The reason Depo-Provera can cause weight gain, Dr. Stanwood explains, is that it can activate signals in the brain that control hunger. (yalemedicine.org)
- Significant evidence ties gestational weight gain (GWG) to short- and long-term maternal and infant outcomes. (hindawi.com)
- Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in achieving recommended GWG are further compounded by higher pregnancy rates and greater odds of adverse birth-related outcomes among socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority populations than their more affluent and White counterparts. (hindawi.com)
- Infants born to mothers with pregestational diabetes are more likely to experience adverse outcomes, especially an increased birth weight. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- While glycemic control is often addressed in these patients, strict weight gains should also be closely monitored to ensure optimal outcomes for both mother and child. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- Strict glycemic control and gestational weight gain should be stressed to expectant mothers with type 1 diabetes to ensure the best possible outcomes. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- Using path analysis, we found indirect effects of postnatal weight gain, through childhood adiposity, on all outcomes: Rate of postnatal weight for length gain was positively associated with childhood adiposity, which in turn was associated with unfavorable lipid and BP levels in early adolescence. (ahajournals.org)
- Infant outcomes were additionally adjusted for ethnicity, sex, and gestational age at birth. (auckland.ac.nz)
- superimposed weight gain during pregnancy may adversely contribute to maternal and fetal outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- This approach relies on integrating mechanistic energy balance, theory of planned behavior, and self-regulation models to describe how internal processes can be impacted by intervention dosages, and reinforce positive outcomes (e.g., healthy eating and physical activity) to moderate gestational weight gain and affect birth weight. (elsevier.com)
- Up until now few studies have asked questions about whether the pattern of weight gain in pregnancy affect outcomes in offspring, such as birth weight. (medicalresearch.com)
- This study aimed to explore body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG), and their relationship with pregnancy outcomes in a sample of Indonesian pregnant women. (shu.ac.uk)
- Multiple logistic and regression analyses were undertaken to compare pregnancy and birth outcomes for different BMI and GWG, using normal weight women and women with a recommended weight gain as the referent groups. (shu.ac.uk)
- The categories roughly represent risk factors that can be used to guide interventions, specifically targeting the risk category with the greatest excess fetoinfant mortality in the target community in reference to a population that often has better birth outcomes. (hindawi.com)
- The objectives of this study were to assess whether (1) in-hospital growth velocity is predictive of neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants and (2) in-hospital growth velocity contributes to these outcomes after controlling for confounding demographic and clinical variables. (aappublications.org)
- Weight-for-age is not used to classify infants and children as underweight or overweight. (cdc.gov)
- While there are currently no evidenced-based guidelines for treating infants and children younger than aged 2 years with high weight, early recognition of a child's tendency toward obesity may help to trigger interventions to slow the rate of weight gain. (cdc.gov)
- Type 1 mothers with pregestational diabetes are more likely to give birth to higher birth weight infants. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- Average pregnancy weight gain decreased but the number of women whose pregnancy weight gain was within the recommended range was unchanged.The fraction of infants who were breast-fed increased.These results suggest that, despite some positive trends, Maine faces significant challenges in meeting Healthy People 2020 goals. (nih.gov)
- The UK 1990 reference curves for preterm infants, based on cross sectional birth data from live and stillborn infants at different gestational ages, have been incorporated into the UK-WHO growth charts. (bmj.com)
- Results The birthweight centiles, based on 3172 infants, were similar to but slightly lower than UK-WHO. (bmj.com)
- The gestation-specific growth curves were based on 57 746 weights from 2577 infants, with 96-514 infants and 2446-8107 weights per week of gestation (with 22/23 weeks combined). (bmj.com)
- Growth curves then tracked parallel to and between the second and ninth UK-WHO birthweight centiles, at a higher level in more mature infants. (bmj.com)
- Conclusion The pattern of postnatal growth in very preterm infants is complex, dependent on gestation, and quite different from that represented by the birthweight chart. (bmj.com)
- The association between GWG rate and infant BMIZ was significant at all timepoints and more pronounced in normal weight women and among male infants. (populationmedicine.org)
- In a cohort of over 16,000 pregnant women and infants, we found that regardless of the obesity status (BMI) of the mother at the time of pregnancy, weight gain that occurs up until week 24, had the strongest effect on infant birth weight. (medicalresearch.com)
- Infants born to mothers who had weight gain in excess of the 2009 IOM guidelines from conception until week 24, had a 2.5 times higher likelihood of being born large for gestational age. (medicalresearch.com)
- The higher odds of macrosomia with increasing maternal BMI and higher odds of prematurity and small for gestational age infants with inadequate weight gain also require attention. (shu.ac.uk)
- Higher energy and lipid intake during the first 2 weeks after birth were associated with a lower incidence of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities of the brain at TEA in preterm infants [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- A recent study showed that higher amino acid intake during the first week of life in preterm infants was associated with greater weight gain during the first 5 weeks of life in males compared to females [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our current study was designed to evaluate if there were sex-based differences in growth (weight gain and head growth ) based on the effect of protein and calorie intake during the TP of nutrition in ELBW infants. (biomedcentral.com)
- IMSEAR at SEARO: Predictors of Weight Gain among Very Low Birth Weight Infants Born at the Maternity and Children Hospitals in Jeddah during 2012-2013. (who.int)
- Background: Growth failure and restricted weight gain in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants remains extremely common despite advances in neonatal care. (who.int)
- A majority of VLBW infants leave the hospital with weights below the 10th percentile for age. (who.int)
- A variety of measures including nutritional interventions have been considered to achieve adequate weight gain in these infants for preventing short- and long-term lifetime complications. (who.int)
- Objective: This study aims to profile factors that impact weight gain among VLBW infants in three Maternity and Children Hospitals in Jeddah City, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [KSA]. (who.int)
- Results: Within a variety of categorical and continuous parental and infants' variables, joint family income and total formula milk fed to VLBW infants significantly correlated with weight gain in VLBW infants. (who.int)
- However, the most powerful predictor of weight gain in VLBW infants was total formula milk fed to them. (who.int)
- Conclusion: This study calls for further studies for identifying other predictors of weight gain in VLBW infants in Saudi Arabia. (who.int)
- Infants 501 to 1000 g birth weight from a multicenter cohort study were divided into quartiles of in-hospital growth velocity rates. (aappublications.org)
- Postnatal growth failure is the norm for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, especially the sickest infants. (aappublications.org)
- 1 - 4 The NICHD Growth Observational Study 1 demonstrated that, although the rate of weight gain was similar to the reported intrauterine rate of weight gain (∼15 g/kg per day), once birth weight was regained, most of the infants between 24 to 29 weeks' gestation did not achieve the median birth weight of the reference fetus of the same postmenstrual age (PMA) at hospital discharge. (aappublications.org)
- There is accumulating evidence that an exclusive human milk-based diet decreases the rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death, and is associated with better feeding tolerance in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants than a diet of bovine milk-based products. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Infants less than 1500 g birth weight will be fed exclusively human milk (mother's milk and or donor breast milk) fortified with donor human milk-derived fortifier per the investigators hospital guidelines. (clinicaltrials.gov)
Avoiding birth contr1
- After the meconium is flushed out, the baby's weight will stabilize and the baby begins to gain weight. (lllc.ca)
- About a month later she said she was considering plastic surgery to get rid of some unwanted fat following her baby's birth. (pagesix.com)
- Your baby's health and birth (full-term or premature) also play a role. (familydoctor.org)
- That's because all the weight your baby's gaining puts extra pressure on your bladder. (healthline.com)
- Reuters Health) - Women who gain more weight in early pregnancy are more likely to deliver unusually large babies, who may be prone to a host of health problems later in life, new research shows. (reuters.com)
- Mothers' pre-pregnancy weight was consistently associated with babies' birth weight. (reuters.com)
- My HV hasn't shown any concern so wondered if this excessive weight gain is normal with smaller babies? (madeformums.com)
- I've helped thousands of mamas have healthy babies, give birth naturally, and enjoy the adventure of motherhood. (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
- The potential benefit of a high gestational weight gain in obese patients should be balanced by the higher risk of giving birth to babies with a birth weight of more than 4,500 grams and the risk of exaggerating a pre-existing state of obesity. (nih.gov)
- Do babies gain weight right from birth? (lllc.ca)
- Initially babies lose weight. (lllc.ca)
- Many babies lose about 7-8% before they start gaining. (lllc.ca)
- Effect of antenatal dietary interventions in maternal obesity on pregnancy weight-gain and birthweight: Healthy Mums and Babies (HUMBA) randomized trial. (auckland.ac.nz)
- U.S., Feb. 20 -- According to a new study by a team of researchers from the University of Michigan, pregnancy is not responsible for weight gain in women that lingers after their babies are born. (shine.com)
- The mean (±s.d.) birth weight of the babies was 2.84 (±0.358) kg and 21% of them were LBW babies. (nature.com)
- Professor David Barker, of the Medical Research Council's Environmental Epidemiology Unit at the University of Southampton, told BBC News Online that if none of the babies in the study had been born thin, all had achieved average height and weight at one year old the rate of heart disease in later life would have been halved. (bbc.co.uk)
- After birth, these babies go through drug withdrawal and need medical care. (familydoctor.org)
- Indeed, very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, less than 1500 grams, often represent the smallest and the newest members of our communities and are often at greatest risk for mortality and morbidity. (hindawi.com)
Obesity and gestational weight gain1
- Association of Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain Rate with Early Infancy Weight Status: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study in China. (populationmedicine.org)
- We examined 801 mother⁻infant pairs from a prospective cohort study in China to assess the associations of total and trimester-specific GWG with early infant weight status. (populationmedicine.org)
- Methods: In a prospective cohort study of 375 Ethiopian children aged 60 mo, we estimated individual weight gain velocities in the periods between birth and 3, 6, 24, 48, and 60 mo using linear-spline mixed-effects modeling. (regionh.dk)
- But a mother-to-be's weight gain after 18 weeks was not associated with whether her newborn was large for gestational age, Dr. Ravi Retnakaran of Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, and colleagues found. (reuters.com)
- But weight gain later in pregnancy had no effect on newborn size. (reuters.com)
- To evaluate weight gain patterns in women with GDM and its relation to newborn birth weight. (biomedcentral.com)
- A study was therefore carried out to explore the role of maternal body composition on the birth weight of the newborn. (nature.com)
- Fetoinfant deaths are sorted into four categories: maternal health/prematurity, maternal care, newborn care, and infant care, by birth weight and age at death. (hindawi.com)
- The timing is difficult to study, he added, because researchers typically rely on a woman's own reporting of her pre-pregnancy weight, which may not be accurate. (reuters.com)
- You probably worry about pregnancy weight gain. (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
- Pregnancy weight gain is vitally important to you and to your baby. (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
- You and your baby both become nutritionally deprived when you try to limit pregnancy weight gain. (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
- A good diet with healthy fats gives your body vital energy and healthy pregnancy weight gain. (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
- But is there a time you should worry about pregnancy weight gain? (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
- If all you're eating is processed food, boxed meals, tons of carbohydrates, and fast food your pregnancy weight gain is going to happen quickly. (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
- You'll know your pregnancy weight gain is from nutrient filled foods. (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
- What About Salt and Pregnancy Weight Gain? (naturalbirthandbabycare.com)
- Average pregnancy weight gain decreased but the number of women whose pregnancy weight gain was within the recommended range was unchanged. (nih.gov)
- Influence of Prepregnancy Weight and Pregnancy Weight Gain on Birthweight Obstet. (afar.info)
- Our study revealed a positive correlation of prepregnancy weight and pregnancy weight gain to term infant birthweight. (afar.info)
- The good news is that most women will lose about half of their pregnancy weight gain by 6 weeks postpartum, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine article, 'Losing Weight After Pregnancy. (livestrong.com)
- It's important to maintain a healthy pregnancy weight, since a new study from Kaiser Permanente shows that gaining both too much or too little weight during pregnancy may increase the risk of having an obese or overweight child . (thebump.com)
- Use of multiple linear regression analyses showed a positive association between infant birth weight and gestation weight gain when adjusted for BMI, HbA1c at week 36, smoking, parity and ethnicity (R2=0.15, β=19, P=0.02). (diabetesincontrol.com)
- The remaining analyses were restricted to non-diabetic women who gave birth between weeks 37 and 42 of gestation for whom weight gain was reported-altogether 7,122 women. (nih.gov)
- Then, they evaluated weight gain at 20 to 28 weeks' gestation in 489 women with twin pregnancies. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- Before 20 weeks' gestation, about 40% of women had inadequate weight gain. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- The 93 women who gained less than the minimum recommended weight at 20 to 28 weeks' gestation were nearly 3 times more likely to give birth before 32 weeks' gestation than women who had adequate weight gain during the same gestational period (40% vs 15%, respectively), said Pettit. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- 32 weeks gestation using electronic data on longitudinal weight measurements entered from 40 neonatal units in England. (bmj.com)
- Pattern of postnatal weight gain by week of gestation. (bmj.com)
- Maternal weight was measured again after 37 weeks gestation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Main outcome measures were GWG between 15 and 32 weeks of gestation, average GWG per week, and birth weight. (theactigraph.com)
- In fact, at discharge from the NICU or at 36 weeks' PMA, most were less than the comparable 10th percentile birth weight for completed weeks of gestation according to the reference intrauterine growth data reported by Alexander et al. (aappublications.org)
- Typically in pregnancy we're very focused on weight gain, and pregnant women have their weight measured at every appointment to see how much they are gaining," Dr. Retnakaran noted in a telephone interview with Reuters Health. (reuters.com)
- In the new study, reported last month in JAMA Pediatrics, Dr. Retnakaran and his team enrolled 1,164 newly married women living in the Liuyang region of China, measuring their weight before they became pregnant and at intervals throughout pregnancy. (reuters.com)
- Participants' weight was recorded an average of about 20 weeks before they became pregnant. (reuters.com)
- From behind, I don't look pregnant and although I'm experiencing swelling by the end of the day on my ankles, my other parts of my body don't appear to have gained unreasonable amounts of weight. (emmasdiary.co.uk)
- Birth control pills are effective in the way they are because they fool the body into believing it's already pregnant. (birthcontrol.com)
- The small percentage of women meeting the recommended levels of PA indicates the need to inform and support pregnant women to maintain regular PA, as there seems to be no adverse effect on birth weight and maintaining PA increases overall health. (theactigraph.com)
- CONCLUSION:Although dietary education and or probiotics did not alter rates of excessive gestational weight gain or birthweight in this multiethnic, high-deprivation population of pregnant women with obesity, dietary education was associated with a modest reduction in total weight gain with potential future benefit for the health of mothers and their offspring if sustained. (auckland.ac.nz)
- We used dynamical systems modeling to describe how a prenatal behavioral intervention that adapts to the needs of each pregnant woman may help manage gestational weight gain and alter the obesogenic intrauterine environment to regulate infant birth weight. (elsevier.com)
- You can get pregnant pretty quickly after going off of birth control. (businessinsider.com)
- Taking a break in your birth control pills is only advisable if you are trying to get pregnant. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Two well-documented risk factors for aberrant weight gain and obesity is whether your mother was obese when she was pregnant and the amount of weight she gained. (medicalresearch.com)
- Q&A: How Much Extra Weight Gained From Quitting Smoking While Pregnant? (thebump.com)
- Women using oral contraception did not gain more weight than those using a nonhormonal form of birth control. (eurekalert.org)
- The study will enable physicians to counsel women accurately about the body changes associated with widely used forms of contraception and also shed light on how weight gain might be reversed, said Berenson. (eurekalert.org)
- Of course, not everyone who takes birth control identifies as a woman, but everyone who takes oral contraception can benefit from this information. (businessinsider.com)
- In the journal Contraception, the study looked at the etonogestrel implant which is a rod-like type of birth control. (punnettssquare.com)
- Other types of contraception could have ismilar interactions and lead to weight gain. (punnettssquare.com)
- Study after study has examined the relationship between today's most popular forms of hormonal contraception and weight gain. (healthline.com)
- The more commonly used contraception methods, including birth control pills, injections, arm patches, and vaginal rings have failure rates of about 10% in a year, Dr. Stanwood notes, noting that the problem isn't with the method but how it's used. (yalemedicine.org)
Infant's birth weight2
- On average, for every kilogram (2.2 lbs) a woman gained during this earliest period, her infant's birth weight rose by 13.6 grams. (reuters.com)
- However, very few studies from India have explored the role of components of maternal weight, that is, fat mass and lean mass on the infant's birth weight. (nature.com)
Hormonal birth control m2
- Weight gain is a common side effect for all hormonal methods of birth control. (birthcontrolbuzz.com)
- While it's important to consider whether your birth control is causing your weight gain, you should also be aware of common methods to control your own weight. (helloalpha.com)
- While most birth control methods don't cause significant weight gain, they can make you retain water. (wikihow.life)
- I know many birth control methods do have a lot side effects, which have concerned me. (punnettssquare.com)
- People often have a misconception that all birth control methods are the same in terms of protection. (yalemedicine.org)
Size for gestational age3
- Growth patterns throughout infancy, in particular small birth size for gestational age and rapid postnatal weight gain have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors in both children and young adults, including abnormal lipid levels and elevated BP. (ahajournals.org)
- 18.5 kg/m 2 ) and size for gestational age at birth. (cambridge.org)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of offspring sex on the relationships among maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG and size for gestational age at birth in Japanese underweight mothers. (cambridge.org)
Pills and weight gain3
- Birth control pills and weight gain. (drugs.com)
- The answer is not entirely black and white, but what is safe to say is that there is a connection between birth control pills and weight gain, and some women will be more prone to experience it than others. (birthcontrol.com)
- But as far as we could tell, there is no evidence of a causal relationship between taking birth control pills and weight gain," added Lopez. (blogspot.com)
Excessive gestational weight2
- Excessive gestational weight gain has also been identified as a risk for increasing infant birth weight. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- In this retrospective study, researchers examined the association between excessive gestational weight gain and infant birth weight in type 1 diabetes patients. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- Obese women gained above the recommended limits by the "institute of medicine" while underweight women gained below the limits. (ajol.info)
- Birthweight adjusted mean difference aMD (95% confidence interval) 205 (46,365) and the odds of macrosomia adjusted odds ratio aOR 13.46 (2.32-77.99) significantly increased in obese women compared to those with a normal BMI. (shu.ac.uk)
- Birth weight of children of uncomplicated pregnancies was, however, dependent on maternal height, BMI, GWG, and parity but not leptin levels, except for in morbid obese women where a negative association between maternal leptin levels and birth weight was found. (cdc.gov)
- The researchers say for women who are overweight, birth control pills might help with weight loss if food consumption remains the same. (emaxhealth.com)
- Guidelines for the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child overweight and obesity indicate that weight loss is not recommended in this age group. (cdc.gov)
- Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8-6.5) and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3-9.0) women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8-8.8). (hindawi.com)
- Most weight-related studies of late have examined the effects of overweight and obesity on various aspects of women's health. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- About 60% of the participants were normal weight, 20% were overweight, and 20% were obese. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- Taking steps to prevent obesity should start as soon as possible after birth, the researchers said, so assessing the risk for future overweight or obesity in newborns may be an important means of focusing preventive interventions on those who are at risk. (medpagetoday.com)
- The study found that from the women with a normal Body Mass Index measurement before pregnancy who gained less than the recommended amount were 63 percent more likely to have a child who became overweight or obese. (thebump.com)
- However, women with a normal BMI before pregnancy who gained more than the recommended amount were 80 percent more likely to have an overweight or obese child. (thebump.com)
- The labels of most oral contraceptives list "weight gain" among their common side effects. (slate.com)
- Researchers, seeking to clarify whether oral contraceptives lead to weight gain, found birth control pills might even help women lose weight. (emaxhealth.com)
- The new study seems to support the notion that oral contraceptives can promote weight loss. (emaxhealth.com)
- As such, some women are avoiding birth control shots and sticking with oral contraceptives instead. (birthcontrol.com)
- According to research conducted at the Oregon National Primate Research Center at Oregon Health & Science University, the commonly held belief that oral contraceptives cause weight gain appears to be false. (zidbits.com)
- Issues surrounding weight are hard to study in humans, and the research thus far has been insufficient to demonstrate whether or not oral contraceptives cause weight gain or loss. (zidbits.com)
- During the eight-month treatment period, animals received doses of oral contraceptives, adjusted to the weight of the animals so that it mimicked dosage in humans. (zidbits.com)
- It's tricky to recruit women for the placebo arm of a birth-control trial, but researchers have managed to complete three such studies, involving a total of more than 1,200 women total. (slate.com)
- These were designed to test the pill's ability to reduce acne or menstrual pain, but the researchers also gathered data on rates of headache, nausea, breast tenderness, vomiting, and weight gain. (slate.com)
- Throughout the course of the study, researchers compared changes in body weight and composition and took into account the influence of age, race, caloric intake and exercise, among other factors. (eurekalert.org)
- When researchers compared all three groups, DMPA users were more than twice as likely as women using nonhormonal or oral birth control to become obese over the next three years. (eurekalert.org)
- UTMB researchers are conducting follow-up studies to determine which subset of women is most likely to gain weight on DMPA. (eurekalert.org)
- The researchers concluded that it is not possible to say for sure that hormonal contraceptives don't cause weight gain. (blogspot.com)
- The researchers first looked at the actual weight patterns among these women and later used a scientific model to know their weight patterns if they had not given birth. (shine.com)
- The positive correlation between GWG in pregnancy and BW can be accounted for by the contribution of fetal weight to GWG antenatally without a contribution from increased maternal adiposity. (biomedcentral.com)
- These findings are in accord with the concept that the effects of genes are conditioned by fetal growth, and that the effects of a small body size at birth are conditioned by growth during childhood and by environmental factors in childhood and adult life. (nih.gov)
- Lifestyle factors can also come into play, but the primary reason birth control pills cause weight gain is because they promote water retention. (birthcontrol.com)
- Certain women will be much more naturally prone to water retention, and theirs will be exacerbated for this reason if they are using certain birth control medications. (birthcontrol.com)
- However, the good news is that weight gain from water retention usually subsides after you have your period. (birthcontrol.com)
- For women who are prone to water retention, any or all of them may be necessary as currently there are no birth control pills that contain less than 20mcg of estrogen. (birthcontrol.com)
- In turn, that can decrease water retention and water weight gain in your body. (wikihow.life)
- water retention , not actual weight gain. (healthline.com)
- Any weight gain that may occur in the first weeks or months after beginning birth control is typically due to water retention. (healthline.com)
- Shortly after you begin taking birth control, you may notice other side effects in addition to water retention. (healthline.com)
- This fluid retention, especially in the breasts, hips and thighs, can make women feel like they're gaining weight quickly, but the water retention should pass as your body adjusts to the medication. (livestrong.com)
- If you put on a lot of weight very quickly, this can be a sign of preeclampsia due to water retention. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Early in pregnancy, the authors note, the fetus grows slowly, so weight gain mainly involves the mother's body. (reuters.com)
- In the study, the primates given birth control pills and obese experienced an 8.5% weight loss and dropped 12% of body fat. (emaxhealth.com)
- The 20-year-old, who is expected to give birth in the next two months, has thrown endless tantrums and fits, letting her family know that she's unhappy with how her body looks and that she can't wait to finally birth her child already. (inquisitr.com)
- It reflects body weight relative to age. (cdc.gov)
- i came off 2 years ago for the thought off losing weight and get my body back to normal. (womens-health.co.uk)
- To study the association between gestational weight gain and different birth weight indicators considering the pre-pregnancy body mass index. (nih.gov)
- It was hypothesized that a high body mass index (BMI) would modify the effect of gestational weight gain and support the advice of keeping gestational weight gain at a moderate level in case of obesity. (nih.gov)
- The aim of this longitudinal prospective study was to examine the relationship between GWG and birth weight in women where GWG and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured accurately in a strictly standardized way. (biomedcentral.com)
- We used linear mixed effects models and linear regression models to examine the longitudinal and time-point associations of GWG rate (kg/week) with infant growth measures (z-scores of body-mass-index (BMIZ), weight-for-age (WFAZ) and length-for-age (LFAZ)) at birth, 1, 3, and 6 months. (populationmedicine.org)
- Eating a varied diet with plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables and grains, as well as getting back into an exercise routine, may also help you get back to your pre-baby weight sooner, according to The Mayo Clinic article, 'Weight Loss After Pregnancy: Reclaiming Your Body. (livestrong.com)
- However, birth control can indeed impact fluid retention, muscle gain, and body fat percentage, and these in turn could affect perceived overall body weight. (helloalpha.com)
- With that being said, different types of birth control can each may have varying effects on body weight. (helloalpha.com)
- We must remember that many, many other factors are at play when considering body fat percentage or overall weight. (helloalpha.com)
- So many different forces affect our body weight that it is very difficult to singularly accredit birth control (in any form) with particular weight gain. (helloalpha.com)
- At the study's conclusion, the normal weight group remained weight stable whereas the obese group lost a significant amount of weight (8.5%) and percent of body fat (12%) due to an increase in basal metabolic rate. (zidbits.com)
- This study explored the relationship of maternal body composition parameters to the birth weight of the offspring. (nature.com)
- Maternal anthropometric parameters (weight, height) and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured in 76 women from low-income group during 12-21 days postpartum. (nature.com)
- Your body image is your perception of how your body looks, and it often has little to do with your weight or physical fitness level. (3fatchicks.com)
- Second Trimester Maternal Leptin Levels Are Associated with Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain but not Birth Weight of the Infant. (cdc.gov)
- At the same time , intermediate and high BW and low and high SDWG piglets presented body weight differences at weaning (P (bvsalud.org)
- How much weight you should gain in pregnancy will depend to some extent on your body mass index ( BMI ) before conception. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- For first time mothers who were caucasian _and _obese, the risk of giving birth between 20 and 23 weeks was six times higher than for women who had an average body weight pre-pregnancy. (thebump.com)
Predictor of birth1
Infant birth weight4
- The results of this study show the association between gestational weight gain and increased infant birth weight. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- The results of this study show the impact gestational weight gain has on infant birth weight. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- This, in turn, changes the woman's intention and behavior with respect to healthy eating and physical activity during pregnancy, affecting gestational weight gain and infant birth weight. (elsevier.com)
- This article demonstrates the potential for real-world applications of an adaptive intervention to manage gestational weight gain and moderate infant birth weight. (elsevier.com)
- What makes this study different than other studies evaluating inadequate weight gain in pregnancy is that this study looked at a specific period during the pregnancy-the second trimester-instead of total weight gain over the course of the entire pregnancy. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- Compared with women in the adequate weight gain group, women with inadequate weight gain had higher rates of gestational diabetes, lower rates of preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome, and equivalent rates of cesarean delivery. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- The majority of women gained inadequate weight in pregnancy compared to the Institute of Medicine (IOM)recommendations, especially those who had a normal BMI. (shu.ac.uk)
- Birthweight aMD -139 (−215, −64) significantly decreased in women with inadequate GWG compared to those with recommended GWG, while SGA aOR 5.44 (1.36, 21.77) and prematurity aOR 3.55 (1.23, 10.21) increased. (shu.ac.uk)
- weight, appetite, not to mention the boobs. (womens-health.co.uk)
- I eventually got my appetite back, gained some (but still looked good). (babycenter.ca)
- Yes, some birth control pills can be appetite stimulators. (birthcontrol.com)
- An increased appetite can still include mostly smart diet choices, but when they don't there is a bit of a double whammy when taking birth control and eating heavier - and often more satisfying - foods. (birthcontrol.com)
- One other consideration to keep in mind here is that the appetite stimulation / weight gain side effect of birth control pills is more pronounced in women with abnormal glucose metabolism. (birthcontrol.com)
- slightly bigger breasts, sensitivity to caffeine, slight appetite increase, slight weight gain of 5 lbs., mostly in the right places. (healthboards.com)
- Progesterone-based birth control may increase your appetite, but the change may not be noticeable. (livestrong.com)
- Gaining either too little or too much weight in pregnancy may permanently affect mechanisms that manage energy balance and metabolism in the offspring , such as appetite control and energy expenditure," says the study's lead author, Sneha Sridhar, MPH. (thebump.com)
- Excess weight gain may expose the fetus to an excess of "maternal fuels," such as glucose and amino acids, affecting development and increasing the risk of metabolic problems. (reuters.com)
- Background Different pathways likely underlie the association between early weight gain and cardiovascular disease risk. (ahajournals.org)
- Conclusions Among children with at least 1 obese parent, faster postnatal weight gain leads to cardiovascular risk factors in early adolescence through its effect on childhood adiposity. (ahajournals.org)
- ntroversy surrounding the history of birth control but again, information available to the public and not connected to industry, shows a clear connection between birth control and increased risk and number of cases of cervical and breast cancer. (healthboards.com)
- But this is an extremely important question as concern about weight gain is one of the main reasons why women may avoid or discontinue birth control, which in turn places them at greater risk for an unplanned pregnancy. (zidbits.com)
- Did I know that my estrogen-based birth control could increase my risk of deep vein thrombosis? (thefrisky.com)
- The weight gain that occurred after 24 weeks until delivery, did not attenuate this risk. (medicalresearch.com)
- However, little is known about the relative importance of birth weight and successive periods of weight gain on markers of cardiometabolic risk in childhood in low-income populations. (regionh.dk)
- Objectives: The objective was to study associations of birth weight and weight gain velocities in selected age intervals from birth to 60 mo with height, fat-free mass (FFM), and markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk at 60 mo. (regionh.dk)
- Subsequently, we analyzed associations of birth weight, weight gain velocities, and current weight with height, FFM, and markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk. (regionh.dk)
- To study the combined effects of a low birth weight and a pronounced weight increase up to early adulthood on the presence of cardiovascular risk factors constituting the metabolic syndrome in late middle age. (nih.gov)
- Excess weight gain may increase the risk of gestational diabetes . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Folic acid, for reducing the risk for spina bifida (incomplete closing of the spinal column), anencephaly (defect of the brain), and other birth defects. (medlineplus.gov)
- Promoting healthy patterns of weight gain throughout the life course, including prenatally, during the first 2 years of life and throughout childhood may reduce the occurrence of obesity and its deleterious consequences for cardiovascular health. (ahajournals.org)
- Despite the increasing global importance of gestational weight gain (GWG) and its impact on birthweight, little is known about the patterns of GWG in African populations. (ajol.info)
- Aims We aimed to construct birthweight centiles and illustrate the range of contemporaneous preterm postnatal growth to provide a population-based benchmark and a baseline for future examination of temporal trends. (bmj.com)
- Rate of postnatal weight gain was estimated using individual slopes of weight for length z ‐score measurements. (ahajournals.org)
- In contrast, small beneficial direct effects on diastolic BP z scores, independent of weight at other time points, were found for birth weight for length (β=−0.05, 95% CI , −0.09 to −0.002) and for postnatal weight gain (β=−0.02, 95% CI , −0.03 to −0.002). (ahajournals.org)
- Our findings do not support direct associations of birth weight for length and postnatal weight gain up to 2 years of age on fasting lipid or blood pressure levels, independent of childhood adiposity, with the exception of diastolic blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
- This model could be expanded to examine the long-term sustainable impacts of an intervention that varies according to the participant's needs on maternal postpartum weight retention and child postnatal eating behavior. (elsevier.com)
- According to Dr. Edelman, studies have been insufficient to prove or disprove birth controls are the culprit for weight gain reported by women from oral contraceptive use. (emaxhealth.com)
- A total of 115 women were included in the study and were placed into one of three groups based on gestational weight gain: excessive, appropriate or insufficient weight gain. (diabetesincontrol.com)
- Gestational weight gain (GWG) was considered insufficient, adequate or excessive based on the Institute of Medicine 2009 recommendations for each pre-pregnancy BMI class. (biomedcentral.com)
- Insufficient weight gain was associated with increased SGA in women with normal BMI. (biomedcentral.com)