Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.United StatesImmunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Multimodal Imaging: The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.GermanyTuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Adnexa Uteri: Appendages of the UTERUS which include the FALLOPIAN TUBES, the OVARY, and the supporting ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
  • Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, inherited, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by a triad of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric problems, 1 although it is now widely recognized that there are clinical features that extend beyond these domains, such as abnormalities in sleep 2 , 3 and metabolism. (dovepress.com)
  • In some cases, these changes are found a decade or more in advance of patients' estimated time for disease onset, 7 - 16 and the extent of striatal (especially caudate) atrophy increases as patients approach clinical onset and start to develop motor symptoms and signs. (dovepress.com)
  • These advances provide insight into diseases, hold promises to improve clinical practices to address lifestyle changes, inform reproductive decisions, identify newborns at risk as well as possibly move genetic screening out of the realm of the clinics into direct‐to‐consumer market forces. (els.net)
  • Consider whether multiplex screening/testing will shift the clinical approach towards a 'direct‐to‐consumer' model. (els.net)
  • Samples to test for the presence of MRD in their marrows will be obtained at these times of clinical re-staging for up to 3 years after their response to therapy. (centerwatch.com)
  • After reaching a CR or VGPR, at annual evaluations for up to 3 years, the genomic DNA from the research sample of bone marrow collected during standard of care clinical procedures will be used to confirm maintenance of response by testing for the presence of MRD with each of the 3 methods (Q-PCR, WGS, and plasma protein analysis) noted above. (centerwatch.com)
  • The contributors discuss the range of genetics-related needs people bring to counselors, existing and emerging technologies for genetic testing, challenges related to the abundance of recent discoveries about genetic diseases, the ways in which genetic counseling is integrated into modern medicine, and the expanding roles of genetic counselors beyond the clinical setting. (cshlpress.com)
  • Given that pulmonary exacerbations occur frequently even in young children, they offer an inviting clinical endpoint for future studies in this age group. (bmj.com)
  • 4 Pulmonary exacerbations are clinically meaningful endpoints that are associated with survival, 5 future deterioration of spirometry 6 and increased bronchiectasis, 7 consume significant clinical resources 8 and impact quality of life 9 in studies of older children and adults. (bmj.com)
  • The present paper considers the information needs that arise when a genetic risk is sufficiently established that its assessment is considered in clinical or public health practice - that is, the point at which information about a gene-disease association becomes the basis for a genetic test. (cdc.gov)
  • However, a new issue arises when a genetic test is considered for clinical or public health use: whether the test provides a health benefit. (cdc.gov)
  • Because benefit can be evaluated only in the context of specific health outcomes, the starting point for considering the use of a genetic test is a well-defined clinical problem, for which the test is expected to improve care. (cdc.gov)
  • The test may help direct work-up or management of a clinical problem, identify candidates for specific interventions, or provide diagnostic or prognostic information. (cdc.gov)
  • Because integrated clinical and genomic analyses indicate that similar pathways are active in humans with cardiovascular disease, these studies suggest that the clonally expanding SMC may represent a translational target for treating atherosclerosis. (stanford.edu)
  • According to the ADA Council on Scientific Affairs' Genetic Testing Workgroup, the ADA body that authored the genetic and genetic testing resource, "While genetic testing holds potential for clinical application in the future, clinical measurements remain the best approach to assessment of caries and periodontal disease at this time. (ada.org)
  • The FDA is establishing criteria, called special controls, which clarify the agency's expectations in assuring the tests' accuracy, reliability and clinical relevance. (ada.org)
  • But Zaven Khachaturian, president and CEO of the Lou Ruvo Brain Institute in Las Vegas and a widely recognized authority in Alzheimer's Disease, said that before the tool could be used in clinical practice, physicians and patients would need more information about how to interpret the scores. (go.com)
  • Recent clinical studies demonstrated that patients with metastatic castration-sensitive disease, and possibly those with high-risk localized prostate cancer also benefit from docetaxel administration, expanding the role of chemotherapy in the prostate cancer treatment landscape. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This review presents an outline of recent and ongoing clinical studies assessing docetaxel and its derivative cabazitaxel at different stages of the disease, and in various combinations with other agents. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Records were selected on the basis of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes ( 4 ) as defined by the Department of Defense ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Laboratory testing or clinical visits may have occurred outside of this network and may not have been captured in this study. (cdc.gov)
  • However, she suggests, given that the samples used in the study were collected as part of routine clinical practice, "implementing an immune hotspot test would be relatively easy and cost effective…it might also be possible to predict which patients would respond to immunotherapy. (genengnews.com)
  • My most recent scholarly activities concentrate on working as a team to capitalize on the data stored in electronic medical records, HIV disease modeling and using electronic medical records for outcome research and developing a mentorship program for doctoral, post-doctoral scholars and early career faculty dedicated to translational and clinical research. (stanford.edu)
  • These results demonstrate that assessing coronary artery disease is complex and requires evaluation of anatomy, physiology, and eventually clinical end points. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The primary objective of this study is to determine the impact of ArthritisPower™ integration into the clinical evaluation of patients with RA on the primary endpoint of clinical improvement as defined by the continuous change in the Clinical Disease Activity Index. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to focus on following a prospective cohort of 30 patients with classified SLE for the collection of demographic, clinical (disease activity), and laboratory data that can be used to provide well- characterized biological samples for future assessment of mechanisms of immune dysregulation that lead to clinical disease flare, including a distinct subset of SLE-associated, immune pathway alterations that inform a predictive algorithm. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Results were compared with clinical testing of archival tumor tissue and clinical outcomes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • What regulators of genetic tests with any potential medical applications want to know about (including the FDA is evaluating 23andMe's tests) are analytical validity and clinical validity. (phgfoundation.org)
  • First, should the regulator allow only tests with proven clinical validity (i.e. those which are both scientifically sound and make clinically accurate predictions) to be marketed, or would evidence of scientific validity suffice? (phgfoundation.org)
  • Second, might adequate protection be provided to the consumer (assuming adequate analytical validity) provided that the clinical evidence, either positive or negative, be placed in the public domain so that the consumer may access tests even without evidence of clinical validity, provided that he or she is in full knowledge of that lack of evidence? (phgfoundation.org)
  • 23andMe's failed attempts to gain exemption for their PGS from the FDA statutory standard of being able to demonstrate clinically significant results are perhaps less outrageous if compared with homeopathic treatments rather than other clinical predictive tests. (phgfoundation.org)
  • All individuals will meet with their clinical geneticist or genetic counsellor prior to their genetic test to discuss the potential results, risks, benefits and limitations of such a test. (yourgenome.org)
  • One can now put together what one knows about one's risk, with continuing surveillance via these clinical tests, and have a good strategy for planning one's suicide before one becomes demented. (bmj.com)
  • This has implications for how these genetic and clinical tests are marketed and deployed, and the language one uses to speak about them. (bmj.com)
  • Developing a risk score to identify better the patients who are at increased risk for end-stage renal disease would be of major importance for the current efforts to establish clinical guidelines and public health plans for chronic kidney disease," the researchers said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In multivariable analysis, no clinical factors -- including age, diabetes, and blood pressure -- significantly added to the predictive ability of eGFR and albumin-to-creatinine ratio. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Among the predictive models, the best clinical model based on age, gender, physical activity, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, and HDL cholesterol correctly classified 86.4% of patients in the general population who did and did not progress to end-stage renal disease. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, understanding the limitations of endoscopic assessment may assist in bladder preservation approaches in the future to better assess the clinical and oncologic risk to help drive bladder cancer care. (urotoday.com)
  • Individual CGVs typically confer small increases in disease risk and have no clinical utility. (bmj.com)
  • Upon arrival, my laboratory colleagues and I met with one of the clinical neurologists, who introduced us to a patient suffering from advanced Parkinson's Disease . (plos.org)
  • Clinical trials for neuropsychiatric DBS therapy have exploded , with a large number of brain targets and diseases under investigation. (plos.org)
  • Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC) is a molecularly diverse disease with heterogeneous clinical outcomes. (ssrn.com)
  • The results are clinically actionable and should shape our approach to these tests in clinical practice. (tctmd.com)
  • This understanding should enable more effective patient care resulting in improved clinical outcomes in future outbreaks. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Routine clinical assessment as effective as ECGs for heart disease prediction. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A study published on the online British Medical Journal has claimed that despite of conducting ECG, there is still need for alternative tests, which add predictive value to that obtained from the patient's clinical history. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • They found that a routine clinical assessment provided almost as much predictive information about future heart problems as having an ECG. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The authors concluded that ECG tests are of limited value in identifying potential future coronary problems in patients with suspected angina and no prior diagnosis of heart disease, adding little to routine clinical assessment including the patient's history and an examination. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The agreement creates an immediate distribution pipeline into the primary care physician market for Myriad's predictive medicine products and establishes access for Myriad to LabCorp's network of clinical service centers where patients may have blood drawn and packaged for shipment to Myriad. (secinfo.com)
  • The purpose is to accentuate any pain that may be associated with a joint or soft-tissue structure, allowing the practitioner to localize a lameness to a specific area, or to alert a practitioner to the presence of sub-clinical disease that may be present during a pre-purchase exam. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spheroidal 3D tissue cultures are one step closer to representing in vivo tumor responses, allowing for greater predictive power in drug candidacy. (corning.com)
  • Conclusions At the point of online purchase of home self-sampling COVID-19 tests, users in the UK are provided with incomplete, and, in some cases, misleading information on test accuracy, intended use, and test interpretation. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions In AAV, renal, otolaryngological and treatment-related (cardiovascular, disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and malignancy) damage increases over time, with around one-third of patients having ≥5 items of damage at a mean of 7 years postdiagnosis. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Exposure to simulated patient cases promotes accurate estimation of predictive values in clinicians. (bmj.com)
  • Associate Chief Medical Officer at the University of Iowa (UI) Hospitals and Clinics Dr. John Cromwell believed that the use of predictive analytics could prevent a high percentage of surgical site infections and decrease healthcare costs. (tibco.com)
  • With a 74 percent reduction in surgical site infections in three years, the University of Iowa proved its hypothesis and successfully implemented predictive analytics into the hospital workflow, reducing costs during hospitalization by $2.2 million at scale. (tibco.com)
  • Predictive analytics is allowing us to manage ever-increasing data types and sources," said Dr. Cromwell. (tibco.com)
  • Preventive healthcare driven by predictive analytics to determine the likelihood of disease progression. (frost.com)
  • About one in 11 children suffers from asthma, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and although half will eventually grow out of the condition, a recent CDC survey found that medical costs of asthma and its complications add up to about $56 billion each year. (time.com)
  • Whether to include additional comorbidities beyond diabetes in future kidney allocation schemes is controversial. (wiley.com)
  • Critical care and trauma, heart disease, neurosurgery, diabetes, cancer care, and care of the homeless are among the Hospital's recognized areas of expertise. (scienceblog.com)
  • This approach has been used to study obesity ( 6 ), diabetes ( 5 , 7 , 8 ), cardiovascular disease ( 9 , 10 ), and all-cause mortality ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Previous studies of type 2 diabetes and dietary patterns using RRR relied on self-report of diabetes status without an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to identify incident disease ( 5 , 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to identify a dietary pattern using RRR that is associated with insulin resistance, a phenotype closely associated with development of type 2 diabetes, and, subsequently, to investigate the prospective association between the dietary pattern and disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The high heritability of type-1 diabetes means that genes play a dominant role in causing the disease. (theconversation.com)
  • For the diagnosis of diabetes, IGT and IFG, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postload glucose (2h-PG) from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) can all be used ( 6 , 9 , 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Guidelines from the ADA endorse all three methods to detect diabetes as equally appropriate ( 10 ), whereas the European Society of Cardiology guidelines recommend that screening should be initiated with FPG and/or HbA 1c , followed by an OGTT if these tests are negative ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • No gene to date has been identified that has as large an impact on periodontal disease as do environmental influences, such as smoking or diabetes, according to the resource. (ada.org)
  • Diabetes and peripheral artery disease are responsible for more than 80 per cent of leg and foot amputations in Canada. (ices.on.ca)
  • The investigators will clone and sequence each patient's light chain (LC) gene and design patient-specific primers to evaluate genomic DNA from future marrow specimens. (centerwatch.com)
  • Other topics in the volume include ethical, legal, and social issues (e.g., genetic testing of minors, genetic discrimination, and obtaining informed consent for genomic testing), as well as the future of the profession. (cshlpress.com)
  • The Genomics, Environmental Factors and the Social Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease in Africans Americans Study (GENE-FORECAST®) study is developing a community-based cohort and novel genomic science resource for defining the biological significance of ancestry-related genomic variation in African-Americans. (genome.gov)
  • GENE-FORECAST® will test the working hypothesis that race-ancestry differences in the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) reflects the influence of a unique interplay between the distinct genomic variation characteristic of African-Americans (AA) and the exposome of social determinants and environmental factors that influence the pathogenesis of CVD in AA. (genome.gov)
  • However, assessing scientific validity for genetic tests can be difficult as there are no agreed evidence standards, a problem is exacerbated by the rapidly increasing complexity of genomic tests. (phgfoundation.org)
  • The hope is to utilize the specimens with future genomic testing. (urotoday.com)
  • Is Alzheimer's Disease in Your Future? (go.com)
  • Of those, 51 percent were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, 13 percent with vascular dementia, 31 percent with mixed dementia, and 5 percent with other types. (go.com)
  • Follow-up at 2 and 4 years in 757 participants showed that low baseline scores correlated with cognitive decline and the appearance of Alzheimer's disease. (menopause.org.au)
  • Interestingly, even a simple test, using a container of 14 g of peanut butter, which was opened and moved up 1 cm at a time during the participant's exhale-until-odor detection, while measuring the distance between the subject's nostril and container, appeared to be a sensitive and specific test for probable Alzheimer's disease . (menopause.org.au)
  • Based on these data, the authors suggested that HT may offer protection against loss of olfactory function in ApoE-positive individuals in preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. (menopause.org.au)
  • Someday you will not have to be demented to be diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. (bmj.com)
  • Data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, which consists of CN, aMCI, and AD cohorts with both CSF and MRI, were used. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This review aims to summarize all completed and ongoing human studies of DBS in Alzheimer's disease. (j-alz.com)
  • Here we present the findings from our analysis on the 19 established GWAS index SNPs for Alzheimer's disease, in order to demonstrate if the BDR sample also displays association to these variants. (j-alz.com)
  • Another benefit of 3D cell culture, and where 2D cell culture is lacking, is adding the natural complexity of running mixed cell populations to spheroid formation and testing. (corning.com)
  • Future studies should replicate this research in other settings and with other populations. (bmj.com)
  • Touted as the tool of the future, Dr. Soliman explained that CT angiography is the best non-invasive screening test available on the market today. (auamed.org)
  • Second, invasive angiography is limited in the evaluation of the disease process in the vessel wall, including plaque burden and vulnerable plaque ( 4 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • In much of the work surrounding diet and chronic disease, a single nutrient approach has been adopted. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Increasingly, dietary patterns are thought to be important determinants of chronic disease ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We know that multiple chronic conditions (ie, comorbidity or multimorbidity) have a significant effect on individuals and families and that chronic disease morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high among African Americans. (cdc.gov)
  • 23andMe has failed to provide scientific evidence for their genetic tests and the FDA has urged them in a public letter to halt the marketing of their services until further notice. (theconversation.com)
  • There is undoubtedly a need for regulation of direct-to-consumer genetic tests, and it seems clear that 23andMe failed to comply with the FDA's demands. (phgfoundation.org)
  • However, an observational study in Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST CF) demonstrated that structural lung disease, including bronchiectasis, may be present even in infancy. (bmj.com)
  • Discoveries starting in the 1950s have helped scientists to develop genetic tests for genetic conditions such as Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (nih.gov)
  • Aside from classical monogenic diseases and other differences caused by mutations and polymorphisms in protein-coding genes, much of the variation between individuals, including that which may affect our predispositions to common diseases, is probably due to differences in the non-coding regions of the genome (ie, the control architecture of the system). (mja.com.au)
  • In future we may choose, for example, a breakfast cereal based on our genes," he added. (eurekalert.org)
  • In some people, food may cause genes to malfunction, which is why among people who consume the same diet, some do not suffer from a given disease, while others show elevated disease levels. (eurekalert.org)
  • Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis reveals that prophagocytic single-walled carbon nanotubes decrease the expression of inflammatory genes linked to cytokine and chemokine pathways in lesional macrophages, which demonstrates the potential of 'Trojan horse' nanoparticles to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. (stanford.edu)
  • Pre-implantation genetic testing -is done in conjunction with in vitro fertilization to determine if embryos for implantation carry genes that could cause disease. (nih.gov)
  • Research genetic testing - helps scientists learn more about how genes contribute to health and disease, as well as develop gene-based treatments. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers are constantly learning more about the role genes play in disease, and our knowledge is growing every day. (cags.org.ae)
  • Genetic tests look for abnormalities in a person's genes, or the presence/absence of key proteins whose production is directed by specific genes. (cags.org.ae)
  • Finally, Biochemical tests look for the presence or absence of key proteins which signal abnormal or malfunctioning genes. (cags.org.ae)
  • This type of testing can help a healthcare provider choose the medicines that work best with a person's genetic makeup. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers behind the current study wanted to see if analysing a person's genetic information could enhance the predictive power of the QRISK score, and a similar score used in the USA. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • TIBCO Data Science is using patient healthcare and historical data to create predictive models in a real-time environment, enabling faster, more accurate decision-making. (tibco.com)
  • Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship. (springer.com)
  • Implementing an antibiotic stewardship program: guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. (springer.com)
  • This information then provides benchmarks for ongoing measurement, assesses wellness program effectiveness, and forecasts future healthcare costs. (floridahealthinsuranceweb.com)
  • those authors found SIDRs to be a reliable source of billing data for common diagnoses, not including notifiable infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • At the same time, the disease targets of these screening efforts have changed, as public health programs see rationales for shifting specific tests from one form of testing to another. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The discussion of using these new tests as public health tools has been dominated by questions of feasibility and utility (Omenn, Holtzman). (encyclopedia.com)
  • January 7, 2011 - People suffering from fatty liver disease may be three times more likely to suffer a stroke than individuals without fatty liver, according to a study by researchers at St. Michael's Hospital and the London Health Sciences Centre. (scienceblog.com)
  • The Hospital also provides outstanding medical education to future health care professionals in more than 23 academic disciplines. (scienceblog.com)
  • In the past few years, a number of companies have popped up offering to test people's telomeres Telome Health , a Bay Area-based company co-founded by Blackburn, is among them (though only individuals participating in research studies can avail themselves of Telome's services at the moment). (fastcompany.com)
  • I recently saw Dr. Elissa Epel, a founding member of Telome Health and associate professor of psychiatry at UCSF, speak about the future of telomeres at Singularity University's FutureMed event. (fastcompany.com)
  • Predictive genetic testing is relatively new but rapidly emerging arena in public health practices, especially in developed nations. (openpr.com)
  • The term accountable care organizations (ACO) represents modification in reimbursement from process based fee for service to fee for quality, disease and condition based repayment with capitated payments to health care delivery organizations on a per case and per capita basis. (openpr.com)
  • A major target will be the baby boomers, reaching their 50s and 60s and trying to forestall the onset of age-related health problems such as heart disease, arthritis, menopausal hot flashes and bone-density loss. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study addresses the false division between these two diagnostic tools, genetic testing versus family health histories, where the approaches have traditionally been portrayed as competing alternatives," explained Uta Francke, M.D., senior medical director. (eurekalert.org)
  • Newborn screening - is used to test babies one or two days after birth to find out if they have certain diseases known to cause problems with health and development. (nih.gov)
  • Some types of testing can be purchased directly by the health care consumer. (nih.gov)
  • Some states offer additional protections for health care consumers that undergo genetic testing. (nih.gov)
  • In the future, genetic testing will be an important part of health care for many individuals. (nih.gov)
  • The article discusses the definition and use of positive and negative predictive rules used with diagnostic tests in health care. (ebscohost.com)
  • Hypotheses were generated from a simple health economics model and tested against individual-level panel data from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Predictive genetic information about Lynch syndrome was associated with change in individual colonoscopy and smoking behaviors but not necessarily in ways to improve population health. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Building on this literature, this study investigated whether receiving a positive or negative result from predictive genetic testing for Lynch syndrome was associated with change in individual health behaviors in Australasians. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The most effective form of initial thyroid cancer therapy is surgery (see Health Guide #11 - Surgical Treatment of Thyroid Disease). (thyroid.ca)
  • This is the finding from scientists at Imperial College London , who devised a highly sophisticated test analysing thousands of so-called genetic variants linked to heart health. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • On hand to welcome the delegates was Minister of Health John Maginley who told the large gathering of students, faculty members and guests that the Caribbean region, too, is grappling with the alarming rise of non-communicable diseases and have decided to tackle the problem on a united front. (auamed.org)
  • It may seem wholly inappropriate for a regulator to permit the sale of an essentially useless test as a medical or health related product, but if there is to be consistency in these matters then sales of products such as homeopathic remedies should certainly not be permitted either, whereas the US FDA and UK MHRA both license homeopathic products without evidence of efficacy. (phgfoundation.org)
  • Genetic counsellors are health professionals who help people faced with the possibility of a genetic disease to make informed decisions about their futures. (yourgenome.org)
  • But because few would progress to end-stage renal disease, the large number of unnecessary referrals could overwhelm the health system, they said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections and the United States Food and Drug Administration, the new research provides data on the underlying causes of Ebola virus infection and suggests that this type of blood analysis could be integrated into future outbreak responses as a diagnostic tool to help guide treatment strategies. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Professor Julian Hiscox, a virologist at the University of Liverpool's Institute of Infection and Global Health, said: "Our study provides a benchmark of Ebola virus infection in humans, and suggests that rapid analysis of a patient's response to infection in an outbreak could provide valuable predictive information on disease outcome. (eurasiareview.com)
  • The main hope for new and emerging therapeutics for HD is to develop a neuroprotective compound capable of slowing down or even stopping the progression of the disease and ultimately prevent the subtle early signs from developing into manifest disease. (dovepress.com)
  • Cancer, as Sporn tells it, is a multistage disease that goes through various cell transformations and sometimes long periods of latency in its progression. (cnn.com)
  • The challenge in obtaining EMA or FDA approval for new therapeutic interventions to be administered in early life, where the progression of lung disease occurs in a 'black box', is demonstrating safety and efficacy in children too young to perform traditional spirometry. (bmj.com)
  • Several recent studies have suggested that the production of these autoantibodies is associated with a faster disease progression and may well serve as a useful predictivemarkerof severe joint damage [ 20 , 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • tumor-derived cell lines that are routinely tested for our clients using cytotoxicity assays, invasion and migration assays, combination assays, and client specific assays, whom we work with one-on-one to customize for their needs. (corning.com)
  • Department of Translational Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several different diseases that have been known for many years are now considered to be manifestations of IgG4-RD. These include: type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis, Riedel's thyroiditis, Mikulicz's disease, Küttner's tumor, inflammatory pseudotumors (in various sites of the body), mediastinal fibrosis and some cases of retroperitoneal fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a simplified version of the protocol for predictive testing as used at the Alzheimer Disease Research Center at Columbia University, New York. (alzforum.org)
  • There is a flood of papers being published on new ways to diagnose Alzheimer disease (AD) before it is symptomatic, involving a combination of invasive tests (eg, spinal tap), and pen and paper tests. (bmj.com)
  • Our aim is to harness the power of 3D cellular models and provide better, more predictive pharmacology than current in vitro methods. (corning.com)
  • This protocol will help provide insight into the ways that the disease changes and progresses. (centerwatch.com)
  • But the test won't provide information that might help determinine a treatment plan. (mayoclinic.org)
  • These special controls, when met along with general controls, provide reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness for these and similar GHR tests. (ada.org)
  • NIH is in the process of building the Genetic Test Registry ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/ ), an online resource that will provide a centralized location for test developers and manufacturers to submit information on their tests. (nih.gov)
  • Provide support and information to help a person make a decision about testing. (cags.org.ae)
  • What information can genetic testing provide? (cags.org.ae)
  • However, by being awake, he could provide feedback about how the DBS stimulation tests were working, guiding the final electrode placement deep in the brain. (plos.org)
  • Some of the key devices that are specifically designed for cardiac rhythm disease management (CRDM) include products for either too slow heart rhythm or too fast heart rhythm. (openpr.com)
  • It is hypothetical today but possible that if you have a particular gene, you will be advised to use a cereal that decreases your chance of heart disease and avoid another that would increase your chance of colon cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Electrocardiograph recording throughout exercise testing evaluates heart rate, heart rhythm, and screens for ischemic changes precipitated by exercise. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Heart disease is a leading cause of death worldwide and is responsible for around 64,000 deaths in the UK each year. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The group were tracked for eight years, during which time any heart disease diagnoses or heart attacks were recorded (6,272 of these events occurred in this time frame). (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The purpose of research day according to event organiser, Dr. Hani Morcos, Chair of Pharmacology at AUA, was to present the latest updates on cardiovascular intervention and medication used in the treatment of heart disease. (auamed.org)
  • ED is a potent predictor of all-cause death and the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure in men with cardiovascular disease. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Along with UroLift, other treatments that the AAC has highlighted include two new cholesterol-lowering drugs and advanced blood tests to look for signs of heart attack and bowel cancer. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • To make primer-probe sets for Q-PCR, bone marrow samples from baseline will be used to create individualized primer-probe sets that can recognize the genetically unique LC gene that causes each patient's disease. (centerwatch.com)
  • Another type of gene tests involves comparing the sequence of DNA bases in a patient's gene to a normal version of the gene. (cags.org.ae)
  • Future studies may require evaluation of gRNA-target flanking sequences larger than those studied here, as well as extensive validation in nonsynthetic targets. (sciencemag.org)
  • Analytical validity is relatively straightforward, showing whether a test accurately detects and distinguishes its intended targets, in this case genetic variants. (phgfoundation.org)