A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.
Infections with bacteria of the genus FUSOBACTERIUM.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.
A species of gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacteria isolated from the natural cavities of man and other animals and from necrotic lesions, abscesses, and blood.
'Anaerobic Bacteria' are types of bacteria that do not require oxygen for growth and can often cause diseases in humans, including dental caries, gas gangrene, and tetanus, among others.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
A superinfection of the damaged oropharyngeal mucosa by FUSOBACTERIUM NECROPHORUM leading to the secondary septic THROMBOPHLEBITIS of the internal jugular vein.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Aerobic bacteria are types of microbes that require oxygen to grow and reproduce, and use it in the process of respiration to break down organic matter and produce energy, often found in environments where oxygen is readily available such as the human body's skin, mouth, and intestines.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
A severe gangrenous process occurring predominantly in debilitated and malnourished children, especially in underdeveloped countries. It typically begins as a small vesicle or ulcer on the gingiva that rapidly becomes necrotic and spreads to produce extensive destruction of the buccal and labial mucosa and tissues of the face, which may result in severe disfigurement and even death. Various bacteria have been implicated in the etiology. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Acute or chronic inflammation of tissues surrounding the apical portion of a tooth, associated with the collection of pus, resulting from infection following pulp infection through a carious lesion or as a result of an injury causing pulp necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.
Bites inflicted by humans.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A disease of the horny parts and of the adjacent soft structures of the feet of cattle, swine, and sheep. It is usually caused by Corynebacterium pyogenes or Bacteroides nodosus (see DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS). It is also known as interdigital necrobacillosis. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 18th ed)
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.
A species of bacteria in the family SPIROCHAETACEAE, frequently isolated from periodontal pockets (PERIODONTAL POCKET).
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
A genus of gram-negative, sheathed, rod-shaped bacteria in the family COMAMONADACEAE.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Esculin is a glucoside of esculetin, a coumarin derivative found in the horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum) and some other plants, used in medical research for its anticoagulant properties and as a substrate in susceptibility testing of certain bacteria.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.

Bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis and an immunoglobulin G2 protease produced by Porphyromonas levii. (1/297)

Acute interdigital phlegmon (AIP) is a commonly occurring anaerobic bacterial infection in cattle. This study examined in vitro the interaction of bovine polymorphonuclear granulocytic neutrophils (PMN) from blood with bacterial species involved in AIP. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils were purified from whole bovine blood, exposed to one of the three putative etiologic agents of AIP and comparatively assessed for phagocytosis using light microscopy. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia were effectively phagocytosed by PMN, but Porphyromonas levii was phagocytosed significantly less effectively by PMN. The effect of high titre anti-P. levii bovine serum on antibody-mediated phagocytosis by PMN was also evaluated. High titre serum increased the efficiency of phagocytosis of P. levii by bovine PMN. This was independent of heat labile complement factors. Antibodies specific for P. levii were assessed for protease activity capable of cleaving bovine immunoglobulins (IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM). Partially purified supernatant from broth cultures of P. levii were incubated with biotinylated immunoglobulins (Igs). Samples were taken from times 0 to 72 h and examined using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot analysis. Streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase and NBT-BCIP were used to visualize the Igs for heavy and light chains as well as lower molecular weight fragments of these glycoproteins. Porphyromonas levii produced an immunoglobulin protease which readily cleaved bovine IgG into fragments, but did not act against IgM. Specifically, the enzyme may be a significant virulence factor as it may act to neutralize the antibodies demonstrated necessary for effective PMN-mediated phagocytosis.  (+info)

In vivo protection of Fusobacterium necrophorum from penicillin by Bacteroides fragilis. (2/297)

A mixed infection of Bacteroides fragilis and Fusobacterium necrophorum was resistant to treatment with penicillin even though a pure F. necrophorum infection could be successfully treated with penicillin. Since B. fragilis alone did not produce infection, these results indicate that B. fragilis can protect F. necrophorum from penicillin in vivo. The extent of protection afforded by a strain of B. fragilis was related to its level of resistance to penicillin. Only a few cells of B. fragilis were required in the initial bacterial injection. Moreover, protection was demonstrated when B. fragilis cells were injected as late as 24 h after the F. necrophorum cells. Protection of F. necrophorum from penicillin by B. fragilis was also demonstrated in vitro.  (+info)

Effect of virginiamycin on ruminal fermentation in cattle during adaptation to a high concentrate diet and during an induced acidosis. (3/297)

The objective of Exp. 1 was to compare the effects of virginiamycin (VM; 0, 175, or 250 mg x animal(-1) x d(-1)) and monensin/tylosin (MT; 250/ 90 mg x animal(-1) x d(-1)) on ruminal fermentation products and microbial populations in cattle during adaptation to an all-concentrate diet. Four ruminally cannulated, Holstein steers were used in a 4x4 Williams square design with 21-d periods. Steers were stepped up to an all-concentrate diet fed at 2.5% of BW once daily. Ruminal pH, protozoal counts, and NH3-N and VFA concentrations generally were unaffected by VM or MT. Mean counts of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus bovis were lower (P<.05) for VM-treated compared with control or MT-treated steers. Both VM and MT prevented the increase in Fusobacterium necrophorum counts associated with increasing intake of the high-concentrate diet observed in the control. The objective of Exp. 2 was to compare the effects of VM and MT on ruminal pH, L(+) lactate and VFA concentrations, and F. necrophorum numbers during carbohydrate overload. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers were assigned randomly to either the control, VM (175 mg/d), or MT (250 + 90 mg/d) treatments. Acidosis was induced with intraruminal administration of a slurry of ground corn and corn starch. The VM and MT premixes were added directly to the slurry before administration. Carbohydrate challenge induced acute ruminal acidosis (pH was 4.36 and L (+) lactate was 19.4 mM) in controls by 36 h. Compared with the controls, steers receiving VM or MT had higher (P<.05) ruminal pH, and the VM group had a lower (P<.05) L (+) lactate concentration. Fusobacterium necrophorum numbers initially increased in VM- and MT-administered steers. In the control steers, F. necrophorum was undetectable by 36 h. Virginiamycin seemed to control the growth of ruminal lactic acid-producing bacteria and, therefore, has the potential to moderate ruminal fermentation in situations that could lead to rapid production of lactic acid.  (+info)

Direct analysis of genes encoding 16S rRNA from complex communities reveals many novel molecular species within the human gut. (4/297)

The human intestinal tract harbors a complex microbial ecosystem which plays a key role in nutrition and health. Although this microbiota has been studied in great detail by culture techniques, microscopic counts on human feces suggest that 60 to 80% of the observable bacteria cannot be cultivated. Using comparative analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences, we have investigated the bacterial diversity (both cultivated and noncultivated bacteria) within an adult-male fecal sample. The 284 clones obtained from 10-cycle PCR were classified into 82 molecular species (at least 98% similarity). Three phylogenetic groups contained 95% of the clones: the Bacteroides group, the Clostridium coccoides group, and the Clostridium leptum subgroup. The remaining clones were distributed among a variety of phylogenetic clusters. Only 24% of the molecular species recovered corresponded to described organisms (those whose sequences were available in public databases), and all of these were established members of the dominant human fecal flora (e.g., Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and Eubacterium rectale). However, the majority of generated rDNA sequences (76%) did not correspond to known organisms and clearly derived from hitherto unknown species within this human gut microflora.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of Fusobacterium alocis and Fusobacterium sulci based on 16S rRNA gene sequences: proposal of Filifactor alocis (Cato, Moore and Moore) comb. nov. and Eubacterium sulci (Cato, Moore and Moore) comb. nov. (5/297)

Genes encoding the 16S rRNA of Fusobacterium alocis ATCC 35896T and Fusobacterium sulci ATCC 35585T were sequenced. These sequences did not have any affinity with the 16S rRNA gene sequences of members of the genus Fusobacterium. Fusobacterium alocis ATCC 35896T and Fusobacterium sulci ATCC 35585T belonged to Clostridium cluster XI; the species most closely related to these strains were Filifactor villosus NCTC 11220T and Eubacterium infirmum W1471, respectively. Two new combinations are proposed: Filifactor alocis (Cato, Moore and Moore) comb. nov. (type strain ATCC 35896T) and Eubacterium sulci (Cato, Moore and Moore) comb. nov. (type strain ATCC 35585T).  (+info)

Occurrence of the new tetracycline resistance gene tet(W) in bacteria from the human gut. (6/297)

Members of our group recently identified a new tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), in three genera of rumen obligate anaerobes. Here, we show that tet(W) is also present in bacteria isolated from human feces. The tet(W) genes found in human Fusobacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium longum isolates were more than 99.9% identical to those from a rumen isolate of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.  (+info)

Serological study of trichloroacetic acid extracts of Bacteroides fragilis. (7/297)

Immunodiffusion techniques were used on trichloroacetic acid extracts from 10 strains of Bacteroides fragilis in detecting precipitating antibodies against this species in immune rabbit sera. Species and even strain specificities were observed in these precipitin reactions. Multiple antigens were detected in the extracts from some strains, whereas only one precipitin band per extract developed during agar-gel diffusion tests of others. The antigen extracts were found to be both heat stable and resistant to hydrolysis by alpha-chymotrypsin. Four serological patterns were demonstrated in homologous and heterologous reactions with the B. fragilis. antigen-antibody systems used. The results showed that some strains were serologically distinct from others, indicating that the strains tested are of more than one serotype.  (+info)

Detection of tetQ and ermF antibiotic resistance genes in Prevotella and Porphyromonas isolates from clinical specimens and resident microbiota of humans. (8/297)

Gram-negative anaerobes belonging to the genera Fusobacterium, Prevotella and Porphyromonas were investigated for the presence of tetQ and ermF, which have been shown to be spread by conjugal elements. One hundred isolates from either sites of infection or various body sites in healthy subjects were studied. PCR was used to detect tetQ, and DNA-DNA hybridization studies on EcoRI chromosomal digests were undertaken to detect the presence of tetQ and ermF. Antibiotic sensitivity assays were performed on selected isolates to detect tetracycline, erythromycin and penicillin resistance. Twenty Fusobacterium isolates lacked tetQ, and were tetracycline sensitive. Twenty per cent of Prevotella spp. isolates both from clinical specimens and from healthy subjects were found to possess tetQ. Of 20 Porphyromonas isolates tested, one (Porphyromonas levii) from a case of bacterial vaginosis was shown to possess tetQ in the chromosome. The presence of tetQ was always associated with tetracycline resistance. Four isolates of Prevotella melaninogenica and one isolate of Prevotella were ermF-positive, although expression of erythromycin resistance was not consistently associated with detection of this gene. Antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Prevotella isolates were shown to be related to specific chromosomal restriction patterns by hybridization studies: tetracycline resistance and tetracycline/erythromycin resistance are conferred by Bacteroides tetracycline-resistant ERL elements, whereas the tetracycline/penicillin resistance phenotype could be due to spread of elements identified in Prevotella only. Tetracycline/erythromycin-resistant and tetracycline/erythromycin/penicillin-resistant P. melaninogenica isolates were found in this study. It appeared that the presence of tetQ and ermF in Bacteroides and Prevotella contributed to the persistence of antibiotic resistance isolates within the host and to potential spread to other organisms through conjugal elements.  (+info)

Fusobacterium is a genus of obligate anaerobic, gram-negative, non-spore forming bacilli that are commonly found as normal flora in the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. Some species of Fusobacterium have been associated with various clinical infections and diseases, such as periodontal disease, abscesses, bacteremia, endocarditis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Fusobacterium nucleatum is the most well-known species in this genus and has been extensively studied for its role in various diseases. It is a opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections in immunocompromised individuals or when it invades damaged tissues. Fusobacterium necrophorum, another important species, is a leading cause of Lemierre's syndrome, a rare but serious condition characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic infections.

Fusobacteria are known to have a complex relationship with other microorganisms and host cells, and they can form biofilms that contribute to their virulence and persistence in the host. Further research is needed to fully understand the pathogenic mechanisms of Fusobacterium species and to develop effective strategies for prevention and treatment of Fusobacterium-associated diseases.

Fusobacterium infections are diseases or conditions caused by the bacterial genus Fusobacterium, which are gram-negative, anaerobic bacilli. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. However, under certain circumstances, they can cause infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

Fusobacterium infections can manifest in various forms, including:

1. Oral infections: Fusobacterium nucleatum is the most common species associated with oral infections, such as periodontitis, abscesses, and Ludwig's angina.
2. Respiratory tract infections: Fusobacterium necrophorum can cause lung abscesses, empyema, and bronchitis.
3. Bloodstream infections (bacteremia): Fusobacterium species can enter the bloodstream through various routes, such as dental procedures or invasive medical procedures, leading to bacteremia. This condition can be particularly dangerous for individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions.
4. Intra-abdominal infections: Fusobacterium species can cause intra-abdominal abscesses, peritonitis, and appendicitis.
5. Skin and soft tissue infections: Fusobacterium species can cause cellulitis, myositis, and necrotizing fasciitis.
6. Bone and joint infections: Fusobacterium species can cause osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.
7. Central nervous system infections: Fusobacterium species can cause meningitis and brain abscesses, although these are rare.

Fusobacterium infections can be challenging to treat due to their anaerobic nature and resistance to certain antibiotics. Therefore, it is essential to seek medical attention if you suspect a Fusobacterium infection. Treatment typically involves the use of appropriate antibiotics, such as metronidazole or clindamycin, and sometimes surgical intervention may be necessary.

"Fusobacterium nucleatum" is a gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity and plays a significant role in periodontal disease. It has also been implicated in various extraintestinal infections, including septicemia, brain abscesses, and lung and liver infections. This bacterium is known to have a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as the ability to adhere to and invade host cells, produce biofilms, and evade the immune response. It has been linked to several systemic diseases, including colorectal cancer, where it may promote tumor growth and progression through various mechanisms.

Fusobacterium necrophorum is a gram-negative, anaerobic, non-spore forming rod-shaped bacterium. It is a normal inhabitant of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and urogenital tract of humans and animals. However, it can cause various infections in humans, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Fusobacterium necrophorum is well known for its association with severe clinical conditions such as Lemierre's syndrome, which is a rare but life-threatening condition characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein and metastatic infections. It can also cause other suppurative infections including bronchitis, pneumonia, meningitis, brain abscesses, and septicemia. In addition, Fusobacterium necrophorum has been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain types of periodontal disease and is a significant cause of bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients.

Anaerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. Instead, they can grow in environments that have little or no oxygen. Some anaerobic bacteria can even be harmed or killed by exposure to oxygen. These bacteria play important roles in many natural processes, such as decomposition and the breakdown of organic matter in the digestive system. However, some anaerobic bacteria can also cause disease in humans and animals, particularly when they infect areas of the body that are normally oxygen-rich. Examples of anaerobic bacterial infections include tetanus, gas gangrene, and dental abscesses.

Bacteroides are a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are normally present in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut microbiota and play an important role in breaking down complex carbohydrates and other substances in the gut. However, some species of Bacteroides can cause opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when they spread to other parts of the body. They are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, making infections caused by these bacteria difficult to treat.

Bacteroidaceae is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are rod-shaped and can vary in size and shape. Bacteroidaceae are important breakdowners of complex carbohydrates and proteins in the gut, and play a significant role in maintaining the health and homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. Some members of this family can also be opportunistic pathogens and have been associated with various infections and diseases, such as abscesses, bacteremia, and periodontal disease.

"Porphyromonas" is a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the human oral cavity and other areas of the body. One species, "Porphyromonas gingivalis," is a major contributor to chronic periodontitis, a severe form of gum disease. These bacteria are also associated with various systemic diseases, including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and aspiration pneumonia. The name "Porphyromonas" comes from the Greek words "porphyra," meaning purple, and "monas," meaning unit, referring to the bacteria's ability to produce porphyrins, which are pigments that can give a purple color to their colonies.

Veillonella is a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, coccoid or rod-shaped bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the human mouth, intestines, and female genital tract. They are known to be obligate parasites, meaning they rely on other organisms for nutrients and energy. Veillonella species are often associated with dental caries and have been implicated in various infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, and wound infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions. Proper identification of Veillonella species is important for the diagnosis and treatment of these infections.

Peptostreptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, anaerobic, coccus-shaped bacteria that are commonly found as normal flora in the human mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. These organisms can become pathogenic and cause a variety of infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or following surgical procedures. Infections caused by Peptostreptococcus species can include abscesses, endocarditis, bacteremia, and joint infections. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are essential for the effective treatment of these infections.

Lemierre Syndrome, also known as post-anginal septicemia or necrobacillosis, is a rare but serious medical condition that typically follows a recent pharyngitis (throat infection) or upper respiratory tract infection. It is characterized by the spread of infection from the oropharynx to the internal jugular vein and subsequent septicemia (bloodstream infection), leading to metastatic infectious complications, most commonly affecting the lungs. The causative organism is usually a bacterium called Fusobacterium necrophorum.

The syndrome was first described by French physician André Lemierre in 1936. Symptoms may include fever, chills, severe neck pain and stiffness, difficulty swallowing, swelling of the jaw or neck, shortness of breath, and the formation of abscesses in various parts of the body. Rapid diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial to prevent potentially life-threatening complications.

A liver abscess is a localized collection of pus within the liver tissue caused by an infection. It can result from various sources such as bacterial or amebic infections that spread through the bloodstream, bile ducts, or directly from nearby organs. The abscess may cause symptoms like fever, pain in the upper right abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. If left untreated, a liver abscess can lead to serious complications, including sepsis and organ failure. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like ultrasound or CT scan, followed by drainage of the pus and antibiotic treatment.

Prevotella intermedia is a gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. It is a normal resident of the human microbiota but can also be an opportunistic pathogen, causing various types of infections such as periodontitis, endocarditis, and brain abscesses. P. intermedia has been associated with several diseases, including respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, and joint infections. It is often found in mixed infections with other anaerobic bacteria. Proper identification of this organism is important for the selection of appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

Aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria use oxygen as the final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain to generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Aerobic bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the air, as well as on the surfaces of living things. Some examples of aerobic bacteria include species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus.

It's worth noting that some bacteria can switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen. These bacteria are called facultative anaerobes. In contrast, obligate anaerobes are bacteria that cannot tolerate oxygen and will die in its presence.

Periodontitis is a severe form of gum disease that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone supporting your teeth. If left untreated, it can lead to tooth loss. It is caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. The body's immune system fights the bacterial infection, which causes an inflammatory response. If the inflammation continues for a long time, it can damage the tissues and bones that support the teeth.

The early stage of periodontitis is called gingivitis, which is characterized by red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed or flossed. When gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to periodontitis. In addition to plaque, other factors that increase the risk of developing periodontitis include smoking or using tobacco products, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, a weakened immune system, and genetic factors.

Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and using an antimicrobial mouth rinse, can help prevent periodontitis. Treatment for periodontitis may include deep cleaning procedures, medications, or surgery in severe cases.

"Eubacterium" is a genus of Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic, non-sporeforming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. These bacteria are typically rod-shaped and can be either straight or curved. They play an important role in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and the production of short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which are beneficial for host health. Some species of Eubacterium have also been shown to have probiotic properties and may provide health benefits when consumed in appropriate quantities. However, other species can be opportunistic pathogens and cause infections under certain circumstances.

Actinomyces is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are normal inhabitants of the human mouth, colon, and urogenital tract. Under certain conditions, such as poor oral hygiene or tissue trauma, these bacteria can cause infections known as actinomycosis. These infections often involve the formation of abscesses or granulomas and can affect various tissues, including the lungs, mouth, and female reproductive organs. Actinomyces species are also known to form complex communities called biofilms, which can contribute to their ability to cause infection.

Gingiva is the medical term for the soft tissue that surrounds the teeth and forms the margin of the dental groove, also known as the gum. It extends from the mucogingival junction to the base of the cervical third of the tooth root. The gingiva plays a crucial role in protecting and supporting the teeth and maintaining oral health by providing a barrier against microbial invasion and mechanical injury.

Noma, also known as cancrum oris, is a rare but severe gangrenous disease that primarily affects children who are malnourished, have weakened immune systems, and lack access to proper oral hygiene and healthcare. The condition typically starts as a small ulcer in the mouth and quickly progresses, causing extensive tissue damage and necrosis of the soft and hard tissues of the face.

Noma can also affect the genital region (genital noma) or the anus (anorectal noma). The disease is caused by a polymicrobial infection, involving both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, that thrive in necrotic tissue. If left untreated, noma can result in significant disfigurement, disability, and even death.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with antibiotics, surgery, and nutritional support are crucial to prevent the progression of the disease and improve the chances of a successful recovery. Preventive measures, such as improving oral hygiene, promoting access to healthcare, and addressing malnutrition, can help reduce the risk of noma in vulnerable populations.

Preventella is a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. They are part of the normal microbiota but can also be associated with various infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

Prevotella species have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including periodontal disease, dental caries, respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, soft tissue infections, and joint infections. They can also be found in association with abscesses, wound infections, and other types of infections, particularly in the head and neck region.

Prevotella species are generally resistant to antibiotics commonly used to treat anaerobic infections, such as clindamycin and metronidazole, making them difficult to eradicate. Therefore, accurate identification and susceptibility testing of Prevotella isolates is important for the appropriate management of infections caused by these organisms.

An abscess is a localized collection of pus caused by an infection. It is typically characterized by inflammation, redness, warmth, pain, and swelling in the affected area. Abscesses can form in various parts of the body, including the skin, teeth, lungs, brain, and abdominal organs. They are usually treated with antibiotics to eliminate the infection and may require drainage if they are large or located in a critical area. If left untreated, an abscess can lead to serious complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

Bacteroides infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterial genus Bacteroides, which are a group of anaerobic, gram-negative bacilli that are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. However, they can cause intra-abdominal infections, such as appendicitis, peritonitis, and liver abscesses, as well as wound infections, bacteremia, and gynecological infections when they spread to other parts of the body, especially in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Bacteroides species are often resistant to many antibiotics, making infections challenging to treat. Therefore, appropriate antimicrobial therapy, often requiring combination therapy, is essential for successful treatment. Surgical intervention may also be necessary in certain cases of Bacteroides infections, such as abscess drainage or debridement of necrotic tissue.

"Porphyromonas gingivalis" is a gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontal disease. It is a major pathogen in chronic periodontitis, which is a severe form of gum disease that can lead to destruction of the tissues supporting the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone.

The bacterium produces several virulence factors, such as proteases and endotoxins, which contribute to its pathogenicity. It has been shown to evade the host's immune response and cause tissue destruction through various mechanisms, including inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases.

P. gingivalis has also been linked to several systemic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease, although the exact mechanisms of these associations are not fully understood. Effective oral hygiene practices, including regular brushing, flossing, and professional dental cleanings, can help prevent the overgrowth of P. gingivalis and reduce the risk of periodontal disease.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

Halitosis is a medical term that refers to noticeably unpleasant breath. It's also commonly known as bad breath. This condition can result from several factors, including poor oral hygiene, certain foods, smoking, alcohol use, dry mouth, and various medical conditions (such as gastrointestinal issues, respiratory infections, or liver and kidney problems). Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices, like brushing twice a day and flossing daily, can help prevent halitosis. In some cases, mouthwashes, sugar-free gums, or mints may provide temporary relief. However, if bad breath persists, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or dentist for further evaluation and appropriate treatment.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

A periapical abscess is a localized infection that occurs at the tip of the tooth's root, specifically in the periapical tissue. This tissue surrounds the end of the tooth's root and helps anchor the tooth to the jawbone. The infection is usually caused by bacteria that enter the pulp chamber of the tooth as a result of dental caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease, or trauma that damages the tooth's protective enamel layer.

The infection leads to pus accumulation in the periapical tissue, forming an abscess. The symptoms of a periapical abscess may include:

1. Pain and tenderness in the affected tooth, which can be throbbing or continuous
2. Swelling in the gums surrounding the tooth
3. Sensitivity to hot, cold, or pressure on the tooth
4. Fever, general malaise, or difficulty swallowing (in severe cases)
5. A foul taste in the mouth or bad breath
6. Tooth mobility or loosening
7. Formation of a draining sinus tract (a small opening in the gums that allows pus to drain out)

Periapical abscesses require dental treatment, which typically involves removing the infected pulp tissue through root canal therapy and cleaning, shaping, and sealing the root canals. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to help control the infection, but they do not replace the necessary dental treatment. If left untreated, a periapical abscess can lead to severe complications, such as the spread of infection to other parts of the body or tooth loss.

Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and are characterized by their cell wall structure, which does not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining procedure. This is because they lack a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell walls, which is typically stained dark purple in Gram-positive bacteria. Instead, gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which can be toxic to human cells and contribute to the pathogenicity of these organisms.

Examples of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria include Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella species, and Porphyromonas species. These bacteria are commonly found in the human mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, and can cause a variety of infections, including abscesses, wound infections, and bacteremia.

It's important to note that while gram-negative anaerobic bacteria do not require oxygen to grow, some may still tolerate or even prefer oxygen-rich environments. Therefore, the term "anaerobe" can be somewhat misleading when used to describe these organisms.

'Bacteroides fragilis' is a species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut flora and play an important role in maintaining a healthy digestive system. However, they can also cause infections when they enter other parts of the body, such as the abdomen or bloodstream, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Bacteroides fragilis is known for its ability to produce enzymes that allow it to resist antibiotics and evade the host's immune system. This makes it a challenging bacterium to treat and can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening infections, such as abscesses, sepsis, and meningitis.

Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of Bacteroides fragilis and other bacteria that can cause infections. If an infection does occur, it is typically treated with a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotics that are effective against anaerobic bacteria.

Bacteroidaceae is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Infections caused by Bacteroidaceae are relatively rare, but can occur in cases of severe trauma, surgery, or compromised immune systems. These infections may include bacteremia (bacteria in the blood), abscesses, and wound infections. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against anaerobic bacteria. It is important to note that proper identification of the specific species causing the infection is necessary for appropriate treatment, as different species within Bacteroidaceae may have different susceptibilities to various antibiotics.

'Human bites' refer to wounds or injuries resulting from the human mouth coming into contact with another person's body tissue. These bites can occur during fights, accidents, or intentional acts and can cause damage ranging from minor abrasions to serious tissue injury or infection. Human bite wounds may also pose a risk of transmission for various pathogens, including bacteria like Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species, hepatitis B and C viruses, and herpes simplex virus. Proper evaluation, wound care, and potential antibiotic treatment are crucial to prevent complications associated with human bites.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Foot rot, also known as pododermatitis, is a common infectious disease in cloven-hoofed animals such as sheep, goats, and cattle. It's typically caused by a mixture of bacteria, usually Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella spp., that infect the soft tissues of the foot, leading to inflammation, necrosis (tissue death), and often foul-smelling discharge.

The infection often begins between the claws or toes, where the skin is more susceptible to damage and moisture accumulation. The affected area may become painful, swollen, and sensitive to pressure, making it difficult for the animal to walk or stand. In severe cases, foot rot can lead to lameness, decreased feed intake, weight loss, and even death if left untreated.

Foot rot is highly contagious and can spread quickly among animals in close contact, such as those in confined spaces or sharing pastures. Prevention strategies include maintaining good sanitation and dry conditions, trimming hooves regularly to prevent overgrowth and reduce moisture accumulation, and vaccinating against the bacteria responsible for foot rot. Rapid detection and treatment of infected animals are crucial to controlling the spread of this disease in animal populations.

Clindamycin is a antibiotic medication used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a type of antibiotic known as a lincosamide, which works by binding to the bacterial ribosome and inhibiting protein synthesis. This leads to the death of the bacteria and helps to clear the infection.

Clindamycin is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and some anaerobic bacteria, making it a useful antibiotic for treating many different types of infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, respiratory infections, and dental infections. It is also sometimes used to treat certain types of bacterial vaginal infections.

Like all antibiotics, clindamycin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance. Additionally, clindamycin can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, and it may increase the risk of developing a serious intestinal infection called Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking this medication.

A lung abscess is a localized collection of pus in the lung parenchyma caused by an infectious process, often due to bacterial infection. It's characterized by necrosis and liquefaction of pulmonary tissue, resulting in a cavity filled with purulent material. The condition can develop as a complication of community-acquired or nosocomial pneumonia, aspiration of oral secretions containing anaerobic bacteria, septic embolism, or contiguous spread from a nearby infected site.

Symptoms may include cough with foul-smelling sputum, chest pain, fever, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as chest X-ray or CT scan, along with microbiological examination of the sputum to identify the causative organism(s). Treatment often includes antibiotic therapy tailored to the identified pathogen(s), as well as supportive care such as bronchoscopy, drainage, or surgery in severe cases.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

Actinomycosis is a type of infection caused by bacteria that are normally found in the mouth, intestines, and female genital tract. These bacteria can cause abscesses or chronic inflammation if they infect body tissues, often after trauma or surgery. The infection typically affects the face, neck, or chest, and can spread to other parts of the body over time. Symptoms may include swelling, redness, pain, and the formation of pus-filled abscesses that may discharge a characteristic yellowish granular material called "sulfur granules." Treatment typically involves long-term antibiotic therapy, often requiring high doses and intravenous administration. Surgical drainage or removal of infected tissue may also be necessary in some cases.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Streptococcus oralis is a type of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic coccus (round-shaped bacterium) that belongs to the viridans group of streptococci. It is commonly found in the human oral cavity, particularly on the surface of the teeth and gums.

S. oralis is generally considered to be a commensal organism, meaning that it can exist harmlessly in the mouth without causing any negative effects. However, under certain circumstances, such as when the immune system is weakened or when there is damage to the oral tissues, S. oralis can cause infections. These infections may include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease, and endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart).

Like other streptococci, S. oralis is able to form biofilms, which are complex communities of bacteria that adhere to surfaces and can be difficult to remove. This ability to form biofilms may contribute to its ability to cause infections.

It's important to note that while S. oralis is a normal part of the oral microbiome, good oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing regularly can help prevent an overgrowth of this bacterium and reduce the risk of infection.

'Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae. It is facultatively anaerobic, meaning it can grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen. This bacterium is commonly found as part of the oral microbiota in humans and is associated with periodontal diseases such as localized aggressive periodontitis. Additionally, it has been implicated in various extraoral infections, including endocarditis, meningitis, and septicemia, particularly in individuals with underlying medical conditions. The bacterium's virulence factors include leukotoxin, cytolethal distending toxin, and adhesins, which contribute to its pathogenicity.

Treponema denticola is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that belongs to the genus Treponema. It is commonly found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontal diseases such as chronic periodontitis. T. denticola is one of the "red complex" bacteria, which also includes Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, that are strongly associated with periodontal disease. These bacteria form a complex biofilm in the subgingival area and contribute to the breakdown of the periodontal tissues, leading to pocket formation, bone loss, and ultimately tooth loss if left untreated.

T. denticola has several virulence factors, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteases, fimbriae, and endotoxins, that allow it to evade the host's immune system and cause tissue damage. It can also modulate the host's immune response, leading to a chronic inflammatory state that contributes to the progression of periodontal disease.

In addition to its role in periodontal disease, T. denticola has been linked to several systemic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between T. denticola and these conditions.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Metronidazole works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, which inhibits their ability to grow and multiply.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, creams, and gels, and is often used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.

Like all antibiotics, metronidazole should be taken only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications.

Leptothrix is not a medical term itself, but it is a genus name in the bacterial kingdom. It refers to a group of gram-negative, filamentous bacteria that are commonly found in freshwater and soil environments. They play a role in biogeochemical cycles, particularly in the breakdown of organic matter and the formation of iron and manganese deposits.

While Leptothrix species may have some relevance to human health in certain contexts (such as water treatment or biofilm formation), they are not typically considered primary pathogens or associated with specific medical conditions. Therefore, there is no widely recognized "medical definition" of Leptothrix.

Streptococcus gordonii is a species of gram-positive, non-spore forming, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the viridans group of streptococci. It is part of the normal flora in the oral cavity and is commonly found on the teeth and mucous membranes.

S. gordonii is a commensal organism, meaning it usually exists harmoniously with its human host without causing harm. However, under certain circumstances, such as when the immune system is compromised or there is damage to the oral tissues, S. gordonii can cause infections. It has been implicated in dental caries (cavities), endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), and other invasive infections.

Like other streptococci, S. gordonii is a coccus-shaped bacterium that tends to occur in pairs or chains. It is catalase-negative, which means it does not produce the enzyme catalase, and it ferments various sugars to produce acid as a byproduct. These characteristics help distinguish S. gordonii from other types of bacteria.

It's important to note that maintaining good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing regularly, can help prevent the overgrowth of S. gordonii and reduce the risk of dental caries and other infections.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

Streptococcus sanguis is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to the Streptococcaceae family. It's part of the viridans group streptococci (VGS) and is commonly found in the oral cavity of humans, residing on the surface of teeth and mucous membranes.

S. sanguis is generally considered a commensal organism; however, it can contribute to dental plaque formation and cause endocarditis, particularly in people with pre-existing heart conditions. It's important to note that there are several subspecies of S. sanguis, including S. sanguis I, II, III, and IV, which may have different characteristics and clinical implications.

Medical Definition: Streptococcus sanguis is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to the viridans group streptococci (VGS). It is commonly found in the oral cavity and can cause endocarditis in susceptible individuals.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Esculin is a glucoside derived from the bark of willow trees and other plants. It has been used in scientific research as a substrate to test the activity of certain types of bacteria, particularly those that have the ability to produce an enzyme called beta-glucosidase. When esculin comes into contact with this enzyme, it is broken down and forms a chemical compound called esculetin, which can be detected and measured. This reaction is often used as a way to identify and study bacteria that produce beta-glucosidase.

Esculin is not typically used in medical treatments or therapies, but it may have some potential uses in the development of new drugs or diagnostic tools. As with any chemical compound, esculin should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a trained professional.

Microbial interactions refer to the various ways in which different microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, influence each other's growth, survival, and behavior in a shared environment. These interactions can be categorized into several types:

1. Commensalism: One organism benefits from the interaction while the other is neither harmed nor benefited (e.g., certain gut bacteria that feed on host-derived nutrients without affecting the host's health).
2. Mutualism: Both organisms benefit from the interaction (e.g., the partnership between rhizobia bacteria and leguminous plants, where the bacteria fix nitrogen for the plant, and the plant provides carbohydrates for the bacteria).
3. Parasitism: One organism benefits at the expense of the other, causing harm or disease to the host (e.g., the malaria parasite infecting human red blood cells).
4. Competition: Both organisms struggle for limited resources, like nutrients or space, leading to a negative impact on one or both parties (e.g., different bacterial species competing for limited iron sources in the environment).
5. Amensalism: One organism is harmed or inhibited while the other remains unaffected (e.g., antibiotic-producing bacteria inhibiting the growth of nearby susceptible bacteria).
6. Synergism: Multiple organisms work together to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their individual effects (e.g., certain bacterial and fungal communities in soil that enhance plant growth and nutrient uptake).
7. Antagonism: One organism inhibits or kills another through various mechanisms, such as the production of antibiotics or enzymes (e.g., some bacteria producing bacteriocins to inhibit the growth of closely related species).

Understanding microbial interactions is crucial for developing strategies in areas like infectious disease control, probiotic applications, and managing microbial communities in various ecosystems, including the human body.

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Fusobacterium and Borrelia species). The proteins are of about 480 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and have 10-12 putative ...
February 2012). "Fusobacterium nucleatum infection is prevalent in human colorectal carcinoma". Genome Research. 22 (2): 299- ... February 2012). "Genomic analysis identifies association of Fusobacterium with colorectal carcinoma". Genome Research. 22 (2): ...
Most commonly from Ureaplasma, Fusobacterium, and Streptococcus bacteria species. Less commonly, Gardnerella, Mycoplasma, and ...
Yamamoto S, Okamoto K, Okugawa S, Moriya K (April 2019). "Fusobacterium necrophorum septic pelvic thrombophlebitis after ...
Clifton R, Giebel K, Liu NL, Purdy KJ, Green LE (October 2019). "Sites of persistence of Fusobacterium necrophorum and ... D. nodosus, along with Fusobacterium necrophorum, co-exist as the causative agents of ovine foot rot and interdigital ... Bennett G, Hickford J, Sedcole R, Zhou H (August 2009). "Dichelobacter nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum and the epidemiology ...
February 2012). "Fusobacterium nucleatum infection is prevalent in human colorectal carcinoma". Genome Research. 22 (2): 299- ...
tularensis SCHU S4 Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A, synonym for Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum Fusobacterium ... funduliforme Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar C, synonym for Fusobacterium varium Gallibacterium anatis biovar haemolytica ... necrophorum biovar B, synonym for Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. ...
"Analysis of Fusobacterium persistence and antibiotic response in colorectal cancer". Science. 358 (6369): 1443-1448. Bibcode: ... the variety of species names has led to some confusion within the genera Fusobacterium and Leptotrichia. However, newer methods ... together with the subspeciation of Fusobacterium necrophorum and F. nucleatum, and provided new methods for identification. The ...
In the bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum, FMN binding has been studied. The FMN riboswitch is able to selectively bind the FMN ... Special interest is had with FMN riboswitches present in Fusobacterium nucleatum, as this bacterium plays a role in periodontal ...
Ehlers Klug T, Rusan M, Fuursted K, Ovesen T (November 2009). "Fusobacterium necrophorum: most prevalent pathogen in ... The most common anaerobic species include Fusobacterium necrophorum, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella species, and Bacteroides. ...
Fusobacterium nucleatum Promotes Chemoresistance to Colorectal Cancer by Modulating Autophagy. Cell 170, 548-563 e516, doi: ...
"Analysis of Fusobacterium persistence and antibiotic response in colorectal cancer". Science. 358 (6369): 1443-1448. Bibcode: ...
Species of Fusobacterium, specifically Fusobacterium necrophorum, are most commonly the causative bacteria, but various ... Fusobacterium necrophorum is generally highly susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics, metronidazole, clindamycin and third ... One 1989 study found that 81% of Lemierres's syndrome had been infected with Fusobacterium necrophorum, while 11% were caused ... Kanoe M, Yamanaka M, Inoue M (1989). "Effects of Fusobacterium necrophorum on the mesenteric microcirculation of guinea pigs". ...
The bacteria associated with infections include Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides bacteria. The next most ...
Some of these bacteria include Bacillus, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Fusobacterium, Salmonella, etc. These ...
Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, Posphuomonoa, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, and Prevotella. Treatment for those who have been attacked ...
"A rare presentation of ventriculitis and brain abscess caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum". J. Med. Microbiol. 57 (Pt 5): 668-71 ...
Fusobacterium was discovered in 1900 by Courmont and Cade and is common in the flora of humans. Strains of Fusobacterium can ... Courmont and Cade discovered Fusobacterium in 1900. However, the first documented infection of Fusobacterium was in 1898 by ... In contrast to Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium has a potent lipopolysaccharide. Fusobacterium is divided into 13 different ... the current consensus is that Fusobacterium should always be treated as a pathogen.Fusobacterium currently has 13 strains; the ...
Fusobacterium nucleatum plays a key role in creating the pathogenic subgingival biofilm that initiates destructive ... and Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from periodontal infections in a selected area of southern Italy. Int J Antimicrob Agents ... More specifically, Fusobacterium nucleatum is a fusiform bacterium that increases in numbers in subgingival sites affected by ... Fap2 of Fusobacterium nucleatum is a galactose-inhibitable adhesin involved in coaggregation, cell adhesion, and preterm birth ...
Pages that link to "Fusobacterium". From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource ...
Phototoxic Effect of Visible Light on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum: An In Vitro Study. ... Strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus faecalis in suspension or ... Osnat Feuerstein, Nir Persman, Ervin I. Weiss "Phototoxic Effect of Visible Light on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium ... "Phototoxic Effect of Visible Light on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum: An In Vitro Study," Photochemistry ...
Abed J, Maalouf N, Manson AL, Earl AM, Parhi L, Emgård JEM, et al. Colon cancer-associated Fusobacterium nucleatum may ... Strauss J, Kaplan GG, Beck PL, Rioux K, Panaccione R, Devinney R, et al. Invasive potential of gut mucosa-derived Fusobacterium ... Nohrström E, Mattila T, Pettilä V, Kuusela P, Carlson P, Kentala E, et al. Clinical spectrum of bacteraemic Fusobacterium ... Fusobacterium nucleatum: a commensal-turned pathogen. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2015;23:141-7. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
0.01 for Fusobacterium and IL-10. These results support a link between the abundance of Fusobacterium in colonic mucosa and ... Among cases, the correlation for local TNF-α and Fusobacterium was r = 0.33, p = 0.06 while it was 0.44, p = ... We assessed the abundance of Fusobacterium species in the normal rectal mucosa of subjects with (n = 48) and without adenomas ( ... The mean log abundance of Fusobacterium or cytokine gene expression between cases and controls was compared by t-test. Logistic ...
Quantitation of faecal Fusobacterium improves faecal immunochemical test in detecting advanced colorectal neoplasia ... Quantitation of faecal Fusobacterium improves faecal immunochemical test in detecting advanced colorectal neoplasia ... Quantitation of faecal Fusobacterium improves faecal immunochemical test in detecting advanced colorectal neoplasia ...
Short Blood Culture Time-to-Positivity in Fusobacterium necrophorum Bacteremia is Associated with Lemierres Syndrome. *Mark ... yet TTP has never been investigated in Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia. Since Lemierres syndrome occurs after an ... yet TTP has never been investigated in Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia. Since Lemierres syndrome occurs after an ... yet TTP has never been investigated in Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia. Since Lemierres syndrome occurs after an ...
Up to 50% of Fusobacteriumnucleatum and 20% of Fusobacteriumnecrophorum isolates produce beta-lactamases, making them resistant ... Up to 50% of Fusobacteriumnucleatum and 20% of Fusobacteriumnecrophorum isolates produce beta-lactamases, making them resistant ... Fusobacterium. Treatment recommendations are listed below:. * Penicillin VK 500 mg PO TID or penicillin G potassium 2-4 million ... Organism-specific therapeutic regimens for dental abscess are provided below, including those for Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, ...
Matches 1 Rfam family (SSU_rRNA_bacteria, RF00177). Fusobacterium mortiferum 16S ribosomal RNA sequence is a product of 16S ... This rRNA sequence is 1,482 nucleotides long and is found in Fusobacterium mortiferum. Annotated by 3 databases (ENA, RefSeq, ...
... ... Fusobacterium nucleatum persistence and risk of recurrence after preoperative treatment in locally advanced rectal cancer. Ann ... Fusobacterium nucleatum persistence and risk of recurrence after preoperative treatment in locally advanced rectal cancer, 2020 ... Fusobacterium nucleatum persistence and risk of recurrence after preoperative treatment in locally advanced rectal cancer, 2020 ...
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Fluorescence_Fusobacterium necrophorum, F. nucleatum and F. species. * General. *. long wave (365 nm) UV-light / medium ... SEE WEBSITE: Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella corporis. UV light, short for Ultraviolet Light, is a type of light ...
For example, Fusobacterium nucleatum - an oral commensal that can cause different infections in the mouth - has been associated ... Fusobacterium nucleatum - an oral commensal that can cause different infections in the mouth - has also been associated with ...
Keywords : Rats; Periodontitis; Bone resorption; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Fusobacterium nucleatum. · abstract in Portuguese · ... The experimental animals were repeatedly infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum for one week. For ... Our study showed that four weeks following infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum bone loss in ... Periodontal disease induced by Porphyromonasgingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in Wistar rats. Arq. Odontol. [online]. 2010 ...
Fusobacterium nucleatum. 2 (2.6). Parvimonas micra. 5 (6.6). Staphylococcus aureus. 4 (5.2). ...
Antibiotic targeting Fusobacterium reduces the formation of lesions associated with endometriosis June 14, 2023. ... Our data provide a strong and novel rationale for targeting Fusobacterium as a non-hormonal antibiotic-based treatment for ... Home » Health News » Antibiotic targeting Fusobacterium reduces the formation of lesions associated with endometriosis ... The teams findings strongly suggest that targeting Fusobacterium is an effective non-hormonal antibiotic treatment for ...
Fusobacterium nucleatum 2 (2.6). Parvimonas micra 5 (6.6). Staphylococcus aureus 4 (5.2). ...
Life-threatening appendicitis caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum.. Hagen, T. L., Maeda, Y., Lindberg, J. A. & Madsen, M. R., ... Livstruende appendicitis forårsaget af Fusobacterium necrophorum. Translated title of the contribution. : ...
Up to 50% of Fusobacteriumnucleatum and 20% of Fusobacteriumnecrophorum isolates produce beta-lactamases, making them resistant ... Up to 50% of Fusobacteriumnucleatum and 20% of Fusobacteriumnecrophorum isolates produce beta-lactamases, making them resistant ... Fusobacterium. Treatment recommendations are listed below:. * Penicillin VK 500 mg PO TID or penicillin G potassium 2-4 million ... Organism-specific therapeutic regimens for dental abscess are provided below, including those for Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, ...
Fusobacterium fusiforme. Propionibacterium acnes Other Bacteria. Nocardiae and other aerobic Actinomyces species. Borrelia ... Fusobacterium fusiforme (Vincents infection),. Actinomyces species. In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful ...
Témoin, S.; Wu, K.L.; Wu, V.; Shoham, M.; Han, Y.W. Signal peptide of FadAadhesin from Fusobacterium nucleatum plays a novel ... The major outer membrane (FomA) protein of the Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) bacterium consists of 370 amino acid residues ( ... Gholizadeh, P.; Eslami, H.; Kafil, H.S. Carcinogenesis mechanisms of Fusobacterium nucleatum. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2017, 89, ... Lesiów, M.K.; Pietrzyk, P.; Kyzioł, A.; Komarnicka, U.K. Cu(II) complexes with fomA protein fragments of Fusobacterium ...
Evaluating the Sapindusrarak DC Chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit the growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum In vitro ... Evaluating the Sapindusrarak DC Chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit the growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum In vitro ... Evaluating the Sapindusrarak DC Chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit the growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum In vitro ... gingival mucoadhesive patch from Thymus vulgaris essential oil towards Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium ...
Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium species each in 6 (17.6%) patients, Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies nucleatum in 4 ... Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies vincentii in 13 (38.2%) patients, Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies polymorphum in 9 (26.5 ... Fusobacterium. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/ionization Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry Permanent link to this record. http ... Fusobacterium naviforme was identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis in 14 (41.2%) chronic periodontitis study ...
Fusobacterium mortiferum (9 specific reads), and Lodderomyces elongisporus (9 specific reads) (Table 1). ...
Direct recognition of Fusobacterium nucleatum by the NK cell natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46 aggravates periodontal disease ... Although infections with periopathogenic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum ... Antígenos Ly/imunologia Fusobacterium nucleatum/imunologia Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia Receptor 1 Desencadeador da ...
Objective: Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), a gram-negative oral anaerobe, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal ... 1121 PGRP-S role in Jurkat apoptosis induced by Fusobacterium nucleatum Friday, March 23, 2012: 3:30 p.m. - 4:45 p.m. ... Conclusion: The results indicate that PGRP-S has a direct role in Fusobacterium nucleatums ability to induce apoptotic cell ...
Fusobacterium and Atopobium parvulum Secondary to Septic Thrombophlebitis in an Immunocompetent Patient ...
Fusobacterium nucleatum Fap2 protein-derived antigenic coverage, and colorectal cancer (CRC) epidemiology across diverse ... Zeddou, M. (2023). Class I HLA Allele Predicted Restricted Antigenic Coverages for Fap2 Protein of Fusobacterium Nucleatum Are ... Class I HLA Allele Predicted Restricted Antigenic Coverages for Fap2 Protein of Fusobacterium Nucleatum Are Associated with ... Objective: This study investigates the association between HLA-A and -B allele diversity, Fusobacterium nucleatum Fap2 protein- ...
  • F. nucleatum is found in humans more so than any other species of Fusobacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum plays a key role in creating the pathogenic subgingival biofilm that initiates destructive periodontitis. (nature.com)
  • Strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus faecalis in suspension or grown on agar were exposed to visible light at wavelengths of 400-500 nm. (bioone.org)
  • We report 4 cases of Fusobacterium nucleatum bacteremia associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). (cdc.gov)
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum is a gram-negative anaerobic rod member of the oral and digestive microbiota ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we quantified Fusobacterium nucleatum in untreated and post-neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) samples from LARC patients and investigated its association with therapy response and survival. (gencat.cat)
  • A Fusobacterium nucleatum vaccine to help protect against colorectal cancer? (microbiomepost.com)
  • For example, Fusobacterium nucleatum - an oral commensal that can cause different infections in the mouth - has been associated with the development of colorectal cancer. (microbiomepost.com)
  • The present research aims to examine a periodontal disease model in which specific pathogen-free Wistar rats are orally exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with Fusobacterium nucleatum . (bvsalud.org)
  • The experimental animals were repeatedly infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum for one week. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our study showed that four weeks following infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum bone loss in Wistar rats could be identified. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fusobacterium naviforme was identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis in 14 (41.2%) chronic periodontitis study patients, Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies vincentii in 13 (38.2%) patients, Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies polymorphum in 9 (26.5%) patients, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium species each in 6 (17.6%) patients, Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies nucleatum in 4 (11.8%) patients, and Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies animalis in 3 (8.8%) patients. (temple.edu)
  • Direct recognition of Fusobacterium nucleatum by the NK cell natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46 aggravates periodontal disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although infections with periopathogenic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) are essential for inducing periodontitis , the nature and magnitude of the disease is determined by the host's immune response . (bvsalud.org)
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum ( Fn ), a gram-negative oral anaerobe, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal and endodontic infections. (umich.edu)
  • Conclusion: The results indicate that PGRP-S has a direct role in Fusobacterium nucleatum 's ability to induce apoptotic cell death in Jurkat T cells. (umich.edu)
  • Objective: This study investigates the association between HLA-A and -B allele diversity, Fusobacterium nucleatum Fap2 protein-derived antigenic coverage, and colorectal cancer (CRC) epidemiology across diverse populations. (waocp.org)
  • Aim: To assess the potential of using vaccination with Porphyromonas gingivalis or Fusobacterium nucleatum, in modulating local subcutaneous inflammatory response and alveolar bone loss following coinfection with both bacteria. (huji.ac.il)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Prediagnostic Antibody Responses to Fusobacterium nucleatum Proteins Are Not Associated with Risk of Colorectal Cancer in a Large U.S. Consortium. (duke.edu)
  • BACKGROUND: The association between prediagnostic antibody responses to Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer is not established. (duke.edu)
  • Organism-specific therapeutic regimens for dental abscess are provided below, including those for Fusobacterium , Bacteroides , Prevotella , Peptostreptococcus , Streptococcus , and Actinomyces . (medscape.com)
  • I en undersøkelse fra 2004 ble det påvist at opptil 42 % av Prevotella- species (n=303) utviklet resistens overfor amoksicillin (11). (tannlegetidende.no)
  • the most commonly isolated anaerobes are various species of Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, and Prevotella. (cdc.gov)
  • The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Background: Short blood culture time-to-positivity (TTP) has been shown to correlate with infective endocarditis, yet TTP has never been investigated in Fusobacterium necrophorum bacteremia. (lu.se)
  • Life-threatening appendicitis caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. (aau.dk)
  • 3. Calf diphtheria ( Fusobacterium necrophorum) . (drugs.com)
  • 5. An aid in the treatment of necrotic pododermatitis (foot rot) ( Fusobacterium necrophorum) . (drugs.com)
  • The pathogens are typically Staphylococci, Streptococci , Haemophilus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. (medindia.net)
  • A number of various species belonging to the Fusobacterium genus have been recovered from the subgingival microbiota of chronic periodontitis patients. (temple.edu)
  • Results: A majority (58.8%) of the chronic periodontitis patients yielded two or three different species of subgingival Fusobacterium on non-selective enriched Brucella blood agar primary isolation plates. (temple.edu)
  • Conclusions: These findings indicate that a variety of Fusobacterium species may be identified with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in the subgingival microbiota of chronic periodontitis patients. (temple.edu)
  • However, conventional Fusobacterium species identification is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and complicated by shortcomings in phenotypic-based classification schemes, where many fusobacteria display overlapping and non-distinguishing morphologic features and biochemical properties. (temple.edu)
  • In addition, molecular identification of fusobacteria is plagued with difficulties of validating the specificity of nucleic acid probes and primers to various Fusobacterium species that have closely-related interspecies genetic profiles. (temple.edu)
  • MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has the potential to rapidly identify cultivable clinical isolates to a species level for 4,613 different bacterial species based on mass spectra of their bacterial protein profiles, including many Fusobacterium species. (temple.edu)
  • No other microbial species, other than one of the Fusobacterium species, was listed by the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analytic software as the most likely organism for the tested clinical isolates. (temple.edu)
  • Strains of Fusobacterium can cause several human diseases and infections, including periodontal diseases, Lemierre's syndrome, oral, head, and neck infections, as well as colorectal cancer and topical skin ulcers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background Accumulating evidence has identified Fusobacterium as an important pathogenic gut bacterium associated with colorectal cancer. (gencat.cat)
  • Fusobacterium is a genus of obligate anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-sporeforming bacteria belonging to Gracilicutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon diagnosing the infection, action to treat it involves the application of antibiotics over a 2-week period which could be in the form of penicillin or other variants as well as using anaerobic antibiotics like clindamycin and metronidazole which work when the Fusobacterium can break down the Beta-lactams. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusobacterium was discovered in 1900 by Courmont and Cade and is common in the flora of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • F. perfoetans and F. necrogenes have not been sourced from any infections in humans or animals) F. gonidiaformans is typically found in the intestines of humans and is not found orally like the other Fusobacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patent awarded to researchers for vaccine that protects from Fusobacterium infections in humans and animals. (k-state.edu)
  • However, the first documented infection of Fusobacterium was in 1898 by Veillon and Zuber, which included a human systemic infection of a young child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further diagnosis can confirm suspicions of Fusobacterium infection through blood testing or culturing the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leaving Fusobacterium untreated could lead to more severe developments of the infection and early testing is recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2023) Fusobacterium infection facilitates the development of endometriosis through the phenotypic transition of endometrial fibroblasts. (toppersonalhealth.com)
  • Three patients additionally yielded subgingival isolates of Fusobacterium canifelinum, normally an inhabitant of the oral cavity of dogs and cats. (temple.edu)
  • A research group from the Graduate School of Medicine and iGCORE at Nagoya University in Japan, has discovered that using an antibiotic to target Fusobacterium reduced the formation of lesions associated with endometriosis, a gynecological disorder characterized by endometrial tissue usually found inside the uterus being found outside it. (toppersonalhealth.com)
  • The group led by Professor Yutaka Kondo (he, him) and Assistant Professor Ayako Muraoka (she, her) from the Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Cancer Center, found that the uterus of mice infected with Fusobacterium had more and heavier lesions. (toppersonalhealth.com)
  • The team's findings strongly suggest that targeting Fusobacterium is an effective non-hormonal antibiotic treatment for endometriosis. (toppersonalhealth.com)
  • Fusobacterium has also been seen increased in individuals infected with HIV as well as in individuals with suboptimal immune recovery as compared to patients who were not infected and had optimal responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since TGF-β is released by macrophages, the natural anti-inflammatory response and immune regulation cells of the body, this led them to conclude that these macrophages were being activated in response to Fusobacterium. (toppersonalhealth.com)
  • Detection of Fusobacterium is typically through surgical retrieval of tissue as well as testing of fecal matter and blood given the patient is showing symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusobacterium infections often cause clinical symptoms such as a fever, inflammation, and a diseased appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusobacterium is not alien and is actually a normal part of every human's oral, gastrointestinal, and (female) genital flora which is why infections are not commonly seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, mice that had been given an antibiotic to eradicate Fusobacterium saw improved lesion formation. (toppersonalhealth.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that the Fusobacterium-TAGLN-endometriosis axis is frequently dysregulated in endometriosis. (toppersonalhealth.com)
  • Our data provide a strong and novel rationale for targeting Fusobacterium as a non-hormonal antibiotic-based treatment for endometriosis. (toppersonalhealth.com)
  • Research of colon cancer has also shown an overrepresentation of Fusobacterium, both in feces of patients and tumor issue itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Akkermansia muciniphila inhibited the periodontitis caused by Fusobacterium nucleatum. (bvsalud.org)
  • Organism-specific therapeutic regimens for dental abscess are provided below, including those for Fusobacterium , Bacteroides , Prevotella , Peptostreptococcus , Streptococcus , and Actinomyces . (medscape.com)
  • An online browser, called 'Theta-Base' ( www.helmholtz-hiri.de/en/datasets/bacteroides ), is launched to interrogate the obtained gene expression data and annotations of ~4500 transcription start sites, untranslated regions, operon structures, and 269 noncoding RNA elements. (nature.com)
  • Common bacteria that can cause gum disease, Fusobacterium nucleatum, may explain the link between periodontitis and Alzheimer's disease. (universityhealthnews.com)
  • A new study from Tufts University School of Dental Medicine suggests that bacteria commonly found in the mouth called Fusobacterium nucleatum may be the culprit. (universityhealthnews.com)
  • Alternatively, there may be probiotic formulations that can "drown out" Fusobacterium by not giving it a chance to compete for nutrients with normal bacteria. (bigthink.com)
  • A common band of bacteria called Fusobacterium has a clear link to endometriosis. (iflscience.com)
  • Strains of Fusobacterium can cause several human diseases and infections, including periodontal diseases, Lemierre's syndrome, oral, head, and neck infections, as well as colorectal cancer and topical skin ulcers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusobacterium is not alien and is actually a normal part of every human's oral, gastrointestinal, and (female) genital flora which is why infections are not commonly seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • F. perfoetans and F. necrogenes have not been sourced from any infections in humans or animals) F. gonidiaformans is typically found in the intestines of humans and is not found orally like the other Fusobacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusobacterium infections often cause clinical symptoms such as a fever, inflammation, and a diseased appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report 4 cases of Fusobacterium nucleatum bacteremia associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). (cdc.gov)
  • Research of colon cancer has also shown an overrepresentation of Fusobacterium, both in feces of patients and tumor issue itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective · To investigate whether and how Fusobacterium nucleatum-related bacterial biofilm modulates the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages into tumor microenvironment and the response to chemotherapy in colon cancer patients. (shsmu.edu.cn)
  • Additionally, in the ApcMin/+ mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis, Fusobacterium nucleatum increases tumor multiplicity and selectively recruits tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, which can promote tumor progression. (bigthink.com)
  • Resphera Insight also led to the discovery that Fusobacterium nucleatum, an oral cavity flora commensal bacterium linked to colon cancer, is enriched (600x higher) in saliva from a subset of HNSCC patients with advanced tumors stages. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • They also gathered some insight into why Fusobacterium is linked to endometriosis on a molecular level. (iflscience.com)
  • Fusobacterium is part of the normal microbiome of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. (iflscience.com)
  • Detection of Fusobacterium is typically through surgical retrieval of tissue as well as testing of fecal matter and blood given the patient is showing symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusobacterium is known to be a dominant organism in the periodontum. (bigthink.com)
  • Conclusion · Fusobacterium nucleatum-related bacterial biofilm can induce M2-polarization of intratumor macrophages and could promote chemoresistance to chemicals in CRC cells, which may contribute to prognosis of colon cancer patients. (shsmu.edu.cn)
  • Study of Fusobacterium nucleatum-related bacterial biofilm promoting M2 polarization of macrophages and chemoresistance in colon cancer[J]. JOURNAL OF SHANGHAI JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY (MEDICAL SCIENCE), 2020, 40(08): 1018-1029. (shsmu.edu.cn)
  • Fusobacterium was discovered in 1900 by Courmont and Cade and is common in the flora of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may be possible to somehow immunize the human intestinal system against Fusobacterium . (bigthink.com)
  • They discovered that the uteruses of mice infected with Fusobacterium had more and heavier lesions, which is a common sign of endometriosis. (iflscience.com)
  • We report a unique case of Fusobacterium meningitis, mastoiditis, and sepsis in a previously healthy adolescent. (medscape.com)