Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Chordopoxvirinae: A subfamily of the family POXVIRIDAE, containing eight genera comprising all the vertebrate poxviruses.SNARE Proteins: A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25: A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.Syntaxin 1: A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.R-SNARE Proteins: SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Qa-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Proteins: SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Munc18 Proteins: A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.Nerve Tissue ProteinsAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Oncogene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.Membrane Fusion Proteins: Proteins that catalyze MEMBRANE FUSION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Flicker Fusion: The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Proteins: ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.HN Protein: Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein: Myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is a transcription factor that maintains high levels of HOMEOTIC GENE expression during development. The GENE for myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is commonly disrupted in LEUKEMIA and combines with over 40 partner genes to form FUSION ONCOGENE PROTEINS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with the cofactor CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain. Runx1 is frequently mutated in human LEUKEMIAS.Spinal DiseasesMicroscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mutant Chimeric Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have mutated by the fusing of protein coding regions of more than one gene. Such hybrid proteins are responsible for some instances of ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE and defective biological processes such as NEOPLASMS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 2: A synaptic membrane protein involved in MEMBRANE FUSION of SYNAPTIC VESICLES with the presynaptic membranes. It is the prototype member of the R-SNARE PROTEINS.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Paramyxovirinae: A subfamily of PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Genera include RUBULAVIRUS; RESPIROVIRUS; MORBILLIVIRUS; HENIPAVIRUS; and AVULAVIRUS.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.RNA-Binding Protein EWS: A ubiquitous hnRNP protein found in the CELL NUCLEUS and the CYTOPLASM. Translocations that result in the formation of fusion proteins containing parts of RNA-binding protein EWS may play a role in neoplastic processes such as EWING SARCOMA.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Mitochondrial Dynamics: The continuous remodeling of MITOCHONDRIA shape by fission and fusion in response to physiological conditions.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Qb-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the N-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.rab5 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Paramyxoviridae: A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Qc-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the C-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the C-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nipah Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mice, Inbred BALB CEpitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1: A member of the c-ets family of transcription factors that is preferentially expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineages and vascular endothelial cells. It was originally identified as a protein that provides a retroviral integration site for integration of FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS.Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Synaptotagmin I: A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Diphtheria Toxin: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
  • The tropism of MeV for the CNS is mediated by hyperfusogenic mutations in the MeV fusion (F) protein. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies have suggested that particular substitutions in the MeV fusion (F) protein are involved in the pathogenesis by destabilizing the F protein and endowing it with hyperfusogenicity. (pnas.org)
  • Intracellular membrane fusion is mediated by the concerted action of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Incubation of rat liver cytosol with GST-Rab1-GTP [recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Rab1 fusion protein immobilized on glutathione-Sepharose beads and loaded with guanosine 5′- O -(3′-thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS)] preferentially retained a select set of putative effector proteins when compared to controls ( Fig. 1 A, asterisks) ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Purified p115 bound GST-Rab1-GTP beads, but not GST-Rab1-GDP beads ( Fig. 1 C). Furthermore, p115 did not interact with Rab2 or Sar1, other GTPases involved in ER-to-Golgi transport ( 1 , 18-20 ), or with Rab3a, a GTPase involved in regulated secretory vesicle fusion ( 21 ) ( Fig. 1 D). Therefore, the tethering protein p115 was specifically and directly recognized by activated Rab1. (sciencemag.org)
  • Fusion relies on the HEM2 (NAP1) homolog Kette, as well as Blow and WASP, a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome protein family. (diva-portal.org)
  • ALT-803, a complex of an interleukin (IL)-15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL-15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein, was found to exhibit significantly stronger in vivo biologic activity on NK and T cells than IL-15. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The fusion protein AML1-ETO retains the ability of ETO to form stable complexes with N-CoR/SMRT and HDAC. (asm.org)
  • Protein and lipid transport along the endolysosomal system of eukaryotic cells depends on multiple fusion and fission events. (biologists.org)
  • By quantifying growth inhibition in the presence of gentamicin, we determined that several of the sensitive strains were part of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) and homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complexes. (asm.org)
  • Remarkably, lipid-perturbing agents rescue a palmitoylation-deficient mutant whose phenotype includes slow fusion pore expansion, suggesting that protein-protein interactions have a role not only in bringing together the granule or vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane but also in orchestrating protein-lipid interactions leading to the fusion reaction. (rupress.org)
  • In this report, we analyzed the nature of PML-RAR alpha-containing complexes in nuclear protein extracts of t(15;17)-positive cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • Treatment with retinoic acid results in a decrease of PML-RAR alpha protein levels and, as a consequence, of DNA binding by the different complexes. (pasteur.fr)
  • Membrane fusion, the merger of two biological membranes without content leakage, is essential for protein transport along the exocytic and endocytic pathways in eukaryotic cells. (embopress.org)
  • Interestingly, 0.2 Gy irradiation promoted the mitochondria fusion, resulting in part from the increased level of a mitochondrial fusion protein, Mfn2, and inhibition of Drp1 fission protein trafficking to the mitochondria. (oncotarget.com)
  • The bcr-abl fusion protein is a well-known example of an oncogenic fusion protein, and is considered to be the primary oncogenic driver of chronic myelogenous leukemia . (biu.ac.il)
  • A recombinant fusion protein is a protein created through genetic engineering of a fusion gene. (biu.ac.il)
  • Especially in the case where the linkers enable protein purification , linkers in protein or peptide fusions are sometimes engineered with cleavage sites for proteases or chemical agents that enable the liberation of the two separate proteins. (biu.ac.il)
  • Di- or multimeric chimeric proteins can be manufactured through genetic engineering by fusion to the original proteins of peptide domains that induce artificial protein di- or multimerization (e.g., streptavidin or leucine zippers ). (biu.ac.il)
  • The purpose of creating fusion proteins in drug development is to impart properties from each of the "parent" proteins to the resulting chimeric protein. (biu.ac.il)
  • We report here that the α7nAChR forms a protein complex with the NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) through a direct protein-protein interaction. (rupress.org)
  • In the current study, we first investigated whether α7nAChR and NMDAR form a protein complex and developed a protein peptide that is able to disrupt this complex. (rupress.org)
  • These data suggested that α7nAChR and NMDAR may form a protein complex in the rat hippocampus. (rupress.org)
  • What the investigators learn could guide future research on treatments for patients with fusion protein-driven cancers," Dr. Witkin said. (cancer.gov)
  • Several drugs that are effective against fusion oncoproteins have been developed, such as imatinib (Gleevec) , which blocks the activity of the BCR-ABL fusion protein . (cancer.gov)
  • This fusion protein drives nearly all cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia as well as some other types of leukemia. (cancer.gov)
  • Part of the BCR-ABL fusion protein is a kinase, which is a type of enzyme, and drugs that target kinase fusion proteins have generally worked well. (cancer.gov)
  • Most multi-subunit tether complexes have two business ends: one interacts with Rab proteins and the other interacts with SNAREs through a tether subunit protein that is a member of the Sec1/Munc18 (SM) family. (nature.com)
  • Here, we show that this reconstituted complex, as well as heterodimers composed of syntaxin and SNAP-25, can be disassembled by the concerted action of the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, NSF, and the soluble NSF attachment protein, α-SNAP α-SNAP binds to predicted α-helical coiled-coil regions of syntaxin and SNAP-25, shown previously to be engaged in their direct interaction. (elsevier.com)
  • The COG complex is an eight-protein (COG1-COG8) vesicle tethering complex important for regulating membrane trafficking, glycosylation enzymes, and maintaining Golgi structure. (cdc.gov)
  • Protein-mediated membrane fusion is essential for maintaining eukaryotic cell organization and propagation of major human viruses. (grantome.com)
  • Many clinically relevant members of the paramyxovirus family rely on the concerted action of two envelope glycoproteins, the attachment and fusion protein, to fuse their envelope with the target cell plasma membrane for cell entry. (grantome.com)
  • What is the molecular mechanism that links receptor binding with fusion protein refolding into the thermodynamically stable postfusion conformation? (grantome.com)
  • Native gel electrophoresis, H oligomer stabilizing and destabilizing modifications, and H bimolecular complementation will extract functional information by assessing the effect of receptor binding on attachment protein organization and characterizing the molecular nature of the signal that initiates fusion protein refolding (aim 2). (grantome.com)
  • Antibodies specific for each protein coprecipitate the complex, inhibit homotypic fusion of late endosomes in vitro and retard delivery of endocytosed epidermal growth factor to lysosomes. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Substitution experiments, sequence and structural comparisons revealed that each protein occupies a unique position in the complex, with syntaxin 7 corresponding to syntasin 1, and vti1b and syntaxin 8 corresponding to the N- and C-terminal domains of SNAP-25, respectively. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Upon TCR engagement, Fyb/SLAP localizes at the interface between T cells and anti-CD3-coated beads, where Evl, a member of the Ena/VASP family, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and the Arp2/3 complex are also found. (rupress.org)
  • Six-helix bundle (6HB) formation is an essential step for many viruses that rely on a class I fusion protein to enter a target cell and initiate replication. (rcsb.org)
  • Recent work suggested that ER-localized soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate a Sey1p-independent ER-ER fusion pathway. (princeton.edu)
  • T cell Ag receptors are highly related to BCR in terms of evolutionary pedigree, gene structure, recombinase-dependent gene rearrangement during development, protein domain organization, and expression within multiprotein signaling complexes ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This book brings together leading international experts to discuss recent advances in functional studies on key proteins and protein complexes involved in each synaptic vesicle phase. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that the fission yeast Tsc1-Tsc2 complex plays a role in the regulation of protein trafficking and suggest a similar function for the human proteins. (genetics.org)
  • The influenza surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) is a potential target for antiviral drugs because of its key roles in the initial stages of infection: receptor binding and the fusion of virus and cell membranes. (rcsb.org)
  • The interaction is thought to bring the opposing membranes together to enable fusion. (rupress.org)
  • However, many questions remain about the mechanisms driving the regulation and execution of the membrane fusion (in which the lipid bilayers on two separate membranes fuse to form one bilayer) underlying this process. (nature.com)
  • The authors provide evidence that SNAREs alone can achieve a state of only partial fusion between the two fusing membranes, known as hemi-fusion, in which only one of the lipid layers of each of the fusing membranes has fused ( Fig. 1 ), and that HOPS is required to fully complete the fusion process. (nature.com)
  • Transport across membranes requires the reduction of Cu 2+ to Cu + . Labile copper ions can interact with membranes to alter fluidity, lateral phase separation and fusion. (illinois.edu)
  • Recombinant fusion proteins are created artificially by recombinant DNA technology for use in biological research or therapeutics . (biu.ac.il)
  • Based on the recently described overall structure of the HOPS complex and a number of in vivo and in vitro analyses, important insights into their function have been obtained. (biologists.org)
  • This is an attractive model system for studying fusion because the key components are known, and the process has been reconstituted in vitro in a cell-free system and can be assessed in vivo . (nature.com)
  • Here we report that direct injection of in vitro -assembled Cas9-CRISPR RNA (crRNA) trans -activating crRNA (tracrRNA) ribonucleoprotein complexes into the gonad of Caenorhabditis elegans yields HDR edits at a high frequency. (genetics.org)
  • Molecular modeling-guided mutagenesis, biochemical contact domain mapping, peptide binding and mass spectrometry will cross-examine, expand and functionally characterize candidate intermolecular contacts found in pilot studies, resulting in the identification of discrete microdomains in either glycoprotein that line the hetero-oligomer interface and control the structural integrity of a native paramyxovirus fusion complex (aim 3). (grantome.com)
  • The purified proteins form core complexes with biochemical and biophysical properties remarkably similar to the neuronal core complex, although each of the four proteins carries a transmembrane domain and three have independently folded N-terminal domains. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In activated T cells, Fyb/SLAP associates with Ena/VASP family proteins and is present within biochemical complexes containing WASP, Nck, and SLP-76. (rupress.org)
  • Because TCR/CD3 is expressed only in a transmembrane complex with no naturally secreted form, its valency has been studied via biochemical analyses involving immunoprecipitation (IP) and other methods. (jimmunol.org)
  • These transversal and trans-generational dimensions of biological phenomena, which unfold together with the actual process of biogenesis, must be carefully considered in order to understand the intricacies and metabolic robustness of the first living cells, their underlying uniformity (i.e., their common biochemical core) and the eradication of previous -or alternative- forms of complex natural phenomena. (frontiersin.org)
  • IHG-1 forms complexes with known mediators of mitochondrial fusion-mitofusins (Mfns) 1 and 2-and enhances the GTP-binding capacity of Mfn2, suggesting that IHG-1 acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In mammalian cells, overexpression of COOH-terminal fragments of WASP family proteins leads to delocalization of the Arp2/3 complex, resulting in the complete loss of lamellipodia and stress fibers ( Machesky and Insall 1998 ). (rupress.org)
  • We have purified distinct complexes of nine to 12 proteins [referred to as BRG1-associated factors (BAFs)] from several mammalian cell lines using an antibody to the SWI2-SNF2 homolog BRG1. (nih.gov)
  • A group of BAF47-associated proteins were affinity purified with antibodies against INI1/BAF47 and were found to be identical to those co-purified with BRG1, strongly indicating that this group of proteins associates tightly and is likely to be the mammalian equivalent of the yeast SWI-SNF complex. (nih.gov)
  • Certain cell lines completely lack BRG1 and hbrm, indicating that they are not essential for cell viability and that the mammalian SWI-SNF complex may be tailored to the needs of a differentiated cell type. (nih.gov)
  • Third, TBPs that assemble into complexes (e.g., mammalian shelterin) derive benefits from the novel emergent functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • KO cells infected with VACV displayed lower levels of viral fusion and entry compared to WT suggesting that the COG complex is important for early events in OPXV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Since COG complex proteins are required for cellular trafficking of glycosylated membrane proteins, the disruption of this process due to lack of individual COG complex proteins may potentially impair the virus-cell interactions required for viral entry and egress. (cdc.gov)
  • Cryo-electron tomography combined with envelope glycoprotein engineering will elucidate the overall spatial organization of hydrated fusion complexes displayed on the surface of viral particles, alone and after treatment with soluble receptor (aim 1). (grantome.com)
  • Macromolecular complexes containing the yeast HDAC homologue Rpd3 are involved in gene silencing in yeast ( 30 , 53 , 54 , 62 ). (asm.org)
  • Beyond these effects, some gene fusions may cause regulatory changes that alter when and where these genes act. (biu.ac.il)
  • For partial gene fusions , the shuffling of different active sites and binding domains have potential to result in new proteins with novel functions. (biu.ac.il)
  • When DNA segments from different chromosomes fuse, the result can be an entirely new gene-a fusion gene . (cancer.gov)
  • But in some cells, a fusion gene produces fusion proteins that can alter the activity of other genes. (cancer.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of the COG complex in OPXV infection using cell lines with individual COG gene knockout (KO) mutations. (cdc.gov)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - A new study suggests taking a closer look at a relatively common gene fusion in prostate cancer tumors may help in distinguishing low-risk cases from more aggressive forms of the disease. (genomeweb.com)
  • DEK-NUP214 gene fusion in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor prognosis. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Thus, the cellular phenotypes associated with loss of either the TSC1 or the TSC2 gene in higher eukaryotes are complex and the biological function of the proteins remains poorly understood. (genetics.org)
  • Studies of the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) fusion proteins of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) provide further evidence of a biological role of the corepressor complex ( 10 , 14 , 17 , 21 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Implications of Progressive Aberrancy Versus True Fusion for Diagnosis of Wide Complex Tachycardia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • At the onset of wide complex tachycardia, beats with intermediate morphologies sometimes occur between the normally conducted beats and the wide complex tachycardia QRS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To evaluate the incidence of progressive aberrancy, wide complex tachycardia tracings were collected in which an intermediate beat was noted at the onset. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Of 24 episodes of wide complex tachycardia, 17 (71%) were identified as true fusion and 7 (29%) as progressive aberrancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The identified criteria will be helpful in differentiating ventricular tachycardia from supraventricular tachycardia with aberrancy as a cause of wide complex tachycardia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Wide Complex Tachycardia with Fusion and Capture Beats. (ecgquest.net)
  • Occupation of this site by TBHQ stabilizes the neutral pH structure through intersubunit and intrasubunit interactions that presumably inhibit the conformational rearrangements required for membrane fusion. (rcsb.org)
  • In addition, these cells contain oligomeric complexes of PML-RAR alpha and endogenous RXR. (pasteur.fr)
  • Through a haploid genetic screen, we previously identified several host genes required for monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection, including the individual genes that form the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we show the crystal structures of the prefusion MeV-F alone and in complex with the small compound AS-48 or a fusion inhibitor peptide. (pnas.org)
  • The N-peptide function is restricted to an early initiation stage of the fusion reaction. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, administration of an interfering peptide that disrupts the α7nAChR-NMDAR complex decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity and blocked cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking in rat models of relapse, without affecting nicotine self-administration or locomotor activity. (rupress.org)
  • Purification of the complex from several cell lines demonstrates that it is heterogeneous with respect to subunit composition. (nih.gov)
  • Because of this property, digitonin has been used to solubilize the αβ TCR/CD3 complex for analysis of subunit constituency and stoichiometry as αβγδε 2 ζ 2 ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • D ) Fold increase in the initial fusion rates of the reactions in C . The dashed line indicates the basal fusion level (with no Munc18-1 activation). (nih.gov)
  • Achieving fusion itself was never really the problem - humans have been able to trigger thermonuclear fusion reactions ever since the first hydrogen bomb was set off in 1952. (bbc.com)
  • Genomic PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to find the breakpoint of fusion genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Fusion proteins or chimeric (\kī-ˈmir-ik) proteins (literally, made of parts from different sources) are proteins created through the joining of two or more genes that originally coded for separate proteins. (biu.ac.il)
  • Chimeric mutant proteins occur naturally when a complex mutation , such as a chromosomal translocation , tandem duplication, or retrotransposition creates a novel coding sequence containing parts of the coding sequences from two different genes. (biu.ac.il)
  • However, other fusion proteins, especially those that are naturally occurring, combine only portions of coding sequences and therefore do not maintain the original functions of the parental genes that formed them. (biu.ac.il)
  • Not all fusion genes lead to cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Many fusion oncoproteins in children, however, involve transcription factors, which are proteins that control the activity of genes by binding to DNA. (cancer.gov)
  • Combined with the co-CRISPR method, this protocol is sufficiently robust for use with low-efficiency guide RNAs and to generate complex edits, including ORF replacement and simultaneous tagging of two genes with fluorescent proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Towards the overarching goal of elucidating these principles, this project will pursue the problem in three basic questions: What is the spatial organization of the envelope glycoprotein hetero-oligomer complexes in the native, metastable conformation displayed on the surface of infectious particles? (grantome.com)
  • First, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs) fuse to form a trinucleated precursor, which then recruits further FCMs. (diva-portal.org)
  • Fusion is the process of fusing the nuclei of two small atoms together to form a larger one. (bbc.com)
  • Eniva's B-Complex dietary supplement has already performed the initial steps the body undertakes when trying to assimilate vitamins - to put them in a completely bio-available form to be easily utilized by the body. (eniva.com)
  • Eniva's B-Complex has already performed the initial steps the body undertakes when trying to assimilate vitamins - to put them in a completely bio-available form to be quickly and easily utilized by the body. (eniva.com)