Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Distamycins: Oligopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces distallicus. Their binding to DNA inhibits synthesis of nucleic acids.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Netropsin: A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.Bisbenzimidazole: A benzimidazole antifilarial agent; it is fluorescent when it binds to certain nucleotides in DNA, thus providing a tool for the study of DNA replication; it also interferes with mitosis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Cleavage Stage, Ovum: The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Blastoderm: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Potoroidae: A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Compound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Polar Bodies: Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Triturus: A genus of aquatic newts in the Salamandridae family. During breeding season many Triturus males have a dorsal crest which also serves as an accessory respiratory organ. One of the common Triturus species is Triturus cristatus (crested newt).Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Stomach, RuminantAurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA, B-Form: The most common form of DNA found in nature. It is a right-handed helix with 10 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.338 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 1.9 nm.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Diminazene: An effective trypanocidal agent.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Vitelline Membrane: The plasma membrane of the egg.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Imaginal Discs: Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Chromomycins: A complex of several closely related glycosidic antibiotics from Streptomyces griseus. The major component, CHROMOMYCIN A3, is used as a fluorescent stain of DNA where it attaches and inhibits RNA synthesis. It is also used as an antineoplastic agent, especially for solid tumors.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.GuanineMicroscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Anthramycin: A broad-spectrum spectrum antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces refuineus var. thermotolerans. It has low toxicity, some activity against Trichomonas and Endamoeba, and inhibits RNA and DNA synthesis. It binds irreversibly to DNA.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Nogalamycin: An anthrocycline from a Streptomyces nogalater variant. It is a cytolytic antineoplastic that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA synthesis by binding to DNA.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectEmbryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Wnt1 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.Image Cytometry: A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Methyl Green: A tri-benzene-ammonium usually compounded with zinc chloride. It is used as a biological stain and for the dyeing and printing of textiles.Benzamidines: Amidines substituted with a benzene group. Benzamidine and its derivatives are known as peptidase inhibitors.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.ThymineCytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.DNA, A-Form: An isoform of DNA that occurs in an environment rich in SODIUM and POTASSIUM ions. It is a right-handed helix with 11 base pairs per turn, a pitch of 0.256 nm per base pair and a helical diameter of 2.3 nm.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Framycetin: A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Chromomycin A3: Glycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus used as a fluorescent stain of DNA and as an antineoplastic agent.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Nucleic Acid Heteroduplexes: Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.rab GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Tetrahymena pyriformis: A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.AT Rich Sequence: A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of ADENINE and THYMINE bases.Asymmetric Cell Division: Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Crystallography: The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Enediynes: Compounds with triple bonds to each side of a double bond. Many of these are CYTOTOXINS and are researched for use as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: A species of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae found on the Pacific coastline from Alaska to Mexico. This species serves as a major research model for molecular developmental biology and other fields.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Blastomeres: Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.AmidinesBenzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Helix-Turn-Helix Motifs: The first DNA-binding protein motif to be recognized. Helix-turn-helix motifs were originally identified in bacterial proteins but have since been found in hundreds of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. They are constructed from two alpha helices connected by a short extended chain of amino acids, which constitute the "turn." The two helices are held at a fixed angle, primarily through interactions between the two helices. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p408-9)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.HLA-DR1 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
Grooved. Sulcus. A longitudinal furrow. Superanal. Above the anus. Supra-peripheral. Above the periphery. Symmetrical. Alike on ... Grooved or formed like a channel. Chitinous. Formed of chitin, as the radulas of gastropods. Ciliary. By means of cilia. ... Marked by a furrow, as the impressed spiral lines on some gastropod shells. Incrassate. Thickened. Incurved. Leaned or bent ...
Petiole 1.2-2.2 cm, slender pubescent, densely furrow; Elliptic or oblong-lanceolate Limbo, rarely ovate-oblong, 6-12 × 2-5 cm ... Purplish brown branches, glabrous, grooved; barely pubescent twigs. Stipitate outbreaks, with 2 scales glabrous vaults. ...
It contains 3½ convex whorls with concentric,grooved furrows. The last whorls has a rounde dshape at the periphery. The ...
sulcate furrowed; grooved. May be single (monosulcate), two (bisulcate) or many (polysulcate) superficial on the surface. ... A longitudinal cavity in the cortex of the stems of Equisetum, coinciding with a groove in the stem surface. valvate of sepals ... bi- prefix meaning two, for example bisulcate, two sulci or grooves. For other uses, see specific -suffix biennial plant which ... canaliculate channelled; with a longitudinal groove. canescent approaching white in color, as in a leaf covered with white down ...
Spreading away from the furrows are smaller grooves called feathering or cracking. The grooves provide a cutting edge and help ... The surface of a millstone is divided by deep grooves called furrows into separate flat areas called lands. ... The furrows and lands are arranged in repeating patterns called harps. A typical millstone will have six, eight or ten harps. ...
There are usually multiple grooves/furrows 2-6 mm in depth present. Sometimes there is a large central furrow, with smaller ... is a benign condition characterized by deep grooves (fissures) in the dorsum of the tongue. Although these grooves may look ... Other patterns may show a mostly dorsolateral position of the fissures (i.e. sideways running grooves on the tongue's upper ... Fissured tongue (also known as "scrotal tongue," "lingua plicata," "Plicated tongue," and "furrowed tongue") ...
The specific name is derived from Latin striatus (meaning channel, groove or furrow). A New Family of Monotrysian Moths from ...
Up to 4 pleural segments with obsolete interpleural grooves and shallow pleural furrows. The posterior margin has 3 or 4 pairs ... becoming parallel near the border furrow and strongly convergent at the margin. From the back of the eyes the sutures are ... with 3 pairs of shallow to obsolete lateral furrows. The occipital ring is well defined. The distance between the glabella and ...
The protoconch, embracing 2½ whorls, is more strongly spirally furrowed. The large aperture is round. Into it projects from the ... Sculpture: the base is ornamented with spaced spiral grooves. These occur, but fainter, on the penultimate whorl. ...
3 sets of interpleural grooves and pleural furrows ending at distance of the margin. There is no furrow that would define a ... the furrow parallel to the margin (or border furrow) has 2 not very noticeable pits in front of the glabella, and rarely a very ... Meteoraspis has two equally prominent pits in the anterior border furrow, a much more vaulted cephalon, with short spines ... and has only one furrow, crossing it near the back of the cephalon, defining the occipital ring. A node may be present on the ...
There are no grooves between the nostrils and the mouth. There are furrows extending from the corners of the mouth over the ... no grooves between the nostrils and mouth, and furrows on the lower but not the upper jaw. It is also characterized by ...
... medial to this is a shallow furrow, the occipital groove, which lodges the occipital artery. The inner surface of the mastoid ... The groove for the transverse sinus is separated from the innermost of the mastoid cells by a very thin lamina of bone, and ... On the medial side of the process is a deep groove, the mastoid notch, for the attachment of the digastric muscle; ... portion presents a deep, curved groove, the sigmoid sulcus, which lodges part of the transverse sinus; in it may be seen in the ...
These slender tube-nesting wasps have a black head and furrows on the black thorax. On T1 there are a transverse hull and a ... median longitudinal groove. The small scales at the base of the forewings are black with a yellow border. Antennae of the males ...
Each nostril has a short barbel and a groove running from it to the mouth. The mouth is nearly straight, with three lobes on ... the lower lip and furrows at the corners. There are 28-33 tooth rows in the upper jaw and 22-32 tooth rows in the lower jaw; ...
Below the shoulder the shell is furrowed by numerous fine spiral grooves, crossed by arcuate growth lines. Above the furrows ...
... while another groove connects the outflow openings to the mouth. The mouth is small and curved, with prominent furrows at the ... The inflow openings are encircled by a groove, ...
The base is concentrically, rather deeply furrowed, the 6 furrows narrower than the intervening ridges. In the umbilicus, which ... The aperture is subquadrate, nacreous, smooth within, and has a groove indicating the place of the external keel. The columella ...
The mouth is short but wide and bears furrows at the corners extending onto both jaws. There are 45-83 upper and 47-75 lower ... the flap conceals the nasal excurrent openings and a pair of grooves that run between them and the mouth. The large, ...
There are furrows at the corners of the mouth on both jaws. The teeth have a central cusp and a pair of smaller cusplets on the ... These nasal flaps cover a pair of deep grooves that connect the nasal excurrent (outflow) openings and the mouth. ...
The long, angular mouth has very long furrows at the corners extending onto both the upper and lower jaws. The small teeth have ... The nasal flaps reach the mouth, obscuring a pair of broad grooves connecting the excurrent openings and the mouth. ...
... the furrows are larger than glacial grooves, and they do not extend around the hill to the lee side. Also, a furrow so formed ... the formation by glacial action of smooth deep gutterlike channels or furrows on the stoss side of a rocky hill obstructing the ... lineations or streamline grooves and ridges parallel to the direction of ice movement, formed in newly deposited till or older ...
In the middle of this groove, there is a small furrow that marks its deepest point. Above the angle , the profile of the whorls ... The depressed spire consists of four or five subangular whorls, equipped with a broad groove between the spiral obsolete angle ...
In both cases the stigmatic groove is a furrow on one side of the style end. The fruit of Adenanthos is a simple dry hard- ...
The stem leaves are grooved. The flowers are very small; 3-5mm.long, in bloom from June until August. The pods are 3-3.5mm. ... Melilotus sulcatus, the furrowed melilot or Mediterranean sweetclover, is a species of the genus Melilotus, belonging to the ...
2] is concave; it presents depressions corresponding to the cerebral convolutions, and numerous furrows (grooves) for the ... Near the groove are several depressions, best marked in the skulls of old persons, for the arachnoid granulations (Pacchionian ... Its inner surface is marked by a deep groove, sometimes a canal, for the anterior divisions of the middle meningeal artery. The ... Along the upper margin is a shallow groove, which, together with that on the opposite parietal, forms a channel, the sagittal ...
Linear furrows are commonly referred to as linear enamel hypoplasias (LEHs); LEHs can range in size from microscopic to visible ... By examining the spacing of perikymata grooves (horizontal growth lines), the duration of the stressor can be estimated, ... Enamel hypoplasia refers to transverse furrows or pits that form in the enamel surface of teeth when the normal process of ...
Glacial Groove/Glacial Furrow. A linear depression, inches to miles in length, produced by the removal of rock or sediment by ... A series of small, closely spaced, crescentic grooves or scars formed in bedrock by rocks frozen in basal ice as they move ... Multiple, generally parallel, linear grooves, carved by rocks frozen in the bed of a glacier into the bedrock over which it ...
Grooved. Sulcus. A longitudinal furrow. Superanal. Above the anus. Supra-peripheral. Above the periphery. Symmetrical. Alike on ... Grooved or formed like a channel. Chitinous. Formed of chitin, as the radulas of gastropods. Ciliary. By means of cilia. ... Marked by a furrow, as the impressed spiral lines on some gastropod shells. Incrassate. Thickened. Incurved. Leaned or bent ...
... down syndrome ds facies face lines grooves furrows edema thickening connective tissue skin dermis subcutaneous friendly ... The reason is that the deep facial lines, grooves or furrows, may be signs that signal a relationship with the water content of ...
Petiole 1.2-2.2 cm, slender pubescent, densely furrow; Elliptic or oblong-lanceolate Limbo, rarely ovate-oblong, 6-12 × 2-5 cm ... Purplish brown branches, glabrous, grooved; barely pubescent twigs. Stipitate outbreaks, with 2 scales glabrous vaults. ...
Labial furrows present. Teeth smaller with 32 to 52/25 to 50 rows (total for both jaws 58 to 102 rows); posterior tooth rows 2 ... No nuchal grooves present above branchial region. Pectoral fins falcate and with curved and narrow tips. Claspers extremely ...
Labial furrows absent. Teeth very small, in 41 to 45/37 to 38 rows (total for both jaws 75 to 86 rows); posterior tooth rows 5 ... Weak nuchal grooves present above branchial region. Pectoral fins of "macroceanic" type with straight and very broad tips. ... and possibly by lacking labial furrows. However, the illustrated foetus is apparently A. vulpinus and is recognizable by its ... small eyes, broad head with a strongly convex dorsal profile, short snout, presence of labial furrows, and falcate pectoral ...
transitive) To make (a) groove, a cut(s) in (the ground etc.). Cart wheels can furrow roads.. ... furrow (third-person singular simple present furrows, present participle furrowing, simple past and past participle furrowed) ... furrow (plural furrows). *A trench cut in the soil, as when plowed in order to plant a crop. Dont walk across that deep furrow ... "furrow"), Latin porca ("lynchet"), Lithuanian prapar̃šas ("ditch"), Sanskrit पर्शान (párśāna, "chasm")). ...
There are grooves in the millstones grinding surface called furrows. When you take the two millstones apart and look at both ... But when you place the one millstone on the millstone spindle and it rotates the furrow pattern is reversed from the top to the ... Each kernel of grain enters between the millstones gets cut by hundreds of crossing furrows in its circular path outward. The ... furrowing stick or straight edge and brush). The final pair of millstones can be represented for interpretive proposes by two ...
fluting, flute - a groove or furrow in cloth etc (particularly a shallow concave groove on the shaft of a column) ... channel - a long narrow furrow cut either by a natural process (such as erosion) or by a tool (as e.g. a groove in a phonograph ... 3. duct, chamber, artery, groove, gutter, furrow, conduit Keep the drainage channel clear. ... rut - a groove or furrow (especially one in soft earth caused by wheels) ...
Ridges and Furrows (Grooves) on the Nails. *Beaus line is a transverse furrow (groove) on the nail plate (refer to the picture ... Central furrow (groove) that is deep like a canal may be due to trauma, severe malnutrition and severe arterial disease. ... Ladder pattern ridges and furrows may be due to habit-tic dystrophy, which is the habitual picking or biting of the proximal ... Habitual picking or biting of the proximal nail folds may also cause recurrent paronychia along with ridges and furrows of the ...
Bone Markings: Groove. Furrow. Bone Markings:Fissure. Narrow, slitlike opening for passage of blood vessels, nerves or ... Bone Markings: Groove. Furrow. Bone Markings: Fissure. Narrow, slitlike opening for passage of blood vessels, nerves or ...
that may have a deep groove or furrow. down the middle, a broad nose with an upturned tip, and abnormalities affecting the roof ...
All grooves or furrows on carapace obsolete. Tarsus of palp without claw. Upper margin of fang furrow with three teeth, lower ...
Groove; where are they located (Depressions and Openings). Furrow (ditch); located on the Mandible. ... 2 finger nail sized bones that form part of the medial wall of each eye socket, inside the orbit, contains a groove that serves ...
This is known as the jugular furrow or jugular groove. The jugular vein is located just under the jugular groove (See Figure 1 ...
hollow out in the form of a furrow or groove; "furrow soil". ... a groove or furrow (especially one in soft earth caused by ... C]车辙;犁沟 deep track made by a wheel or wheels in soft ground;furrow ...
It is characterized by a median groove ending above in a notch. The median furrow becomes obliterated in carcinoma. ... 33-2A. and 34-3B). The normal prostate can be palpated per rectum as an elastic swelling with a median groove ending above in a ... The base is continuous with the bladder, although it is separated by a slight groove. The apex is the most inferior part. The ... M, middle lobe of the prostate (which may produce a uvulvil); L, median groove between the lateral lobes of the prostate. ...
The muzzle is divided by a longitudinal furrow. The nostrils are at the rostral end of the groove. The furrow is bordered and ... the hairs have deep longitudinal grooves (Choloepus) or irregular transverse cracks (Bradypus) that allow for the invasion of ...
nasolacrimal groove. nasolacrimal furrow.. nasolacrimal radiography. see dacryocystorhinography.. nasolacrimal sac. see ... nasolacrimal furrow. formed in the embryo by the fusion of the two maxillary processes; develops eventually into the ...
Furrowed tongue. Grooved tongue 0000221 Showing of 16 , View All. Do you have more information about symptoms of this disease? ...
furrow 犁沟 * temperament 气质 * groove 槽 * temper 脾气 * ridge 脊 ...
Labial furrows. Grooves on either side of the mouth.. Lateral line. A canal running along either side of the body of a shark ...
It is characterized by vertical grooves that are closely spaced. *The bark can be described as "furrowed," and has deep rifts ... Look for brown, furrowed bark. The bark of sugar maple trees changes color as it ages. The bark of younger trees will be ...
A deep median groove along the distal termination (figure 1g) may be equivalent to a short groove on the head of the larva. If ... A dorsal furrow (figure 1f) delimits the valves which gape anteriorly; there is no rostrum-like structure. The valves are ... The oblique groove that traverses each lateral plate may correspond to the division between scutum and tergum (Newman et al. ... A shallow straight groove traverses the lateral plates antero-dorsally to postero-ventrally (figure 1i). A cavity between the ...
  • Abdomen long oval, with many reddish brown sclerotized spots with a hair on each, scattered closely on the en-tire dorsum. (go.jp)
  • The body is rounded and elongate, with a slight furrow occurring along the length of the dorsum (Sparreboom 2014). (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Medieval plough furrows and one putative 19th century pit comprised the only evidence for post-prehistoric features. (gla.ac.uk)
  • A groove in the earth made by a plough. (foboko.com)
  • 25. He had just made one furrow , and was coming back, when something pulled at the plough as though it had caught in a root. (foboko.com)
  • leaving such a furrow in the sea as when a cannon-ball, missent, becomes a plough-share and turns up the level field. (foboko.com)
  • 35. Now, involuntarily it seemed, he cut more and more deeply into the soil like a plough, so that he could not be drawn out without turning aside the furrow . (foboko.com)
  • The costal grooves are often absent in the subfamily Pleurodelinae, and are not obvious in this species if present (Vitt and Caldwell 2014). (amphibiaweb.org)
  • Melanepyris asiaticus is transferred to Epyris Westwood due to the following features: scutellar groove absent, well separated scutellar pits and lower mesopleural fovea large and with undefined upper margin. (scielo.br)
  • 1989) described the use of conservative morphological characters, such as the apical groove and sulcal intrusion, to separate the related species within the Gymnodinium / Gyrodinium genera. (myfwc.com)
  • Sherds of grooved ware and impressed ware were recovered from a decommissioned posthole and three inter-cutting pits. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Bark plate A more or less flat section of bark, often separated by furrows or grooves, as in bark of mature loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ). (ibiblio.org)
  • Upper margin of fang furrow with three teeth, lower also with three but small. (go.jp)
  • On the medial side of each cerebral hemisphere, the groove that runs parallel to the top of the corpus callosum, separating the corpus callosum from the overlying cingulate gyrus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The furrows articulate with the pterygoid plates, while the grooved intermediate area completes the lower part of the pterygoid fossa and gives origin to a few fibers of the Pterygoideus internus. (statemaster.com)
  • 29. One sharp, white hook tore through my trousers-for I may mention that I was still in evening dress-and dug a furrow in my knee. (foboko.com)
  • The abrasive effects of the sediments may cause furrows on the surfaces of the impellers due to the impact of the particles, increasing the distortion of the grooves due to the increase of the particle diameter [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • A midsagittal groove appears as a result of invagination of the ectoderm centrally and simultaneous elevation of ectodermal tissue alongside the groove to form the neural folds. (medscape.com)
  • A device includes a plurality of microneedles for abrading the stratum corneum of the skin to form a plurality of grooves in the tissue having a controlled depth and width. (google.com.au)
  • 2. To form a groove or flute in. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Embryos from mothers homozygous for mutations in the concertina (cta) gene begin furrow formation by forming a zone of tightly apposed cells, constrict some cells, and then fail to constrict enough cells to form an organized groove. (nih.gov)
  • The model shows a minimally perturbed right-handed duplex in the B-form helix and duocarmycin A is positioned within the walls of the minor groove. (biosyn.com)
  • The enhancement reveals frosty polar caps in addition to the two predominant terrains on Ganymede, bright, grooved terrain and older, dark furrowed areas. (harvard.edu)
  • Their broad, oval carapace has obvious serrations on the front and back marginals, and distinctly grooved growth rings on each scute. (oaklandzoo.org)
  • The structure revealed that the antitumor antibiotic duocarmycin A binds covalently to the minor groove N-3 position of adenine with sequence specificity for the 3'-adenine in a d(A-A-A-A) tract in duplex DNA. (biosyn.com)
  • 14. The thought made his brow furrow again, discontented with the rate of change in his world. (foboko.com)
  • 6. His eyebrows furrow and his face has become tough. (foboko.com)
  • 18. A big smile crossed his face as he stood, though the furrow on his brow diminished the affect somewhat. (foboko.com)
  • 32. Right in the middle, at the epicentre of the drawing, a furious, sweaty face appeared, every foul and bitter furrow captured with precision. (foboko.com)