Development of muscarinic analgesics derived from epibatidine: role of the M4 receptor subtype. (1/1563)Epibatidine, a neurotoxin isolated from the skin of Epipedobates tricolor, is an efficacious antinociceptive agent with a potency 200 times that of morphine. The toxicity of epibatidine, because of its nonspecificity for both peripheral and central nicotinic receptors, precludes its development as an analgesic. During the synthesis of epibatidine analogs we developed potent antinociceptive agents, typified by CMI-936 and CMI-1145, whose antinociception, unlike that of epibatidine, is mediated via muscarinic receptors. Subsequently, we used specific muscarinic toxins and antagonists to delineate the muscarinic receptor subtype involved in the antinociception evoked by these agents. Thus, the antinociception produced by CMI-936 and CMI-1145 is inhibited substantially by 1) intrathecal injection of the specific muscarinic M4 toxin, muscarinic toxin-3; 2) intrathecally administered pertussis toxin, which inhibits the G proteins coupled to M2 and M4 receptors; and 3) s.c. injection of the M2/M4 muscarinic antagonist himbacine. These results demonstrate that the antinociception elicited by these epibatidine analogs is mediated via muscarinic M4 receptors located in the spinal cord. Compounds that specifically target the M4 receptor therefore may be of substantial value as alternative analgesics to the opiates. (+info)
A comparison of an A1 adenosine receptor agonist (CVT-510) with diltiazem for slowing of AV nodal conduction in guinea-pig. (2/1563)1. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacological properties (i.e. the AV nodal depressant, vasodilator, and inotropic effects) of two AV nodal blocking agents belonging to different drug classes; a novel A1 adenosine receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, N-(3(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl)-6-aminopurine riboside (CVT-510), and the prototypical calcium channel blocker diltiazem. 2. In the atrial-paced isolated heart, CVT-510 was approximately 5 fold more potent to prolong the stimulus-to-His bundle (S-H interval), a measure of slowing AV nodal conduction (EC50 = 41 nM) than to increase coronary conductance (EC50 = 200 nM). At concentrations of CVT-510 (40 nM) and diltiazem (1 microM) that caused equal prolongation of S-H interval (approximately 10 ms), diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced left ventricular developed pressure (LVP) and markedly increased coronary conductance. CVT-510 shortened atrial (EC50 = 73 nM) but not the ventricular monophasic action potentials (MAP). 3. In atrial-paced anaesthetized guinea-pigs, intravenous infusions of CVT-510 and diltiazem caused nearly equal prolongations of P-R interval. However, diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure. 4. Both CVT-510 and diltiazem prolonged S-H interval, i.e., slowed AV nodal conduction. However, the A1 receptor-selective agonist CVT-510 did so without causing the negative inotropic, vasodilator, and hypotensive effects associated with diltiazem. Because CVT-510 did not affect the ventricular action potential, it is unlikely that this agonist will have a proarrythmic action in ventricular myocardium. (+info)
Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos. (3/1563)Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. (+info)
Oxidative bioactivation of the lactol prodrug of a lactone cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. (4/1563)The lactol derivative of a lactone cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (DFU) was evaluated in vivo and in vitro for its potential suitability as a prodrug. DFU-lactol was found to be 10 to 20 times more soluble than DFU in a variety of aqueous vehicles. After administration of DFU-lactol at 20 mg kg-1 p.o. in rats, a Cmax of 7.5 microM DFU was reached in the plasma. After oral administration, the ED50s of DFU-lactol in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and lipopolysaccharide-induced pyresis assays in rats are comparable with the ED50s observed when dosing with DFU. Incubations of DFU-lactol with rat and human hepatocytes demonstrated that the oxidation of DFU-lactol can be mediated by liver enzymes and that a competing pathway is direct glucuronidation of the DFU-lactol hydroxyl group. Assays with subcellular fractions from rat liver indicated that most of the oxidation of DFU-lactol occurs in the cytosolic fraction and requires NAD(P)+. Human liver cytosol can also support the oxidation of DFU-lactol to DFU when NAD(P)+ is added to the incubations. Fractionation of human liver cytosolic proteins showed that at least three enzymes are capable of efficiently effecting the oxidation of DFU-lactol to DFU. Incubations with commercially available dehydrogenases suggest that alcohol and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are involved in this oxidative process. These data together suggest that lactols may represent useful prodrugs for lactone-containing drugs. (+info)
Evolution of plant defense mechanisms. Relationships of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases to pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases. (5/1563)Pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductase classes are phylogenetically related, as is a third, the so-called "isoflavone reductase homologs." This study establishes the first known catalytic function for the latter, as being able to engender the NADPH-dependent reduction of phenylcoumaran benzylic ethers. Accordingly, all three reductase classes are involved in the biosynthesis of important and related phenylpropanoid-derived plant defense compounds. In this investigation, the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase from the gymnosperm, Pinus taeda, was cloned, with the recombinant protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme reduces the benzylic ether functionalities of both dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, with a higher affinity for the former, as measured by apparent Km and Vmax values and observed kinetic 3H-isotope effects. It abstracts the 4R-hydride of the required NADPH cofactor in a manner analogous to that of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases. A similar catalytic function was observed for the corresponding recombinant reductase whose gene was cloned from the angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, both pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases catalyze enantiospecific conversions, whereas the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase only shows regiospecific discrimination. A possible evolutionary relationship among the three reductase classes is proposed, based on the supposition that phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases represent the progenitors of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases. (+info)
Evidence that halogenated furanones from Delisea pulchra inhibit acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression by displacing the AHL signal from its receptor protein. (6/1563)Acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression controls phenotypes involved in colonization, often specifically of higher organisms, in both marine and terrestrial environments. The marine red alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones which resemble AHLs structurally and show inhibitory activity at ecologically realistic concentrations in AHL bioassays. Evidence is presented that halogenated furanones displace tritiated OHHL [N-3-(oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone] from Escherichia coli cells overproducing LuxR with potencies corresponding to their respective inhibitory activities in an AHL-regulated bioluminescence assay, indicating that this is the mechanism by which furanones inhibit AHL-dependent phenotypes. Alternative mechanisms for this phenomenon are also addressed. General metabolic disruption was assessed with two-dimensional PAGE, revealing limited non-AHL-related effects. A direct chemical interaction between the algal compounds and AHLs, as monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy, was shown not to occur in vitro. These results support the contention that furanones, at the concentrations produced by the alga, can control bacterial colonization of surfaces by specifically interfering with AHL-mediated gene expression at the level of the LuxR protein. (+info)
NADH-quinone oxidoreductase: PSST subunit couples electron transfer from iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone. (7/1563)The proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (EC 22.214.171.124) is the largest and least understood enzyme complex of the respiratory chain. The mammalian mitochondrial enzyme (also called complex I) contains more than 40 subunits, whereas its structurally simpler bacterial counterpart (NDH-1) in Paracoccus denitrificans and Thermus thermophilus HB-8 consists of 14 subunits. A major unsolved question is the location and mechanism of the terminal electron transfer step from iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone. Potent inhibitors acting at this key region are candidate photoaffinity probes to dissect NADH-quinone oxidoreductases. Complex I and NDH-1 are very sensitive to inhibition by a variety of structurally diverse toxicants, including rotenone, piericidin A, bullatacin, and pyridaben. We designed (trifluoromethyl)diazirinyl[3H]pyridaben ([3H]TDP) as our photoaffinity ligand because it combines outstanding inhibitor potency, a suitable photoreactive group, and tritium at high specific activity. Photoaffinity labeling of mitochondrial electron transport particles was specific and saturable. Isolation, protein sequencing, and immunoprecipitation identified the high-affinity specifically labeled 23-kDa subunit as PSST of complex I. Immunoprecipitation of labeled membranes of P. denitrificans and T. thermophilus established photoaffinity labeling of the equivalent bacterial NQO6. Competitive binding and enzyme inhibition studies showed that photoaffinity labeling of the specific high-affinity binding site of PSST is exceptionally sensitive to each of the high-potency inhibitors mentioned above. These findings establish that the homologous PSST of mitochondria and NQO6 of bacteria have a conserved inhibitor-binding site and that this subunit plays a key role in electron transfer by functionally coupling iron-sulfur cluster N2 to quinone. (+info)
Role of metabolic activation in the pathogenesis of chemically induced pulmonary disease: mechanism of action of the lung-toxic furan, 4-ipomeanol. (8/1563)Many xenobiotics produce hepatic injury due to their metabolism in the liver to highly reactive electrophile intermediates which form covalent conjugates with nucleophilic cellular constituents. This presentation describes studies indicating that the production of chemically reactive metabolites by pulmonary metabolism of xenobiotics can also play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of chemically induced lung disease. (+info)
In the medical field, furans are a class of organic compounds that are characterized by a five-membered ring containing two oxygen atoms. They are often found as byproducts of various industrial processes, including the production of dyes, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. Some furans have been identified as potential carcinogens, meaning they can cause cancer in humans. For example, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which is a furan, is a highly toxic and persistent environmental pollutant that has been linked to a range of health problems, including cancer, reproductive disorders, and immune system dysfunction. In addition to their potential health risks, furans can also be found in certain foods, such as coffee and beer, and have been associated with certain types of cancer in humans. As a result, the levels of furans in food and the environment are closely monitored by regulatory agencies to ensure that they do not pose a risk to human health.
Benzofurans are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered aromatic ring with two nitrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. They are often used as dyes, pigments, and intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. In the medical field, benzofurans have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral activities. Some benzofurans have been shown to have activity against specific types of cancer cells, and are being investigated as potential treatments for these diseases. Additionally, some benzofurans have been found to have anti-inflammatory effects, and may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis.
Dioxins are a group of toxic chemicals that are formed as byproducts of various industrial processes, such as the manufacture of pesticides, bleaching agents, and other chemicals. They are also found in the environment as a result of natural processes, such as forest fires and volcanic eruptions. In the medical field, dioxins are known to have a wide range of harmful effects on human health. Exposure to dioxins can cause a variety of symptoms, including skin rashes, respiratory problems, and damage to the liver, kidneys, and immune system. Long-term exposure to dioxins has also been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly of the liver, lungs, and breast. Dioxins are highly toxic and can accumulate in the body over time, leading to long-term health effects. As a result, exposure to dioxins is closely monitored by regulatory agencies, and efforts are made to reduce their production and use in industrial processes.
Furaldehyde, also known as furfural, is a chemical compound with the formula C5H4O2. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic sweet smell that is often used as a solvent, a flavoring agent, and a preservative in the food industry. In the medical field, furaldehyde is not commonly used. However, it has been studied for its potential use as an antifungal agent and as a treatment for certain types of cancer. Furaldehyde has been shown to have antifungal activity against a variety of fungi, including Candida species, Aspergillus species, and Cryptococcus neoformans. It has also been shown to have antitumor activity against certain types of cancer cells, including breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. However, it is important to note that furaldehyde is a toxic substance and can cause serious health problems if ingested or inhaled in large amounts. It is also a known carcinogen and can cause cancer in animals. Therefore, its use in the medical field is limited and requires careful consideration of its potential risks and benefits.
In the medical field, cycloaddition reactions are chemical reactions in which two or more molecules combine to form a new ring-shaped molecule. These reactions are often used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other bioactive compounds. One common type of cycloaddition reaction is the Diels-Alder reaction, which involves the reaction of a conjugated diene with a dienophile to form a cyclohexene ring. This reaction is widely used in the synthesis of a variety of drugs, including anti-inflammatory agents, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants. Cycloaddition reactions can also be used to synthesize other types of ring-shaped molecules, such as heterocycles (molecules containing nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur atoms in the ring). These reactions are often used to synthesize compounds with specific biological activities, such as antibiotics, anticancer agents, and immunosuppressants. Overall, cycloaddition reactions are important tools in the development of new drugs and other bioactive compounds, and are widely used in the medical field.
In the medical field, cyclization refers to a chemical reaction in which a molecule undergoes a rearrangement to form a ring structure. This process can occur naturally in the body as part of metabolic pathways, or it can be induced artificially in the laboratory to synthesize new compounds with specific properties. Cyclization reactions are important in the synthesis of many drugs and other bioactive molecules, as they can be used to create molecules with specific shapes and chemical properties that are necessary for their biological activity. For example, the synthesis of many antibiotics involves cyclization reactions to create the ring structures that are essential for their activity against bacteria. In addition to their use in drug synthesis, cyclization reactions are also important in the study of biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Cyclization can occur naturally in these molecules as part of their structure, and understanding the mechanisms of cyclization can provide insights into the function and regulation of these molecules.
Anisoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring with an oxygen atom bonded to one of the carbon atoms. They are also known as phenols or phenolic ethers. In the medical field, anisoles are used as antiseptics, disinfectants, and antifungal agents. They are also used as flavoring agents in food and beverages. Some common examples of anisoles include anisole, estragole, and thymol.
In the medical field, aldehydes are organic compounds that contain a carbonyl group (-C=O) with at least one hydrogen atom attached to the carbon atom. They are often used as intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds and have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as antiseptics, disinfectants, and analgesics. Some common aldehydes used in medicine include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and propionaldehyde. Formaldehyde is a powerful disinfectant and preservative that is used in the preparation of tissue samples for histological analysis and in the treatment of certain medical conditions such as leprosy. Acetaldehyde is a metabolite of ethanol and is involved in the development of alcohol-related liver disease. Propionaldehyde is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant in the treatment of skin infections and wounds. However, aldehydes can also be toxic and can cause respiratory irritation, allergic reactions, and other adverse effects. Therefore, their use in medicine is carefully regulated and controlled to minimize the risk of harm to patients.
Nitrofurans are a class of synthetic antibiotics that are used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. They are particularly effective against anaerobic bacteria, which are bacteria that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. Nitrofurans work by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of bacteria, and they are often used to treat infections of the urinary tract, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. Some common examples of nitrofurans include nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, and nitrofurazone. These antibiotics are available in both oral and intravenous forms, and they are generally well-tolerated by most people. However, like all antibiotics, nitrofurans can cause side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to take these antibiotics exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider in order to ensure their effectiveness and to minimize the risk of side effects.
Benzamidines are a class of chemical compounds that contain a benzene ring with an amide functional group. They are commonly used as inhibitors of serine proteases, which are enzymes that play important roles in various physiological processes, including blood clotting, inflammation, and digestion. In the medical field, benzamidines are used as anti-inflammatory agents and anticoagulants. They are also used to treat conditions such as peptic ulcers, pancreatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Some benzamidines are also used as antiviral agents to treat viral infections such as hepatitis B and C. Benzamidines work by binding to the active site of serine proteases, thereby inhibiting their activity. This inhibition can help to reduce inflammation, prevent blood clotting, and treat various conditions associated with excessive protease activity. However, benzamidines can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, and they may interact with other medications.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of synthetic organic compounds that were widely used in various industrial applications, including electrical equipment, insulation materials, and hydraulic fluids, until they were banned in many countries due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment. In the medical field, PCBs are known to have a range of adverse health effects, including cancer, reproductive disorders, and neurodevelopmental problems. Exposure to PCBs can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact, and can occur occupationally or through environmental exposure. PCBs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because they are resistant to degradation and can accumulate in the environment and in the bodies of living organisms. As a result, they can have long-term health effects, even at low levels of exposure.
Bromobenzenes are a group of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring with one or more bromine atoms attached to it. They are commonly used as solvents, intermediates in chemical reactions, and as flame retardants. In the medical field, bromobenzenes have been used as sedatives and hypnotics, as well as in the treatment of certain types of seizures. However, their use in medicine is limited due to their potential toxicity and the availability of safer alternatives.
Rhodium is a chemical element with the symbol Rh and atomic number 45. It is a rare, silvery-white metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and oxidation. In the medical field, rhodium is not commonly used for therapeutic purposes. However, it has been studied for its potential use in cancer treatment. Some research has suggested that rhodium compounds may have anti-cancer properties and may be effective in treating certain types of cancer, such as ovarian cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of rhodium in medicine.
Diterpenes, Clerodane are a group of diterpenes that are found in various plants, including the clerodane family. They are known for their anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-viral properties. Some clerodanes have also been shown to have potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of cancer, diabetes, and other diseases. In the medical field, diterpenes, Clerodane are studied for their potential use in the development of new drugs and treatments.
Adenoma of the bile duct is a benign (non-cancerous) growth that develops in the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a fluid that helps to digest fats in the small intestine. Adenomas of the bile duct can occur anywhere along the length of the bile ducts, but they are most commonly found in the common bile duct, which is the main channel that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine. Symptoms of adenoma of the bile duct may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), abdominal pain, and fever. In some cases, an adenoma of the bile duct may cause no symptoms at all. Treatment for adenoma of the bile duct typically involves surgery to remove the growth. In some cases, a procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be used to remove the adenoma through the mouth using a flexible tube with a camera and tools at the end. If the adenoma is large or has caused complications, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the bile duct.
In the medical field, alkynes are a type of organic compound that contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. They are unsaturated hydrocarbons and are classified as a subclass of the larger group of unsaturated hydrocarbons called alkenes. Alkynes are important in medicine because they can be used as building blocks for the synthesis of a wide range of organic compounds, including drugs, dyes, and other useful chemicals. They can also be used as intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds, such as alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. In addition to their use in organic synthesis, alkynes have also been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some alkynes have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of diseases.
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) is a highly toxic and persistent organic pollutant that belongs to a class of compounds called polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless chemical that is primarily produced as a byproduct of industrial processes, such as the manufacture of pesticides, dyes, and bleaches. In the medical field, TCDD is known to cause a range of adverse health effects, including cancer, reproductive disorders, immune system dysfunction, and neurotoxicity. It is also a known teratogen, meaning that it can cause birth defects in developing fetuses if pregnant women are exposed to high levels of the chemical. TCDD is classified as a Class I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which means that it is considered to be carcinogenic to humans based on sufficient evidence from studies in humans and animals. As a result, exposure to TCDD is strictly regulated by many countries, and efforts are being made to reduce its production and use to minimize human exposure.
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- Together with the polychlorinated dioxins and furans, these two special classes of PCBs are often referred to as "dioxin-like" chemicals because they act in the body through a similar mechanism. (cdc.gov)
- Our High-Resolution Mass Spectroscopy (HRGC-MS) laboratory offers Dioxins and Furans testing, and Poly-Chlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) testing for analysis of stack emissions, ash, soils, and water samples. (element.com)
- As highly persistent substances, Dioxins and Furans can also accumulate in many foods, including livestock, and subsequently within the human body. (element.com)
- Dioxins and Furans are highly hazardous substances and their release into the atmosphere and presence on land and in water are highly regulated. (element.com)
- The UK Element Deeside laboratory is accredited to ISO 17025 and the MCERTS standard for the analysis of stack emission samples for Dioxins, Furans, and Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 12). (element.com)
- Ash samples are ISO 17025 accredited for Dioxins and Furans and PCB 12. (element.com)
- In addition, our experienced experts offer analysis of Dioxins and Furans on water and soil samples. (element.com)
- Analyzing samples for Dioxins and Furans requires highly-trained analysts and specialized equipment. (element.com)
- For more information about our Dioxins and Furans testing services or to request a quotation, contact us today. (element.com)
- APC System Meets Stringent Subpart LLLL Mercury and Dioxins-Furans Emission Limits at Sewage Sludge Incinerator (SSI) in Eastern U.S. (apctechnologies.net)
- One SSI in the eastern U.S. - using APC's air pollution control equipment for mercury emissions control, dioxins & furans emissions control, and particulate matter (PM) emissions control - in 2021 became one of the few such 'new' incinerators in the U.S. to comply with the more stringent Subpart LLLL emission limits. (apctechnologies.net)
- APC's equipment was guaranteed to meet, and successfully met, the LLLL emission limits for mercury and dioxins & furans coming from the SSI. (apctechnologies.net)
- This mercury control system and dioxins-furans emission control system, along with all of APC's other similar systems operating on other SSIs, has a flawless safety and reliability record, provides low operating costs, and requires little maintenance. (apctechnologies.net)
- PC's standard air pollution control system offering for SSIs is an activated carbon system, which is long established as the technology of choice where high removal efficiency (i.e., 99%) is needed for mercury removal and dioxins-furans removal. (apctechnologies.net)
- APC's mercury, dioxins-furans, and HAPs control systems operating at SSIs collectively have over 30 system-operating years - with a fully safe and high reliability record. (apctechnologies.net)
- Title : Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls Corporate Authors(s) : United States. (cdc.gov)
- Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (dioxins) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (furans) are the two extremely hazardous chemical compounds that are part of the alleged dirty-dozen and are also known as Persistent Organic Pollutants. (alanfranco.com)
- Dioxins and furans are major by-products of industrial practices, but are also produced by natural methods, for example, volcanic eruptions and forest fires. (alanfranco.com)
- Dioxins and furans are dangerous to the well-being of living beings. (alanfranco.com)
- Human beings can be exposed to dioxins and furans through eating contaminated food. (alanfranco.com)
- As suggested, the proper incineration of contaminated chemical materials is the best possible procedure available to prevent and regulate the exposure to dioxins and furans. (alanfranco.com)
- Health Canada partakes with other Government of Canada Departments and Agencies , along with the Provinces and Territories have developed Canada-wide regulations and guidelines to screen and eradicate the release of dioxins and furans into the atmosphere through industrial processes. (alanfranco.com)
- Characterizing exposures to flame retardants, dioxins, and furans among firefighters responding to controlled residential fires. (cdc.gov)
- Urine samples were analyzed for OPFR metabolites, while serum samples were analyzed for PBDEs, brominated and chlorinated furans, and chlorinated dioxins. (cdc.gov)
- His scientific research work concerns mainly persistent organic pollutants and other highly toxic compounds, including dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds and pesticides. (who.int)
- In this context, ASK Chemicals has developed MAGNASET as new generation of furan resins with reduced free furfuryl alcohol content featuring a milder classification and a performance comparable to conventional furan resins. (foundry-planet.com)
- In contrast to phenolic-urethane or ester-curing phenolic systems, which are based on petrochemical components, furan binders are based on furfuryl alcohol, which is a readily available renewable raw material derived from agricultural waste such as corn husks or rice hulls. (foundry-planet.com)
- MAGNASET resins have reduced free furfuryl alcohol (FA) content and a performance comparable to standard furan resins. (clickmeeting.com)
- Furans are particularly toxic and carcinogenic. (sandia.gov)
- Chemical compounds containing such rings are also referred to as furans. (wikipedia.org)
- The reaction product is a mixture of isomers with preference for the endo isomer: Diels-Alder reaction of furan with arynes provides corresponding derivatives of dihydronaphthalenes, which are useful intermediates in synthesis of other polycyclic aromatic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] In the Achmatowicz reaction, furans are converted to dihydropyran compounds. (wikipedia.org)
- The synthesis of new compounds was carried out from 3,4,6,7,8,9-hexahydrodibenzo[b,d]furan-1(2H)-one oxime and substituted cinnamoyl chlorides. (eurekaselect.com)
- The Committee made recommendations on the risks to health associated with six important contaminants in food (acrylamide, arsenic, deoxynivalenol, furan, mercury, and perchlorate). (who.int)
- Health concerns relating to current estimated levels of intake were identified for acrylamide, arsenic and furan. (who.int)
- Therefore, ASK Chemicals has developed a second generation of MAGNASET as environmentally friendly No-Bake furan resins. (clickmeeting.com)
- Industrially, furan is manufactured by the palladium-catalyzed decarbonylation of furfural, or by the copper-catalyzed oxidation of 1,3-butadiene: In the laboratory, furan can be obtained from furfural by oxidation to 2-furoic acid, followed by decarboxylation. (wikipedia.org)
- The name "furan" comes from the Latin furfur, which means bran (furfural is produced from bran). (wikipedia.org)
- Furfural, derived from sugars, is the major source of furans methanofuran is a cofactor in methanogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Since 1922, Furfural has been and still is the primary building block of furan chemistry. (dalinyebo.com)
- Ecoral™ is the DalinYebo label for furfural that is made in an environmental responsible manner, e.g. by using (award-winning ) technology developed and/or implemented by our subsidiary International Furan Technologies (Pty) Ltd ( www.ift.co.za ). (dalinyebo.com)
- BS 4994 - Furan resin as thermoset FRP for chemical process plant equipments Furanocoumarin Furanoflavonoid Furanose Furantetracarboxylic acid Simple aromatic rings Furan fatty acids Tetrahydrofuran Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). (wikipedia.org)
- ASK Chemicals has a strong background in Furan NoBake (FNB) chemistry and provides customer-made solutions based e.g., on their signature product ASKURAN for several decades. (foundry-planet.com)
- 2] To enhance tensile strengths and mechanical flexibility as well as the mold handling characteristics of the furan binders, polymers based on urea and formaldehyde are typically added. (foundry-planet.com)
- Woo CH, Beaujuge PM, Holcombe TW, Lee OP, Fréchet JMJ (2010) Incorporation of Furan into Low Band-Gap Polymers for Efficient Solar Cells. (edu.sa)
- Side-chain tunability of furan-containing low-band-gap polymers provides control of structural order in efficient solar cells. (edu.sa)
- In addition, furans and other large oxygenated hydrocarbons are highly toxic and very frequently observed in combustion emissions. (sandia.gov)
- The work shows that furans are the main group of large oxygenated molecules formed during combustion. (sandia.gov)
- Combustion sources of furans include biomass burning, cigarette and pipe smoke, waste incineration, electronic waste recycling, and volcanic activity. (sandia.gov)
- Furan is used as a starting point for other speciality chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
- Like enol ethers, 2,5-disubstituted furans are susceptible to hydrolysis to reversibly give 1,4-diketones. (wikipedia.org)
- Exposure to furan at doses about 2,000 times the projected level of human exposure from foods increases the risk of hepatocellular tumors in rats and mice and bile duct tumors in rats. (wikipedia.org)
- Effects of endocrine disruptor furan on reproductive physiology of Sprague Dawley rats: An F1 Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study (EOGRTS). (bvsalud.org)
- The present study investigated the reproductive toxicity of furan in an Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study in rats . (bvsalud.org)
- Sprague Dawley F0 weaning rats (30 per sex per group) were exposed to furan orally at 0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg kg-1 for 10 weeks ( males ) and 2 weeks ( females ) and then mated. (bvsalud.org)
- At postnatal day (PND) 70, a significant (p = 0.03) decrease in testosterone levels of male rats and estrogen levels of female rats (p = 0.05) was observed in 10 mg kg-1 furan-treated group in F1 generation. (bvsalud.org)
- Based on the above results, it is suggested that exposure to food -based contaminant furan induced remarkable changes in the F0 (parental stage) and F1 (offspring, pubertal, and adult stage) generations of Sprague Dawley rats . (bvsalud.org)
- Furan is a colorless, flammable, highly volatile liquid with a boiling point close to room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
- Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. (wikipedia.org)
- Furan has aromatic character because one of the lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom is delocalized into the ring, creating a 4n + 2 aromatic system (see Hückel's rule). (wikipedia.org)
- The molecular sites where oxygen is added are targets for additional reactions that can lead to formation of a five-member ring containing four carbon atoms and an oxygen atom, which is known as a furan. (sandia.gov)
- 6b,11b-Dihydroxy-6b,11b-dihydro-7H-indeno[1,2-b]naphtho[2,1-d]furan-7-one (DHFO), an easily synthesisable, orally bioavailable and relatively non-toxic small molecule synthesised in our lab, was previously reported to possess anti-oxidant, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and peripheral analgesic activities. (monash.edu)
- Furan binders have been introduced in the late 1950s and due to their self-curing ability under acidic conditions at ambient temperature (absence of heat), furan binders can be described as first true NoBake binder. (foundry-planet.com)
- In this webinar, Dr. Nicolas Riensch presents the advantages and performance of furan No-Bake binder systems. (clickmeeting.com)
- For Stack Emission Sampling , Element Deeside provides prepared and spiked XAD-2 resin traps, GFA filters, and glass bottles that comply with sampling to BS EN 1948. (element.com)
- Their research was published in the July 2016 issue in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science s in a paper titled "Formation and emission of large furans and oxygenated hydrocarbons from flames. (sandia.gov)
- Research has indicated that coffee made in espresso makers and coffee made from capsules contain more furan than that made in traditional drip coffee makers, although the levels are still within safe health limits. (wikipedia.org)
- La sensibilisation et la formation du personnel, le tri des déchets médicaux solides et la mise en place d'installations de traitement simples sont les principales mesures suggérées pour améliorer les pratiques de gestion des déchets. (who.int)
- Using the DIN 61198 procedure, it determines furan derivatives dissolved in oil, which can originate from the insulting paper, in 10-ml oil samples. (oelcheck.com)
- Conclusion: Molecular and pharmacophore modelling methods allowed us to create a new group of substituted cinnamoyl derivatives of 3,4,6,7,8,9-hexahydrodibenzo[b,d]furan-1-(2H)-one oxime with anticonvulsant activity. (eurekaselect.com)
- In higher dose furan group (10 mg kg-1), testicular and ovarian weights were reduced in F1 generation at PND 70, with decreased daily sperm production (p = 0.01) and disturbed estrous cyclicity (p (bvsalud.org)
- Some histopathological changes were also observed in testis and ovaries in groups whose parents were previously exposed to 10 mg kg-1 bw of furan group. (bvsalud.org)
- In recent years, this technology has been referred to as New Furan Technology (NFT). (foundry-planet.com)
- Furan is found in heat-treated commercial foods and is produced through thermal degradation of natural food constituents. (wikipedia.org)
- The most effective compound was found to be GIZH-348 (1g) (3,4,6,7,8,9-hexahydrodibenzo[ b,d]furan-1(2Н)-one О-(4-chlorophenyl)acryloyl)oxime) at the doses of 10-20 mg/kg. (eurekaselect.com)
- Furan is therefore listed as a possible human carcinogen. (wikipedia.org)
- Results of F0 indicated that in the furan-treated groups (5 mg kg-1 and 10 mg kg-1), body weight (bw) gain decreased during prebreed and gestational period while increased during lactation periods. (bvsalud.org)
- Furan determination is now available as a special test. (oelcheck.com)
- Results: Several synthesized substituted cinnamoyl derivatives of 3,4,6,7,8,9-hexahydrodibenzo [b,d]furan-1-(2H)-one oxime significantly reduced the severity of convulsive manifestations and completely prevented the death of animals after MES. (eurekaselect.com)
- Pyrrole can be prepared industrially by treating furan with ammonia in the presence of solid acid catalysts, such as SiO2 and Al2O3. (wikipedia.org)