Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.MycosesPhosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Cell Nucleus Division: The process by which the CELL NUCLEUS is divided.Mitosis Modulators: Agents that affect MITOSIS of CELLS.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Magnaporthe: A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Xylariales: An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Mad2 Proteins: Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Ustilago: A genus of basidiomycetous smut fungi comprising the loose smuts.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Colletotrichum: A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Paecilomyces: A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Potoroidae: A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.Benomyl: A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.Tubulin Modulators: Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Mortierella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mortierellaceae, order MUCORALES. Its species are abundant in soil and can cause rare infections in humans and animals. Mortierella alpinais is used for production of arachidonic acid.Paracoccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus. P. brasiliensis (previously Blastomyces brasiliensis) is the etiologic agent of PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Sordariales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes many valuable experimental organisms. There are eight families and very few anamorphic forms.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Histoplasma: A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Chaetomium: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Chaetomiaceae, order SORDARIALES. Many members are cellulolytic and some mycotoxic. They occur naturally on paper and cotton fabric.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Nucleolus Organizer Region: The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Laccaria: A genus of white-spored mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They form symbiotic partnerships (MYCORRHIZAE) with trees.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sporothrix: A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Nuclear Pore: An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.Exophiala: A normally saprophytic mitosporic Chaetothyriales fungal genus. Infections in humans include PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS; and PERITONITIS.. Exophiala jeanselmei (previously Phialophora jeanselmei) is an etiological agent of MYCETOMA.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Separase: Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.Neocallimastigales: An order of fungi in the phylum NEOCALLIMASTIGOMYCOTA comprising anaerobic chytrids that inhabit the RUMEN; and CECUM of herbivorous animals. Genera (all in the lone family Neocallimastigaceae) include NEOCALLIMASTIX, Orpinomyces, PIROMYCES, Anaeromyces, Cyllamyces, and Caecomyces.
They are produced by mitosis. Different fungi make different kinds of asexual spores, conidia, oidia, and pycniospores. The ... Fungi (for example, mushrooms) produce spores, which may be asexual or sexual. The asexual spores have the genetic material ... The main process of asexual reproduction is mitosis. This type of reproduction is common among some single-cell organisms, for ... shape and color of the spores can be helpful to identify the species of fungus. ...
... in fungiEdit. In many fungi (except chytrids), as in some protists, fertilisation is a two step process. First, ... The resulting cell is triploid (3n). This triploid cell divides through mitosis and forms the endosperm, a nutrient-rich tissue ... Fertilisation in fungi-like protistsEdit. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (March 2015) ... In chytrid fungi, fertilisation occurs in a single step with the fusion of gametes, as in animals and plants. ...
In fungi it forms at the mother-bud neck before mitosis. Septin is heavily involved in the formation of the fungal AMR. In most ... The cell cycle is divided into two primary phases: DNA synthesis or S phase and Mitosis or M phase. During the S phase, ... and occurs towards the later stage of mitosis, the telophase, in which sister chromatids are identically separated at the ... duplication of chromosomes occurs whereas M phase is characterized by two processes known as nuclear (mitosis) and cytoplasmic ...
The mould can grow directly on wood, which is mostly composed of cellulose, and on fungi, the cell walls of which are mainly ... T. viride is a mold which produces spores asexually, by mitosis. It is the anamorph of Hypocrea rufa, its teleomorph, which is ... Trichoderma viride is a fungus and a biofungicide. It is used for seed and soil treatment for suppression of various diseases ... The cellulase produced by the fungus partially degrade the cotton material in places, making it soft and causing the jeans to ...
... of cancer cells were able to proceed through mitosis. Subsequent rounds of mitosis in binucleated cells have much higher rates ... They also occur physiologically in hepatocytes, chondrocytes and in fungi (dikaryon). Cleavage furrow regression: Cells divide ... A large percentage of binucleated cells arising from normal cells remain in interphase and never enter mitosis again. Cells ... One study found that more than 50% of binucleated cells never entered mitosis again while greater than 95% ...
Cell division mitosis then initiates the development of a new individual organism in multicellular organisms,[2] including ... Fungi are classified by the methods of sexual reproduction they employ. The outcome of sexual reproduction most often is the ... There are typically three phases in the sexual reproduction of fungi: plasmogamy, karyogamy and meiosis. The cytoplasm of two ... Plants on the other hand have mitosis occurring in spores, which are produced by meiosis. The spores germinate into the ...
The Fungi: An Advanced Treatise Vol IVB A Taxonomic Review with Keys: Basidiomycetes and Lower Fungi. 1973. Edited by Ainsworth ... Asexual reproduction occurs through the release of zoospores (presumably) derived through mitosis. Where it has been described ... aims to save frogs from fungus The Aquarium Wiki Encyclopaedia on Chytrid Fungus and how it impacts amphibians kept as domestic ... Outbreaks of the fungus were found responsible for killing much of the Kihansi Spray Toad population in its native habitat of ...
In some cases, sporogenesis occurs via mitosis (e.g. in some fungi and algae). Mitotic sporogenesis is a form of asexual ... In fungi, such mitospores are referred to as conidia. Some algae, and fungi form resting spores made to survive unfavorable ... Other fungi have more active spore dispersal mechanisms. For example, the fungus Pilobolus can shoot its sporangia towards ... Algae and some fungi (chytrids) often use motile zoospores that can swim to new locations before developing into sessile ...
In fungi, the sexual fusion of haploid cells is called karyogamy. The result of karyogamy is the formation of a diploid cell ... This cell may then enter meiosis or mitosis depending on the life cycle of the species. In plants, the zygote may be polyploid ... In single-celled organisms, the zygote can divide asexually by mitosis to produce identical offspring. Oscar Hertwig and ...
Fungi portal Oomycota C.J. Alexopolous, Charles W. Mims, M. Blackwell, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed. (John Wiley and Sons, ... The germ tube differentiates, grows, and develops by mitosis to create somatic hyphae. A germ tube test is a diagnostic test in ... A germ tube is an outgrowth produced by spores of spore-releasing fungi during germination. ...
This alters the processing for mitosis and also underlying information for deposition of fungal cell walls. It is produced ... industrially by fermenting the fungus Penicillium griseofulvum. The first step in the biosynthesis of griseofulvin by P. ... Griseofulvin works by interfering with fungal mitosis. Griseofulvin was discovered in 1939 from a type of Penicillium mold. It ... thus inhibiting mitosis. It binds to keratin in keratin precursor cells and makes them resistant to fungal infections. The drug ...
Fungi and some algae can also utilize true asexual spore formation, which involves mitosis giving rise to reproductive cells ... Eukaryotes (such as protists and unicellular fungi) may reproduce in a functionally similar manner by mitosis; most of these ... Many plants and fungi reproduce asexually as well. While all prokaryotes reproduce asexually (without the formation and fusion ... Many fungi and plants reproduce asexually. Some plants have specialized structures for reproduction via fragmentation, such as ...
These cells undergo mitosis to create the organism. Many fungi and many protozoa utilize the zygotic life cycle.[citation ... In some plants, fungi, and protists meiosis results in the formation of spores: haploid cells that can divide vegetatively ... Unlike in mitosis, only the cohesin from the chromosome arms is degraded while the cohesin surrounding the centromere remains ... Meiosis uses many of the same mechanisms as mitosis, the type of cell division used by eukaryotes to divide one cell into two ...
Many fungi (notably the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) exhibit heterokaryosis. The haploid nuclei within a mycelium may differ ... which can then undergo mitosis. The term heterokaryon was coined in 1965, independently by B. Ephrussi and M. Weiss, by H. ... This can occur naturally, such as in the mycelium of fungi during sexual reproduction, or artificially as formed by the ... Heterokaryosis is most common in fungi, but also occurs in slime molds. This happens because the nuclei in the 'plasmodium' ...
Fungi are found in most habitats, although most are found on land.[49] Yeasts reproduce through mitosis, and many use a process ... In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes reproduce by using mitosis and meiosis. Sex appears to be a ubiquitous and ancient, and ... Many eukaryotes are multicellular, but the group includes the protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi. Unicellular ... "Microbiology Online , Microbiology Society , About Microbiology - Introducing microbes - Fungi". www.microbiologyonline.org.uk ...
The fungi Saccharomyces produces ascospores when grown on V-8 medium, acetate ascospore agar, or Gorodkowa medium. These ... Following this process, each of the four new nuclei duplicates its DNA and undergoes a division by mitosis. As a result, the ... This kind of spore is specific to fungi classified as ascomycetes (Ascomycota). Typically, a single ascus will contain eight ... The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a single-celled haploid organism that reproduces asexually by mitosis and ...
... including filamentous fungi. Septins in filamentous fungi display a variety of different shapes within single cells, where they ... Five of those are involved in mitosis, while two (Spr3 and Spr28) are specific to sporulation. Mitotic septins (Cdc3, Cdc10, ... Septins are a group of GTP-binding proteins found primarily in eukaryotic cells of fungi and animals, but also in some green ... Septins are found in fungi, animals, some green algae, and some red algae, but not in higher plants. There are seven different ...
In fungi, spindles form between spindle pole bodies embedded in the nuclear envelope, which does not break down during mitosis ... It is referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis, a process that produces genetically identical daughter cells, or the ... Such sliding forces may account not only for spindle pole separation early in mitosis, but also spindle elongation during late ... J. McIntosh; S.C. Landis (1971). "The distribution of spindle microtubules during mitosis in cultured human cells". J Cell Biol ...
This stops the cells during mitosis, while the chromosomes are still visible. Once the cells are centrifuged and placed in a ... Colchicine and griseofulvin are mitotic inhibitors used in the treatment of gout and toenail fungus, respectively. Cytogenetics ... This interrupts cell division, usually during the mitosis (M) phase of the cell cycle when two sets of fully formed chromosomes ... A mitotic inhibitor is a drug that inhibits mitosis, or cell division. These drugs disrupt microtubules, which are structures ...
... where gametes are produced through mitosis. In some fungi, such as the Zygomycota, the gametangia are single cells, situated on ... or by mitosis. For example, plants produce gametes through mitosis in gametophytes. The gametophytes grow from haploid spores ... gametocytogenesis (mitosis) primary gametocyte. diploid (2N)/46. 2C before replication, 4C after. 46 before, 46 × 2 after. ... They multiply by mitosis, and, once they have reached the gonadal ridge in the late embryonic stage, are referred to as ...
It can also occur during mitosis but at a much lower frequency because the chromosomes do not pair in a regular arrangement. ... This is also true for fungi where the sexual phase is present, although in this case, additional and significant variation is ... The parasexual cycle, a process peculiar to fungi and single-celled organisms, is a nonsexual mechanism of parasexuality for ... Both heterokaryosis and the parasexual cycle are very important for those fungi that have no sexual reproduction. Those cycles ...
In budding yeast, Rad51 serves as a strand exchange protein in mitosis where it is critical for the repair of DNA breaks. Rad51 ... Homologs of DMC1 have been identified in many organisms including divergent fungi, plants and mammals including humans. The ...
During mitosis, the major homologous recombination pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks appears to be the SDSA ... Phylogenetic trees based on the sequence of genes similar to SPO11 in animals, fungi, plants, protists and archaea have led ... In cells that divide through mitosis, the recipient DNA duplex is generally a sister chromatid, which is identical to the ... Building on studies in fungi, in 1964 Robin Holliday proposed a model for recombination in meiosis which introduced key details ...
... is an additional phase during mitosis in plant cells that does not occur in other eukaryotes such as animals or fungi. It ... The function of the phragmosome is to suspend the cell nucleus in the center of the cell in preparation for mitosis. If a ... The preprophase stage of somatic plant cell mitosis serves to establish the precise location of the division plane and future ...
Centrioles however, are not required for the progression of mitosis. When the centrioles are irradiated by a laser, mitosis ... Fungi and plants lack centrosomes and therefore use other MTOC structures to organize their microtubules. Although the ... In mitosis the nuclear membrane breaks down and the centrosome nucleated microtubules can interact with the chromosomes to ... During the prophase in the process of cell division called mitosis, the centrosomes migrate to opposite poles of the cell. The ...
... fungi and plants have had a major impact on the classification of fungi, including Saccharomycotina. The changes imply that a ... When ascospores germinate, the haploid phase is established, and is maintained by further mitosis and budding. In most natural ... link) Hawksworth, D. L. (2011). "A new dawn for the naming of fungi: impacts of decisions made in Melbourne in July 2011 on the ... D., Robson, G.D., and Trinci, A. P. J. (2011). 21st Century Guidebook to Fungi (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University ...
The division name Pinophyta conforms to the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) ... The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ...
As mitosis progresses, both centrosomes separate to establish the mitotic spindle. In this way, the spindle in a mitotic cell ... Monocentric organisms, including vertebrates, fungi, and most plants, have a single centromeric region on each chromosome which ... During mitosis, which occurs after chromosomes are duplicated during S phase, two sister chromatids are held together, each ... During mitosis, each sister chromatid forming the complete chromosome has its own kinetochore. Distinct sister kinetochores can ...
Fungi; Gymnosperms; Meiosis; Mitosis; Organic; Photosynthesis; Plant Morphology; etc..." For more information see Department of ... Eukaryotes and Fungi; etc..." Human Uses of Flowering Plants "...Agriculture and Human Nutrition; The Grasses; Legumes, Starchy ...
What are habitats of fungi?. * Q: What are amino acids?. * Q: What are the three types of microorganisms?. ...
Fungi. *Fragments Of Journey. *Astra. Buy from 12k Buy from Bandcamp Buy from iTunes ... Mitosis. Catalog No.:. 12k1077. Release:. September 10, 2013. Format:. CD. Edition:. 1000. *Wonder Particle ... Mitosis is a dreamy, playful and serious album that shows Moskitoos talents as a sound explorer and songwriter. It is at once ... Mitosis, or the division of a cell into two identical sets of chromosomes, was a point of departure for Moskitoo as she ...
This organism is a single-celled yeast, a fungus, and is the same one that is used to brew beer and make wine and bread. Yeast ... Although a fair amount is known about the roles of CDC7 and DBF4 in mitosis, research on meiosis has been far less intense. ... In mitosis, (1) the DNA is replicated, (2) the chromosomes are separated into two equal sets, and (3) the cell divides. These ... Meiosis, on the other hand, is a special form of mitosis that occurs only in a special subset of our cells to form eggs and ...
Mitotic chromosomes of the plant pathogenic filamentous fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata were observed. ... Mitosis. Mitosporic Fungi / ultrastructure*. Nucleolus Organizer Region / ultrastructure. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/DNA, ... This is the first report of the successful application of FISH to the chromosomes of filamentous fungi.. ... Mitotic chromosomes of the plant pathogenic filamentous fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata were observed. ...
... explain the steps of mitosis and meiosis; describe the stages of embryonic development; explain the steps of cellular ... fungi, and parasites. ...
... explain the steps of mitosis and meiosis; describe the stages of embryonic development; explain the steps of cellular ... fungi, and parasites. ...
... faculty.baruch.cuny.edu/jwahlert/bio1003/fungi.html Yeast, sugar, water. Reproduce by mitosis. How many cells are in my flask? ... Reproduce by mitosis. How many cells are in my flask? Samples can be counted with a hemacytometer. 1mm x 1mm grid. 0.1mm deep. ... Reproduce by mitosis. Sketch some predicted populaon growth curves for Time (days) different concentraons of glucose soluon. ...
Mitosis is the reason why human bodies can grow and repair themselves while meiosis is the... ... Mitosis and meiosis are very significant because they are the processes by which cells reproduce themselves. ... Furthermore, meiosis only occurs in humans, animals, plants and fungi. Meiosis is the reason behind genetic diversity. Mitosis ... During mitosis, a parent cell divides itself into two daughters cells that have the same exact DNA. Because of this, mitosis is ...
Most fungi of medical importance. Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp.. Adverse effects. Allergic reactions. ... inhibition of fungal mitosis. - dermatophytes. - minimal adverse effects. - dermatophytes infections in kids ... 2) Mitosis. 3) Cell membrane (Ergosterol). 4) Protein Synthesis. 5) Cell wall - B-1,3-glucan ...
Meiosis occurs in humans, animals, plants and fungi in germ cells.. Mitosis can produce any cell - skin, bone, blood etc. - ... The process of mitosis maintains a consistent chromosome number. Mitosis: 2N → 2N or 1N → 1N How are mitosis and meiosis ... Transcript of Mitosis and Meiosis. Mitosis and Meiosis Similarities and Differences How are Mitosis and Meiosis similar? http ... Mitosis leads to the replication of cells and meiosis leads to the replication of organisms.. Both mitosis and meiosis happen ...
They are easily monitored during hyphal growth of filamentous fungi. We expressed the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a ... Nuclear staining was observed in interphase nuclei but not during mitosis. Nuclear division, nuclear migration, septum ...
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis - Biology by Justin Myers , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful ... Occurs only in animals, plants and fungi. Involves crossing over of chromosomes in prophase I. During anaphase I the sister ... Mitosis Mitosis produces 2 daughter diploid cells at the end of Mitosis. Mitosis is used for cellular reproduction and general ... Mitosis In mitosis, there are 4 stages . They are Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase. In Mitosis, diploid cells are ...
It was shown, in fungi that undergo closed mitosis (where the nucleus does not degrade), that the change of the permeability ... Nuclear envelope breakdown during mitosis Nuclear envelope breakdown and reassembly in mitosis. At the end of G2, the ... During mitosis the NPC appears to disassemble in stages. Peripheral nucleoporins such as the Nup 153 Nup 98 and Nup 214 ... Disassembly of NPC During mitosis the NPC appears to disassemble in stages. Peripheral nucleoporins such as the Nup 153 Nup 98 ...
Mitosis. J. Richard Mcintosh. Cytokinesis in Metazoa and Fungi. Michael Glotzer. Index. ...
See also MITOSIS.. Fig. 217 Meiosis . (a) Prezygotic meiosis, eg humans. (b) Postzygotic meiosis, eg fungus. ... Compare mitosis. See also anaphase, metaphase, oogenesis, prophase, spermatogenesis, telophase. meiotic [mī·ot′ik] , adj. ... See also MITOSIS, GAMETOGENESIS and Figs. 167 and 168 .. meiosis. reduction division; see chromosomes. mei·o·sis (mī-ōsis) ... As in mitosis (somatic cell division), meiosis I and II are each divided into four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and ...
Fertilisation in fungiEdit. In many fungi (except chytrids), as in some protists, fertilisation is a two step process. First, ... The resulting cell is triploid (3n). This triploid cell divides through mitosis and forms the endosperm, a nutrient-rich tissue ... Fertilisation in fungi-like protistsEdit. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (March 2015) ... In chytrid fungi, fertilisation occurs in a single step with the fusion of gametes, as in animals and plants. ...
Mitosis ... - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 6c69a-OGFhM ... Mitosis anddevelopment. Figure 8.13 73. Alternative Life Cycles*Fungi/some algae *-Meiosis produces haploid cells (n) ... Mitosis Review - Mitosis Review Mitosis Review Name the Phase 33 Mitosis Review Name the Phase 34 Mitosis Review Name the Phase ... MITOSIS: PROPHASE - mitosis: prophase mitosis: metaphase mitosis: anaphase mitosis: telophase meiosis i: prophase i meiosis i: ...
Mitosis and Meiosis. 11. Inheritance 12. DNA and Protein Synthesis. 13. Prokaryotes and Viruses 14. Protists. 15. Fungi. 16. ...
Mitosis and Meiosis - By: Jordan Terbrack, Steve Sikora, and Emily Avery by Jordan Terbrack , This newsletter was created with ... The sexual reproduction of humans, animals, plants, and fungi. Meiosis is the creation of sex cells and it creates genetically ... Mitosis is the reproduction, growth and repair of cells. There is no homologous pairs or any crossing over involved in Mitosis ... 5 differences of Mitosis and Meiosis Mitosis - Asexual reproduction, no crossing, genetically identical, Homologous pairs, and ...
Fuller, M. S.: Mitosis in fungi, 1975. Funfálek, A.: Hrst zkušeností s pěstováním límcovky obrovské, 1973 ... Fezer, K. D.: Common Root Rot of Red Clover: Pathogenicity of Associated Fungi and Environmental Factors Affecting ... Furtado, J. S.: Alcoholic toluidine blue: a rapid method for staining nuclei in unifixed mycetozoa and fungi, 1970 ...
Cavalier-Smith, T. (1987). The origin of Fungi and pseudofungi. In A. D. M. Rayner (Ed.), Evolutionary biology of the fungi (pp ... Cavalier-Smith, T. (2010). Origin of the cell nucleus, mitosis and sex: Roles of intracellular coevolution. Biology Direct, 5, ... This last group in turn contains Opisthokonta, the clade that includes both animals and fungi. Many, but not all, of the deeper ... Taylor, J. W., & Berbee, M. L. (2014). Fungi from PCR to genomics: The spreading revolution in evolutionary biology. In D. J. ...
There is no mitosis and no mitotic spindle in prokaryote but fission and budding only. They may contain only actin-like ... Cell wall is present in plant cell, algea, and fungi which belong to eukaryote. Cell wall of eukaryotic cell never composed of ... In eukaryotic cell, cell division follows process of mitosis; haploid sex cells in diploid. Cell membrane in prokaryotic cell ... Prokaryotic cells have their genes passed out completely to their daughter cells through mitosis. Genome is stored in ...
They are produced by mitosis. Different fungi make different kinds of asexual spores, conidia, oidia, and pycniospores. The ... Fungi (for example, mushrooms) produce spores, which may be asexual or sexual. The asexual spores have the genetic material ... The main process of asexual reproduction is mitosis. This type of reproduction is common among some single-cell organisms, for ... shape and color of the spores can be helpful to identify the species of fungus. ...
Fungi do NOT. carry on photosynthesis. grow on their food source. digest food outside their bodies. absorb food through their ... Fungi resemble plants in that they both always. have stems. Slideshow 343293 by julius ... All fungi. make their food. absorb their food. produce mushrooms. have chlorophyll. ... In zygomycetes, a germinating zygospore undergoes are called mitosis and develops into a new individual ...
  • It is the anamorph of Hypocrea rufa, its teleomorph, which is the sexual reproductive stage of the fungus and produces a typical fungal fruiting body. (wikipedia.org)
  • or = 10% less in the other organism), we found 681 proteins for the comparison of U. maydis and humans, whereas the both fungi share only 622 fungal specific proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since Cdc14 is absent in plants, a fungi specific Cdc14 inhibitor could be made to reduce the pathogenicity of U. maydis and other fungal plant pathogens to increase crop yields. (purdue.edu)
  • While current fungal models have provided numerous insights into the evolution of sex [ 9 ], there is still much to be understood about the mechanisms, evolution and ecological impact of sexuality in fungi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2007) published a comprehensive classification of the Kingdom Fungi, the result of collaboration among many fungal taxonomists. (apsnet.org)
  • 2003). However, the fungal fossil record is incomplete and provides only a minimum time estimate for when different groups of fungi evolved. (apsnet.org)
  • The uncovered ability for Hos2 to directly deacetylate H4‐K16 and to indirectly modify H3‐K56, H2A‐S129, and CDK1‐Y15 provides novel insight into more subtle regulatory role for Hos2 in genomic stability and diverse cellular events in the fungal insect pathogen than those revealed previously in nonentomophathogenic fungi. (deepdyve.com)
  • Also Domain Eukarya is a eukaryote but kingdom Fungi is a prokaryote. (studystack.com)
  • Let's briefly consider the major groups in Kingdom Fungi-they will be described in greater detail later. (apsnet.org)
  • Some specific fungi can also be dimorphic, present as both molds and yeasts, switching between the two forms according to the environmental conditions such as temperature or CO2 concentration. (differencebetween.net)
  • C. militaris is readily characterized by the sexual fruiting bodies forming on mycosed pupae, the structures giving the fungus its common name of 'pupa grass' in China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Constitutes the largest class of fungi characterized by the production of sexual spores in structures called asci. (latesting.com)
  • Circumscription: This group contains the true fungi and their protist relatives (the chytrids) and the animals and their protist relatives (the choanoflagellates). (eol.org)
  • The data offer a better understanding of Cordyceps biology and will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I. fungi are heterotrophic ( other feeding, must feed on preformed organic material), not autotrophic ( self feeding, make their own food by photosynthesis). (powershow.com)
  • Unlike animals (also heterotrophic), which ingest then digest, fungi digest then ingest. (powershow.com)
  • The fungus Ustilago maydis and humans share disease-related proteins that are not found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As parasites, ascomycetes account for most of the animal and plant pathogens including Pneumocystis carinii , responsible for pneumonia of humans with compromised immune systems and Ophiostoma ulmi , the Dutch elm disease fungus that is responsible for the demise of elm trees in North America and Europe (Agrios, 1988). (tolweb.org)