Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Toxicodendron: A genus (formerly part of Rhus genus) of shrubs, vines, or trees that yields a highly allergenic oleoresin which causes a severe contact dermatitis (DERMATITIS, TOXICODENDRON). The most toxic species are Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac), T. diversilobum (poison oak), and T. radicans (poison ivy). T. vernicifera yields a useful varnish from which certain enzymes (laccases) are obtained.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Pleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Trametes: A genus of fungi in the family Coriolaceae.Ascorbate Oxidase: An enzyme that converts ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. EC 1.10.3.3.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Sordariales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes many valuable experimental organisms. There are eight families and very few anamorphic forms.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Xylariales: An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.VenezuelaNeosartorya: A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES. Some species can cause opportunistic infections in humans, similar to its anamorph ASPERGILLUS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Acidithiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.EcuadorTropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged-Ring: A class of organic compounds which contain two rings that share a pair of bridgehead carbon atoms.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.South AmericaBrazilPetroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.NebraskaBlogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
  • Al-Adhami AJH, Bryjak J, Greb-Markiewicz B, Peczyńska-Czoch W (2002) Immobilization of wood-rotting fungi laccases on modified cellulose and acrylic carriers. (springer.com)
  • Characterization, molecular cloning, and differential expression analysis of laccase genes from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However the sample sizes were too small to make conclusions about the numbers of laccase enzymes produced by or the number of genes in the parent field isolates. (edu.au)
  • Up till now, little was known about the roles of some laccase genes from the black mold Aspergillus niger . (vietnamscience.vn)
  • Expression in S. cerevisiae has been reported for other laccase genes ( 11 , 33 , 34 , 60 ). (asm.org)
  • We sequenced and annotated the Ev genome (34.2 Mbp) and integrated genetic makeup and evolution of pathogenic genes to investigate NP fungi. (deepdyve.com)
  • The results revealed that NP fungi had some abundant pathogenic genes corresponding to their niche. (deepdyve.com)
  • Endoparasitic NP fungi showed simi- larity in large number of transporters and secondary metabolite coding genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Ev) by the numbers of pathogenic genes, secreted protein, secondary NP fungi are important microorganisms that can suppress the metabolism encoding genes, expanded gene families, and genes un- populations of plant-parasitic nematodes and maintain ecological dergoing positive selection. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, the C. subvermispora genome contains at least seven genes predicted to encode laccases, whereas the P. chrysosporium genome contains none. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to P. chrysosporium , multiple ligninolytic peroxidase isozymes and their corresponding genes have been identified in several efficient lignin-degrading fungi ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • This work characterized the genes expressing laccases in R. flavipes, determined the spatial expression of these genes, determined the evolutionary relationship of these laccases to other laccases from diverse organisms, and finally characterized the enzymatic properties of the laccases. (usda.gov)
  • Laccase transcripts and phenoloxidase activity were most abundant in symbiont-free salivary gland and foregut tissue, verifying that the genes and activities are host-derived. (usda.gov)
  • 2014: Cloning and characterization of genes of Glutathione biosynthesis in ectomycorrhizal fungi. (thapar.edu)
  • 2002: Cloning and characterization of metal resistant genes of ectomycorrhizal fungi. (thapar.edu)
  • To date, molecular genetic studies have identified three different genes involved in the DHN-melanin biosynthetic pathway in brown and black fungi. (asm.org)
  • Southern blot and nucleotide sequence analysis of Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 genomic clones indicate that this wood-degrading fungus contains at least six genes with significant homology to the Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I gene (cbh1). (usda.gov)
  • For commercial re-use, please contact [email protected] 245 Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/dnaresearch/article-abstract/25/3/245/4791394 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 26 June 2018 246 Genome features of nematophagous fungi Figure 1. (deepdyve.com)
  • Ander P, Messner K (1998) Oxidation of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole by laccase and lignin peroxidase. (springer.com)
  • Influence of temperature, pH and metal ions on guaiacol oxidation of purified laccase from Leptographium qinlingensis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Oxidative exoenzymes (OE) of the lignin-degrading enzyme system (LDS) of fungi catalyse the oxidation of a wide range of toxic pollutants. (wiley.com)
  • FT-IR spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) analysis showed the enzymatic oxidation of carbon and sulfur atoms in both maltenes and asphaltenes fractions of biotreated EHCO catalysed by cell-free laccase-enriched OE using wheat bran as inducer. (wiley.com)
  • The oxidation capacity of laccases was elucidated by using a set of laccases with different redox potential and a set of substituted phenolic substrates with different redox potential. (vtt.fi)
  • Background: Laccases are enzymes that couple the oxidation of substrates with the reduction of dioxygen to water. (ebscohost.com)
  • Laccase (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) is a member of the multicopper oxidases and catalyzes the one-electron oxidation of a wide range of substrates, coupled with the reduction of oxygen to water. (ebscohost.com)
  • From the data obtained, we speculate that laccase can catalyze the initial attack on the PAH molecules to give quinones and that peroxidase catalyzes the following oxidation of these compounds, ultimately resulting in pollutant mineralization. (omicsonline.org)
  • We concluded that extracellular H 2 O 2 produced by the fungus during oxidation of aromatic metabolites is responsible for inactivation of the peroxidase and that the enzyme can protect itself in the presence of different reducing substrates. (asm.org)
  • 8 The copper-containing laccase ( p -diphenol oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) is able to catalyze the one-electron oxidation of phenolic substrates 9 that supply electrons to the laccase molecule for the four electron reduction of oxygen to water. (rsc.org)
  • 12 However, besides well-known catalytic activity of laccases toward oxidation of the phenolic groups, they cannot oxidize lignin completely. (rsc.org)
  • 13 The second reason is in the redox potential (0.4-0.8 V) of laccases which is not sufficiently high for oxidation of the non-phenolic groups of lignin. (rsc.org)
  • Lignocellulose oxidation by low molecular weight metal-binding compounds isolated from wood degrading fungi: A comparison of brown rot and white rot systems and the potential application of chelator-mediated Fenton reactions (B. Goodell et al. ). (elsevier.com)
  • Prediction model based on decision tree analysis for laccase mediators Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 52, 68-76. (unam.mx)
  • The role of N-glycosylation on the enzymatic activity of a Pycnoporus sanguineus laccase Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 45, 233-239. (unam.mx)
  • In this project we aim to compare the virulence of North American and South Korean genotypes of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, which have never encountered the European chestnut, with that of European fungal genotypes: Are the non-European genotypes more virulent? (wsl.ch)
  • In this project, we investigate the molecular epidemiology of invasive European populations of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. (wsl.ch)
  • The introduced chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica causes severe damage to chestnut forests and orchards across Europe. (wsl.ch)
  • Oh, it does my heart good everytime I see the chestnut blight fungus called Cryphonectria parasitica. (bio.net)
  • Molecular Analysis of the Laccase Gene from the Chestnut Blight Fungus and Selective Suppression of Its Expression in an Isogenic Hypovirulent Strain. (apsnet.org)
  • Filazzola MT, Sannino F, Rao MA, Gianfreda L (1999) Effect of various pollutants and soil-like constituents on laccase from Cerrena unicolor . (springer.com)
  • In this study, we designed three regulation strategies for laccase gene expression in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans . (springer.com)
  • A novel catechol oxidase from the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus oryzae was characterised from biochemical and structural point of view. (vtt.fi)
  • The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, also named as the koji mold, is a preferred host for enzyme production due to its prominent secretion ability into the culture medium. (vietnamscience.vn)
  • The laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila (MtL) used in this work was previously expressed only in Aspergillus oryzae ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus , a filamentous fungus producing bluish-green conidia, is an important opportunistic pathogen that primarily affects immunocompromised patients. (asm.org)
  • The gene products of alb1 (for "albino 1"), arp1 (for "aspergillus reddish-pink 1"), and arp2 have high similarity to polyketide synthases, scytalone dehydratases, and hydroxynaphthalene reductases, respectively, found in the dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin pathway of brown and black fungi. (asm.org)
  • The abr2 gene product has homology to the laccase encoded by the yA gene of Aspergillus nidulans . (asm.org)
  • A parallel session of the project was aimed at overproducing POXA1b laccase and its best variant 1H6C using the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger as host. (unina.it)
  • Thus, fungi appear to mostly cause significant lignin mineralization combined with polymerization whereas bacteria instead tend to produce phenolic monomers without their further catabolism. (und.edu)
  • The kinetics of three laccases, with different redox potential (E°), for three p-substituted dimethoxy phenolic substrates (2,6-dimethoxyphenol, syringic acid, and methyl syringate) with different E° were determined at two pHs. (vtt.fi)
  • Pyrolysis-GCMS ( pyr -GCMS) of the solid-state lignin residue after its treatment with laccase-mediator system (LMS) confirms significant enrichment of the solid-state lignin surface with phenolic groups. (rsc.org)
  • This study highlights an important role of the laccase in combination with a mediator methyl syringate for production of high-value phenolic monomers. (rsc.org)
  • Conifers trees including Juniperus species are also known to produce oleo-resins containing phenolic and terpenoids metabolite, the major chemical defense against pathogenic fungi. (academicjournals.org)
  • Synthesis and characterization of combined cross-linked laccase and tyrosinase aggregates transforming acetaminophen as a model phenolic compound in wastewaters. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • A spectroscopic characterization of a phenolic natural mediator in the laccase biocatalytic reaction Journal Of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic, 97, 203-208. (unam.mx)
  • Catechol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1), tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1), and laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) are copper-containing metalloenzymes. (vtt.fi)
  • Collaborations with Dr. J. Inlow are using a bioinformatics approach to understand and compare structural features of tyrosinase in plants and fungi. (indstate.edu)
  • The addition of Tween 80 on the culture medium (7.5%, m/v) yielded laccase activity and productivity values equal to 3,016.47 U L-1 and 502.7 U L-1 day-1, respectively. (bireme.br)
  • S. Rajeeva and S. S. Lele, "Bioprocessing of laccase produced by submerged culture of Ganoderma sp. (hindawi.com)
  • A one-step method for laccase production and immobilization using the waste culture of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) was developed, and the laccase was immobilized by the mycelium, which was in the form of a white membrane consisting of superfine fibers. (ncsu.edu)
  • Para-anisidine also inhibited xylanase (and laccase) but not pectinase production in lupin medium but not in apple pectin medium. (edu.au)
  • Dislocations and balloon swelling in spruce kraft pulp fibres - Effect of cellulases, xylanase and laccase/HBT (P. Ander). (elsevier.com)
  • 1) When the fungus incubated in a shaking culture for five days with the culture medium containing 4 % glucose, the activity of extracellular xylanase was stronger under the irradiation of a 10 W fluorescent lamp than under no irradiation, but this activity was not increased when incubated without glucose under light irradiation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The highest increases of laccase (12382.5 U/mg protein) and MnP (564.1 U/mg protein) activities were seen in co-cultures I3 and I5, respectively, both at 10 d after inoculation. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • This level of activity was significantly different to the enzyme activity in non-inoculated T. maxima (4881.0 U/mg protein and 291.8 U/mg protein for laccase and MnP, respectively). (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma e mass spectrometry) analysis of RfLacA identified bound metals consisting mainly of copper (w4 copper molecules per laccase protein molecule and w3 per histidine tag) with lesser amounts of calcium, manganese and zinc. (usda.gov)
  • In addition, it is an important virulence factor for both plant- and animal-pathogenic fungi, e.g. (asm.org)
  • Pigment biosynthesis has been studied mainly in plant-pathogenic fungi, including Colletotrichum lagenarium , M. grisea , Verticillium dahliae , Cochliobolus miyabeanus , and Alternaria alternata ( 40 ). (asm.org)
  • Laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila (MtL) was expressed in functional form in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (asm.org)
  • Polymerisation of Kraft lignin from black liquors by laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila: Effect of operational conditions and black liquor origin. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • These findings provide evidence that R. flavipes gut laccases are evolutionarily distinct, host-derived, produced in the salivary gland, secreted into the foregut, bind copper, and play a role in lignocellulose digestion. (usda.gov)
  • Background: Laccases are copper-containing enzymes which have been used as green biocatalysts for many industrial processes. (bireme.br)
  • He said a catalyst made of copper laccase, a material found in trees and fungi, has the desired bonding strength but lacks stability. (redorbit.com)