Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Hypocrea: A genus of fungus in the family Hypocreaceae, order HYPOCREALES. Anamorphs include TRICHODERMA.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Glycoside Hydrolasesbeta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Clostridium thermocellum: A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.DextrinsBasidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Cellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Clostridium cellulolyticum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is a cellulolytic, mesophilic species isolated from decayed GRASS.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Glucan 1,4-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages of 1,4-beta-D-glucans resulting in successive removal of GLUCOSE units.Isoptera: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Tylenchida: An order of nematodes consisting of many species which are plant parasites. Female worms lay eggs that hatch either in soil or in the host plant.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Sporangia: A structure found in plants, fungi, and algae, that produces and contains spores.Neocallimastix: A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTIGALES. They contain polyflagellate zoospores and grow on a range of simple and complex carbohydrates in the rumen of sheep and cattle.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Schizophyllum: A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Coriolaceae: A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Magnaporthe: A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.beta-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Clostridium cellulovorans: A species of gram-positive, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It produces CELLULOSOMES which are involved in plant CELL WALL degradation.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.MycosesTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Fibrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Endo-1,3(4)-beta-Glucanase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3- or 1,4-linkages in beta-D-glucans. This enzyme specifically acts on sites where reducing glucose residues are substituted at the 3 position.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.PolysaccharidesBeauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Xylariales: An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Piromyces: A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTICALES, containing uniflagellate zoospores.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.XyloseRumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.ChitinaseSaccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Optical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Straight, Curved, and Helical Rods: A group of anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
"Cellulase production by halophytic fungi: II. The role of some cultural conditions on cellulase production by Ulocladium ... A necrosis of leaves of Quercus pubescens caused by the fungus U. chartarum has been reported. This fungus causes leaf spots ... Cutaneous granulomas due to the mold fungus Ulocladium chartarum (Preuss) is reported. This fungus is usually harmless for ... Cellulase activities of Ulocladium chartarum were found to be influenced by the mode of incubation as well as by the age of the ...
To develop and reach maturity they need nutrients provided by fungi. Theirs gut contains cellulase-producing yeasts to enable ...
Cellulase is produced primarily by fungi, bacteria and protozoan that catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose. Since the enzyme ... Cellulase was already used in the paper pulp, food processing industry and currently in the fermentation of biomass for biofuel ... "Cellulase enzymes won't leave your laundry washed up." Bobbin Dec. 1993: 62+. General OneFile. Web. 9 Aug. 2013 Men's fashion ... Other finishers used an acid side Trichoderma fungi enzyme, cheaper and faster acting, but resulting in excessive fabric tear ...
... is a fungus species of the genus of Penicillium which produces neurotoxic citrioviridin. Kasulke, U.; ... Philipp, B.; Polter, E. (1987). "Zur Wechselwirkung zwischen einer Penicillium-Cellulase und wasserlöslichen Cellulosederivaten ...
Moreover, this fungus can produce carboxymethyl cellulase and protease on Eichhornia crassipes wastes. As a fungus, Ulocladium ... Ulocladium botrytis is an anamorphic fungus, thus it undergoes asexual reproduction. Although it is an asexual fungus, U. ... This fungus' ability to hydrolyze cellulose in the solid form is best at a pH of 6.0, as this pH allows maximal growth of U. ... This fungus has been found growing on deciduous alder trees (Alnus) which belong to the birch family Betulaceae. Trees in this ...
Then Pectin, cellulase, hemicellulase and protease enzymes are released to enable invasion into the host cell. Now the fungus ... Once the fungus penetrates the wheat cell wall, the fungal cell wall materials (i.e. chitin) act as elicitors which interact ... The fungus grows as mycelium which penetrates successive leaf sheaths throughout the growing season. High humidity, cool, and ... Wheat also releases silicon when it is attacked by the fungus. This acts as a regulator of the plant defence mechanism. It can ...
Cellulase, a suite of enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis (i.e. the ... Cellulases (endoglucanases), cellobiosidases (exoglucanases), and beta-glucosidases are required by organisms (some fungi, ... fungus Trichoderma reesei and termite Neotermes koshunensis". Journal of Structural Biology. 173 (1): 46-56. doi:10.1016/j.jsb. ...
... is a mesophilic and filamentous fungus. It is an anamorph of the fungus Hypocrea jecorina. T. reesei has the ... Some of the highest performing industrial strains produce up to 100 grams of cellulases per litre, more than 3 times as much as ... T. reesei is an important commercial and industrial micro-organism due to its cellulase production ability. Many strains of T. ... This derepression would allow the T. reesei strain to produce cellulases under any set of growth conditions, even in the ...
β-glucosidases are secreted by many wood-rotting fungi, both white and brown rot fungi, mycorrhizal fungi and in plant ... One soft-rot Ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei, is used extensively in industrial applications as a source for cellulases and ... Brown rot fungi preferentially attack cellulose and hemicellulose; while white rot fungi degrade cellulose and lignin. To ... In white-rot fungi such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, expression of manganese-peroxidase is induced by the presence of ...
The fungus was also isolated by a number of different researchers. Griffon and Maublanc isolated it from fungus on moist oats ... T. lanuginosis is unable to utilize cellulose because it does not produce a cellulase, but it is well adapted to using other ... Thermophilic fungi are primarily compost fungi, though T. lanuginosus has also been found to thrive in spoil tips, senescent ... thermophilic fungi compose 50-70% of compost biomass. T. lanuginosus is a secondary sugar fungus and can participate in ...
Hong, C.Y.; Lee, S.Y.; Ryu, S.H.; Kim, M. (2017). "Whole-genome de novo sequencing of wood rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris ( ... Fomitopsis palustris is known to possess three different cellulase enzymes. An endoglucanase, named EG-II, has been purified ... Fomitopsis palustris is a species of polypore fungus in the family Fomitopsidaceae. It causes brown rot, a disease of wood that ...
Cellulytic microbes (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) produce cellulase, which is needed to break down the cellulose found in ... which they digest with the help of microbes that produce cellulase. Their closest living relatives, the whales, are obligate ...
Ljungdahl LG (March 2008). "The cellulase/hemicellulase system of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces PC-2 and aspects of its ... Wilson CA, Wood TM (1992). "Studies on the cellulase of the rumen anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix frontalis, with special ... "Classification of anaerobic gut fungi from herbivores withemphasis on rumen fungi from Malaysia". Mycologia. 87 (5): 655-77. ... The fungi in Neocallimastigomycota were first described by Orpin in 1975, based on motile cells present in the rumen of sheep. ...
"Functional characterization of cellulases identified from the cow rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 by transcriptomic ... Neocallimastix patriciarum is a species of fungus that lives in the rumen of sheep, but has also been found in other species. ... "A highly efficient β-glucosidase from the buffalo rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5". Biotechnology for Biofuels. 5 (1 ...
CMCase which is also known as cellulase, can be produced by P. setifera optimally at 55°C and a pH 6.0. The fungus is stable ... The fungus may have immunosuppressive characteristics, but it has not been confirmed. Many properties of the fungus are unknown ... This fungus was renamed under the genus Petriella in 1930 for reasons currently unknown. Further analysis of the fungus ... In this discovery, the fungus was categorized as a species of Microascus. It was later determined as a wood fungus by L. Shigo ...
After the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1928, fungi and other micro-organisms were added to the arsenal of ... Examples of enzymes identified to date include amylases, pullulanases, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases, cellulases, xylanases ... They are produced by marine organisms, bacteria, fungi, and plants. The term encompasses complex extracts from these producers ... These were developed from mevastatin, a polyketide produced by the fungus Penicillium citrinum. Finally, a number natural ...
"The conserved noncatalytic 40-residue sequence in cellulases and hemicellulases from anaerobic fungi functions as a protein ... More recently, anaerobic fungi, typified by Piromyces equi, have been suggested to also synthesise a cellulosome complex, ... Carbohydrate-binding module family 49 (CBM49) is found at the C-terminal of cellulases and in vitro binding studies have shown ... The module has so far been found in microorganisms, including archea, eubacteria and fungi. CBM32 adopts a beta-sandwich fold ...
It is produced commercially for the food industry from fungi and used to destroy residual fruit starch, known as pectin, in ... In plant cell culture, it is used in combination with the enzyme cellulase to generate protoplasts by degrading the plant cell ...
... is a soil fungus often found on dead wood, other fungi, building material and sometimes animals. ... Trichoderma longibrachiatum uses cellulases to digest cellulose from decaying plant biomass, and chitinases to digest the ... Trichoderma longibrachiatum is a soil fungus which is found all over the world but mainly in warmer climates. Many species from ... by Dexter H. (2003). Pathogenic fungi in humans and animals (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Dekker. ISBN 0824706838. CS1 maint: Extra ...
The cellulase activity of C. globosum functions best at temperatures ranging from 25-32 degrees Celsius and is stimulated by ... This poses a health concern due to the allergic nature of these fungi. Both the C. globosum hyphae and the spores contain ... Cellulase is inhibited by ethyl malonate. Like many fungal species, C. globosum obtains their energy from carbon sources such ... It is a saprophytic fungus that primarily resides on plants, soil, straw, and dung. Endophytic C. globosum assists in cellulose ...
It is a parasite of many fungi and other oomycetes including Botrytis, Fusarium and Phytophthora. It has been licensed as a ... 38:29-35 (2002) Picard,K., Tirilly,Y. and Benhamou,N. (2000) Cytological effects of cellulases in the parasitism of ... Defense responses can be induced in the plant, which primes the plant from further infection by pathogenic fungi, oomycetes or ... Brozova, J. Exploitation of the mycoparasitic fungus Pythium oligandrum in plant protection. Plant Protection Science. ...
Her work on soft rot fungi also led her to identifying and describing the fungi from a physiological standpoint. During her ... This technique proved to be helpful in studying the synthesis and mobilization of cellulase in the hyphae into the host ... This work was particularly relevant to "soft rot" fungi and the effect the aforementioned fungi had on the invasion of ... Her major area of focus was wood-decay fungi. Catherine Gross was born on April 4, 1908 in the town of Manilla, Indiana. In ...
True fungi do not have cellulose in their cell walls. In fungi, the cell wall is the outer-most layer, external to the plasma ... while the innermost is sensitive to cellulase and pronase. Around the outside of the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall. ... Fungi possess cell walls made of the glucosamine polymer chitin. Unusually, diatoms have a cell wall composed of biogenic ... Unlike fungi, oomycetes typically possess cell walls of cellulose and glucans rather than chitin, although some genera (such as ...
... certain industrial strains are known to produce up to 100g of cellulase per litre of fungus thus allowing for maximal ... "Biofuels turn to fungus - Interview with Frédéric Monot and Antoine Margeot, Applied Chemistry and Physical Chemistry Division ... Multiple avenues are being explored including the design of an optimised cocktail of cellulases and hemicellulases isolated ... Strain improvement methods have led to strains capable of producing significantly more cellulases than the original QM6a ...
The cellulase produced by the fungus partially degrade the cotton material in places, making it soft and causing the jeans to ... The mould can grow directly on wood, which is mostly composed of cellulose, and on fungi, the cell walls of which are mainly ... Trichoderma viride is a fungus and a biofungicide. It is used for seed and soil treatment for suppression of various diseases ... It is the anamorph of Hypocrea rufa, its teleomorph, which is the sexual reproductive stage of the fungus and produces a ...
Bacteria associated with spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus geosporum and Glomus constrictum. Appl Environ ... Purification, characterization, and gene analysis of cellulase (Cel8A) from Lysobacter sp. IB-9374. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ... a chemical which inhibits the growth of certain pathogenic fungi. The potential of Lysobacter species as biological control ...
The practice of exposing liquid cultures of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to a pure oxygen atmosphere under ... 1988; Methods for measuring cellulase activities. Methods Enzymol160:87-117. [Google Scholar] ... 1995; Organelles of filamentous fungi. In The Growing Fungus pp.75-98Edited by Gow N. A. R., Gadd G. M.. London: Chapman & Hall ... 1997; Field-scale use of white rot fungi for soil remediation in Finland. In Bioremediation: Principles and Practice III pp.245 ...
2007) Xyr1 regulates xylanase but not cellulase formation in the head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum. Curr Genet 52:213-220 ... 1997) Regulation of cellulase gene expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:1298-1306 ... Conserved and essential transcription factors for cellulase gene expression in ascomycete fungi. Samuel T. Coradetti, James P. ... Model of cellulase induction mediated by CLR-1 and CLR-2 in N. crassa. When de-repressed, genes encoding cellulases, β- ...
... soils have been the preferred environments for the isolation of cellulase producing fungi [3]. Detecting exactly which fungi ... Production of Alkaline Cellulase by Fungi Isolated from an Undisturbed Rain Forest of Peru. Karin Vega, Gretty K. Villena, ... Figure 2: Cellulase activities attained on cellulose (a) and lactose (b) by eleven strains of soil fungi isolated from an ... Most industrial cellulases are produced by fungi in submerged fermentation. Trichoderma reesei is the most important fungal ...
Analysis of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production by southern pine beetle associated fungi. Symbiosis, Vol. 49: 37-42. ... Cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production were analyzed for three beetle associated fungi. Only the mutualistic symbiont ... Analysis of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production by southern pine beetle associated fungi ... A was found to produce cellulases and polyphenol oxidase. In time course analyses of cellulase production in batch cultures, ...
... Karin Vega, Gretty K. Villena, ... Alkaline cellulase producing fungi were isolated from soils of an undisturbed rain forest of Peru. The soil dilution plate ... LM-HP37 were the best producers of FP cellulase (,3 U mL−1) with higher specific productivities (,30 U g−1 h−1). Three strains ... Alkaline cellulases may be used in the polishing and washing of denim processing of the textile industry. ...
The specific aim of this study was to isolate and characterize cellulase- and xylanase-producing filamentous fungi from termite ... Key words: Filamentous fungi, lignocellulosic substrates, lignocellulolytic enzymes, cellulases, xylanases, termite mounds, ... conceivably showed that termite mounds are a good source of filamentous fungi that in turn are also a good source of cellulases ... Cellulase and xylanase activities during the solid-state fermentation of wheat bran were detected and analyzed through ...
... is typically exploited for its ability to produce cellulase enzymes, whereas use of this fungus for over-expression of other ... The industrial workhorse fungus, Trichoderma reesei, is typically exploited for its ability to produce cellulase enzymes, ... Although T. reesei is known as a versatile cellulase-producing fungus and has been exploited intensively for this purpose, ... A versatile 2A peptide-based bicistronic protein expressing platform for the industrial cellulase producing fungus, Trichoderma ...
Our comparative fungi GH family gene analysis showed that N. patriciarum W5 has a greater number of cellulases and ... There are many cellulases, such as xylanase and glycosidase, identified in rumen fungi; however, only a fraction of these ... In addition to cellulases, our study also uncovered proteins associated with the cellulosome in rumen fungi, such as contig8798 ... Wood TM, Wilson CA, McCrae SI: The cellulase system of the anaerobic rumen fungus Neocallimastix frontalis : studies on the ...
Lignocellulase-producing fungi Cellulase Trichoderma reesei Genetic engineering Bio-products Xylitol Metadata. Show full item ... while RUT-C30 had the greatest cellulase activity after around 72 h. Maximum cellulase production was 0.035, 0.42 and 0.33 μmol ... Maximum cellulase activity of QM6a and QM9414 strains, for the majority of tested carbon sources, occurred after 120 h of ... Increased cellulase production with the ability to grow on microcrystalline cellulose was positively correlated in QM9414 and ...
Recently, GH7 enzymes have been found in other kingdoms of life besides fungi, including in animals and protists. Here, we ... 1993) Trichoderma reesei has no true exo-cellulase: All intact and truncated cellulases produce new reducing end groups on ... Salt-tolerant marine cellulase. Marcelo Kern, John E. McGeehan, Simon D. Streeter, Richard N. A. Martin, Katrin Besser, Luisa ... Salt-tolerant marine cellulase. Marcelo Kern, John E. McGeehan, Simon D. Streeter, Richard N. A. Martin, Katrin Besser, Luisa ...
One of the most widely used enzymes all over the globe is Cellulase. ... Cellulase Market- Market Segmentation:. Based on the Source, the Cellulasemarket is segmented into:. Fungi. Bacteria. ... Cellulase is a group of enzymes that helps in the breakdown of the cellulose into smaller carbohydrates. The term Cellulase is ... Cellulase Market- Regional Outlook:. In terms of geography, the cellulase market has been divided in to five key regions; North ...
Two cellulases, CelA and CelC, from the polycentric anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces strain PC-2 contain N-terminal docking domains ... Cloning and characterization of cellulase and xylanase coding genes from anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. GMLF1.Int J Agric ... This degradation is performed by various highly active cellulases, xylanases, glycosidases and xylosidases of rumen fungi 11. ... Rumen fungi inhabit the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants and the most non-ruminant herbivores. Rumen fungi produce highly ...
Make research projects and school reports about Fungi easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Cellulase Aspergillus niger Trichoderma viride Improve palatability of low-quality vegetables, accelerate drying of vegetables ... The kingdom of fungi is divided into four major groups: conjugating fungi, sac fungi, club fungi, and imperfect fungi. ... Fungi Plant Sciences COPYRIGHT 2001 The Gale Group Inc.. Fungi. Mycology is the study of fungi (mykes, Greek for "fungi," and ...
Enhancing Cellulase Production in Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora thermophila ATCC42464 by RNA Interference of cre1 Gene ... Compared with studies in mesophilic fungi, research on the regulation of cellulase gene expression in thermophilic fungi is ... mechanisms of cellulase gene regulation in thermophilic fungi may share certain similarities with those in mesophilic fungi. ... upstream region of thermophilic fungal cellulase genes [5 , 12 , 26 , 30] , and the cre1. gene from two hermophilic fungi ( ...
Cellulase Y-C (From Trichoderma Viride) Cellulase Y-C enzyme retains very high filter paper decomposing activity and showed an ... Used to grind animal and plant tissues, insects, nematodes and lyse bacteria, yeast, fungi, algae. For use on FastPrep® ... Used to grind animal and plant tissues, insects, nematodes and lyse bacteria, yeast, fungi, algae. For use on FastPrep® ... Used to grind animal and plant tissues, insects, nematodes and lyse bacteria, yeast, fungi, algae. For use on FastPrep ...
Cellulase Y-C (From Trichoderma Viride) Cellulase Y-C enzyme retains very high filter paper decomposing activity and showed an ... Used to grind animal and plant tissues, insects, nematodes and lyse bacteria, yeast, fungi, algae. For use on FastPrep® ... Used to grind animal and plant tissues, insects, nematodes and lyse bacteria, yeast, fungi, algae. For use on FastPrep® ... Used to grind animal and plant tissues, insects, nematodes and lyse bacteria, yeast, fungi, algae. For use on FastPrep ...
Tomme, P.; Warren, R.A.J.; Gilkes, N.R. (1995). Cellulose hydrolysis by bacteria and fungi. Adv. Microb. Physiol. 37,1-81. [ ... The values of cellulase Emax were 0.003 mol min-1mL-1g-1 (surface and w-s interface). The cellulase production coefficient was ... Cellulase and xylanase activities were detected since the beginning of the decomposition process (Figure 2). The cellulase ... Detritus of E. azurea (Table 3) had a cellulase Emax of 0.03 mol min-1mL-1g-1 (surface) and 0.02 mol min-1mL-1g-1 (w-s ...
Cellulase production by white-rot basidiomycetous fungi: solid-state versus submerged cultivation Bentil, Joseph A. ; Thygesen ... Cellulases adsorb reversibly on biomass lignin Djajadi, Demi T. ; Pihlajaniemi, Ville ; Rahikainen, Jenni ; Kruus, Kristiina ; ...
... as well as anaerobic fungi and bacteria, are considered in the context of the modern structural classification of glycosyl ... A new nomenclature of cellulases and relative enzymes based on their structural classification is reviewed. Some opportunities ... Compositions of cellulase-hemicellulase systems of aerobic fungi (hyphomycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes), aerobic ... of cellulase improvement by means of protein engineering are discussed. ...
The production of lichenases, mannanases, cellulases, xylanases, amylases and pullulanases was demonstrated... ... Ginterová A., Janotková O., Zemek J., Augustín J., Kuniak L.: Cellulase activity of higher fungi.Folia Microbiol. 25, 318-323 ... Cellulase Cellulase Activity Aureobasidium Pullulans Amylolytic Enzyme Rhizopus Stolonifer These keywords were added by machine ... Oote S., Aikawa T., Takahara J., Gijutsian K.: Cellulase ofRhizopus-I. Determination of cellulase activity and the effect of ...
Keywords: Aspergillus niger ; Biofilms; Cell adhesion; Cellulase; Gene expression; Fungi Tannase Production by Penicillium ... Clinically important fungi like A. fumigatus also form biofilms when they infect lungs and recent studies demonstrate same gene ... Filamentous fungi are naturally adapted to growth on surfaces and in these conditions they show a particular physiological ... The supplementation of Bgl3A (5 U/mg) with Trichoderma reesei cellulase complex (5 FPU/mg) resulted in about 70% of enhanced ...
... the cellulases. Cellulolytic microorganisms produce a wide variety of different catalytic and noncatalytic enzyme modules, ... Cellulase / chemistry* * Cellulase / metabolism* * Cellulose / chemistry* * Cellulose / metabolism* * Fungi / metabolism * ... which form the cellulases and act synergistically on their substrate. In some microbes, several types of cellulases are ... Cellulose, cellulases and cellulosomes Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1998 Oct;8(5):548-57. doi: 10.1016/s0959-440x(98)80143-7. ...
... of pectinases and cellulases inhibitors in the protein content and root exudates of the tested plants against the tested fungi ... This work included a screening for a new fungal pectinase or cellulase inhibitor that may be a protein constituent or may be ... pectinase and Cellulase inhibitors from the Root exudates and protein Contents of five plants against Six phytopathogenic fungi ... pectinase and Cellulase inhibitors from the Root exudates and protein Contents of five plants against Six phytopathogenic fungi ...
Filamentous fungi and media for cellulase production in solid state cultures Filamentous fungi and media for cellulase ... Biotechnology/methods , Cellulase/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Fungi/enzymology , Fungi/growth & development , ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Biotechnology / Cellulase / Culture Media / Fungi Language: English ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Biotechnology / Cellulase / Culture Media / Fungi Language: English ...
Multiple roles of the cellulase CBHI in enhancing production of fusion antibodies by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. ... Multiple roles of the cellulase CBHI in enhancing production of fusion antibodies by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei ... T1 - Multiple roles of the cellulase CBHI in enhancing production of fusion antibodies by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma ... Multiple roles of the cellulase CBHI in enhancing production of fusion antibodies by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei ...
  • Taken together, findings of this study conceivably showed that termite mounds are a good source of filamentous fungi that in turn are also a good source of cellulases and xylanases that arguably, can be recommended for use in industrial and commercial settings. (academicjournals.org)
  • Cellulases and xylanases are receiving considerable attention because of their potential applications in several industrial processes. (scielo.br)
  • This degradation is performed by various highly active cellulases, xylanases, glycosidases and xylosidases of rumen fungi 11 . (scielo.br)
  • The production of lichenases, mannanases, cellulases, xylanases, amylases and pullulanases was demonstrated using the gel-testing method during growth of the strains on suitably meshed polysaccharide gels. (springer.com)
  • 2015 ). Cellulases and xylanases may also help in releasing starch bound to the corn fiber, and induce cost and energy savings by decreasing viscosity and reducing water binding to grains, thus facilitating centrifugation and drying steps (Harris et al. (springer.com)
  • The inducing abilities of various saccharides have been tested, and some saccharides induce the synthesis of both xylanases and cellulases ( 10 , 21 , 31 , 37 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Many Penicillium species isolated in this study exhibited cellulase and protease activity, and/or degradation of PAHs. (nature.com)
  • The measurement of biochemical soil properties such as soil hydrolases (phosphatase, invertase, cellulase, protease, urease) activity provides an early indication of changes in soil fertility, as they are related to the mineralization of nutrients such as P, C and N (55) . (scielo.org.ar)
  • Some Aspergillus species are also important cellulase producers with higher levels of β -glucosidase than T. reesei [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The molecular biology tool that we have implemented in this study will provide an efficient strategy to test the expression of heterologous proteins in T. reesei , while also providing a novel platform for developing this fungus as an efficient multi-protein-expressing host using a single polycistronic gene expression cassette. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, the optimum conditions for cellulase production by T. reesei strains were investigated. (lakeheadu.ca)
  • An important step towards applying T. reesei cellulases industrially was the development of efficient strain mutagenesis and screening procedures in the 1970s. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results revealed light responsive transcription of the T. reesei class I phosducin-like protein gene phlp1 and indicate a light dependent function of PhLP1 also in fungi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment of pepper plant residues (PPR) with this fungus was monitored during 20 days in solid and semisolid-state cultures. (usda.gov)
  • Due to the difficulty in culture and lack of a genome database, it is not easy to gain a global understanding of the glycosyl hydrolases ( GHs ) produced by this anaerobic fungus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome disruption using CRISPR/Cas9 has been reported for a variety of filamentous fungi [ 7 ], which commonly requires expression of cas9 in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Lignocellulose oxidation by low molecular weight metal-binding compounds isolated from wood degrading fungi: A comparison of brown rot and white rot systems and the potential application of chelator-mediated Fenton reactions (B. Goodell et al. ). (elsevier.com)
  • A showed maximum activity of 0.109 U/ml and 0.141 U/ml for total cellulase and endoglucanase activity respectively. (usda.gov)
  • Therefore, our findings suggest the feasibility of improving cellulase production by modifying the regulator expression, and an attractive approach to increasing the total cellulase productivity in thermophilic fungi. (kpubs.org)
  • It is known that certain micro-organisms, so-called white rot fungi are able to break down all the constituents of wood. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This fact sheet discusses research on the effectiveness of using a white-rot fungus to pretreat three different corn stover fractions: leaves, stalks and cobs. (osu.edu)
  • In this study, three corn stover fractions (leaves, stalks and cobs) were pretreated separately with a white-rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora . (osu.edu)
  • Coniochaeta ligniaria is a fungus that can degrade compounds (phenolics and furans) that are toxic to many other microbes. (usda.gov)
  • The enzymatic cleaning is carried out at neutral pH [ 7 ], and, although there are pectinases that work optimally at this pH, most commercial cellulases have optimal activity at acidic pH. (hindawi.com)
  • A broad overview on requirements, challenges and successful applications shall serve as a basis for further development of fungi as biotechnological workhorses in research and industry. (springer.com)
  • In the enzymatic cleaning, the use of pectinases, cellulases, and proteases has been evaluated and found a synergistic effect between them. (hindawi.com)
  • 2002: Production and evaluation of metal resistant mutants of ectomycorrhizal fungi for the reclamation of contaminated soils. (thapar.edu)
  • In some microbes, several types of cellulases are organized into an elaborate multifunctional supramolecular complex, known as the cellulosome. (nih.gov)