Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.MycosesAspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Magnaporthe: A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Xylariales: An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Chytridiomycota: A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Cladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ustilago: A genus of basidiomycetous smut fungi comprising the loose smuts.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Colletotrichum: A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Paecilomyces: A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Mortierella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mortierellaceae, order MUCORALES. Its species are abundant in soil and can cause rare infections in humans and animals. Mortierella alpinais is used for production of arachidonic acid.Paracoccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus. P. brasiliensis (previously Blastomyces brasiliensis) is the etiologic agent of PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Sordariales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes many valuable experimental organisms. There are eight families and very few anamorphic forms.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Histoplasma: A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Chaetomium: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Chaetomiaceae, order SORDARIALES. Many members are cellulolytic and some mycotoxic. They occur naturally on paper and cotton fabric.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Laccaria: A genus of white-spored mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They form symbiotic partnerships (MYCORRHIZAE) with trees.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sporothrix: A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Exophiala: A normally saprophytic mitosporic Chaetothyriales fungal genus. Infections in humans include PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS; and PERITONITIS.. Exophiala jeanselmei (previously Phialophora jeanselmei) is an etiological agent of MYCETOMA.Neocallimastigales: An order of fungi in the phylum NEOCALLIMASTIGOMYCOTA comprising anaerobic chytrids that inhabit the RUMEN; and CECUM of herbivorous animals. Genera (all in the lone family Neocallimastigaceae) include NEOCALLIMASTIX, Orpinomyces, PIROMYCES, Anaeromyces, Cyllamyces, and Caecomyces.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Blastomyces: A genus of onygenacetous mitosporic fungi whose perfect state is Ajellomyces (see ONYGENALES). The species Blastomyces dermatitidis (perfect state Ajellomyces dermatitidis) causes blastomycosis.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Claviceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Podospora: A genus of ascomycete FUNGI in the order SORDARIALES, which is found on SOIL and herbivore dung (FECES).Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Phialophora: A mitosporic fungal genus. Phialophora verrucosa is a cause of chromomycosis (CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS). Ophiobolus is the teleomorph of Phialophora.Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Coriolaceae: A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Entomophthorales: An order of fungi comprising mostly insect pathogens, though some infect mammals including humans. Strict host specificity make these fungi a focus of many biological control studies.Paracoccidioidomycosis: A mycosis affecting the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and internal organs. It is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is also called paracoccidioidal granuloma. Superficial resemblance of P. brasiliensis to Blastomyces brasiliensis (BLASTOMYCES) may cause misdiagnosis.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Verticillium: A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Gibberella: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Hypocreaceae, order Hypocreales including several pathogens of grains and cereals. It is also the source of plant growth regulators such as gibberellin and gibberellic acid.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Cordyceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.Phycomyces: A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Microsporum: A mitosporic Oxygenales fungal genus causing various diseases of the skin and hair. The species Microsporum canis produces TINEA CAPITIS and tinea corporis, which usually are acquired from domestic cats and dogs. Teleomorphs includes Arthroderma (Nannizzia). (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, p305)Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Schizophyllum: A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.Pythium: A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Cunninghamella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Cunninghamellaceae, order MUCORALES. Some species cause systemic infections in humans.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Hypocrea: A genus of fungus in the family Hypocreaceae, order HYPOCREALES. Anamorphs include TRICHODERMA.ChitinaseAnts: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Pleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Onygenales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA containing many medically important species. There are four families and mitosporic (anamorphic) forms are prominent.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Fungal Structures: The parts of fungi.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chrysosporium: A mitosporic Onygenaceae fungal genus which causes adiaspiromycosis, a pulmonary mycosis of man and rodents. One of its teleomorphs is Ajellomyces.Agaricus: A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).Penicillium chrysogenum: A mitosporic fungal species used in the production of penicillin.Cellulose 1,4-beta-Cellobiosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.Geotrichum: A mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungal genus, various species of which have been isolated from pulmonary lesions. Teleomorphs include Dipodascus and Galactomyces.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Stachybotrys: A mitosporic fungal genus including one species which forms a toxin in moldy hay that may cause a serious illness in horses.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Piromyces: A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTICALES, containing uniflagellate zoospores.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chromoblastomycosis: Scaly papule or warty growth, caused by five fungi, that spreads as a result of satellite lesions affecting the foot or leg. The extremity may become swollen and, at its distal portion, covered with various nodular, tumorous, verrucous lesions that resemble cauliflower. In rare instances, the disease may begin on the hand or wrist and involve the entire upper extremity. (Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p362)Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Talaromyces: A fungal genus in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES, characterized by loose hyphal fruiting bodies containing spherical asci. Anamorphs include PENICILLIUM and PAECILOMYCES.Pseudallescheria: Ascomycetous fungi, family Microascaceae, order Microascales, commonly found in the soil. They are causative agents of mycetoma, maduromycosis, and other infections in humans.Tinea: Fungal infection of keratinized tissues such as hair, skin and nails. The main causative fungi include MICROSPORUM; TRICHOPHYTON; and EPIDERMOPHYTON.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Gliocladium: A mitosporic fungal genus occurring in soil or decaying plant matter. It is structurally similar to Penicillium.Coprinus: A genus of black-spored basidiomycetous fungi of the family Coprinaceae, order Agaricales; some species are edible.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Glycoside HydrolasesEukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Mucormycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Blastocladiella: A genus of aquatic fungi of the family Blastocladiaceae, order Blastocladiales, used in the study of zoospore formation.Mycetoma: A chronic progressive subcutaneous infection caused by species of fungi (eumycetoma), or actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). It is characterized by tumefaction, abscesses, and tumor-like granules representing microcolonies of pathogens, such as MADURELLA fungi and bacteria ACTINOMYCETES, with different grain colors.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Onychomycosis: A fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by DERMATOPHYTES; YEASTS; or nondermatophyte MOLDS.Phyllachorales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA characterized by stromatic perithecial forms in most species. Notable genera are Magnaporthe and Glomerella, the latter having the anamorph (mitosporic form) COLLETOTRICHUM.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.

Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes. (1/4893)

Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests.  (+info)

Amphotericin B- and fluconazole-resistant Candida spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, and other newly emerging pathogenic fungi are susceptible to basic antifungal peptides. (2/4893)

The present study shows that a number of basic antifungal peptides, including human salivary histatin 5, a designed histatin analog designated dhvar4, and a peptide from frog skin, PGLa, are active against amphotericin B-resistant Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Aspergillus fumigatus strains and against a fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolate.  (+info)

In-vitro activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B against filamentous fungi. (3/4893)

The in-vitro fungistatic and fungicidal activities of voriconazole were compared with those of itraconazole and amphotericin B. MICs for 110 isolates belonging to 11 species of filamentous fungi were determined by a broth microdilution adaptation of the method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) of the three antifungal agents were also determined. The MIC ranges of the three compounds were comparable for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladophialophora bantiana and Exophiala dermatitidis. Voriconazole and itraconazole were more active than amphotericin B against Fonsecaea pedrosoi, but the two azole agents were less active against Sporothrix schenckii. Voriconazole was more active than itraconazole or amphotericin B against Scedosporium apiospermum, but less active than the other two agents against two mucoraceous moulds, Absidia corymbifera and Rhizopus arrhizus. Voriconazole and amphotericin B were more active than itraconazole against Fusarium solani. With the exception of S. apiospermum, all the moulds tested had MLC50 values of < or =2 mg/L and MLC90 values of < or =4 mg/L against amphotericin B. Voriconazole and itraconazole showed fungicidal effects against five of the 1 1 moulds tested (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, C. bantiana, E. dermatitidis and F. pedrosoi) with MLC90 values of < or =2 mg/L. In addition, voriconazole was fungicidal for Phialophora parasitica. Our results suggest that voriconazole could be effective against a wide range of mould infections in humans.  (+info)

Novel genes induced during an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and Glomus versiforme. (4/4893)

Many terrestrial plant species are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we have identified three cDNA clones representing genes whose expression is induced during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus versiforme. The three clones represent M. truncatula genes and encode novel proteins: a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related protein, a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP), and a putative homologue of the mammalian p110 subunit of initiation factor 3 (eIF3). These genes show little or no expression in M. truncatula roots prior to formation of the symbiosis and are significantly induced following colonization by G. versiforme. The genes are not induced in roots in response to increases in phosphate. This suggests that induction of expression during the symbiosis is due to the interaction with the fungus and is not a secondary effect of improved phosphate nutrition. In situ hybridization revealed that the putative AGP is expressed specifically in cortical cells containing arbuscules. The identification of two mycorrhiza-induced genes encoding proteins predicted to be involved in cell wall structure is consistent with previous electron microscopy data that indicated major alterations in the extracellular matrix of the cortical cells following colonization by mycorrhizal fungi.  (+info)

Comparison of interferon-gamma, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for priming leukocyte-mediated hyphal damage of opportunistic fungal pathogens. (5/4893)

Proinflammatory cytokines have been proposed as adjunctive therapeutic agents to enhance the host immune response during infections caused by opportunistic fungi. The study compared the differential in vitro priming effects of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on hyphal damage of opportunistic fungi mediated by isolated neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMNL) and buffy coat cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes/peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PMNL/PBMC) from healthy donors. IFN-gamma (1000 U/mL) effectively primed both PMNL and PMNL/PBMC for enhanced hyphal damage of Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, and Candida albicans. G-CSF (100 ng/mL) increased hyphal damage mediated by both PMNL and PMNL/PBMC against F. solani, and GM-CSF (100 ng/mL) augmented the antifungal activity of PMNL/PBMC against hyphal forms of both F. solani and C. albicans. IFN-gamma may be superior to G-CSF or GM-CSF for enhancing the microbicidal activity of PMNL and PMNL/PBMC against opportunistic fungi.  (+info)

Contaminations occurring in fungal PCR assays. (6/4893)

Successful in vitro amplification of fungal DNA in clinical specimens has been reported recently. In a collaboration among five European centers, the frequency and risk of contamination due to airborne spore inoculation or carryover contamination in fungal PCR were analyzed. The identities of all contaminants were specified by cycle sequencing and GenBank analysis. Twelve of 150 PCR assays that together included over 2,800 samples were found to be contaminated (3.3% of the negative controls were contaminated during the DNA extraction, and 4.7% of the PCR mixtures were contaminated during the amplification process). Contaminants were specified as Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Acremonium spp. Further analysis showed that commercially available products like zymolyase powder or 10x PCR buffer may contain fungal DNA. In conclusion, the risk of contamination is not higher in fungal PCR assays than in other diagnostic PCR-based assays if general precautions are taken.  (+info)

Chemically defined medium for susceptibility testing of antimicrobial agents. (7/4893)

A defined medium was developed that supports growth of many of the bacterial and fungal pathogens frequently isolated in clinics.  (+info)

Brasilicardin A, a new terpenoid antibiotic from pathogenic Nocardia brasiliensis: fermentation, isolation and biological activity. (8/4893)

A novel tricyclic diterpenoid antibiotic, brasilicardin A, was isolated from the culture broth of Nocardia brasiliensis IFM 0406. The antibiotic exhibited immunosuppressive activity in a mouse mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay system and its IC50 value was 0.057 microg/ml. Although the inhibitory activity of cyclosporin A (CyA) against IL-2 production was confirmed in the MLR assay system, brasilicardin A did not have the activity. The results of in vitro toxicity testing of brasilicardin A against various human cell lines were compared with those of CyA.  (+info)

  • The fungi imperfecti or imperfect fungi , also known as Deuteromycota , are fungi which do not fit into the commonly established taxonomic classifications of fungi that are based on biological species concepts or morphological characteristics of sexual structures because their sexual form of reproduction has never been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that there are about 1.5 million different species of fungi on Earth, some 300 of which cause illness in humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The "Fungus of the Month" features information about one species, presented in an informative, and often amusing way. (merlot.org)
  • Not many of these beneficial organisms are available commercially, but some are, and it is quite easy to add beneficial species of fungi to garden soils to jump-start the process of enlisting their help in fostering healthy plants. (independent.com)
  • Even though spacecraft are thoroughly sanitized, scientists have been startled to learn that some 250 species of bacteria and fungi can live and even thrive in outer space . (infoplease.com)
  • Only a very small proportion of the thousands of species of fungi in the world can cause disease in plants or animals - these are the pathogenic fungi. (rhs.org.uk)
  • The coral tooth fungus ( Hericium coralloides ) has been described as our most beautiful species of fungus. (arkive.org)
  • A dead ant infected with a parasitic Cordyceps fungus (David P. Hughes).A team of entomologists working in the Brazilian rain forest has discovered four new species of parasitic Cordyceps fungi, which infect insects and manipulate the behaviour of their hosts in order to disperse their spores as widely as possible. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The researchers used two species of cryptoendolithic fungi, meaning they're capable of surviving hidden in cracks in rocks, collected from McMurdo Dry Valleys in the Antarctic Victoria Land. (csmonitor.com)
  • Kew's mission in mycology is to increase knowledge about fungi by identifying and describing new families, genera, and species in the United Kingdom and overseas. (sciencemag.org)
  • Excluding Bidartondo, who works mostly in molecular ecology, Kew has three staff mycologists dedicated to identifying new species and caring for the fungi collection at Kew's herbarium. (sciencemag.org)
  • But looking only at genes does not help the discovery of new fungi species. (sciencemag.org)
  • Classical mycologists have formally described about 70,000 species of fungi, but "it is estimated that there are at least 1.5 million species occurring on plants alone," says Pedro Crous, president of the International Mycological Association . (sciencemag.org)
  • In some of the examples provided it may be that other bacteria also share the related characteristic with fungi, particularly in species closely related to mycobacteria, but no other pathogenic species collectively demonstrates such a remarkable degree of similarity with fungi, of which all of those features enhance the virulence of the single most successful bacterial pathogen in human history. (medscape.com)
  • I've gone through my book on Australian fungi and it could be one of any number of species that has a simple gill structure. (eol.org)
  • Instead, the scientists found that biotic or living factors, like interactions between different species of fungi, were critical in predicting the rate of wood decay. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Researchers also identified different species of fungi on the plots and analyzed how they interacted with each other. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Fungi are a vanguard species (those that come into habitats first) and in the process of their growth they create downstream nutrient pathways that help other organisms, Stamets continued. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • The greatest amount of biological activity and the largest diversity of species and genes, however, come from the other four kingdoms science now recognizes: bacteria, archaea (a less-studied division of life-forms formerly considered bacteria), protists (mostly single-celled algae and protozoans), and fungi. (motherearthnews.com)
  • It is estimated that today the Kingdom Fungi has 2.2 to 3.8 million species, with only about 120,000 documented and described. (forbes.com)
  • A fungus that arrived recently in Europe from East Asia is lethal to many salamander species, a study released on Thursday shows, threatening populations in Europe, Africa, and beyond. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The Asian newcomer is a cousin of another fungus, called Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis , or Bd, which has annihilated amphibians like frogs, toads, and salamanders around the globe over the past few decades, slaughtering more than 40 percent of species in some regions. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The team reports that in laboratory tests, the fungus exterminated 11 of 17 species of North American and European salamanders: Every infected animal, a total of 50, died, many within a few weeks of infection. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • That sounds like good news, but the researchers caution that such species could serve as amphibian Typhoid Marys, transmitting the fungus while not succumbing to it themselves. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Genetic testing shows the fungus has been lurking for some 30 million years in Asia, where local species evolved to resist it. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • ATCC is a trusted resource center housing a diverse assortment of filamentous fungi and yeasts, representing over 7,600 species. (atcc.org)
  • The ATCC Mycology Collection has approximately 330 species of biomedical fungi and yeasts, with a total exceeding 2000 isolates. (atcc.org)
  • Some species of trichosporonales fungi can store large amounts of lipids in their cells, and are so-called oil-accumulating fungi, which have therefore been increasingly analyzed in recent years as potential producers of biofuels. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • In California, bioenergy researchers are looking to nature and the estimated 1.5 million species of fungi that, collectively, can break down almost any substance on earth, including plant biomass. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • It is advisable to use fungal cells of species that grow at room temperature to avoid the cost of incubation devices needed to adjust temperatures to grow different types of fungi. (bibalex.org)
  • But a new study finds that a deadly species of fungi has found a way to produce diverse offspring from identical parents, perhaps allowing this pathogen to become drug resistant. (sciencemag.org)
  • Explore our plant & fungi species profiles. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Much more serious threats to many species of fungi are pollution, intensive agriculture and the disappearance of many of the fields, forests, meadows and verges where they used to flourish. (economist.com)
  • [Damon Runberg] Does the fungus infect all species, or are certain species more likely to obtain it? (usgs.gov)
  • Please try to identify the species photographed, and please only fungi seen in Great Britain & N.Ireland. (ipernity.com)
  • There are approximately 100,000 species of Fungi. (hawaii.edu)
  • However, observations by researchers have observed that billion can readily apply to the number of spores of some species of fungi. (hawaii.edu)
  • Some examples will be given here to demonstrate the enormous numbers of spores in some species of fungi. (hawaii.edu)
  • Many species of microscopic fungi are capable of producing comparable number of spores. (hawaii.edu)
  • Originally such fungi were referred to the genus Clavaria ("clavarioid" means Clavaria-like), but it is now known that clavarioid species are not all closely related. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contained all species of fungi with erect, club-shaped or branched (coral-like) fruit bodies, including many that are now referred to the Ascomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA sequencing has since confirmed the diversity of the clavarioid fungi, not only placing species in different genera, but also in different families and orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each year there are more and more mushrooms and other fleshy fungi that are being cultivated for food (Fig. 7-1) . (angelfire.com)
  • Yet, there are a far greater number of wild edible mushrooms and related fleshy fungi that have not been subject to cultivation. (angelfire.com)
  • The word fungus usually evokes images of athlete's foot, unseemly looking nails, or scrumptious cheese and mouth-watering mushrooms. (nature.com)
  • I don't think I have to tell people what mushrooms can do, but this movie is set out to be a mind-blowing trip about the world of fungi. (rottentomatoes.com)
  • A bit of a commercial for mushrooms, Fantastic Fungi nonetheless should please those who ascribe to the idea, as the film does, that nature is intelligent. (rottentomatoes.com)
  • Many living things take up residence in or on plants, including birds , mammals , amphibians , and even fungi like mushrooms or molds. (nwf.org)
  • The fungi usually exist in a microscopic form, but occasionally they may produce either an unusually prolific amount of growth, or fruiting bodies (e.g. mushrooms, brackets, etc). (rhs.org.uk)
  • Lisa Garr ( email ) was joined by authority on fungi, Paul Stamets , who talked about his discovery on how to use mushrooms to decompose toxic wastes and pollutants, catch and reduce silt from streambeds and pathogens from agricultural watersheds, as well as control insect populations, and generally enhance the health of our forests, gardens and bodies. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • Stamets also shared a method for getting rid of common household insects using a green mold fungus called metarhizium, how mushrooms can be used to prevent Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) of honey bees, and the medicinal uses of turkey tail mushrooms. (coasttocoastam.com)
  • Fungi, such as modern mushrooms, mold, and yeast is a member of the group of eukaryotic organisms. (forbes.com)
  • When I first met Paul Stamets, a mycologist who has spent more than three decades hunting, studying, and tripping on mushrooms, he had found only two of these unusual fungi, each time by accident-or, as he might put it, divine intervention. (motherjones.com)
  • Mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi are all members of this group, as are the plant rusts and smuts. (sparknotes.com)
  • The mushrooms that people collect are just the fruiting bodies which some fungi produce in order to manufacture spores for sexual reproduction. (economist.com)
  • Only their asexual form of reproduction is known, meaning that these fungi produce their spores asexually, in the process called sporogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because most fungi are classified based on characteristics of the fruiting bodies and spores produced during sexual reproduction, and members of the Deutromycota have only been observed to reproduce asexually or produce no spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many fungi reproduce by creating fruiting bodies that produce spores, which are later dispersed. (wired.com)
  • Fungi are found in almost any habitat, including the International Space Station (ISS), where they were found to decompose food, with some spores surviving 5 months in microgravity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Plants are producers, using the energy of the sun to make seeds, cones, and spores to reproduce, while fungi are decomposers that break down decaying matter. (nwf.org)
  • Fungi create a fruiting body, the part of the mushroom we see aboveground that release spores to reproduce. (nwf.org)
  • Microscopic spores infiltrate the host via the spiracles - the holes in the exoskeleton through which insects breathe - and the fungus begins feeding on its non-vital organs. (scienceblogs.com)
  • fungus Any of a wide variety of organisms of the kingdom Fungi, which are unable to photosynthesize and which reproduce by means of spores and never produce cells with flagella. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What is called a mushroom is merely the temporary structure some fungi grow to produce spores. (motherearthnews.com)
  • The fungus dries out for periods of time, then spreads its spores when soaked with water. (ehow.com)
  • Witches butter is part of the Jelly fungi family, which are fungus that dry hard then grow by setting out new spores when soaked with water. (ehow.com)
  • However, Fungi are found just about everywhere in the world because their spores, both sexual and asexual, are produced in large numbers and have evolved interesting mechanisms by which they disperse their spores. (hawaii.edu)
  • How Many Spores do Fungi Produce? (hawaii.edu)
  • Ganoderma applanatum , the Artist Fungus (Fig. 3), a bracket fungus, produces a perennial fruiting body, which may disperse approximately 30 billion spores a day and maintain this rate for a five month period. (hawaii.edu)
  • And while the number of spores produced by microscopic fungi are not of this magnitude, they are nevertheless still significant in the numbers that are produced. (hawaii.edu)
  • These dots are the sporangia containing spores of this fungus. (hawaii.edu)
  • The sterile fungi, or mycelia sterilia are a group of fungi that do not produce any known spores, either sexual or asexual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these fungi do not produce spores, it is impossible to use traditional methods of morphological comparison to classify them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fantastic Fungi is a descriptive time-lapse journey about the magical, mysterious and medicinal world of fungi and their power to heal, sustain and contribute to the regeneration of life on Earth that began 3.5 billion years ago. (imdb.com)
  • Fantastic Fungi is never uninteresting, and often startling in the natural beauty it reveals. (rottentomatoes.com)
  • I]t edges a little too close to being a commercial, but that's a nitpick when the totality of "Fantastic Fungi" is so entertaining, informative and appealingly hopeful about the hard-working cure-all for our ailing world lying beneath our feet. (rottentomatoes.com)
  • Using time-lapse macro cinematography, Fantastic Fungi is simply mesmerizing, captivating you, as you find yourself forgetting to breathe. (rottentomatoes.com)
  • Louie Schwartzberg's lightly informative, delightfully kooky documentary, "Fantastic Fungi," offers nothing less than a model for planetary survival. (rottentomatoes.com)
  • Fantastic Fungi makes the case that the answers to disease, anxiety, depression and global warming might be found underfoot. (rottentomatoes.com)
  • Digital download of 'Fantastic Fungi: Reimagine' double CD album, behind-the-scenes updates, and our deepest gratitude for being part of the mycelial network! (kickstarter.com)
  • Download the digital 2-disc album 'Fantastic Fungi: Reimagine' plus the full feature film! (kickstarter.com)
  • First edition of double-disc CD 'Fantastic Fungi: Reimagine' plus digital album download! (kickstarter.com)
  • This reward gives you the physical double-disc CD 'Fantastic Fungi: Reimagine' plus digital downloads of both the album and film. (kickstarter.com)
  • Grow your own mycelium with Ecovative Design's 'GIY' kit, plus receive the first edition 'Fantastic Fungi: Reimagine' double CD (physical), plus digital downloads of both the film and album! (kickstarter.com)
  • Retrieved on September 19, 2019 from https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Cell-to-Cell-Communication-in-Fungi.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • It should also be noted that some organisms carry the name of mold or fungus, but are NOT classified in the Kingdom Fungi. (berkeley.edu)
  • Fungi are an enormous group of organisms that are neither plants nor animals. (arkive.org)
  • The kingdom Fungi is one of the most diverse groups, ranging from one-celled yeasts to actually the largest and oldest organisms on earth. (wur.nl)
  • Finding fungi that lived twice that long ago, 1 billion years ago, is important for the inferences we can make on the rest of the living organisms during that time. (forbes.com)
  • Fungi that receive their food from living organisms are called parasites. (prezi.com)
  • All pictures and documents presented on this site are copyrighted by Paul Stamets and Fungi Perfecti LLC, all rights reserved, unless otherwise noted. (fungi.com)
  • For over 30 years, Fungi Perfecti has offered a wealth of innovative gifts for the mushroom lover, from the practical to the extravagant. (fungi.com)
  • That's one of the many reasons why Fungi Perfecti uses 100% organic cotton for all of our cotton T shirts, and a mixture of 100% organic cotton and recycled plastic fibers in products such as hats, sweatshirts and other mushroom gifts that consist of mixed materials. (fungi.com)
  • Please update your links and bookmarks to the new Other Pathogenic Fungi web page. (cdc.gov)
  • The emergent virulent strains appear adept at steering the host immune response from a protective Th1 type response towards a Th2 bias, a feature shared with some pathogenic fungi. (medscape.com)
  • Literature from these two distinct fields of research are reviewed to propose that the emergent virulent strains of M. tuberculosis are in the process of convergent evolution with pathogenic fungi, and are increasing the prominence of conserved traits from environmental phylogenetic ancestors that facilitate their evasion of host defenses and dissemination. (medscape.com)
  • [ 19 ] If indeed there is a causative link between more virulent strains and the lack of a protective response by the host, some of the features that may facilitate this bear comparison with shared features in pathogenic fungi. (medscape.com)
  • Casadevall A (2007) Determinants of virulence in the pathogenic fungi. (springer.com)
  • these are the Deuteromycota (fungi imperfecti), and the lichens. (berkeley.edu)
  • Unlike other fungi, the lichens are not a single organism, but rather a symbiotic association between a fungus and an alga. (berkeley.edu)
  • The project, which was described in the journal Astrobiology in December, is part of an experiment known as the "Lichens and Fungi Experiment. (csmonitor.com)
  • Fungi have adopted the most varied modes of life, ranging from cooperation and mutual benefit, as is the case with the lichens, to the exploitation of dead plants, and even a wide variety of parasites and germs. (wiesbaden.de)
  • Some of these fungi also undergo lichen-like associations with photoautotrophs or benefit from growing on lichens. (springer.com)
  • Neither plants nor animals, fungi belong to a group of their own. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The delicate and complex relationships between fungi and green plants make these gourmet treats difficult to grow commercially. (independent.com)
  • Plants and fungi are naturally organized into communities called biomes. (nwf.org)
  • Plants and fungi are essential to life on earth-key components of the planet's ecology, biodiversity, climate, and human cultures. (fieldmuseum.org)
  • The fungus infects mustard plants and completely changes their 'behavior' to facilitate its own reproduction. (scienceblogs.com)
  • There, he researched the coevolution of plants and fungi. (sciencemag.org)
  • At Imperial, Bidartondo gives postgraduate lectures on fungi, ecology, and conservation, whereas at Kew, he does research related to his graduate work, studying the coevolution of plants and fungi. (sciencemag.org)
  • They might look nasty or alien, but this fungus isn't poisonous or harmful to plants or people. (pennlive.com)
  • Scientists recently found one billion-year-old fungi in Canada, changing the way we view evolution and the timing of plants and animals here on Earth. (forbes.com)
  • If fungi existed one billion years ago, based on the similarities in the domain Eukaryota, it is likely that other plants and animals existed during that time as well. (forbes.com)
  • This changes scientists vision of early life on Earth and makes an important point that modern life (plants, animals, fungi) have been around much longer than previously thought. (forbes.com)
  • By far the largest contributor to biomass is plants, making up 80 percent, with bacteria coming in second at 13 percent and fungi in third at 2 percent. (forbes.com)
  • BOSTON, June 26- A fungus is killing cranberry plants in nearly 10 percent of the bogs in Massachusetts, and state officials say they fear it could spread. (nytimes.com)
  • The fungus, which attacks the roots of cranberry plants, has not been found in other plants in Massachusetts, but officials are watching high-bush blueberries, said Frank Caruso, a state plant pathologist. (nytimes.com)
  • The fungus usually is found in tropical and subtropical areas, where it has attacked 950 kinds of plants. (nytimes.com)
  • Unlike other plants, fungi cell walls are budded together by a fibrous substance known as Chitin. (bibalex.org)
  • When plants make symbioses with these fungi they tend to grow larger because the fungi acquire the essential nutrient phosphate for the plant. (redorbit.com)
  • Plants are under constant pressure from fungi and other microorganisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • It plays a similar role in the cell walls of fungi as cellulose does in plants. (eurekalert.org)
  • These fungi have partnerships with other orgaisims - usually plants or protists. (prezi.com)
  • Most of the time, they cover the roots of plants which increases the surface area available for the absorption of nutrients and the fungus receives sugar from the plant. (prezi.com)
  • Scientists used to consider fungi to be part of the plant kingdom, but now put them in a kingdom of their own: they cannot synthesise their own food, and differ from plants fundamentally in their biochemistry and structure. (economist.com)
  • Many of the larger fungi are mycorrhizal, feeding off the roots of trees and plants and in turn helping their hosts to absorb essential nutrients. (economist.com)
  • Although more common in humid climates, plant fungus can be a problem in many climates for plants, vegetables, trees and other plants. (ehow.com)
  • First Rays LLC's website recommends using a solution made with cinnamon and alcohol for fungal infections on plants, including fungi that result in damping off of seedlings and deflasked seedlings. (ehow.com)
  • Spray the mixture on infected plants every morning until the fungus subsides. (ehow.com)
  • When I was an undergraduate and long before that time, Fungi were classified as plants. (hawaii.edu)
  • While we no longer classify them as such, Fungi and plants have one characteristic in common that should be addressed. (hawaii.edu)
  • Thus, individual plants and Fungi must spend their entire lives rooted in one place. (hawaii.edu)
  • This may not sound interesting and even boring, but this is actually the most interesting quality of plants and Fungi. (hawaii.edu)
  • Armillaria which contains the honey agaric , A . mellea ( Fig. 7-4) and the mushroom root rot fungus A. tabescens . (angelfire.com)
  • A new site is http://www.mushroom-central.com/ Besides other functionality, this site has a forum dedicated to Australian fungi. (google.com)
  • With its exceptionally long stem this woodland fungus is a very stately mushroom indeed, and it is often seen at Gunby in large numbers, either in arcs or even complete fairy rings, sometimes many metres in diameter. (nationaltrust.org.uk)
  • A basidiomycete fungus lacking a specific cap protein also lacked SPC, resulting in stunted mushroom formation. (news-medical.net)
  • This lends support to the theory that the septal pores have an important role in development in filamentous fungi and not just in limiting damage and cytoplasmic bleeding. (news-medical.net)
  • Like all fungi, Basidiomycota can undergo both asexual and sexual reproduction. (sparknotes.com)
  • The clavarioid fungi are a group of fungi in the Basidiomycota typically having erect, simple or branched basidiocarps (fruit bodies) that are formed on the ground, on decaying vegetation, or on dead wood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exhibition entitled "Fungi - Food, Poison and Mythology" will be running at Museum Wiesbaden from 11 June to 5 August 2018. (wiesbaden.de)
  • The exhibition entitled "Fungi - Food, Poison and Mythology" will be running at Museum Wiesbaden until 5 August 2018. (wiesbaden.de)
  • The fungus feeds on the agricultural waste for some weeks, growing to form entangled mycelia (1) , which are placed in a mold to produce the needed shape. (bibalex.org)
  • Predatory fungi have mycelia that are specialized structures for trapping prey. (prezi.com)
  • In Michigan, new research from Michigan State University, and published in the journal eLife, presents evidence that algae could have piggybacked on fungi to leave the water and to colonize the land, over 500 million years ago. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Brunauer G, Blaha J, Hager A, Turk R, Stocker-Worgotter E, Grube M (2007) An isolated lichenicolous fungus forms lichenoid structures when co-cultured with various coccoid algae. (springer.com)
  • Certainly with as many as 60 different *varieties* of fungus actually being different sexual and asexual stages, coming close to a final total is going to be problematic. (bio.net)
  • Fluconazole not only selects for resistance mutations, but can also lead to changes in the genome that make the normally asexual fungus "mating-competent", thereby enabling the cells to combine individually acquired resistance mechanisms and produce highly resistant offspring. (eurekalert.org)
  • Waxcaps are a group of fungi that have thick gills, watery flesh and a waxy texture. (arkive.org)
  • Went for a walk in the local woods yesterday(version 2) and found this little group of fungi ,but do not know what it is called, can any one help me please? (ephotozine.com)
  • Hard-bracket fungi live on dead heartwood and only enter trees late in their lives. (newscientist.com)
  • The sulphur polypore fungus is a type of pore fungi often referred to as bracket fungi because of their bracket or shelf-like appearance. (ehow.com)
  • After sending tiny fungi that typically live in the Antarctic rocks to the International Space Station (ISS) for experiments, European scientists found they were able to survive in conditions similar to those on Mars. (csmonitor.com)
  • Then he started searching for graduate schools with scientists who studied fungi. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mycologists such as Bidartondo are a rare breed, and the demand for fungi scientists is relatively small. (sciencemag.org)
  • Such predictions can help scientists better understand the effects of climate change on microbes like fungi and vice versa. (yaledailynews.com)
  • We all have nearly 200 different types of fungi colonising our feet, scientists have discovered. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The fungi was found in a Pakistani trash dump by Chinese scientists last year. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • In the UK, an international team of researchers, including scientists from the University of York, has discovered a set of enzymes found in fungi that are capable of breaking down one of the main components of wood. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • This rapidly emerging disease, and the chytrid fungus that causes it, have forced scientists to scramble to learn more. (usgs.gov)
  • A recent collaboration by researchers at Yale and other institutions sheds light on how fungi decay wood. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Contrary to the traditional scientific understanding, researchers discovered that the mere knowledge of abiotic, or nonliving, conditions is insufficient to predict how fungi will decay wood. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The fungi's primary concern is surviving against the overgrowth of their neighbors, so the interactions between fungi are much more effective in predicting wood decomposition than the small changes in the climate the researchers applied. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The fossilized fungi were analyzed and researchers found the presence of chitin, a unique substance that is found on the cell walls of fungi. (forbes.com)
  • Now researchers fear the new fungus, discovered in 2013 and called B. salamandrivorans , or Bs, could massacre many of the salamanders lucky enough to escape Bd. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • In Sweden, wastes become resources in the project Ways2Taste, where researchers at the University of Borås are developing methods for growing fungi on material that would otherwise have become waste. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • In California, in findings published in the journal Nature Microbiology, researchers from the University of California Santa Barbara and more than 20 co-investigators describe a new complex of enzymes discovered in herbivore gut fungi that may have applications in sustainable fuels and chemicals. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • NAU researchers look at fungi and climate change FLAGSTAFF - News may not be so gloomy for certain types of trees, including pinyon pine and juniper, predicted to go extinct because of climate change. (azcentral.com)
  • Nail fungus is an infection of either the toenail or fingernail that is caused by a fungus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Statistics indicate that nail fungus affects 3 to 35 million Americans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An injury or trauma to a nail can also increase the chance of developing nail fungus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because nail fungus is most likely to afflict those individuals with a weakened immune system , vulnerable to infections of all kinds, it is also more likely to occur in the older adult population, especially those who are diabetic. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Women are likely to have nail infections probably due to the use of fingernail polish, but men seem to have a higher incidence of nail fungus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Though not proven, some professionals believe nail fungus development may have hereditary implications because resistance to fungal infection has a genetic component. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The type that causes nail fungus belongs to a group known as dermatophytes . (encyclopedia.com)
  • At these sites nail fungus finds a welcome environment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Moreover, shoes provide dark, warm, and moist environments for nail fungus, which fares worse when exposed to light and air. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Symptoms of nail fungus might at first be subtle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once the symptoms of nail fungus appear, a physician or medical professional will scrape the nail to abstract a culture for microscopic examination to confirm that it is a fungus and to determine what type it is in order to prescribe the most effective medication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Careful observation is crucial to noticing the changes that might indicate a person has nail fungus and to get it treated as soon as possible in order to avoid permanent damage to nails or secondary skin infections that might occur due to the nail fungus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If not treated properly, nail fungus infections will recur in the nails or in other parts of the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In order to treat nail fungus effectively, anti-fungal medicines that are available only by prescription are used. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What are the side effects of the oral medications for nail fungus? (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the Middle Ages the nail fungus, Poronia punctata , which grows on horse droppings, was extremely common. (economist.com)
  • Not being knowledgable in the identification of them, I can't say what they were, except that I saw gilled and pore types, puffballs, and perhaps one white jelly fungus. (bio.net)
  • A member of the jelly fungus family it soaks up water in order to multiply. (ehow.com)
  • Yellow jelly fungus is one-quarter to one-half inch wide with a yellow-orange round-oval jelly-like top and small slender stem. (ehow.com)
  • The yellow jelly fungus grows in small clusters on conifers on the West Coast of the United States and Canada and around the Northern Great Lakes region. (ehow.com)
  • Unless we come up with a way to control this deadly fungus now, we're convinced that it would eventually take its toll on most, if not all, of the cranberry bogs in the state,'' August Schumacher Jr., secretary of the Department of Food and Agriculture, said recently. (nytimes.com)
  • The Deuteromycota includes all fungi which have lost the ability to reproduce sexually. (berkeley.edu)
  • Because the fungus can also reproduce asexually, by producing an outgrowth that separates into a new individual, "the key question raised was, why have sex if there was no preexisting genetic diversity to mix up in the offspring? (sciencemag.org)
  • However, few realize that over 300 million people suffer from serious fungal-related diseases, or that fungi collectively kill over 1.6 million people annually 1 , which is more than malaria and similar to the tuberculosis death toll. (nature.com)
  • Firstly, the fungus infects the plant as a whole, stealing nutrients and generally acting like a parasite. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Fungi feed by secreting digestive enzymes on food and then absorbing the nutrients through their cell membranes (extracellular digestion). (prezi.com)
  • There are four ways to classify fungi based of the way they obtain nutrients. (prezi.com)
  • Fungi producing the antibiotic penicillin and those that cause athlete's foot and yeast infections are algal fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • When normal balances that are responsible for keeping fungi in check are upset, localized fungal infections can occur. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fungal diseases often stem from common fungi found in the environment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fungus was also found to be flourishing on polyurethane surfaces. (infoplease.com)
  • The fossilized specimen was collected in Canada's Arctic by an international team and later identified to be the oldest fungi ever found, sitting somewhere between 900 million and 1 billion years old. (forbes.com)
  • Sixty acres of the 12,000 acres of cranberries in the state are severely infected, and the fungus has been found in an additional 1,100 acres, officials said. (nytimes.com)
  • Gehring also has found that the fungi associated with drought tolerance are becoming more common across the landscape, which could be a good sign for the survival and proliferation of trees that can weather climate change. (azcentral.com)
  • The institute found the fungus to be extraordinarily active against XDR-TB , a rare type of tuberculosis that is resistant to even the most effective drug treatments. (motherjones.com)
  • That's how I found fungi. (motherjones.com)
  • The entry ports for some of these dangerous fungi are small pores, the stomata, which are found in large numbers on the plant leaves. (eurekalert.org)
  • Global warming is inducing rapid poleward movement of crop fungal pathogens, and may also increase the prevalence of fungal disease in humans as fungi adapt to survival in warmer temperatures 4 . (nature.com)
  • There are plenty of other fungi/green plant associations that humans don't notice or enjoy for dinner, but they are a major key to healthy gardens. (independent.com)
  • Fungi are also extremely important to humans, and their conservation is vital for the health of the world's ecosystems. (arkive.org)
  • Ergosterol fulfils similar important functions in fungi as cholesterol in humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • That a homely, humble fungus could fight off virulent diseases like smallpox and TB might seem odd, until one realizes that even though the animal kingdom branched off from the fungi kingdom around 650 million years ago, humans and fungi still have nearly half of their DNA in common and are susceptible to many of the same infections. (motherjones.com)
  • They withered instead, and the banks stayed empty - until the team prepared the next batch to be planted by first soaking their roots in a broth containing certain fungi. (motherearthnews.com)
  • The biggest difference: fungi, or the types of fungal communities that cling to the roots of trees. (azcentral.com)
  • There are numerous options for mycologists in [agriculture], and the same can be said for the health sector or applied fields where fungi cause problems and spoilage in produce or reduce the quality of life. (sciencemag.org)
  • These fungi use sexual reproduction not just to mix up already existing genetic diversity, but to actually produce it from scratch. (sciencemag.org)
  • The vast majority of fungi are saprophytic, feeding on dead organic material, and as such are harmless and often beneficial. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Even the dreaded mould fungi are beneficial in the development of antibiotics that are vital for our survival. (wiesbaden.de)
  • Other, more informal names besides Deuteromycota ("Deuteromycetes") and fungi imperfecti are anamorphic fungi , or mitosporic fungi , but these are terms without taxonomic rank. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Fungi imperfecti/Deuteromycota is no longer formally accepted as a taxon , many of the fungi it included have yet to find a place in modern fungal classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, in comparison to the threat from drug-resistant bacterial infections or viral outbreaks, diseases caused by fungi, fungal drug resistance and the development of new antifungal therapeutics gets little coverage. (nature.com)
  • Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. (nih.gov)
  • dimorphic fungi (Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides spp. (nih.gov)
  • Saprophytic fungi feed on dead plant and animal remains. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Field Museum botanists are leaders in the study of plant and fungi evolution, ecology, biogeography, environmental/climate impact, plant-animal interactions, and more. (fieldmuseum.org)
  • The guard cells also function in plant defense: they use special receptors to recognise attacking fungi. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fungi that try to penetrate the plant via open stomata betray themselves through their chitin covering," says Hedrich. (eurekalert.org)
  • The journal eLife describes in detail how the plant recognizes fungi and the molecular signalling chain via which the chitin triggers the closure of the stomata. (eurekalert.org)
  • In parts of a mycelial network where phosphorus was scarce, the plant paid a higher "price," supplying more carbon to the fungus for every unit of phosphorus it received. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • The fungus actively transported phosphorus - using its dynamic microtubule "motors" - from areas of abundance, where it fetched a low price when exchanged with a plant root, to areas of scarcity, where it was in higher demand and fetched a higher price. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • By doing so, the fungus was able to transfer a greater proportion of its phosphorus to the plant at the more favorable exchange rate, thus receiving larger quantities of carbon in return. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • In many cases, the best cure is to prevent fungus by ensuring plant health and keeping water from collecting on leaves, branches, trunks and stems. (ehow.com)
  • The study defines the normal populations of fungi across the skin, which provides a framework for investigating fungal skin conditions. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The chytrid fungus has been linked to large die-offs within amphibian populations and is prevalent on at least four continents. (usgs.gov)
  • First, our own Damon Rundberg will sit down with USGS amphibian ecologist Mike Adams and discuss what the chytrid fungus is, how it affects amphibian populations, and what impact it has had in Oregon. (usgs.gov)
  • For this segment we will be speaking with U.S. Geological Survey amphibian ecologist Mike Adams about his work on the chytrid fungus and its effect on amphibian populations. (usgs.gov)
  • Fungi of all kinds described by science so far add up to well over 70,000 already, and new discoveries are being added at the rate of about 1,700 a year. (economist.com)
  • If his method is right, it suggests that over 95% of all the fungi in the world are still unknown to science. (economist.com)