KuwaitFungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Miconazole: An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.Trichosporonosis: Fungal infections caused by TRICHOSPORON that may become systemic especially in an IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST. Clinical manifestations range from superficial cutaneous infections to systemic lesions in multiple organs.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Catheter-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Candidemia: A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.

Serum is more suitable than whole blood for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis by nested PCR. (1/619)

PCR assays for the diagnosis of systemic candidiasis can be performed either on serum or on whole blood, but results obtained with the two kinds of samples have never been formally compared. Thus we designed a nested PCR assay in which five specific inner pairs of primers were used to amplify specific targets on the rRNA genes of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata. In vitro, the lower limit of detection of each nested PCR assay was 1 fg of purified DNA from the corresponding Candida species. In rabbits with candidemia of 120 minutes' duration following intravenous (i.v.) injection of 10(8) CFU of C. albicans, the sensitivities of the PCR in serum and whole blood were not significantly different (93 versus 86%). In other rabbits, injected with only 10(5) CFU of C. albicans, detection of candidemia by culture was possible for only 1 min, whereas DNA could be detected by PCR in whole blood and in serum for 15 and 150 min, respectively. PCR was more often positive in serum than in whole blood in 40 culture-negative samples (27 versus 7%; P < 0.05%). Lastly, experiments with rabbits injected i.v. with 20 or 200 microgram of purified C. albicans DNA showed that PCRs were positive in serum from 30 to at least 120 min after injection, suggesting that the clearance of free DNA is slow. These results suggest that serum is the sample of choice, which should be used preferentially over whole blood for the diagnosis of systemic candidiasis by PCR.  (+info)

Candidemia at selected Canadian sites: results from the Fungal Disease Registry, 1992-1994. Fungal Disease Registry of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society. (2/619)

BACKGROUND: Candida species are important bloodstream pathogens that are being isolated with increasing frequency. Despite the availability of effective antifungal therapy, the mortality rate associated with Candida infection remains high. With the objective of describing the epidemiology of candidemia, the Canadian Infectious Disease Society conducted a study of candidemia in Canada. METHODS: Fourteen medical centres across Canada identified all patients with candidemia from March 1992 to February 1994 through blood culture surveillance for Candida spp. Patient-related data for invasive fungal infection were compiled retrospectively by chart review using a standardized data-recording form developed for the Fungal Disease Registry of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society. Cases of Candidemia were studied in relation to underlying medical conditions, predisposing factors, concurrent infection, antimicrobial agents, antifungal treatment and deaths. RESULTS: In total, 415 cases of candidemia were identified, 48 (11.6%) in children and 367 (88.4%) in adults. The causative pathogens were C. albicans in 286 cases (68.9%), C. parapsilosis in 43 (10.4%), C. glabrata in 34 (8.2%), C. tropicalis in 27 (6.5%) and other Candida species in 18 (4.3%); polymicrobial candidemia occurred in 7 cases (1.7%). The overall mortality rate was 46%, and the rate of deaths clinically related to candidemia was 19%. However, only 13 (27%) of the children died. A univariate analysis indicated that significant risk factors for death were age greater than 60 years, therapy for concomitant bacterial infection, stay in an intensive care unit, concurrent malignant disease, cytotoxic chemotherapy and granulocytopenia, although only age and stay in an intensive care unit emerged as significant risk factors in the multivariate analysis. After adjustment for other predictors of death, only infection with C. parapsilosis was associated with a lower mortality rate than infection with C. albicans. Treatment was given in 352 (84.8%) of cases. Amphotericin B was the preferred agent in 244 cases (69.3% of those treated); fluconazole was used in 101 cases (28.7%) and ketoconazole in 5 cases (1.4%). INTERPRETATION: Candidemia in Canada is caused predominantly by C. albicans. The mortality rate associated with candidemia is high, but it varies with the species of Candida and is lower in children than in adults. Age greater than 60 years and stay in an intensive care unit were the most significant risk factors for overall mortality.  (+info)

Candida dubliniensis candidemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and bone marrow transplantation. (3/619)

The recently described species Candida dubliniensis has been recovered primarily from superficial oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. No clinically documented invasive infections were reported until now in this patient group or in other immunocompromised patients. We report three cases of candidemia due to this newly emerging Candida species in HIV-negative patients with chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression and bone marrow transplantation.  (+info)

Bloodstream infections can develop late (after day 100) and/or in the absence of neutropenia in children receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (4/619)

We retrospectively evaluated the incidence and time from transplantation of bloodstream infections occurring in children receiving bone marrow transplant (BMT) at G Gaslini Children's Hospital between September 1984 and December 1997. During this period the incidence was 35% after allogeneic and 26% after autologous BMT (P=0.08). Among these episodes, 38% after allogeneic BMT and 90% after autologous BMT were detected in the presence of neutropenia within the first 30 days from reinfusion (P < 0.001). Incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections was 40% after allogeneic and 8% after autologous BMT (P < 0.001). Bloodstream infections in the absence of neutropenia were 55% after allogeneic BMT vs 10% after autologous BMT (P < 0.001) and occurred later after reinfusion (mean 199 vs 41 days, P <0.001). Among the episodes occurring after allogeneic BMT and in the absence of neutropenia, 61% were related to the presence of a central venous catheter, 15% were related to the presence of GVHD, but 23% were not associated with any of major risk factors for infection. Finally, 38% of episodes following allogeneic BMT were detected after day 100 vs 1% after autologous BMT. We concluded that patients receiving allogeneic BMT experience a high incidence of bloodstream infections in the absence of neutropenia and that a significant proportion of these episodes is not clearly associated with well known risk factors such as GVHD or central venous catheters. Moreover, many episodes develop a long time after the transplantation procedure. Therefore, any febrile episode following allogeneic BMT even late and/or in the absence of neutropenia should be intensively managed.  (+info)

Controlled clinical comparison of bioMerieux VITAL and BACTEC NR-660 blood culture systems for detection of bacteremia and fungemia in adults. (5/619)

A total of 9,446 blood cultures were collected from adult patients at three university-affiliated hospitals. Of these, 8,943 cultures were received with both aerobic bottles filled adequately; 885 yielded 1,016 microorganisms, including 622 isolates (61%) that were the cause of sepsis, 337 isolates (33%) that were contaminants, and 57 isolates (6%) that were indeterminate as the cause of sepsis. With the exception of Staphylococcus aureus, which was recovered more often from VITAL aerobic bottles, more pathogenic microorganisms were recovered from BACTEC NR6 (aerobic) bottles than from VITAL aerobic bottles. Growth of pathogenic microorganisms was detected earlier in VITAL aerobic bottles. A total of 8,647 blood cultures were received with both anaerobic bottles filled adequately; 655 yielded 740 microorganisms, including 486 isolates (66%) that were the cause of sepsis, 215 isolates (29%) that were contaminants, and 39 isolates (6%) that were indeterminate as the cause of sepsis. More pathogenic microorganisms were recovered from VITAL anaerobic bottles than from BACTEC NR7 (anaerobic) bottles. Growth of pathogenic microorganisms was detected earlier in VITAL anaerobic bottles. In 8,500 sets all four bottles were received adequately filled. When paired aerobic and anaerobic bottle sets (systems) were compared, more pathogenic microorganisms (again with the exception of S. aureus) were recovered from the BACTEC system. For the 304 septic episodes (253 unimicrobial and 51 polymicrobial), significantly more were detected by the BACTEC system. We conclude that VITAL requires modification to improve recovery of pathogenic microorganisms to make it competitive with other commercially available blood culture systems.  (+info)

Simple strategy for direct identification of medically important yeast species from positive blood culture vials. (6/619)

We compared direct inoculation of the Auxacolor yeast identification system from positive blood culture vials to standard identification with the API 20C AUX (API 20C), using 44 prospectively collected clinical specimens and 25 seeded blood culture vials. Direct inoculation of the Auxacolor system was accurate and more rapid than standard identification with the API 20C.  (+info)

In vitro susceptibilities of Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from blood cultures of neutropenic patients. (7/619)

Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans and intrinsically fluconazole-resistant Candida species have been reported as bloodstream isolates. However, an association between the isolation of fluconazole-resistant Candida from the bloodstream and patient risk factors for fungemia has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of fluconazole resistance in bloodstream isolates of Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans collected from patients with neutropenia, one of the most important risk factors for fungemia. MICs of voriconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B, and flucytosine were determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-A method (1997). Voriconazole, on a per-weight basis, was the most active azole tested. Fluconazole resistance (MIC >/= 64 microg/ml) was not identified in any of the C. albicans (n = 513), Candida parapsilosis (n = 78), Candida tropicalis (n = 62), or C. neoformans (n = 38) isolates tested.  (+info)

Fever and human immunodeficiency virus infection as sentinels for emerging mycobacterial and fungal bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients >/=15 years old, Bangkok. (8/619)

To determine the etiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in hospitalized patients >/=15 years old in Thailand, prospectively enrolled, consecutive febrile (>/=38 degrees C) patients were admitted to one hospital during February-April 1997. After a patient history was taken and a physical examination was performed, blood was obtained for comprehensive culture and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Of 246 study patients, 119 (48%) had BSIs, and 182 (74%) were infected with HIV. The 2 most common pathogens were Cryptococcus neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (30 and 27 patients, respectively). HIV-positive patients were more likely than HIV-negative patients to have mycobacteremia (57/182 vs. 0/64, P<. 0001), fungemia (38/182 vs. 2/64, P<.001), or polymicrobial BSIs (19/182 vs. 0/64, P<.002). Clinical predictors of BSIs included HIV infection, chronic diarrhea, lymphadenopathy, or splenomegaly. Mortality was higher among patients with than those without BSIs (P<. 001). Cohort-based microbiologic studies are critically important to diagnose emerging pathogens and to develop algorithms for empirical treatment of BSIs in developing countries.  (+info)

  • To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we describe here the microbiological and clinical features of bloodstream isolates of C. auris , with an emphasis on their antifungal resistance and poor outcome due to persistent fungemia, despite therapy. (asm.org)
  • She spent four months in the hospital after suffering a right colonic volvulus complicated by fungemia , sepsis, and Clostridium difficile. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • frequently associated with fungemia by using PCR and the microarray-based Prove-it Sepsis assay. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here, we report on a retrospective study that explored the range of clinically important nosocomial pathogens in NICU infants, and the risk factors associated with fungemia in a tertiary hospital in Shenzhen, China. (alliedacademies.org)
  • basitruncatum fungemia in a patient with acute leukemia, the only example of a clinical strain in the clade with monomorphic Graphium species showing association with bark beetle communities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Candida krusei fungemia in an immunocompromised patient. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We describe a case of cryptococcal fungemia in a 62-year-old male renal transplant patient. (ebscohost.com)
  • Significance of in-vitro differences on patient outcomes and efficacy of FLU for C. glabrata fungemia (Cg) remains unknown. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • We report here a fatal Japanese case of Cryptococcus neoformans fungemia related to HBV cirrhosis in an elderly patient with pleural effusion and ascites. (hindawi.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Fungemia due to Trichosporon mucoides in a diabetes mellitus patient: A rare case report. (who.int)
  • We report a 5 years old neutropenic patient with acute myeloid leukemia treated with multiple courses of chemotherapy, with a fungemia caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus (PL). His initial clinical course was characterized by fever, skin lesions, respiratory distress and shock. (scielo.cl)
  • The patient had pneumonia and fungemia, and multisystem organ failure developed. (cdc.gov)
  • Vegunta R, Vegunta R, Kutti Sridharan G (September 05, 2019) Secondary Aortoduodenal Fistula Presenting as Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Fungemia. (cureus.com)
  • Treatment of T. marneffei fungemia is with liposomal amphotericin B induction for 2 weeks, followed by oral itraconazole therapy for 10 weeks. (cmaj.ca)
  • The present study being a retrospective one has not addressed specific risk factors, which plays a role in the selection of species causing fungemia as well as variable susceptibility patterns. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other NAC species, such as C. rugosa, C. kefyr, C. stellatoidea, C. norvegensis and C. famata are rare, accounting for less than 1% of fungaemias in man. (nih.gov)
  • uncommon candida species fungemia among cancer. (yeastinfectioncause.net)
  • The species responsible for the patient's fungemia was correctly identified after sequencing the internally transcribed spacer region and the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (26S) rDNA gene. (bvsalud.org)
  • Group B (documented fungemia at study entry): Fungal strains isolated from the initial positive blood culture are collected and undergo examination, including confirmation of species identification, susceptibility testing, and/or minimum inhibitory concentration determination. (knowcancer.com)
  • Epidemiology and outcome of fungemia in a cancer Cohort of the Infectious Diseases Group (IDG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC 65031). (scielosp.org)
  • The outcome was that of the 21 infants with fungemia, 19 were cured while two died. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The clinical significance of this in vitro resistant phenotype, the risk factors for, and the clinical presentation of C. lusitaniae fungemia in comparison with those of Candida albicans have not been completely characterized. (nih.gov)
  • Clinically, C. lusitaniae fungemia was more frequently associated with stem cell transplant and neutropenia. (nih.gov)
  • A special solid medium that can be used to determine the true prevalence of malassezia fungemia has been devised. (nih.gov)
  • Malassezia genus are the yeast that cause systemic disease like fungemia and are involved in other diseases such as dandruff , seborrheic dermatitis, onychomycosis, psoriasis, sinusitis, peritonitis, fungemia , blepharitis, folliculitis and inflammation of the lacrimal duct. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The infectious diseases service was consulted, and treatment of the T. marneffei fungemia was initiated with liposomal amphotericin B, 4 mg/kg daily for a 2-week induction period, followed by treatment-dose itraconazole, 200 mg administered orally twice daily for 10 weeks. (cmaj.ca)
  • Gaona-Flores V, Campos-Navarro L, Cervantes-Tovar R, Alcalá-Martínez E. The epidemiology of fungemia in an infectious diseases hospital in Mexico city: a 10-year retrospective review. (scielosp.org)
  • We report here the isolation of Lodderomyces elongisporus from the catheter of a suspected case of fungemia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We report a rare case of secondary aortoduodenal fistula following abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with aortobiiliac reconstruction presenting with a gastrointestinal (GI) bleed and complicated by fungemia. (cureus.com)
  • In this study, we report a case of fungemia with C. fabianii that was successfully treated with anidulafungin. (bvsalud.org)
  • We describe here the first reported case of community acquired fungemia due to Candida pulcherrima . (biomedcentral.com)
  • To our knowledge, we report here for the first time a case of community acquired fungemia due to C. pulcherrima . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter. (scielo.br)