The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.
Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal pathogens that can infect various tissues and organs, potentially leading to localized or systemic symptoms, depending on the immune status of the host.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Techniques used in microbiology.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
A normally saprophytic mitosporic Chaetothyriales fungal genus. Infections in humans include PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS; and PERITONITIS.. Exophiala jeanselmei (previously Phialophora jeanselmei) is an etiological agent of MYCETOMA.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Infection in humans and animals caused by fungi in the class Zygomycetes. It includes MUCORMYCOSIS and entomophthoramycosis. The latter is a tropical infection of subcutaneous tissue or paranasal sinuses caused by fungi in the order Entomophthorales. Phycomycosis, closely related to zygomycosis, describes infection with members of Phycomycetes, an obsolete classification.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Fungal infections caused by TRICHOSPORON that may become systemic especially in an IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST. Clinical manifestations range from superficial cutaneous infections to systemic lesions in multiple organs.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kuwait" is not a medical term that has a definition in the field of medicine. Kuwait is actually a country located in the Middle East, known officially as the State of Kuwait. It might be that you have confused it with a medical condition or term, if so, I would be happy to help clarify or provide information on that topic instead.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.

Serum is more suitable than whole blood for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis by nested PCR. (1/619)

PCR assays for the diagnosis of systemic candidiasis can be performed either on serum or on whole blood, but results obtained with the two kinds of samples have never been formally compared. Thus we designed a nested PCR assay in which five specific inner pairs of primers were used to amplify specific targets on the rRNA genes of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata. In vitro, the lower limit of detection of each nested PCR assay was 1 fg of purified DNA from the corresponding Candida species. In rabbits with candidemia of 120 minutes' duration following intravenous (i.v.) injection of 10(8) CFU of C. albicans, the sensitivities of the PCR in serum and whole blood were not significantly different (93 versus 86%). In other rabbits, injected with only 10(5) CFU of C. albicans, detection of candidemia by culture was possible for only 1 min, whereas DNA could be detected by PCR in whole blood and in serum for 15 and 150 min, respectively. PCR was more often positive in serum than in whole blood in 40 culture-negative samples (27 versus 7%; P < 0.05%). Lastly, experiments with rabbits injected i.v. with 20 or 200 microgram of purified C. albicans DNA showed that PCRs were positive in serum from 30 to at least 120 min after injection, suggesting that the clearance of free DNA is slow. These results suggest that serum is the sample of choice, which should be used preferentially over whole blood for the diagnosis of systemic candidiasis by PCR.  (+info)

Candidemia at selected Canadian sites: results from the Fungal Disease Registry, 1992-1994. Fungal Disease Registry of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society. (2/619)

BACKGROUND: Candida species are important bloodstream pathogens that are being isolated with increasing frequency. Despite the availability of effective antifungal therapy, the mortality rate associated with Candida infection remains high. With the objective of describing the epidemiology of candidemia, the Canadian Infectious Disease Society conducted a study of candidemia in Canada. METHODS: Fourteen medical centres across Canada identified all patients with candidemia from March 1992 to February 1994 through blood culture surveillance for Candida spp. Patient-related data for invasive fungal infection were compiled retrospectively by chart review using a standardized data-recording form developed for the Fungal Disease Registry of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society. Cases of Candidemia were studied in relation to underlying medical conditions, predisposing factors, concurrent infection, antimicrobial agents, antifungal treatment and deaths. RESULTS: In total, 415 cases of candidemia were identified, 48 (11.6%) in children and 367 (88.4%) in adults. The causative pathogens were C. albicans in 286 cases (68.9%), C. parapsilosis in 43 (10.4%), C. glabrata in 34 (8.2%), C. tropicalis in 27 (6.5%) and other Candida species in 18 (4.3%); polymicrobial candidemia occurred in 7 cases (1.7%). The overall mortality rate was 46%, and the rate of deaths clinically related to candidemia was 19%. However, only 13 (27%) of the children died. A univariate analysis indicated that significant risk factors for death were age greater than 60 years, therapy for concomitant bacterial infection, stay in an intensive care unit, concurrent malignant disease, cytotoxic chemotherapy and granulocytopenia, although only age and stay in an intensive care unit emerged as significant risk factors in the multivariate analysis. After adjustment for other predictors of death, only infection with C. parapsilosis was associated with a lower mortality rate than infection with C. albicans. Treatment was given in 352 (84.8%) of cases. Amphotericin B was the preferred agent in 244 cases (69.3% of those treated); fluconazole was used in 101 cases (28.7%) and ketoconazole in 5 cases (1.4%). INTERPRETATION: Candidemia in Canada is caused predominantly by C. albicans. The mortality rate associated with candidemia is high, but it varies with the species of Candida and is lower in children than in adults. Age greater than 60 years and stay in an intensive care unit were the most significant risk factors for overall mortality.  (+info)

Candida dubliniensis candidemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and bone marrow transplantation. (3/619)

The recently described species Candida dubliniensis has been recovered primarily from superficial oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. No clinically documented invasive infections were reported until now in this patient group or in other immunocompromised patients. We report three cases of candidemia due to this newly emerging Candida species in HIV-negative patients with chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression and bone marrow transplantation.  (+info)

Bloodstream infections can develop late (after day 100) and/or in the absence of neutropenia in children receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (4/619)

We retrospectively evaluated the incidence and time from transplantation of bloodstream infections occurring in children receiving bone marrow transplant (BMT) at G Gaslini Children's Hospital between September 1984 and December 1997. During this period the incidence was 35% after allogeneic and 26% after autologous BMT (P=0.08). Among these episodes, 38% after allogeneic BMT and 90% after autologous BMT were detected in the presence of neutropenia within the first 30 days from reinfusion (P < 0.001). Incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections was 40% after allogeneic and 8% after autologous BMT (P < 0.001). Bloodstream infections in the absence of neutropenia were 55% after allogeneic BMT vs 10% after autologous BMT (P < 0.001) and occurred later after reinfusion (mean 199 vs 41 days, P <0.001). Among the episodes occurring after allogeneic BMT and in the absence of neutropenia, 61% were related to the presence of a central venous catheter, 15% were related to the presence of GVHD, but 23% were not associated with any of major risk factors for infection. Finally, 38% of episodes following allogeneic BMT were detected after day 100 vs 1% after autologous BMT. We concluded that patients receiving allogeneic BMT experience a high incidence of bloodstream infections in the absence of neutropenia and that a significant proportion of these episodes is not clearly associated with well known risk factors such as GVHD or central venous catheters. Moreover, many episodes develop a long time after the transplantation procedure. Therefore, any febrile episode following allogeneic BMT even late and/or in the absence of neutropenia should be intensively managed.  (+info)

Controlled clinical comparison of bioMerieux VITAL and BACTEC NR-660 blood culture systems for detection of bacteremia and fungemia in adults. (5/619)

A total of 9,446 blood cultures were collected from adult patients at three university-affiliated hospitals. Of these, 8,943 cultures were received with both aerobic bottles filled adequately; 885 yielded 1,016 microorganisms, including 622 isolates (61%) that were the cause of sepsis, 337 isolates (33%) that were contaminants, and 57 isolates (6%) that were indeterminate as the cause of sepsis. With the exception of Staphylococcus aureus, which was recovered more often from VITAL aerobic bottles, more pathogenic microorganisms were recovered from BACTEC NR6 (aerobic) bottles than from VITAL aerobic bottles. Growth of pathogenic microorganisms was detected earlier in VITAL aerobic bottles. A total of 8,647 blood cultures were received with both anaerobic bottles filled adequately; 655 yielded 740 microorganisms, including 486 isolates (66%) that were the cause of sepsis, 215 isolates (29%) that were contaminants, and 39 isolates (6%) that were indeterminate as the cause of sepsis. More pathogenic microorganisms were recovered from VITAL anaerobic bottles than from BACTEC NR7 (anaerobic) bottles. Growth of pathogenic microorganisms was detected earlier in VITAL anaerobic bottles. In 8,500 sets all four bottles were received adequately filled. When paired aerobic and anaerobic bottle sets (systems) were compared, more pathogenic microorganisms (again with the exception of S. aureus) were recovered from the BACTEC system. For the 304 septic episodes (253 unimicrobial and 51 polymicrobial), significantly more were detected by the BACTEC system. We conclude that VITAL requires modification to improve recovery of pathogenic microorganisms to make it competitive with other commercially available blood culture systems.  (+info)

Simple strategy for direct identification of medically important yeast species from positive blood culture vials. (6/619)

We compared direct inoculation of the Auxacolor yeast identification system from positive blood culture vials to standard identification with the API 20C AUX (API 20C), using 44 prospectively collected clinical specimens and 25 seeded blood culture vials. Direct inoculation of the Auxacolor system was accurate and more rapid than standard identification with the API 20C.  (+info)

In vitro susceptibilities of Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from blood cultures of neutropenic patients. (7/619)

Fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans and intrinsically fluconazole-resistant Candida species have been reported as bloodstream isolates. However, an association between the isolation of fluconazole-resistant Candida from the bloodstream and patient risk factors for fungemia has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of fluconazole resistance in bloodstream isolates of Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans collected from patients with neutropenia, one of the most important risk factors for fungemia. MICs of voriconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B, and flucytosine were determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-A method (1997). Voriconazole, on a per-weight basis, was the most active azole tested. Fluconazole resistance (MIC >/= 64 microg/ml) was not identified in any of the C. albicans (n = 513), Candida parapsilosis (n = 78), Candida tropicalis (n = 62), or C. neoformans (n = 38) isolates tested.  (+info)

Fever and human immunodeficiency virus infection as sentinels for emerging mycobacterial and fungal bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients >/=15 years old, Bangkok. (8/619)

To determine the etiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in hospitalized patients >/=15 years old in Thailand, prospectively enrolled, consecutive febrile (>/=38 degrees C) patients were admitted to one hospital during February-April 1997. After a patient history was taken and a physical examination was performed, blood was obtained for comprehensive culture and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Of 246 study patients, 119 (48%) had BSIs, and 182 (74%) were infected with HIV. The 2 most common pathogens were Cryptococcus neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (30 and 27 patients, respectively). HIV-positive patients were more likely than HIV-negative patients to have mycobacteremia (57/182 vs. 0/64, P<. 0001), fungemia (38/182 vs. 2/64, P<.001), or polymicrobial BSIs (19/182 vs. 0/64, P<.002). Clinical predictors of BSIs included HIV infection, chronic diarrhea, lymphadenopathy, or splenomegaly. Mortality was higher among patients with than those without BSIs (P<. 001). Cohort-based microbiologic studies are critically important to diagnose emerging pathogens and to develop algorithms for empirical treatment of BSIs in developing countries.  (+info)

Fungemia is the presence of fungi (fungal organisms) in the blood. It's a type of bloodstream infection, which can be serious and life-threatening, particularly for people with weakened immune systems. The fungi that cause fungemia often enter the bloodstream through medical devices like catheters or from a fungal infection somewhere else in the body.

Fungemia is often associated with conditions like candidemia (caused by Candida species) and aspergillemia (caused by Aspergillus species). Symptoms can vary widely but often include fever, chills, and other signs of infection. It's important to diagnose and treat fungemia promptly to prevent serious complications like sepsis.

Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida species, most commonly Candida albicans. It can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, mucous membranes (such as the mouth and vagina), and internal organs (like the esophagus, lungs, or blood).

The symptoms of candidiasis depend on the location of the infection:

1. Oral thrush: White patches on the tongue, inner cheeks, gums, or roof of the mouth. These patches may be painful and can bleed slightly when scraped.
2. Vaginal yeast infection: Itching, burning, redness, and swelling of the vagina and vulva; thick, white, odorless discharge from the vagina.
3. Esophageal candidiasis: Difficulty swallowing, pain when swallowing, or feeling like food is "stuck" in the throat.
4. Invasive candidiasis: Fever, chills, and other signs of infection; multiple organ involvement may lead to various symptoms depending on the affected organs.

Risk factors for developing candidiasis include diabetes, HIV/AIDS, use of antibiotics or corticosteroids, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing tight-fitting clothing that traps moisture. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as fluconazole, nystatin, or clotrimazole, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

'Candida' is a type of fungus (a form of yeast) that is commonly found on the skin and inside the body, including in the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, in small amounts. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any problems. However, an overgrowth of Candida can lead to infections known as candidiasis or thrush. Common sites for these infections include the skin, mouth, throat, and genital areas. Some factors that can contribute to Candida overgrowth are a weakened immune system, certain medications (such as antibiotics and corticosteroids), diabetes, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing damp or tight-fitting clothing. Common symptoms of candidiasis include itching, redness, pain, and discharge. Treatment typically involves antifungal medication, either topical or oral, depending on the site and severity of the infection.

Trichosporon is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil, water, and air. They are also part of the normal flora of the human skin and mucous membranes. Some species of Trichosporon can cause various types of infections, mainly in people with weakened immune systems. These infections can range from superficial (e.g., skin and nail) to systemic and invasive, affecting internal organs. The most common Trichosporon-related infection is white piedra, a superficial mycosis that affects the hair shafts.

In a medical context, Trichosporon refers specifically to these fungi with potential pathogenic properties. It's essential to distinguish between the general term "trichosporon" (referring to the genus) and "Trichosporon" as a medically relevant entity causing infections.

Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal infections. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, nails, hair, lungs, and internal organs. The severity of mycoses can range from superficial, mild infections to systemic, life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of fungus and the immune status of the infected individual. Some common types of mycoses include candidiasis, dermatophytosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be topical or systemic, depending on the location and severity of the infection.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Mycology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and classification, their role in diseases and decomposition processes, and their potential uses in industry, agriculture, and medicine. It involves the examination and identification of various types of fungi, such as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms, and the investigation of their ecological relationships with other organisms and their environments. Mycologists may also study the medical and veterinary importance of fungi, including the diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections, as well as the development of antifungal drugs and vaccines.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Microbiological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and analysis of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. These techniques are essential in fields like medical microbiology, food microbiology, environmental microbiology, and industrial microbiology.

Some common microbiological techniques include:

1. Microbial culturing: This involves growing microorganisms on nutrient-rich media in Petri dishes or test tubes to allow them to multiply. Different types of media are used to culture different types of microorganisms.
2. Staining and microscopy: Various staining techniques, such as Gram stain, acid-fast stain, and methylene blue stain, are used to visualize and identify microorganisms under a microscope.
3. Biochemical testing: These tests involve the use of specific biochemical reactions to identify microorganisms based on their metabolic characteristics. Examples include the catalase test, oxidase test, and sugar fermentation tests.
4. Molecular techniques: These methods are used to identify microorganisms based on their genetic material. Examples include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene probes.
5. Serological testing: This involves the use of antibodies or antigens to detect the presence of specific microorganisms in a sample. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting.
6. Immunofluorescence: This technique uses fluorescent dyes to label antibodies or antigens, allowing for the visualization of microorganisms under a fluorescence microscope.
7. Electron microscopy: This method uses high-powered electron beams to produce detailed images of microorganisms, allowing for the identification and analysis of their structures.

These techniques are critical in diagnosing infectious diseases, monitoring food safety, assessing environmental quality, and developing new drugs and vaccines.

Blood is the fluid that circulates in the body of living organisms, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. The main function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. It also transports nutrients, hormones, and other substances to the cells and removes waste products from them. Additionally, blood plays a crucial role in the body's immune system by helping to fight infection and disease.

Dermatomycoses are a group of fungal infections that affect the skin, hair, and nails. These infections are caused by various types of fungi, including dermatophytes, yeasts, and molds. Dermatophyte infections, also known as tinea, are the most common type of dermatomycoses and can affect different areas of the body, such as the scalp (tinea capitis), beard (tinea barbae), body (tinea corporis), feet (tinea pedis or athlete's foot), hands (tinea manuum), and nails (tinea unguium or onychomycosis). Yeast infections, such as those caused by Candida albicans, can lead to conditions like candidal intertrigo, vulvovaginitis, and balanitis. Mold infections are less common but can cause skin disorders like scalded skin syndrome and phaeohyphomycosis. Dermatomycoses are typically treated with topical or oral antifungal medications.

Rhodotorula is a genus of unicellular, budding yeasts that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in damp and nutrient-rich places such as soil, water, and vegetation. They are characterized by their ability to produce carotenoid pigments, which give them a distinctive pinkish-red color.

While Rhodotorula species are not typically associated with human disease, they can occasionally cause infections in people with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin.

Rhodotorula infections are usually treated with antifungal medications, such as fluconazole or amphotericin B. Preventing exposure to sources of Rhodotorula, such as contaminated medical equipment or water supplies, can also help reduce the risk of infection.

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat and prevent various fungal infections, such as candidiasis (yeast infections), cryptococcal meningitis, and other fungal infections that affect the mouth, throat, blood, lungs, genital area, and other parts of the body. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi that cause these infections. Fluconazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous (IV) solutions, and is typically prescribed to be taken once daily.

The medical definition of Fluconazole can be found in pharmacological or medical dictionaries, which describe it as a triazole antifungal agent that inhibits fungal cytochrome P450-dependent synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of the fungal cell membrane. This results in increased permeability and leakage of cellular contents, ultimately leading to fungal death. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, and others.

It is important to note that while Fluconazole is an effective antifungal medication, it may have side effects and interactions with other medications. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

"Exophiala" is a genus of fungi that belongs to the family Herpotrichiellaceae. These fungi are also known as black yeasts because they can form pigmented, thick-walled cells that resemble yeast. They are widely distributed in the environment and have been found in various habitats such as soil, water, and air. Some species of Exophiala are known to cause human diseases, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. These infections can affect various organs, including the skin, lungs, and brain. It is important to note that while some species of Exophiala can be pathogenic, many others are not harmful to humans.

Central venous catheterization is a medical procedure in which a flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a large vein in the body, usually in the neck (internal jugular vein), chest (subclavian vein), or groin (femoral vein). The catheter is threaded through the vein until it reaches a central location, such as the superior vena cava or the right atrium of the heart.

Central venous catheterization may be performed for several reasons, including:

1. To administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support directly into the bloodstream.
2. To monitor central venous pressure (CVP), which can help assess a patient's volume status and cardiac function.
3. To draw blood samples for laboratory tests.
4. To deliver chemotherapy drugs or other medications that may be harmful to peripheral veins.
5. To provide access for hemodialysis or other long-term therapies.

The procedure requires careful attention to sterile technique to minimize the risk of infection, and it is usually performed under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia. Complications of central venous catheterization may include bleeding, infection, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), arterial puncture, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI).

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and often life-threatening fungal infections. It works by binding to the ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to the loss of essential cell components and ultimately cell death.

The medical definition of Amphotericin B is:

A polyene antifungal agent derived from Streptomyces nodosus, with a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Amphotericin B is used to treat systemic fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis, among others. It may be administered intravenously or topically, depending on the formulation and the site of infection.

Adverse effects associated with Amphotericin B include infusion-related reactions (such as fever, chills, and hypotension), nephrotoxicity, electrolyte imbalances, and anemia. These side effects are often dose-dependent and may be managed through careful monitoring and adjustment of the dosing regimen.

Peptones are not a medical term per se, but they are commonly used in medical and clinical laboratory settings. Peptones are complex organic compounds that result from the partial hydrolysis of proteins. They consist of a mixture of polypeptides, peptides, and free amino acids.

In medical laboratories, peptones are often used as a nutrient source in various culture media for the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. Peptone water is a common liquid medium used to culture and isolate bacteria. It contains peptones, sodium chloride, and other ingredients that provide essential nutrients for bacterial growth.

Peptones are also used in biochemical tests to identify specific microorganisms based on their ability to metabolize certain components of the peptone. For example, in the sulfur-indole-motility (SIM) medium, peptones serve as a source of amino acids and other nutrients that support the growth of bacteria producing enzymes responsible for the production of indole from tryptophan.

Mycological typing techniques are methods used to identify and classify fungi at the species or strain level, based on their unique biological characteristics. These techniques are often used in clinical laboratories to help diagnose fungal infections and determine the most effective treatment approaches.

There are several different mycological typing techniques that may be used, depending on the specific type of fungus being identified and the resources available in the laboratory. Some common methods include:

1. Phenotypic methods: These methods involve observing and measuring the physical characteristics of fungi, such as their growth patterns, colonial morphology, and microscopic features. Examples include macroscopic and microscopic examination, as well as biochemical tests to identify specific metabolic properties.

2. Genotypic methods: These methods involve analyzing the DNA or RNA of fungi to identify unique genetic sequences that can be used to distinguish between different species or strains. Examples include PCR-based methods, such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, as well as sequencing-based methods, such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST).

3. Proteotypic methods: These methods involve analyzing the proteins expressed by fungi to identify unique protein profiles that can be used to distinguish between different species or strains. Examples include matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

Mycological typing techniques are important tools for understanding the epidemiology of fungal infections, tracking outbreaks, and developing effective treatment strategies. By accurately identifying the specific fungi causing an infection, healthcare providers can tailor their treatments to target the most vulnerable aspects of the pathogen, improving patient outcomes and reducing the risk of drug resistance.

Candidemia is a medical condition defined as the presence of the fungus Candida in the bloodstream. It is a type of invasive candidiasis, which occurs when Candida invades normally sterile areas of the body such as the blood, heart, brain, eyes, or bones. Candidemia is usually acquired in healthcare settings and can cause serious illness, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms may include fever, chills, hypotension, and organ dysfunction. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications.

'Cryptococcus' is a genus of encapsulated, budding yeast that are found in the environment, particularly in soil and bird droppings. The most common species that causes infection in humans is Cryptococcus neoformans, followed by Cryptococcus gattii.

Infection with Cryptococcus can occur when a person inhales the microscopic yeast cells, which can then lead to lung infections (pneumonia) or disseminated disease, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. The most common form of disseminated cryptococcal infection is meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Cryptococcal infections can be serious and even life-threatening, especially in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that weaken the immune system. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole.

'Candida tropicalis' is a species of yeast that can be found normally in certain environments, including the human body (such as the skin, mouth, and digestive system). However, it can also cause infections in people with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the bloodstream, urinary tract, and skin.

Like other Candida species, C. tropicalis is a type of fungus that reproduces by budding, forming oval-shaped cells. It is often resistant to certain antifungal medications, which can make infections more difficult to treat. Proper diagnosis and treatment, usually with antifungal drugs, are essential for managing C. tropicalis infections.

Fungal drug resistance is a condition where fungi are no longer susceptible to the antifungal drugs that were previously used to treat infections they caused. This can occur due to genetic changes in the fungi that make them less sensitive to the drug's effects, or due to environmental factors that allow the fungi to survive and multiply despite the presence of the drug.

There are several mechanisms by which fungi can develop drug resistance, including:

1. Mutations in genes that encode drug targets: Fungi can acquire mutations in the genes that encode for the proteins or enzymes that the antifungal drugs target. These mutations can alter the structure or function of these targets, making them less susceptible to the drug's effects.
2. Overexpression of efflux pumps: Fungi can increase the expression of genes that encode for efflux pumps, which are proteins that help fungi expel drugs from their cells. This can reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug and make it less effective.
3. Changes in membrane composition: Fungi can alter the composition of their cell membranes to make them less permeable to antifungal drugs, making it more difficult for the drugs to enter the fungal cells and exert their effects.
4. Biofilm formation: Fungi can form biofilms, which are complex communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are protected by a matrix of extracellular material. Biofilms can make fungi more resistant to antifungal drugs by limiting drug penetration and creating an environment that promotes the development of resistance.

Fungal drug resistance is a significant clinical problem, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer. It can lead to treatment failures, increased morbidity and mortality, and higher healthcare costs. To address this issue, there is a need for new antifungal drugs, as well as strategies to prevent and manage drug resistance.

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

Zygomycosis is a rare, but serious fungal infection caused by filamentous fungi of the class Zygomycetes. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and decaying organic matter. The infection primarily affects individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with uncontrolled diabetes, HIV/AIDS, or those receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

Zygomycosis can manifest in various forms depending on the site of infection. The two main types are rhinocerebral zygomycosis (affecting the sinuses and brain) and pulmonary zygomycosis (affecting the lungs). Other forms include cutaneous (skin), gastrointestinal, and disseminated zygomycosis. Symptoms can range from mild to severe and may include fever, cough, shortness of breath, sinus pain or congestion, skin lesions, and neurological symptoms like headache, altered mental status, or vision changes.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with antifungal medications and surgical debridement are crucial for managing zygomycosis. The prognosis depends on the patient's underlying health condition and the extent of infection at the time of diagnosis.

Centrifugation is a laboratory technique that involves the use of a machine called a centrifuge to separate mixtures based on their differing densities or sizes. The mixture is placed in a rotor and spun at high speeds, causing the denser components to move away from the center of rotation and the less dense components to remain nearer the center. This separation allows for the recovery and analysis of specific particles, such as cells, viruses, or subcellular organelles, from complex mixtures.

The force exerted on the mixture during centrifugation is described in terms of relative centrifugal force (RCF) or g-force, which represents the number of times greater the acceleration due to centrifugation is than the acceleration due to gravity. The RCF is determined by the speed of rotation (revolutions per minute, or RPM), the radius of rotation, and the duration of centrifugation.

Centrifugation has numerous applications in various fields, including clinical laboratories, biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It is a fundamental technique for isolating and concentrating particles from solutions, enabling further analysis and characterization.

Dried yeast, in a medical context, typically refers to the inactive form of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a type of yeast that has been dried and used as a dietary supplement. It contains proteins, B vitamins, and minerals. When rehydrated and consumed, it can help with digestion by providing live yeast cells to the gut flora. However, it is not a source of viable probiotics, as the drying process typically kills the yeast cells. It's important to note that overconsumption may lead to bloating, gas, and other digestive discomforts in some individuals.

'Candida glabrata' is a species of yeast that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans. It is a member of the genus Candida, which includes several species of fungi that can cause infections in humans. C. glabrata is one of the more common causes of candidiasis, or yeast infections, particularly in the mouth (oral thrush) and genital area. It can also cause invasive candidiasis, a serious systemic infection that can affect various organs and tissues in the body. C. glabrata is often resistant to some of the antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections, making it more difficult to treat.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

An immunocompromised host refers to an individual who has a weakened or impaired immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and decreased ability to fight off pathogens. This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed during one's lifetime).

Acquired immunocompromised states may result from various factors such as medical treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive drugs), infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, malnutrition, liver disease), or aging.

Immunocompromised hosts are at a higher risk for developing severe and life-threatening infections due to their reduced immune response. Therefore, they require special consideration when it comes to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

Trichosporonosis is a fungal infection caused by the organism Trichosporon spp., which are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and water. This infection primarily affects the skin and nails but can also cause invasive systemic disease, especially in immunocompromised individuals. The symptoms of trichosporonosis vary depending on the location and severity of the infection. Superficial infections may present as white plaques or pustules on the mucous membranes, while invasive infections can cause fever, chills, and organ dysfunction. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, with the choice of drug depending on the severity and location of the infection.

Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, organ transplants, or long-term steroid use. The infection typically starts in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body, including the brain (meningitis), causing various symptoms like cough, fever, chest pain, headache, confusion, and vision problems. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications, and the prognosis depends on the patient's immune status and the severity of the infection.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. It is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (systemic inflammation) that can lead to blood clotting issues, tissue damage, and multiple organ failure.

Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lungs, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis is a medical emergency. If you suspect sepsis, seek immediate medical attention. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are crucial to improve outcomes. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and may require oxygen, medication to raise blood pressure, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be required to clear the infection.

Echinocandins are a class of antifungal medications that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan, a key component of the fungal cell wall. This results in osmotic instability and ultimately leads to fungal cell death. Echinocandins are commonly used to treat invasive fungal infections caused by Candida species and Aspergillus species. The three drugs in this class that are approved for use in humans are caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.

Here's a brief overview of each drug:

1. Caspofungin (Cancidas, Cancidas-W): This is the first echinocandin to be approved for use in humans. It is indicated for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, including candidemia, acute disseminated candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. Caspofungin is also approved for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
2. Micafungin (Mycamine): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of candidemia, esophageal candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
3. Anidulafungin (Eraxis): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis and candidemia, as well as other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Echinocandins have a broad spectrum of activity against many fungal species, including those that are resistant to other classes of antifungal medications. They are generally well-tolerated and have a low incidence of drug interactions. However, they should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment, as their metabolism may be affected by liver dysfunction.

The ribosomal spacer in DNA refers to the non-coding sequences of DNA that are located between the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These spacer regions are present in the DNA of organisms that have a nuclear genome, including humans and other animals, plants, and fungi.

In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, there are two ribosomal RNA genes, 16S and 23S, separated by a spacer region known as the intergenic spacer (IGS). In eukaryotic cells, there are multiple copies of ribosomal RNA genes arranged in clusters called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), which are located on the short arms of several acrocentric chromosomes. Each cluster contains hundreds to thousands of copies of the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes, separated by non-transcribed spacer regions known as internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and external transcribed spacers (ETS).

The ribosomal spacer regions in DNA are often used as molecular markers for studying evolutionary relationships among organisms because they evolve more rapidly than the rRNA genes themselves. The sequences of these spacer regions can be compared among different species to infer their phylogenetic relationships and to estimate the time since they diverged from a common ancestor. Additionally, the length and composition of ribosomal spacers can vary between individuals within a species, making them useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure.

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in individuals with weakened immune systems, often due to a underlying condition such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation. These infections are caused by microorganisms that do not normally cause disease in people with healthy immune function, but can take advantage of an opportunity to infect and cause damage when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised. Examples of opportunistic infections include Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, candidiasis (thrush), and cytomegalovirus infection. Preventive measures, such as antimicrobial medications and vaccinations, play a crucial role in reducing the risk of opportunistic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Fungal DNA refers to the genetic material present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The DNA of fungi, like that of all living organisms, is made up of nucleotides that are arranged in a double helix structure.

Fungal DNA contains the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of fungi. This includes the instructions for making proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of cells, as well as other important molecules such as enzymes and nucleic acids.

Studying fungal DNA can provide valuable insights into the biology and evolution of fungi, as well as their potential uses in medicine, agriculture, and industry. For example, researchers have used genetic engineering techniques to modify the DNA of fungi to produce drugs, biofuels, and other useful products. Additionally, understanding the genetic makeup of pathogenic fungi can help scientists develop new strategies for preventing and treating fungal infections.

'Candida albicans' is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body, particularly in warm and moist areas such as the mouth, gut, and genital region. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any harm. However, under certain conditions like a weakened immune system, prolonged use of antibiotics or steroids, poor oral hygiene, or diabetes, it can overgrow and cause infections known as candidiasis. These infections can affect various parts of the body including the skin, nails, mouth (thrush), and genital area (yeast infection).

The medical definition of 'Candida albicans' is:

A species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida, which is commonly found as a commensal organism in humans. It can cause opportunistic infections when there is a disruption in the normal microbiota or when the immune system is compromised. The overgrowth of C. albicans can lead to various forms of candidiasis, such as oral thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and invasive candidiasis.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Hematologic neoplasms, also known as hematological malignancies, are a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal blood cells or bone marrow cells. These disorders can originate from the myeloid or lymphoid cell lines, which give rise to various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Hematologic neoplasms can be broadly classified into three categories:

1. Leukemias: These are cancers that primarily affect the bone marrow and blood-forming tissues. They result in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, which interfere with the normal functioning of the blood and immune system. There are several types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
2. Lymphomas: These are cancers that develop from the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system responsible for fighting infections. Lymphomas can affect lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
3. Myelomas: These are cancers that arise from the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. Multiple myeloma is the most common type of myeloma, characterized by an excessive proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to the production of abnormal amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins) and bone destruction.

Hematologic neoplasms can have various symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

"Azoles" is a class of antifungal medications that have a similar chemical structure, specifically a five-membered ring containing nitrogen and two carbon atoms (a "azole ring"). The most common azoles used in medicine include:

1. Imidazoles: These include drugs such as clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole. They are used to treat a variety of fungal infections, including vaginal yeast infections, thrush, and skin infections.
2. Triazoles: These include drugs such as fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. They are also used to treat fungal infections, but have a broader spectrum of activity than imidazoles and are often used for more serious or systemic infections.

Azoles work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes. This leads to increased permeability of the cell membrane, which ultimately results in fungal cell death.

While azoles are generally well-tolerated, they can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In addition, some azoles can interact with other medications and affect liver function, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an azole regimen.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

A "University Hospital" is a type of hospital that is often affiliated with a medical school or university. These hospitals serve as major teaching institutions where medical students, residents, and fellows receive their training and education. They are equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide specialized and tertiary care services. University hospitals also conduct research and clinical trials to advance medical knowledge and practices. Additionally, they often treat complex and rare cases and provide a wide range of medical services to the community.

Neutropenia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low concentration (less than 1500 cells/mm3) of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in fighting off bacterial and fungal infections. Neutrophils are essential components of the innate immune system, and their main function is to engulf and destroy microorganisms that can cause harm to the body.

Neutropenia can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the severity of the neutrophil count reduction:

* Mild neutropenia: Neutrophil count between 1000-1500 cells/mm3
* Moderate neutropenia: Neutrophil count between 500-1000 cells/mm3
* Severe neutropenia: Neutrophil count below 500 cells/mm3

Severe neutropenia significantly increases the risk of developing infections, as the body's ability to fight off microorganisms is severely compromised. Common causes of neutropenia include viral infections, certain medications (such as chemotherapy or antibiotics), autoimmune disorders, and congenital conditions affecting bone marrow function. Treatment for neutropenia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, administering granulocyte-colony stimulating factors to boost neutrophil production, and providing appropriate antimicrobial therapy to prevent or treat infections.

Sugar alcohols, also known as polyols, are carbohydrates that are chemically similar to sugar but have a different molecular structure. They occur naturally in some fruits and vegetables, but most sugar alcohols used in food products are manufactured.

The chemical structure of sugar alcohols contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) instead of a hydrogen and a ketone or aldehyde group, which makes them less sweet than sugar and have fewer calories. They are not completely absorbed by the body, so they do not cause a rapid increase in blood glucose levels, making them a popular sweetener for people with diabetes.

Common sugar alcohols used in food products include xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, erythritol, and maltitol. They are often used as sweeteners in sugar-free and low-sugar foods such as candy, chewing gum, baked goods, and beverages.

However, consuming large amounts of sugar alcohols can cause digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea, due to their partial absorption in the gut. Therefore, it is recommended to consume them in moderation.

Aerobiosis is the process of living, growing, and functioning in the presence of oxygen. It refers to the metabolic processes that require oxygen to break down nutrients and produce energy in cells. This is in contrast to anaerobiosis, which is the ability to live and grow in the absence of oxygen.

In medical terms, aerobiosis is often used to describe the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that require oxygen to survive and multiply. These organisms are called aerobic organisms, and they play an important role in many biological processes, including decomposition and waste breakdown.

However, some microorganisms are unable to grow in the presence of oxygen and are instead restricted to environments where oxygen is absent or limited. These organisms are called anaerobic organisms, and their growth and metabolism are referred to as anaerobiosis.

"Penicillium" is not a medical term per se, but it is a genus of mold that is widely used in the field of medicine, specifically in the production of antibiotics. Here's a scientific definition:

Penicillium is a genus of ascomycete fungi that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil, decaying vegetation, and food. Many species of Penicillium produce penicillin, a group of antibiotics with activity against gram-positive bacteria. The discovery and isolation of penicillin from Penicillium notatum by Alexander Fleming in 1928 revolutionized the field of medicine and led to the development of modern antibiotic therapy. Since then, various species of Penicillium have been used in the industrial production of penicillin and other antibiotics, as well as in the production of enzymes, organic acids, and other industrial products.

"Pichia" is a genus of single-celled yeast organisms that are commonly found in various environments, including on plant and animal surfaces, in soil, and in food. Some species of Pichia are capable of causing human infection, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. These infections can include fungemia (bloodstream infections), pneumonia, and urinary tract infections.

Pichia species are important in a variety of industrial processes, including the production of alcoholic beverages, biofuels, and enzymes. They are also used as model organisms for research in genetics and cell biology.

It's worth noting that Pichia was previously classified under the genus "Candida," but it has since been reclassified due to genetic differences between the two groups.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kuwait" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in the Middle East, known officially as the State of Kuwait. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

"Saccharomyces" is a genus of fungi that are commonly known as baker's yeast or brewer's yeast. These organisms are single-celled and oval-shaped, and they reproduce through budding. They are widely used in the food industry for fermentation processes, such as making bread, beer, and wine.

In a medical context, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the species within this genus, has been studied for its potential health benefits when taken orally. Some research suggests that it may help to support gut health and immune function, although more studies are needed to confirm these effects and establish appropriate dosages and safety guidelines.

It's worth noting that while Saccharomyces is generally considered safe for most people, there have been rare cases of infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. As with any supplement, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider before starting to take Saccharomyces cerevisiae or any other probiotic strain.

The external ear is the visible portion of the ear that resides outside of the head. It consists of two main structures: the pinna or auricle, which is the cartilaginous structure that people commonly refer to as the "ear," and the external auditory canal, which is the tubular passageway that leads to the eardrum (tympanic membrane).

The primary function of the external ear is to collect and direct sound waves into the middle and inner ear, where they can be converted into neural signals and transmitted to the brain for processing. The external ear also helps protect the middle and inner ear from damage by foreign objects and excessive noise.

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Cryptococcus laurentii fungemia. Banerjee P, Haider M, Trehan V, Mishra B, Thakur A, Dogra V and Loomba P, Indian J Med ...
yeasts of emerging concern in fungemia". Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 10: 370. doi:10.3389/fcimb. ...
"Candida catenulata Fungemia in a Cancer Patient". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 37 (2): 475-477. doi:10.1128/JCM.37.2.475- ...
boulardii fungemia has been reported during clinical trials. In clinical practice, however, cases of fungemia, caused by S. ... A number of cases of fungemia were caused by intentional ingestion of living S. cerevisiae cultures for dietary or therapeutic ... S. cerevisiae causes 1% to 3.6% nosocomial cases of fungemia. A comprehensive review of S. cerevisiae invasive infection cases ... "Possible Role of Catheters in Saccharomyces boulardii Fungemia". European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious ...
Fungemia is one of the most common bloodstream infections in the United States. In general, observed incidence rates have been ... Antifungal prophylaxis can reduce the incidence of fungemia by approximately 50%, but has not been shown to improve survival. A ... Since then, C. auris infections, specifically fungemia, have been reported from South Korea, India, South Africa, Kuwait, ... The estimated mortality attributable to fungemia is 19-40%. However, because the majority of people who develop invasive ...
causing fungaemia: pathogenicity and antifungal resistance". J. Hosp. Infect. 50 (4): 243-60. doi:10.1053/jhin.2001.1151. PMID ... Clavispora lusitaniae was initially described as a rare cause of fungemia, with fewer than 30 cases reported between 1979 and ...
Maxfield, Luke; Matthews, Juliana J.; Ambrosetti, David Ryan; Ephtimios, Issa E. (2015). "Trichosporon fungemia in a pediatric ... Kustimur, Semra; Kalkanci, Ayse; Caglar, Kayhan; Dizbay, Murat; Aktas, Firdevs; Sugita, Takashi (2002). "Nosocomial fungemia ... Main types of latent infection include fungemia, urinary tract infections, peritonitis, endocarditis, arthritis, esophagitis, ...
In rough order of increasing severity these are, bacteremia or fungemia; sepsis, severe sepsis or sepsis syndrome; septic shock ...
Lee WG, Shin JH, Uh Y, Kang MG, Kim SH, Park KH, Jang HC (September 2011). "First three reported cases of nosocomial fungemia ... All three cases had persistent fungemia, i.e. bloodstream infection, and two of the patients subsequently died due to ... C. auris can cause invasive candidiasis (fungemia) in which the bloodstream, the central nervous system, and internal organs ...
Lee WG, Shin JH, Uh Y, Kang MG, Kim SH, Park KH, Jang HC (September 2011). "First three reported cases of nosocomial fungemia ... The majority of cases are systemic in nature, often causing fungemia in patients with underlying disease or immunosuppression, ...
Fungemia occurs most commonly in people with poorly functioning immune systems. If bacteria or fungi are not cleared from the ... The presence of bacteria in the blood is termed bacteremia, and the presence of fungi is called fungemia. Minor damage to the ... and rates of fungemia have greatly increased in association with a growing population of people receiving immunosuppressive ... their presence can indicate a bloodstream infection such as bacteremia or fungemia, which in severe cases may result in sepsis ...
Most of the cases were shown as fungaemia (yeasts in the blood). Up to 35 cases were recorded in 2022, with 14 cases of ... "Fungemia due to Moesziomyces aphidis (Pseudozyma aphidis) in a premature neonate. Challenges in species identification and ...
J, Denis (2016). "First case of Arthrographis kalrae fungemia in a patient with cystic fibrosis". Med Mycol Case Rep. 14: 8-11 ...
... (BSIs), septicemia which include bacteremias when the infections are bacterial and fungemias when the ... Antibiotic prophylaxis Dental antibiotic prophylaxis Fungemia Viremia Viscoli, C (2 April 2016). "Bloodstream Infections: The ...
Persy, B; Vrelust, I; Gadisseur, A; Ieven, M (Sep-Oct 2011). "Phialemonium curvatum fungaemia in an immunocompromised patient: ...
It is a rare cause of human fungaemia infections. The yeast is a source of important industrial enzymes. Immobilized ...
Zaas AK, Boyce M, Schell W, Lodge BA, Miller JL, Perfect JR (November 2003). "Risk of fungemia due to Rhodotorula and ...
"Risk of fungemia due to Rhodotorula and antifungal susceptibility testing of Rhodotorula isolates". Journal of Clinical ...
"A rare case of infective endocarditis complicated by Trichosporon asahii fungemia treated by surgery". Annals of Thoracic and ...
al-Tawfiq JA, Wools KK (June 1998). "Disseminated sporotrichosis and Sporothrix schenckii fungemia as the initial presentation ...
Mortality due to C. krusei fungemia is much higher than the more common C. albicans. Other Candida species that also fit this ...
... fungaemia) have been newly associated with C blankii. Polyene antifungals have been identified as a possible treatment. The ... lipolytica Isolates Causing Fungemia: a Multicenter, Prospective Surveillance Study". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. ...
Fungaemia due to Penicillium piceum, a member of the Penicillium marneffei complex". Mycoses. 44 (11-12): 502-4. doi:10.1046/j. ...
"Outbreak of Fungemia among Neonates Caused by Candida haemulonii Resistant to Amphotericin B, Itraconazole, and Fluconazole". ...
Overall, S. boulardii is safe for use in otherwise healthy populations and fungemia with S. boulardii has not been reported, to ... 2014). "Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia, a possible consequence of the treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis with a ... In immunocompromised individuals, S. boulardii has been associated with fungemia or localized infection, which may be fatal. ...
If left untreated, as the disease progresses the fungus can spread into the bloodstream causing a state known as fungemia. This ...
Fungal infections, particularly in the setting of broad-spectrum antibiotics, are also common, and disseminated fungemia is a ...
... fungemia and sepsis in children with lowered immune systems who are already critically ill. There are no adverse effects from ...
In its yeast state, it is a rare human pathogen, able to provoke a skin condition, or fungemia in immunocompromised hosts. It ... 10.1016/j.ijid.2013.04.017 Cryptococcus laurentii fungemia. Banerjee P, Haider M, Trehan V, Mishra B, Thakur A, Dogra V and ...
Fungemia is the presence of fungi or yeasts in the blood. The most common type, also known as candidemia, candedemia, or ... In a single reported instance, Psilocybe cubensis was reported to have been cultured from a case of fungemia in which an ... Two other examples of fungemia as a result of injecting fungal matter in this way have been described in medical literature, ... It has been suggested that otherwise immunocompetent patients taking infliximab may also be at a higher risk for fungemia. ...
Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans fungemia in an institutional hospital during a decade.. ... Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans fungemia in an institutional hospital during a decade. ... Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans fungemia in an institutional hospital during a decade. ...
He developed meningoencephalitis and fungaemia with C. neoformans during hospitalization. He was given amphotericin B liposome ... in a renal transplant recipient who was initially misdiagnosed with tuberculous pleuritis but who then developed fungaemia and ... From: Pleural effusion as the initial clinical presentation in disseminated cryptococcosis and fungaemia: an unusual ...
Disseminated sporotrichosis with Sporothrix schenckii fungemia. / Morgan, Margie A.; Cockerill, Franklin R.; Cortese, Denis A. ... Morgan, MA, Cockerill, FR, Cortese, DA & Roberts, GD 1984, Disseminated sporotrichosis with Sporothrix schenckii fungemia, ... Disseminated sporotrichosis with Sporothrix schenckii fungemia. Margie A. Morgan, Franklin R. Cockerill, Denis A. Cortese, ... Dive into the research topics of Disseminated sporotrichosis with Sporothrix schenckii fungemia. Together they form a unique ...
We report a series of cases of fungemia due to a rare basidiomycete yeast, Dirkmeia churashimaensis, in neonatal patients in ... Basidiomycota Cross Infection Disease Outbreaks Fungemia Humans Infant, Newborn Intensive Care Units, Neonatal ... 2020). Outbreak of Dirkmeia churashimaensis Fungemia in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, India. 26(4). Chowdhary, Anuradha et al ... "Outbreak of Dirkmeia churashimaensis Fungemia in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, India" vol. 26, no. 4, 2020. Export RIS ...
Candidiasis, Fungemia. Antonette Climaco. StatPearls. May 25, 2017. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing LLC; 2018 Jan. ...
Saccharomyces boulardii fungemia in a patient receiving ultra-levure therapy. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:222-3. View abstract. ... Fungemia due to Saccharomyces species in a patient treated with enteral Saccharomyces boulardii. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:930. ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in a pediatric patient after treatment with probiotics. Rev Paul Pediatr 2017;35:361-4. View ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in a pediatric patient after treatment with probiotics. Rev Paul Pediatr. 2017 Jul-Sep;35:361 ...
11.2 Fungemia. 11.3 Mycobacteria. 12 Global Blood Culture Test Market - By Geography (Market Size - & million/billion). 12.1 ... 11.2 Fungemia. 11.3 Mycobacteria. 12 Global Blood Culture Test Market - By Geography (Market Size - & million/billion). 12.1 ... Blood Culture Test Market Size & Share by Technology (Microarray, PCR, Proteomic), Application (Bacteremia, Fungemia), Product ... Blood Culture Test Market Size & Share by Technology (Microarray, PCR, Proteomic), Application (Bacteremia, Fungemia), Product ...
Fungemia due to Fusarium sacchari in an immunosuppressed patient. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38:419--21. ...
29/84 (34.5%), p 0.001) and were more likely to die at 30 days from fungaemia onset (61/106 (57.5%) vs. 28/84 (33.3%), p 0.01 ... 29/84 (34.5%), p 0.001) and were more likely to die at 30 days from fungaemia onset (61/106 (57.5%) vs. 28/84 (33.3%), p 0.01 ... We determined the ability of Candida parapsilosis isolates from single fungaemia episodes to form biofilms and we analysed ... We determined the ability of Candida parapsilosis isolates from single fungaemia episodes to form biofilms and we analysed ...
Nosocomial fungemia in neonates associated with intravascular pressure-monitoring devices. Pediatr Infect Dis 1986; 5:680-5. ... Candida parapsilosis fungemia associated with parenteral nutrition and contaminated blood pressure transducers. J Clin ...
Fungemia / prevention & control * Humans * Intensive Care Units * Male * Middle Aged * Silver Sulfadiazine / administration & ...
A case report describing detection of Rhodoturola minuta fungemia in an ewe lamb (Abstract Only) (25-Aug-11) ...
Gülmez, D.; Alp, S.; Gursoy, G.; Ayaz, C.M.; Dogan, O.; Arikan-Akdagli, S.; Akova, M. Mixed Fungaemia: An 18-Year Report from a ... Fujita, S.; Senda, Y.; Okusi, T.; Ota, Y.; Takada, H.; Yamada, K.; Kawano, M. Catheter-related fungemia due to fluconazole- ... studied several cases of fungemia in Turkey, isolating 12 C. glabrata strains resistant to fluconazole [109]. Moreover, Kaan et ... Epidemiological Trends of Fungemia in Greece with a Focus on Candidemia during the Recent Financial Crisis: A 10-Year Survey in ...
Fungemia: a fungal or yeast infection in the blood. *GI, or intestinal, ischemia: a blockage in the blood flow in the arteries ...
Fungemia: caused by skin flora tunneling in with IV lipid feeding lines (parenteral nutrition) - in neonates or rarely adults ... Also can cause more serious infections such as fungemia, endocarditis, and systemic tissue infection. ...
... fungemia/disseminated disease, tissue invasive disease; Cryptococcosis; Aspergillus/Mucor; Pneumocystis carinii. ...
Etiology of Fungemia in Neonates: Four Decades of Case Reports (Review) Selma Alves Valente do Amaral-Lopes, José Tavares-Neto ...
Epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis fungemia determined by Pyrolysis Mass Spectroscopy (PYMS). June, Tuesday 18 (bacterial and ...
Badami V, Farjo P, Guilfoose J. Histoplasmosis fungemia manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Resp Crit Care ...
Fungizone - Get up-to-date information on Fungizone side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Fungizone
boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment. Med Mycol Case Rep. 2017 Dec;18:15-7. ... Catheter-related Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia following Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic treatment: In a child in ...
Uncommon Candida species fungemia among cancer patients, Houston, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:1942-1950. doi:10.3201/ ...
Transient fungemia after bowel surgery. * Any condition associated with immune compromise (eg, transplantation, leukemia) ...
One patient had both C. glabrata and C. krusei fungemia. The probable bIFI was pneumonia with a positive Aspergillus GM from ...
We therefore prospectively investigated the epidemiology of bacteraemia and fungaemia in intensive care units (ICUs); and the ...
Fungemia), End User (Hospitals, Reference Labs) & Region- Global Forecast to 2028 * MarketsandMarkets ...
  • This case illustrates the need to better define the geo- Management of Patients with graphic extent and modes of transmission of this debilitat- ing disease so that primary control measures can be iden- Candida auris Fungemia at tified. (cdc.gov)
  • Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans fungemia in an institutional hospital during a decade. (insa-lyon.fr)
  • We determined the ability of Candida parapsilosis isolates from single fungaemia episodes to form biofilms and we analysed biofilm subgroups for antifungal susceptibility and pathogenic potential. (unicatt.it)
  • Also in this issue, a novel agent of fungemia, Candida auris , is reported as having been detected in India. (cdc.gov)
  • Her recovery was complicated by Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and Candida albicans fungaemia. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Catheter-related fungemia cause by Candida sp. (bvsalud.org)
  • Candidiasis Candidiasis is infection by Candida species (most often C. albicans ), manifested by mucocutaneous lesions, fungemia, and sometimes focal infection of multiple sites. (msdmanuals.com)
  • auris fungemia in Brooklyn, New York, USA. (cdc.gov)
  • http://dx.doi.org/ es of C. auris fungemia at this institution since 2016. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of certain clinical findings can help predict bacteremia or fungemia in critical care patients with the Sepsis Syndrome. (medicalalgorithms.com)
  • 20. Debelian GJ, Olsen I, Tronstad L. Anaerobic bacteremia and fungemia in patients undergoing endodontic therapy: an overview. (bvsalud.org)
  • In six episodes there was both visceral dissemination and fungaemia. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Cryptococcus albidus Fungemia in an Immunosuppressed Child: Case Report and Systematic Literature Review. (umassmed.edu)
  • Data from the English Surveillance Programme for Antimicrobial Use and Resistance (ESPAUR) show a 11.7% increase in patient episodes of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and/or fungemia from 2018 to 2022. (umn.edu)
  • Title : Outbreak of Dirkmeia churashimaensis Fungemia in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, India Personal Author(s) : Chowdhary, Anuradha;Sharada, Kothapalli;Singh, Pradeep Kumar;Bhagwani, Dalip Kumar;Kumar, Nitin;de Groot, Theun;Meis, Jacques F. (cdc.gov)
  • Outbreak of fungemias by Sarocladium kiliense in eight public hospitals per intrinsic contamination of ondansetron intravenous]. (bvsalud.org)
  • An intravenous echinocandin such as anidulafungin, caspofungin or micafungin is recommended as first-line therapy for fungemia, specifically candidemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus endocarditis diagnosed by fungemia plus serum antigen testing. (escholarship.org)
  • In 2011, it was described as a cause of fungemia in South Korea ( 4 ) and was later isolated from patients in India ( 2 ), South Africa ( 6 ), Kuwait ( 3 ), and Venezuela ( 1 ). (blogspot.com)
  • Also, it poses little danger of fungemia, a phenomenon where the yeast ends up going into the bloodstream. (thefourwinds.com)
  • Conclusions: C. parapsilosis BF influences the clinical outcome in patients with fungaemia. (unicatt.it)
  • Detección molecular de patógenos entéricos en niños con diarrea en un hospital centinela de vigilancia de rotavirus en Chile. (bvsalud.org)
  • Evaluación de la indicación, consumo y costos de antifúngicos en un hospital pediátrico de Chile. (bvsalud.org)
  • It has been suggested that otherwise immunocompetent patients taking infliximab may also be at a higher risk for fungemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • By comparing HBF/MBF (106 patients) and LBF (84 patients) groups, we found that HBF/MBF patients had more central venous catheter-related fungaemias (62/106 (58.5%) vs. 29/84 (34.5%), p 0.001) and were more likely to die at 30 days from fungaemia onset (61/106 (57.5%) vs. 28/84 (33.3%), p 0.01). (unicatt.it)
  • If a patient is clinically unresponsive to treatment with an appropriately dosed echinocandin and/or has persistent fungemia for more than 5 days, treatment with liposomal amphotericin B 3-5 mg/kg IV daily should be considered if susceptibility testing results have not returned. (medscape.com)
  • Fungemia is the presence of fungi or yeasts in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • One patient had both C. glabrata and C. krusei fungemia. (confex.com)
  • An intravenous echinocandin such as anidulafungin, caspofungin or micafungin is recommended as first-line therapy for fungemia, specifically candidemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Candidemia is the most common type of Fungemia. (microbenotes.com)
  • Episodes of breakthrough candidemia had significantly higher illness severity and higher rates of fungemia-attributable mortality. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Laboratory diagnosis of bacteremia and fungemia. (nih.gov)
  • General principles in the laboratory detection of bacteremia and fungemia. (nih.gov)
  • Usefulness of anaerobic vial in the diagnosis of bacteremia or fungemia]. (nih.gov)
  • The patient had pneumonia and fungemia, and multisystem organ failure developed. (cdc.gov)
  • 6. Pleural effusion as the initial clinical presentation in disseminated cryptococcosis and fungaemia: an unusual manifestation and a literature review. (nih.gov)
  • In a single reported instance, Psilocybe cubensis was reported to have been cultured from a case of fungemia in which an individual self-injected an underprocessed decoction of fungal matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two other examples of fungemia as a result of injecting fungal matter in this way have been described in medical literature, both dating to 1985. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal neuroinfections and fungaemia: unexpected increase of mortality from invasive fungal infections in 2005-2011 in comparison to 1989-1998: analysis of 210 cases. (nel.edu)
  • Our study emphasizes an urgent need for accurate fungal screening methods such as PCR and electrophoretic karyotyping to ensure proper management of fungemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fungemia is the presence of fungi or yeasts in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sadly, the woman died of fungaemia (the presence of fungi or yeasts in the blood) during her hospital admission. (hdc.org.nz)
  • Yeasts tend to cause fungemia as well as focal involvement of skin and other sites. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Approximately 60% of the patients came to the hospital with positive blood cultures on day 1, and fungemia developed in the remaining patients after prolonged hospitalization. (medscape.com)
  • MolYsis™ is a pre-analytical tool serving the molecular detection of bacteraemia, fungemia and other infections. (vhbio.com)
  • Case report: Herein, we presented a 35-year-old man diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia with a prolonged febrile neutropenic period and ecthyma gangrenosum-like lesions, along with fungemia and disseminated fusariosis. (ac.ir)
  • CIENCIASMEDICASNEWS: Investigation of an unrecognized large-scale outbreak of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto fungaemia in a tertiary-care hospital in China. (blogspot.com)
  • Finkelstein R, Reinhertz G, Hashman N, Merzbach D. Outbreak of Candida tropicalis fungemia in a neonatal intensive care unit. (medscape.org)
  • Kodamaea ohmeri fungemia in severe burn: Case study and literature review. (nih.gov)
  • In this short communication we compared the data of fungaemia cases in Slovak hospitals from 1989-1998 published in 1999-2000 w. (nel.edu)
  • It has been suggested that otherwise immunocompetent patients taking infliximab may also be at a higher risk for fungemia. (wikipedia.org)