Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Indenes: A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Telefacsimile: A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.Protein Disulfide-Isomerases: Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.De Lange Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by growth retardation, severe MENTAL RETARDATION, short stature, a low-pitched growling cry, brachycephaly, low-set ears, webbed neck, carp mouth, depressed nasal bridge, bushy eyebrows meeting at the midline, hirsutism, and malformations of the hands. The condition may occur sporadically or be associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance or duplication of the long arm of chromosome 3. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p231)Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Facies: The appearance of the face that is often characteristic of a disease or pathological condition, as the elfin facies of WILLIAMS SYNDROME or the mongoloid facies of DOWN SYNDROME. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ectromelia: Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.Abnormalities, MultipleCrystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Haemophilus somnus: A species of gram-negative bacteria (currently incertae sedis) causing multisystem disease in CATTLE.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Candidemia: A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Pandalidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the pandalid shrimp. They are protandric hermaphrodites and can breed in both male and female stages. Many species are commercially harvested in the Pacific Northwest.Neocallimastix: A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTIGALES. They contain polyflagellate zoospores and grow on a range of simple and complex carbohydrates in the rumen of sheep and cattle.Quinolinium CompoundsDequalinium: A topical bacteriostat that is available as various salts. It is used in wound dressings and mouth infections and may also have antifungal action, but may cause skin ulceration.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Separase: Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.

Meiosis: MeiRNA hits the spot. (1/18518)

The protein Mei2 performs at least two functions required in fission yeast for the switch from mitotic to meiotic cell cycles. One of these functions also requires meiRNA. It appears that meiRNA targets Mei2 to the nucleus, where it can promote the first meiotic division.  (+info)

Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome. (2/18518)

The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly [1]. Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) [1] [2]. Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome.  (+info)

B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through SP1-binding sites. (3/18518)

B-MYB is an ubiquitous protein required for mammalian cell growth. In this report we show that B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through a 120 bp segment proximal to the transcription start site. The B-MYB-responsive element does not contain myb-binding sites and gel-shift analysis shows that SP1, but not B-MYB, protein contained in SAOS2 cell extracts binds to the 120 bp B-myb promoter fragment. B-MYB-dependent transactivation is cooperatively increased in the presence of SP1, but not SP3 overexpression. When the SP1 elements of the B-myb promoter are transferred in front of a heterologous promoter, an increased response to B-MYB results. In contrast, c-MYB, the prototype member of the Myb family, is not able to activate the luciferase construct containing the SP1 elements. With the use of an SP1-GAL4 fusion protein, we have determined that the cooperative activation occurs through the domain A of SP1. These observations suggest that B-MYB functions as a coactivator of SP1, and that diverse combinations of myb and SP1 sites may dictate the responsiveness of myb-target genes to the various members of the myb family.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (4/18518)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

The exocyst is an effector for Sec4p, targeting secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis. (5/18518)

Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of protein-protein interactions leads from Sec4p and Sec15p on the vesicle, through various subunits of the exocyst, to Sec3p, which marks the sites of exocytosis on the plasma membrane. Sec4p may control the assembly of the exocyst. The exocyst may therefore function as a rab effector system for targeted secretion.  (+info)

Cooperative binding of heat shock factor to the yeast HSP82 promoter in vivo and in vitro. (6/18518)

Previous work has shown that heat shock factor (HSF) plays a central role in remodeling the chromatin structure of the yeast HSP82 promoter via constitutive interactions with its high-affinity binding site, heat shock element 1 (HSE1). The HSF-HSE1 interaction is also critical for stimulating both basal (noninduced) and induced transcription. By contrast, the function of the adjacent, inducibly occupied HSE2 and -3 is unknown. In this study, we examined the consequences of mutations in HSE1, HSE2, and HSE3 on HSF binding and transactivation. We provide evidence that in vivo, HSF binds to these three sites cooperatively. This cooperativity is seen both before and after heat shock, is required for full inducibility, and can be recapitulated in vitro on both linear and supercoiled templates. Quantitative in vitro footprinting reveals that occupancy of HSE2 and -3 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HSF (ScHSF) is enhanced approximately 100-fold through cooperative interactions with the HSF-HSE1 complex. HSE1 point mutants, whose basal transcription is virtually abolished, are functionally compensated by cooperative interactions with HSE2 and -3 following heat shock, resulting in robust inducibility. Using a competition binding assay, we show that the affinity of recombinant HSF for the full-length HSP82 promoter is reduced nearly an order of magnitude by a single-point mutation within HSE1, paralleling the effect of these mutations on noninduced transcript levels. We propose that the remodeled chromatin phenotype previously shown for HSE1 point mutants (and lost in HSE1 deletion mutants) stems from the retention of productive, cooperative interactions between HSF and its target binding sites.  (+info)

Correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in yeast. (7/18518)

We have determined the relationship between mRNA and protein expression levels for selected genes expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing at mid-log phase. The proteins contained in total yeast cell lysate were separated by high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Over 150 protein spots were excised and identified by capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein spots were quantified by metabolic labeling and scintillation counting. Corresponding mRNA levels were calculated from serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) frequency tables (V. E. Velculescu, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, J. Vogelstein, M. A. Basrai, D. E. Bassett, Jr., P. Hieter, B. Vogelstein, and K. W. Kinzler, Cell 88:243-251, 1997). We found that the correlation between mRNA and protein levels was insufficient to predict protein expression levels from quantitative mRNA data. Indeed, for some genes, while the mRNA levels were of the same value the protein levels varied by more than 20-fold. Conversely, invariant steady-state levels of certain proteins were observed with respective mRNA transcript levels that varied by as much as 30-fold. Another interesting observation is that codon bias is not a predictor of either protein or mRNA levels. Our results clearly delineate the technical boundaries of current approaches for quantitative analysis of protein expression and reveal that simple deduction from mRNA transcript analysis is insufficient.  (+info)

The abundance of cell cycle regulatory protein Cdc4p is controlled by interactions between its F box and Skp1p. (8/18518)

Posttranslational modification of a protein by ubiquitin usually results in rapid degradation of the ubiquitinated protein by the proteasome. The transfer of ubiquitin to substrate is a multistep process. Cdc4p is a component of a ubiquitin ligase that tethers the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34p to its substrates. Among the domains of Cdc4p that are crucial for function are the F-box, which links Cdc4p to Cdc53p through Skp1p, and the WD-40 repeats, which are required for binding the substrate for Cdc34p. In addition to Cdc4p, other F-box proteins, including Grr1p and Met30p, may similarly act together with Cdc53p and Skp1p to function as ubiquitin ligase complexes. Because the relative abundance of these complexes, known collectively as SCFs, is important for cell viability, we have sought evidence of mechanisms that modulate F-box protein regulation. Here we demonstrate that the abundance of Cdc4p is subject to control by a peptide segment that we term the R-motif (for "reduced abundance"). Furthermore, we show that binding of Skp1p to the F-box of Cdc4p inhibits R-motif-dependent degradation of Cdc4p. These results suggest a general model for control of SCF activities.  (+info)

  • As LysM effectors also occur in nonpathogenic fungi (lower panels), they may protect fungal hyphae against hydrolytic enzymes secreted by mycoparasites (4). (nih.gov)
  • Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. (hindawi.com)
  • Together with the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, home to the largest collection of live fungi in the world, the researchers set up a large library of filtrates derived from more than ten thousand different fungi . (phys.org)
  • We are looking for individuals or research groups to clone and express purifed proteins from fungi into industrial host. (bio.net)
  • Stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways are conserved MAPK signaling modules that promote stress adaptation in all eukaryotic cells, including pathogenic fungi. (frontiersin.org)
  • The completion of genome-sequencing projects for a number of fungi set the stage for detailed investigations of proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Secreted proteins are important for both symbiotic and pathogenic interactions between fungi and their hosts. (aau.dk)
  • We used transposon-assisted signal sequence trapping (TAST) to identify putative secreted proteins expressed during the interactions between the basidiomycete Paxillus involutus and birch (symbiotic interaction), between fungi of the order Entomophthorales and aphids (pathogenic interaction), and in the mycoparasitic interaction between the oomycetes Pythium oligandrum and P. ultimum. (aau.dk)
  • Vertebrate delangins have substantial homology to orthologs in flies, worms, plants and fungi, including Scc2-type sister chromatid cohesion proteins, and D. melanogaster Nipped-B. We propose that perturbed delangin function may inappropriately activate DLX genes, thereby contributing to the proximodistal limb patterning defects in CdLS. (nih.gov)
  • The investigation of fungi fermentation effect on soy protein has been interrupted by substrate sterilization. (hindawi.com)
  • In many cases such as for fungi from the Sclerotiniaceae family the repertoire and function of secreted proteins remains elusive. (frontiersin.org)
  • The search for signatures of adaptation to S. borealis lifestyle may therefore help revealing proteins critical for colonization of the environment by Sclerotiniaceae fungi. (frontiersin.org)
  • We designed an index to report bias in these properties and found that high index proteins were enriched among secreted proteins in the three Sclerotiniaceae fungi. (frontiersin.org)
  • The idea was conceived by the corresponding author during the work on deep-sea fungal cultures, where obtaining biomass from fungi growing at elevated hydrostatic pressure is a challenge. (springer.com)
  • Bridge PD, Kokubun T, Simmonds MSJ (2004) Protein extraction from fungi. (springer.com)
  • Approximately one thousand putative peroxygenase sequences that form two large clusters can be found in genetic databases and fungal genomes, indicating the widespread occurrence of such enzymes in the whole fungal kingdom including all phyla of true fungi (Eumycota) and certain fungus-like heterokonts (Oomycota). (springer.com)
  • Hydrophobins are proteins produced byfilamentous fungi that exhibit very peculiar properties. (teknoscienze.com)
  • Stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways are important stress-signalling modules found in all eukaryotes, including eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we show that three other MAPKK-like proteins (Mkk4/5/6) exist in Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogenic or non-entomopathogenic fungi but lack in yeasts and aspergilli, and elucidate how they function in the fungal insect pathogen. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We have carried out a computational genome wide comparison of protein coding gene content of Saccharomycotina and Pezizomycotina, which include industrially important yeasts and filamentous fungi, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The machinery for trafficking proteins through the secretory pathway is well conserved in eukaryotes, from fungi to mammals. (vtt.fi)
  • Airborne spores (conidia) of these filamentous fungi express a surface protein that confers hydrophobicity (hydrophobin) and covers cell wall components that would otherwise induce a host immune cell response. (jimmunol.org)
  • to date the additional protein elongation factor (EF-3) appears to be unique to fungi. (kent.ac.uk)
  • In both fungi, tmpL encodes a predicted hybrid membrane protein containing an AMP-binding domain, six putative transmembrane domains, and an experimentally-validated FAD/NAD(P)-binding domain. (montana.edu)
  • Average protein sizes in different phylogenetic groups were: Alveolata (628 aa), Amoebozoa (533 aa), Fornicata (543 aa), Placozoa (453 aa), Eumetazoa (486 aa), Fungi (487 aa), Stramenopila (486 aa), Viridiplantae (392 aa). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several species of the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against fungal phytopathogens. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The class comprising proteins of the PAQR family was significantly expanded both in Trichoderma compared to other fungi as well as in the two mycoparasites compared to T . reesei . (beds.ac.uk)
  • Recently, cytoplasmic lectins isolated from fungal fruiting bodies have been shown to play a role in the defence of multicellular fungi against predators and parasites. (ethz.ch)
  • By tapping fungal communications and observing how fungi mount defensive and offensive operations, Hexagon Bio hopes to learn about wartime practices worth emulating. (genengnews.com)
  • abstract = "Menisporopsin A is a fungal bioactive macrocyclic polylactone requiring only reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) polyketide synthases (PKSs) to guide a series of esterification and cyclolactonization reactions with no structural information pertaining to these PKSs. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Analyses of these data demonstrate that acetylation is a widespread posttranslational modification impacting proteins encoded by many intensively studied maize genes. (pnas.org)
  • We use a ligation independent cloning to clone target genes into expression vectors for E. coli and P. pastoris and a small scale test expression to identify constructs producing soluble protein. (aau.dk)
  • DMI3 , a Medicago truncatula gene that acts immediately downstream of calcium spiking in this signaling pathway and is required for both nodulation and mycorrhizal infection, has high sequence similarity to genes encoding calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CCaMKs). (sciencemag.org)
  • High index proteins were also enriched in function associated with plant colonization in S. borealis , and in in planta -induced genes in S. sclerotiorum . (frontiersin.org)
  • We have now isolated full-length genes for heat shock proteins 60 and 70 from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum, which phylogenetic analyses reveal share common ancestry with mitochondrial orthologues. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Rapid induction of a protein disulfide isomerase and defense-related genes in wheat in response. (deepdyve.com)
  • Among the differentially expressed genes was a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), which is well known as a molecular chaperone and component of signal-transduction pathways in animal systems but had not been implicated previously in plant defense response. (deepdyve.com)
  • We describe the isolation of the snc1, sso1, and sso2 genes encoding exocytic SNARE proteins from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. (vtt.fi)
  • In this study, we have systematically investigated the molecular functions of 73 F-box or F-box-like protein encoding genes of the eukaryotic model system Aspergillus nidulans . (eventact.com)
  • Deletion of 73 fbx genes revealed that only 8-10 % of the fbx genes are required for proper fungal development and light response. (eventact.com)
  • FungiFun: A web-based application for functional categorization of fungal genes and proteins. (leibniz-hki.de)
  • Priebe S, Linde J, Albrecht D, Guthke R, Brakhage AA (2011) FungiFun: A web-based application for functional categorization of fungal genes and proteins. (leibniz-hki.de)
  • FungiFun assigns functional annotations to fungal genes or proteins and performs gene set enrichment analysis. (leibniz-hki.de)
  • Based on three different classification methods (FunCat, GO and KEGG), FungiFun categorizes genes and proteins for several fungal species on different levels of annotation detail. (leibniz-hki.de)
  • Eukaryotic filamentous plant pathogens secrete effector proteins that modulate the host cell to facilitate infection. (nih.gov)
  • Fungal NADPH oxidases are also required for cellular growth and differentiation processes associated with plant host infection and colonization. (pnas.org)
  • Wound-inducible PmPR10 proteins were differentially expressed in response to cold-hardening and fungal infection. (wiley.com)
  • These analyses revealed that the activity of plant-encoded enzymes can be modulated to alter both histone and nonhistone protein acetylation during a susceptible interaction and suggest that virulent C. carbonum utilizes HCT to reprogram the transcriptional response to infection, resulting in an ineffective defense response. (pnas.org)
  • Together, these findings suggest a role for ANXA2 in the control of cryptococcal infection, macrophage function, and fungal morphology. (elsevier.com)
  • Using a murine model of A. fumigatus corneal infection, we showed that Δ rodA conidia induced significantly higher cytokine production, neutrophil infiltration, and more rapid fungal clearance from C57BL/6 corneas compared with the parent G10 strain, which was dependent on Dectin-1 and Dectin-2. (jimmunol.org)
  • As Aspergillus and Fusarium species are also major causes of corneal infection and blindness worldwide ( 6 ), the current study examined the role of hydrophobins in a murine model of fungal keratitis ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Using a murine model of Aspergillus corneal infection, we also demonstrate that in the absence of RodA, A. fumigatus induces Dectin-1- and Dectin-2-dependent neutrophil recruitment to the corneal stroma and enhanced fungal killing. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together, these data represent a novel fungal adaptation to evade early recognition by Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, enabling conidia to germinate and form hyphae prior to immune recognition, which thereby enhances fungal survival during infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an opportunistic fungal infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or other forms of immunosuppression. (nih.gov)
  • In this report we demonstrate that a novel transmembrane protein, TmpL, is necessary for regulation of intracellular ROS levels and tolerance to external ROS, and is required for infection of plants by the necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola and for infection of mammals by the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. (montana.edu)
  • G protein alpha subunits are 350-400 amino acids in length and have molecular weights in the range 40-45 kDa. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Features that discriminate fungal effectors from secreted noneffectors are predominantly sequence length, molecular weight and protein net charge, as well as cysteine, serine and tryptophan content. (nih.gov)
  • The NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a widely distributed family of eukaryotic proteins that transfer electrons across biological membranes to catalyze the reduction of molecular oxygen to superoxide ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • These proteins have a molecular mass of about 18 kDa with different isoelectrical points ranging from 5.2 to 6.0. (wiley.com)
  • The usage of soy protein for young monogastric animals is restricted due to potential allergens and high molecular weight. (hindawi.com)
  • As a small-molecular-weight protein, FIPs have the advantage of easy modification and potential use in wide-ranging industrial applications [ 19 , 20 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • According to previous experiments, FIP isolated from F. velutipes (FIP-fve), as a pure protein (contains 114 amino acids and the molecular weight is 12,704 Da) without carbohydrate [ 2 ], can be used to develop novel protein vaccines [ 14 , 15 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we used classical molecular dynamics simulations combined with wet laboratory experiments and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterize the structure and dynamical behavior of AFP isomers in solution and their interaction with fungal model membranes. (asm.org)
  • SDS-PAGE analysis of the fractions from Sephadex-G200 column indi-cat-ed that the fractions with antifungal activity contained a 68-kDa band as well as other low molecular weight protein bands. (mtak.hu)
  • The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Low molecular weight peptides corresponding to abundant plasma proteins were identified. (nih.gov)
  • thus studying fungal signaling and environmental sensing contributes to our knowledge on conserved basic molecular principles of life. (beds.ac.uk)
  • High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. (hindawi.com)
  • Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. (hindawi.com)
  • The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings. (hindawi.com)
  • Biotechnological treatments to food processing wastes which are found in large quantities can produce useful end products including microbial biomass protein (MBP) while the wastes are also purified during the process. (hindawi.com)
  • However, in this study for the first time, we reported production of fungal biomass protein (FBP) using rice polishings. (hindawi.com)
  • The problem is further enhanced when the biomass to be analyzed for protein studies is too little due to the extreme experimental parameters under consideration such as increased or lowered pH, temperature, hydrostatic pressure, nutrients, etc. (springer.com)
  • The method described here is capable of obtaining proteins from minuscule quantities of biomass (~5 mg lyophilized biomass). (springer.com)
  • The protocol described here provides for a simple and quick method for extraction of high-quality proteins from very less biomass that could be extended to other tough to lyse biological material also. (springer.com)
  • Synthesizing Microbial Expansins with Unusual Activities Expansin proteins from diverse microbes have potential uses in deconstructing lignocellulosic biomass for conversion to renewable biofuels, nanocellulosic fibers, and commodity biochemicals. (doe.gov)
  • Interestingly in Pezizomycotina a subset of protein families related to plant biomass degradation and secondary metabolism are the only ones showing signs of recent expansion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this work, ethanol and fungal biomass (animal feed) were produced from acid-pretreated wheat straw slurry under an innovative simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and filtration (SSFF) strategy. (biofueljournal.com)
  • More specifically, it allows in-situ separation of insoluble solids leading to the production of pure fungal biomass as a value-added product. (biofueljournal.com)
  • Protein functionality of fungal biomass resembles egg albumin, being of high quality and ready bioavailable. (vidaproject.eu)
  • Besides a generous amount of dietary fibres, fungal biomass also contains several B vitamins and vitamin D precursors. (vidaproject.eu)
  • Jelmer Hoeksma et al, Cercosporamide inhibits bone morphogenetic protein receptor type I kinase activity in zebrafish, Disease Models & Mechanisms (2020). (phys.org)
  • and it is apparent that stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathways are central in mediating such responses and virulence in many fungal pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell surface receptors are represented by receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that frequently contain extracellular leucine-rich repeats and an intracellular kinase domain for activation of downstream signaling, as well as receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that lack this signaling domain. (wur.nl)
  • The PKA1 gene encoding the major cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit was identified and disrupted. (asm.org)
  • The PKR1 gene encoding the protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit was also identified and disrupted. (asm.org)
  • Phosphorylated Ssk1 prevents unphosphorylated Ssk1 from activating the Ssk2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase in the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol osmoregulatory pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Peroxide sensors for the fission yeast stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Heat stress activates the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and protein tyrosine phosphatases are essential under heat stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pbs2, Mkk1 and Ste7 orthologs are three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MAPKKs) acting as checkpoints of the Hog1, Slt2 and Fus3 MAPK cascades that constitute major parts of fungal signaling network. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Characterization was done through IR and H 1 NMR spectrophotometer and these compounds were analysed for in vitro biological activities including anti-microbial, anti-fungal and protein kinase inhibition assay. (edu.pk)
  • At the present time, very little is known concerning the mechanism by which fumonisin elicits its carcinogenic effect Our studies indicate that fumonisin represses expression of protein kinase C and AP-1-dependent transcription. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, fumonisin stimulated a simple promoter containing a single cyclic AMP response element Since fumonisin did not alter protein kinase A activity, it appears that cyclic AMP response element activation was independent of protein kinase A. It is hypothesized that the ability of fumonisin to alter signal transduction pathways plays a role in carcinogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • The sequence identity between different fungal alpha subunits is relatively low and is equivalent to the level of similarity observed between mammalian alpha subtypes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The present invention relates to protein disulfide isomerases which are encoded by a nucleic acid sequence which hybridizes with (i) the DNA sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 or (ii) the DNA sequence of SEQ ID NO:2, under the following conditions: presoaking in 5.times.SSC and prehybridizing for 1 h at .about.40.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1. An isolated polypeptide having protein disulfide isomerase activity, which (a) is encoded by a nucleic acid sequence which hybridizes with (i) the DNA sequence of SEQ IDNO:1 or (ii) the DNA sequence of SEQ ID NO:2, under the following conditions: presoaking in 5.times.SSC and prehybridizing for 1 h at .about.40.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2. The polypeptide of claim 1 having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 3 or a fragment thereof that has protein disulfide isomerase activity. (patentgenius.com)
  • Fungal CYPs share little sequence similarity, except for a few conserved residues that are characteristic of CYPs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ko JL, Hsu CI, Lin RH, Kao CL, Lin JY (1995) A new fungal immunomodulatory protein FIP-fve isolated from the edible mushroom, Flammulian velutlpes and its complete amino acid sequence. (springer.com)
  • The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 68-kDa protein (13 residues) was determined by Edman degradation. (mtak.hu)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • The biological function of a protein is determined by its tertiary, i.e., three-dimensional, structure, which in turn is influenced by its primary structure, i.e. its amino acid sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The role of histone acetylation in plant defense is well established, and it is known that pathogen effector proteins encoding acetyltransferases can directly acetylate host proteins to alter immunity. (pnas.org)
  • In the lungs, surfactant protein A (SP-A) and SP-D contribute to immune defense by facilitating the aggregation, uptake, and killing of many microorganisms by phagocytic cells. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, SP-D protected C. neoformans cells against macrophage-mediated defense mechanisms in vitro, as demonstrated by an analysis of fungal viability using a CFU assay. (asm.org)
  • A biophysical and structural study of two chitinases from Agave tequilana and their potential role as defense proteins. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two GTP-binding alpha subunits of the heterotrimeric G protein have been identified, Gpa1 and Gpa2. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Methylammonium and ammonium (MEP) permeases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belong to a ubiquitous family of cytoplasmic membrane proteins that transport only ammonium (NH 4 + + NH 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Methylammonium and ammonium permeases MEP1, MEP2, and MEP3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 35 ) and the ammonium and methylammonium transport B (AmtB) protein of enteric bacteria ( 64 ) are members of a unique family of cytoplasmic membrane transporters that are specific for ammonium ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Aspergillus and Fusarium species are important causes of fungal infections worldwide. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using a mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strain (Δ rodA ) that does not express the RodA hydrophobin, and Aspergillus and Fusarium conidia from clinical isolates that were treated with hydrofluoric acid (which removes the A. fumigatus RodA protein), we observed increased surface exposure of β1,3-glucan and α-mannose on Aspergillus and Fusarium conidia. (jimmunol.org)
  • Direct Liquid-Culture Screening for Evaluating the Production of Heterologous Proteins Using an Auxotrophic Mutant of Aspergillus Oryzae. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • Aspergillus oryzae, a filamentous fungus, is one of the most widely used hosts for industrial applications including large-scale production of proteins. (olmdiagnostics.com)
  • A new kind of ribosome-inactivating protein (curcin 2), induced by several different kinds of stress from Jatropha curcas leaves, under the control of the CaMV (cauliflower mosaic virus) 35S promoter, was introduced into the tobacco genome by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. (usda.gov)
  • It was the first species in the large fungal Dothideomycete class to be genome sequenced. (edu.au)
  • The C. miyabeanus genome is rich in carbohydrate active enzymes, and harbors 187 small secreted peptides (SSPs) and some fungal effector homologs. (osti.gov)
  • G proteins carry lipid modifications on one or more of their subunits to target them to the plasma membrane and to contribute to protein interactions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We found by yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays that E. festucae NoxR interacts with homologs of the yeast polarity proteins, Bem1 and Cdc24, and that the Phox and Bem1 (PB1) protein domains found in these proteins are essential for these interactions. (pnas.org)
  • Proteins obviously play critical roles in diverse biological processes through interactions with other proteins, DNA, RNA, and small molecules both inside and outside cells. (genetics.org)
  • In general, the high-throughput protein production system can lead to a better understanding of fungal/host interactions and can also identify potential industrially useful enzymes. (aau.dk)
  • The localization and interactions of the T. reesei SNARE proteins were studied with advanced fluorescence imaging methods. (vtt.fi)
  • Using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and Foerster resonance energy transfer analysis, we quantified the interactions between these proteins with high spatial resolution in living cells. (vtt.fi)
  • Several F-box proteins show development and stress specific interactions with the SkpA protein. (eventact.com)
  • These models provide a platform for studying domain organization and interdomain interactions in fungal NR-PKSs, which may be of value in directing the design of functionally optimised polyketide scaffolds. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Here we report the solution characterization of singlet and doublet acyl carrier protein (ACP2 and ACP1-ACP2)-thioesterase (TE) domains from NR-PKS, involved in menisporopsin A biosynthesis. (bris.ac.uk)
  • We found that enrichment in Thr, depletion in Glu and Lys, and low disorder frequency in hot loops are significantly associated with S. borealis proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The project aims to understand the structure and function of fungal membrane transport proteins identified as potential new drug targets, using a combination of state-of-the-art structural (X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM) and biochemical/biophysical techniques. (structuralbiology.eu)
  • Here, we use mass spectrometry to quantify protein abundance and levels of protein acetylation in HCT-treated or pathogen-infected plants. (pnas.org)
  • Using mass spectrometry, we globally quantified the abundance of 3,636 proteins and the levels of acetylation at 2,791 sites in maize plants treated with HCT as well as HCT-deficient or HCT-producing strains of C. carbonum . (pnas.org)
  • Quantitative measurements were developed to qualify the differential expression of the candidate host response proteins using selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assays, and then applied to a separate cohort of 57 patients with leukemia. (nih.gov)
  • Firstly, LysM effectors may protect fungal hyphae against degradation by hydrolytic enzymes secreted by the host (1). (nih.gov)
  • However, it is unclear whether endogenous plant enzymes can modulate protein acetylation during an immune response. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, the application of exogenous HCT enabled us to show that the activity of plant-encoded enzymes (histone deacetylases) can be modulated to alter acetylation of nonhistone proteins during an immune response. (pnas.org)
  • This compound, called cercosporamide, was previously only known to inhibit a different group of proteins. (phys.org)
  • This effect is known for a certain type of molecules that inhibit a group of proteins called BMP receptors. (phys.org)
  • New sophisticated strategies to inhibit fungal growth are thus urgently needed. (asm.org)
  • Among the potential candidate molecules that strongly inhibit fungal spore germination are small cationic, cysteine-stabilized proteins of the AFP family secreted by a group of filamentous Ascomycetes. (asm.org)
  • In a previous work, we built a classifier that used a decision tree to predict fungal protein localization based on phys iochemical properties of proteins. (actapress.com)
  • We shall detect the occurrence of such features in fungal proteins and use them as potential de terminants of subcellular localization. (actapress.com)
  • The system rebuilt based on 980 of such features is validated using a 5-fold cross validation and results in a success rate of 87% for predicting some and 77% for predicting all the reported lo calization sites of 3 fungal species for which annotations on subcellular localization were available. (actapress.com)
  • Homologous antibodies demonstrated the localization of both proteins to fungal hydrogenosomes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • 30 % of the F-box proteins are exclusively localized to the nuclear fraction whereas the rest show other localization patterns including, cytoplasmic, hyphal tip and plasma membrane. (eventact.com)
  • Part of the mRNA localization machinery that restricts accumulation of certain proteins to the bud and in the daughter cell. (uniprot.org)
  • NoxA has the core NADPH oxidase transmembrane and catalytic domains but no additional motifs, whereas NoxB has in addition, an N-terminal extension of ∼40 amino acids that is conserved among fungal species that have this isoform ( 3 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we analyzed amino acids usage and intrinsic protein disorder in alignments of groups of orthologous proteins from the three Sclerotiniaceae species. (frontiersin.org)
  • We used bioinformatics methods such as similarity search, multiple alignment, statistical analysis of physicochemical properties of amino acids, pattern recognition, and protein modeling to find out the effective factors in heat resistance of phytase. (ac.ir)
  • Besides the given order of amino acids (aa), the total length of a protein is also important for determining the tertiary structure of any polypeptide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Efforts aiming to identify new drug targets, demonstrated that the environmentally responsive chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which is a central regulator of the cell's protein balance, regulates C. albicans virulence and stress response pathways. (europa.eu)
  • Pathways of Unconventional Protein Secretion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A candidate marker panel of host response (9 plasma proteins, 4 peptides), fungal polysaccharides (galactomannan), and cell wall components (β-D glucan) were selected by statistical filtering for patients with leukemia as a primary underlying diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • Regulated synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by membrane-bound fungal NADPH oxidases (Nox) plays a key role in fungal morphogenesis, growth, and development. (pnas.org)
  • Hence, this project specifically focuses on (1) understanding the co-chaperones' role in fungal virulence, (2) determining if and how their near telomeric locations affects their regulation, (3) identifying the factors that regulate their expression. (europa.eu)
  • Indeed, certain co-chaperones are important for survival of oxidative stress and heat shock, for biofilm formation, and the survival of an invertebrate model of fungal virulence. (europa.eu)
  • Comparative analysis of fungal and oomycete CYPomes revealed cases of both extreme expansion and contraction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, fungal protein can reproduce meat-like textures (fibrousness) and consistency that cannot be achieved with plant, insect or single-cell protein sources. (vidaproject.eu)
  • The trisaccharide specifically recognized by CCL2 is a key carbohydrate determinant of pollen and insect venom allergens implying this particular glycoepitope is targeted by both fungal defence and mammalian immune systems. (ethz.ch)
  • We report the phosphoproteomes of 18 fungal species and a phylogenetic-based approach to study phosphosite evolution. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, UPOs and related heme-thiolate peroxidases such as well-studied chloroperoxidase (CPO) represent a separate superfamily of heme proteins on the phylogenetic level. (springer.com)
  • Collectively our results provide new insights on factors involved in the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, and thus cell proliferation in C. albicans, including a novel fungal-specific protein. (concordia.ca)
  • When compared to A. oryzae SSF alone, virginiamycin did not cause the interference of fungal fermentation but elucidated the protein degradation. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, western blot results showed that the immunoreactive signals of soy protein were considerably reduced in virginiamycin-added fermentation with unsterilized SM. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, fungal fermentation increased total protein and essential amino acid contents, suggesting the value enhancement of SM products. (hindawi.com)
  • Taken together, this study demonstrated for the first time that virginiamycin could help investigate fermentation effect on heat-sensitive soy protein. (hindawi.com)
  • Fungal protein and ethanol from lignocelluloses using Rhizopus pellets under simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF)', Biofuel Research Journal , 3(1), pp. 372-378. (biofueljournal.com)
  • To provide an innovative solution to this need MOGU is developing novel protein rich foods and ingredients using fungal fermentation. (vidaproject.eu)
  • By 2030, the US dairy and cattle industry will have collapsed," as 'precision fermentation' - producing animal proteins more efficiently via microbes - disrupts food production as we know it, predicts think tank RethinkX, which critics argue is living in "a vegan fantasyland. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • By 2030, we expect almost 90% of US dairy protein demand to come from precision fermentation alternatives. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Multiprotein complex, Skp-Cul-Fbox (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases, are the largest family of E3 ligases that are responsible for marking of target proteins with ubiquitin and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation. (eventact.com)
  • Protein secretome of moss plants (Physcomitrella patens) with emphasis on changes induced by a fungal elicitor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Lehtonen2014ProteinSO, title={Protein secretome of moss plants (Physcomitrella patens) with emphasis on changes induced by a fungal elicitor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The objective of this study to find the potency and bioefficacy of asiaticacid and triterpene against four different plants fungal pathogen using structure-based drug designing approach. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Sporisorium reilianum , a biotrophic fungal pathogen of maize ( Zea mays ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ), interferes with the regular development of inflorescences of host plants and leads to phyllody that is caused by changes in floral organ identity, floral meristem identity, and floral meristem determinacy. (plantphysiol.org)
  • G proteins and their receptors (GPCRs) form one of the most prevalent signalling systems in mammalian cells, regulating systems as diverse as sensory perception, cell growth and hormonal regulation [ PMID: 15294442 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Malassezia species are the most abundant fungal components of the mammalian and human skin microbiome. (asm.org)