Eye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Conjunctivitis, Inclusion: An infection of the eyes characterized by the presence in conjunctival epithelial cells of inclusion bodies indistinguishable from those of trachoma. It is acquired by infants during birth and by adults from swimming pools. The etiological agent is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS whose natural habitat appears to be the genito-urinary tract. Inclusion conjunctivitis is a less severe disease than trachoma and usually clears up spontaneously.Hemolysin Factors: Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.MycosesKeratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Conjunctivitis, Bacterial: Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.ConjunctivitisKeratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Keratitis, Dendritic: A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Mucormycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.TriazolesCandidiasis, Invasive: An important nosocomial fungal infection with species of the genus CANDIDA, most frequently CANDIDA ALBICANS. Invasive candidiasis occurs when candidiasis goes beyond a superficial infection and manifests as CANDIDEMIA, deep tissue infection, or disseminated disease with deep organ involvement.Zygomycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by fungi in the class Zygomycetes. It includes MUCORMYCOSIS and entomophthoramycosis. The latter is a tropical infection of subcutaneous tissue or paranasal sinuses caused by fungi in the order Entomophthorales. Phycomycosis, closely related to zygomycosis, describes infection with members of Phycomycetes, an obsolete classification.Onychomycosis: A fungal infection of the nail, usually caused by DERMATOPHYTES; YEASTS; or nondermatophyte MOLDS.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Tinea Versicolor: A common chronic, noninflammatory and usually symptomless disorder, characterized by the occurrence of multiple macular patches of all sizes and shapes, and varying in pigmentation from fawn-colored to brown. It is seen most frequently in hot, humid, tropical regions, and is caused by Pityrosporon orbiculare. (Dorland, 27th ed)Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Tinea: Fungal infection of keratinized tissues such as hair, skin and nails. The main causative fungi include MICROSPORUM; TRICHOPHYTON; and EPIDERMOPHYTON.Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Foot Dermatoses: Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Tinea Pedis: Dermatological pruritic lesion in the feet, caused by Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, or Epidermophyton floccosum.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Candidiasis, Cutaneous: Candidiasis of the skin manifested as eczema-like lesions of the interdigital spaces, perleche, or chronic paronychia. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fusariosis: OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS with the soil fungus FUSARIUM. Typically the infection is limited to the nail plate (ONYCHOMYCOSIS). The infection can however become systemic especially in an IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST (e.g., NEUTROPENIA) and results in cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, fever, KERATITIS, and pulmonary infections.Blastomycosis: A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Mycetoma: A chronic progressive subcutaneous infection caused by species of fungi (eumycetoma), or actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). It is characterized by tumefaction, abscesses, and tumor-like granules representing microcolonies of pathogens, such as MADURELLA fungi and bacteria ACTINOMYCETES, with different grain colors.Miconazole: An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Chromoblastomycosis: Scaly papule or warty growth, caused by five fungi, that spreads as a result of satellite lesions affecting the foot or leg. The extremity may become swollen and, at its distal portion, covered with various nodular, tumorous, verrucous lesions that resemble cauliflower. In rare instances, the disease may begin on the hand or wrist and involve the entire upper extremity. (Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p362)Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Granulomatous Disease, Chronic: A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Entomophthorales: An order of fungi comprising mostly insect pathogens, though some infect mammals including humans. Strict host specificity make these fungi a focus of many biological control studies.Pseudallescheria: Ascomycetous fungi, family Microascaceae, order Microascales, commonly found in the soil. They are causative agents of mycetoma, maduromycosis, and other infections in humans.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Chrysosporium: A mitosporic Onygenaceae fungal genus which causes adiaspiromycosis, a pulmonary mycosis of man and rodents. One of its teleomorphs is Ajellomyces.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Lipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Paracoccidioidomycosis: A mycosis affecting the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and internal organs. It is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is also called paracoccidioidal granuloma. Superficial resemblance of P. brasiliensis to Blastomyces brasiliensis (BLASTOMYCES) may cause misdiagnosis.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Candidemia: A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.Arthrodermataceae: A family of ascomycetous fungi, order Onygenales, characterized by smooth ascospores. Genera in the family include Arthroderma, Keratinomyces, and Ctenomyces. Several well-known anamorphic forms are parasitic upon the skin.Trichophyton: A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Tinea Capitis: Ringworm of the scalp and associated hair mainly caused by species of MICROSPORUM; TRICHOPHYTON; and EPIDERMOPHYTON, which may occasionally involve the eyebrows and eyelashes.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Paranasal Sinus Diseases: Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Cytophagocytosis: The engulfment and degradation of cells by other cells.Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous: A clinical syndrome characterized by development, usually in infancy or childhood, of a chronic, often widespread candidiasis of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, or associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, endocrine disorders, dental stomatitis, or malignancy.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Neuroaspergillosis: Infections of the nervous system caused by fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS, most commonly ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS. Aspergillus infections may occur in immunocompetent hosts, but are more prevalent in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. The organism may spread to the nervous system from focal infections in the lung, mastoid region, sinuses, inner ear, bones, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. Sinus infections may be locally invasive and enter the intracranial compartment, producing MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; cranial neuropathies; and abscesses in the frontal lobes of the brain. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch 27, pp62-3)Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Histoplasma: A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.Air Filters: Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Absidia: A genus of zygomycetous fungi, family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, which sometimes causes infection in humans.Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia: FEVER accompanied by a significant reduction in NEUTROPHIL count associated with CHEMOTHERAPY.Blastomyces: A genus of onygenacetous mitosporic fungi whose perfect state is Ajellomyces (see ONYGENALES). The species Blastomyces dermatitidis (perfect state Ajellomyces dermatitidis) causes blastomycosis.Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Lung infections with the invasive forms of ASPERGILLUS, usually after surgery, transplantation, prolonged NEUTROPENIA or treatment with high-doses of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can progress to CHRONIC NECROTIZING PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS or hematogenous spread to other organs.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Compound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Paracoccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus. P. brasiliensis (previously Blastomyces brasiliensis) is the etiologic agent of PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Leukocyte Transfusion: The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Otitis Externa: Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Polyenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Clotrimazole: An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Paecilomyces: A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal: Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Colletotrichum: A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).Pathology, Molecular: A subspecialty of pathology concerned with the molecular basis (e.g., mutations) of various diseases.Sporotrichosis: The commonest and least serious of the deep mycoses, characterized by nodular lesions of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. It is caused by inhalation of contaminated dust or by infection of a wound.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Orbital Diseases: Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pterocarpans: A group of compounds which can be described as benzo-pyrano-furano-benzenes which can be formed from ISOFLAVONES by internal coupling of the B ring to the 4-ketone position. Members include medicarpin, phaseolin, and pisatin which are found in FABACEAE.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Eye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Posterior Eye Segment: The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Pityriasis: A name originally applied to a group of skin diseases characterized by the formation of fine, branny scales, but now used only with a modifier. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hand DermatosesAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Splenic DiseasesCandida tropicalis: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Scedosporium: A mitosporic fungal genus previously called Monosporium. Teleomorphs include PSEUDALLESCHERIA.Infant, Premature, Diseases
  • So far, 35 people in six states - Tennessee, Virginia, Maryland, Florida, North Carolina and Indiana - have contracted fungal meningitis, and five of them have died, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (yahoo.com)
  • However, healthcare providers who are concerned about an unusual number of new cases of fungal eye infections should contact their state or local health department. (cdc.gov)
  • Seventeen cases of fungal endophthalmitis occurred after intravitreal injection of triamcinolone sourced from a single lot prepared by a compounding pharmacy in California. (gaffi.org)
  • Nine cases of fungal endophthalmitis were initially reported from the contaminated BBG. (medmalnj.com)
  • Based on the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC), at the time of Might there had been 130 confirmed cases of fungal eye infections in the USA in a 12 months period and of those cases, all but 5 were in touch lens wearers. (snu.ac.kr)
  • On March 5, 2012, the Healthcare Associated Infections Program of the California Department of Public Health was alerted to a cluster of 9 cases of fungal endophthalmitis, all among patients at the same Los Angeles County ambulatory surgical center who had undergone pars plana vitrectomies during October-December 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • we took care of it with anti-fungal medication but tonight I noticed little red mark which I'm not sure what it is- fungal, eczema, etc? (justanswer.com)
  • Infections treated with creams and anti-fungal medications can take anywhere between a few days and several months to disappear. (brighthub.com)
  • Named "filastatin" by the researchers, this molecule now emerges as a candidate for new anti-fungal drug development and as a potential protective material to embed on the surfaces of medical devices to prevent fungal infections. (healthcanal.com)
  • Infection by C. albicans causes common chronic illnesses like thrush and vaginitis, which affect millions of people globally each year and are not easily cleared by the handful of anti-fungal drugs now available. (healthcanal.com)
  • Over the counter use of anti-fungal cream is recommended. (smore.com)
  • A single compounding pharmacy is responsible for two simultaneous outbreaks of fungal endophthalmitis caused by contamination with Fusarium mold in "sterile" Brilliant Blue G dye (BBG) made by Franck's Compounding Pharmacy located in Ocala, Florida. (medmalnj.com)
  • When the Center for Disease Control (CDC) investigated these fungal infections , it also found that another Franck product, triamcinolone acetonide for intravitreal injection, was contaminated with Fusarium mold, bringing the total of cases to 47 in 9 states. (medmalnj.com)
  • Despite antifungal treatment, 14% did not have resolution of the Fusarium infection. (medmalnj.com)
  • The infection itself, Fusarium, is fairly common and can be found in water, plants, and earth, so might easily result in lens cases which are not properly cleaned. (snu.ac.kr)
  • A vitreous tap may be inadequate to detect it due to its insensitivity and direct vitreous biopsy by PPV may be the preferred choice to identify the presence of fungal endophthalmitis and facilitate a prompt diagnosis and treatment. (gaffi.org)
  • Tissue samples may also be taken to check for the presence of fungal organisms, especially if there is no productive cough (productive, meaning that fluids are produced). (petmd.com)
  • Intensive or prolonged application of corticosteroids to the eye may lead to an increase in the pressure inside the eye, glaucoma, damage to the optic nerve or the formation of cataracts. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Primary glaucoma involves the function of the drainage area of the eye, and may be inherited, but is rare in cats. (1800petmeds.com)
  • There is no known prevention for glaucoma in cats, except having complete annual exams and aggressively treating any other eye diseases that may lead to glaucoma. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Close monitoring for glaucoma in the other eye is needed. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Fungal endophthalmitis is rare but may complicate glaucoma drainage device surgery. (hindawi.com)
  • A 42-year-old carpenter with no other known previous medical illness first presented with right eye undiagnosed primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) which had complicated with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and secondary neovascular glaucoma (NVG). (hindawi.com)
  • I do not have any specialized medical expertise in dealing with eye diseases. (eyesapart.com)
  • Fungal diseases of ocular structures. (drugs.com)
  • Ocular Therapeutix™, Inc. (NASDAQ: OCUL), a biopharmaceutical company focused on the formulation, development, and commercialization of innovative therapies for diseases and conditions of the eye, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved DEXTENZA® (dexamethasone ophthalmic insert) 0.4mg for intracanalicular use for the treatment of ocular pain following ophthalmic surgery. (businesswire.com)
  • Ocular Therapeutix, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the formulation, development, and commercialization of innovative therapies for diseases and conditions of the eye using its proprietary bioresorbable hydrogel-based formulation technology. (businesswire.com)
  • Most diseases are best treated early, and the same is true for issues affecting your eyes and vision. (ei-resource.org)
  • Changes in pupil size to constricted or dilated also may occur with deeper eye diseases. (1800petmeds.com)
  • NIOSH investigators concluded that there was a potential for airborne fungal exposures due to moisture incursion. (cdc.gov)
  • Using a murine model of A. fumigatus corneal infection, we showed that Δ rodA conidia induced significantly higher cytokine production, neutrophil infiltration, and more rapid fungal clearance from C57BL/6 corneas compared with the parent G10 strain, which was dependent on Dectin-1 and Dectin-2. (jimmunol.org)
  • gained 8 lbs in 2 mths), familiar 'pimples' appearing on my face & neck, itchy & red eyes & blurry vision additionally to my keratoconus and astigmatism. (medhelp.org)
  • Corticotropin is a hormone that is used to treat many different conditions such as multiple sclerosis, psoriatic or rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, lupus, severe allergic reactions, breathing disorders, and inflammatory conditions of the eyes. (rexhealth.com)
  • The use of a combination drug with an anti-infective component is indicated where the risk of infection is high or where there is an expectation that potentially dangerous numbers of bacteria will be present in the eye. (drugs.com)
  • These infections come from a bacteria or virus in the thin membrane covering the white part of your eye and the inside of your eyelids. (webmd.com)
  • These proteins are normally necessary for the bacteria's survival, therefore the production of abnormal proteins is ultimately fatal to the bacteria.The combination of prednisolone and neomycin is useful in the treatment of inflammatory eye and ear disorders, which are either infected or likely to become infected. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • It kills bacteria and so prevents them from increasing in numbers and causing infections in the eyes, ears or nose. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • After collating 65 corneal specimens having bacterial co-isolates, polymicrobial co-infection was defined as detection of concordant bacteria on smear and culture or on two or more different media. (bmj.com)
  • These infections are mainly caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, originating in the body, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (eurekalert.org)
  • The effectiveness of Merbromin lies in the fact Merbromin is an organomercuric disodium salt compound and a fluorescein that is effective on external infections because of its permanence, and lethality to bacteria, IN PARTICULAR COLUMNARIS! (americanaquariumproducts.com)
  • in many individuals, eczema may markedly decrease in adulthood but some of the people who have this disease often have lifelong problems skin and/or eye irritations, recurrent skin infections, and cold sores . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Soft contact lens users with eye redness or pain, tearing, increased light sensitivity, blurred vision or discharge should stop wearing contacts and see a doctor immediately, said Dr. Malvina Eydelman, director of the FDA's Division of Ophthalmic and Ear, Nose and Throat Devices. (latimes.com)
  • Most cases of bacterial endophthalmitis patients will present with eye pain and redness, besides reduction of vision. (hindawi.com)
  • However, patients with fungal endophthalmitis may present with painless reduced vision and subtle eye redness. (hindawi.com)
  • If you've noticed some pain, swelling, itching, or redness in your eye, you likely have an eye infection. (healthline.com)
  • If a patient experiences eye discomfort, excessive tearing, vision changes, or redness of the eye, the patient should be instructed to immediately remove lenses and promptly contact his or her eyecare practitioner. (bausch.com)
  • An outbreak of a rare and deadly form of fungal meningitis that has killed 4 people and sickened another 26 in five states is believed to have been traced back to a steroid manufactured by the New England Compounding Center. (yahoo.com)
  • You can transfer it if you touch an active herpes sore and then touch your eye. (webmd.com)
  • Individuals with chronic invasive fungal sinusitis have a normal functioning immune system. (brighthub.com)
  • In 2011, for example, his lab showed that influenza infection-which often requires asthmatic children to be hospitalized-exacerbates asthma by activating not Th2 cells or NKT cells, but yet another group of immune cells called natural helper cells or innate lymphoid cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • The challenge presented by implanting medical devices in the body is preventing the occurrence of these infections, which lead to an immune response that compromises the success of the implant. (eurekalert.org)
  • Infection of multiple organs is uncommon but can occur in immune deficient states such as with AIDS. (healthhype.com)
  • People with undeveloped or weakened immune systems are generally the most susceptible to these infections. (webwire.com)
  • Your immune system fights off illness and infection and is important for a healthy body. (aao.org)
  • It gets infections that a healthy person's immune system would normally fight off. (aao.org)
  • Most infants are born without any complications," says Joshua Copel, M.D., chief of high-risk obstetrics at Yale New Haven Hospital, "and their immune systems are made stronger with maternal antibodies [infection-fighting proteins] passed on during pregnancy. (parenting.com)
  • The most common way for someone to develop a fungal eye infection is as a result of an eye injury, particularly if the injury was caused by plant material such as a stick or a thorn. (cdc.gov)
  • It's more common in Southern states, but it's still a rare infection. (mold-help.org)
  • A simple vision screening is common at schools in particular, but most parents don't realize the differences between a vision screening and a comprehensive dilated eye exam. (ei-resource.org)
  • Boston, Mass. -A common fungal infection can trigger asthma and make it much worse by way of a route not targeted by existing asthma drugs, report researchers at Boston Children's Hospital. (healthcanal.com)
  • Some of these conditions, such as common fungal infections, are minor and may be self-treated, while others should be referred to a physician. (uspharmacist.com)