Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Gastric Fundus: The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.Acholeplasma: A genus of gram-negative organisms including saprophytic and parasitic or pathogenic species.Blepharospasm: Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.NADH Tetrazolium Reductase: Catalyzes the reduction of tetrazolium compounds in the presence of NADH.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Ophthalmoscopes: Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Melopsittacus: A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Retinal DiseasesBlepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Retinal Drusen: Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Lipofuscin: A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid. It accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Eyelid DiseasesNeuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Vecuronium Bromide: Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Geographic Atrophy: A form of MACULAR DEGENERATION also known as dry macular degeneration marked by occurrence of a well-defined progressive lesion or atrophy in the central part of the RETINA called the MACULA LUTEA. It is distinguishable from WET MACULAR DEGENERATION in that the latter involves neovascular exudates.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Night Blindness: Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Choroid Diseases: Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Eye Diseases, Hereditary: Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Retinal Dystrophies: A group of disorders involving predominantly the posterior portion of the ocular fundus, due to degeneration in the sensory layer of the RETINA; RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; BRUCH MEMBRANE; CHOROID; or a combination of these tissues.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Pyloric Antrum: The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Optic Disk Drusen: Optic disk bodies composed primarily of acid mucopolysaccharides that may produce pseudopapilledema (elevation of the optic disk without associated INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION) and visual field deficits. Drusen may also occur in the retina (see RETINAL DRUSEN). (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p355)Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3: A member of the family of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Mutations of the gene for TIMP3 PROTEIN causes Sorsby fundus dystrophy.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment: The light sensitive outer portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. The outer segment contains a stack of disk membranes laden with photoreceptive pigments (RETINAL PIGMENTS). The outer segment is connected to the inner segment by a PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM.Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy: Autosomal dominant hereditary maculopathy with childhood-onset accumulation of LIPOFUSION in RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Affected individuals develop progressive central acuity loss, and distorted vision (METAMORPHOPSIA). It is associated with mutations in bestrophin, a chloride channel.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Choroiditis: Inflammation of the choroid.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Optic Atrophy: Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.Scotoma: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Choroid Neoplasms: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Wet Macular Degeneration: A form of RETINAL DEGENERATION in which abnormal CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION occurs under the RETINA and MACULA LUTEA, causing bleeding and leaking of fluid. This leads to bulging and or lifting of the macula and the distortion or destruction of central vision.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.

A prospective study of cerebrovascular disease in Japanese rural communities, Akabane and Asahi. Part 1: evaluation of risk factors in the occurrence of cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis. (1/1081)

An epidemiological study of cerebrovascular disease in Akabane and Asahi, Japan, was made. (These cities are located near Nagoy, Japan.) The study population included 4,737 men and women aged 40 to 79 at the time of entry into the study. There were 4,186 persons who were examined and, of these, 264 cases of cerebrovascular attacks were observed between 1964 and 1970. The incidence rate of stroke in those persons not responding to the survey was 15.9 times higher than in those persons examined according to person-year observation in Akabane. The risk factors for cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis were evaluated by age-adjusted and sex-adjusted relative risks. The predisposing factors to cerebral hemorrhage appeared to be high blood pressure, high left R wave, ST depression, T abnormality, capillary fragility counts, previous medical history of stroke and albuminuria. For cerebral thrombosis, the predisposing factors appeared to be high blood pressure, ST depression and funduscopic sclerotic findings, and those factors assumed to be significant were glycosuria and smoking habits. Ocular funduscopic abnormality was the most prominent risk factor for cerebral thrombosis, while high blood pressure and ECG abnormalities were highly related to cerebral hemorrhage. It was suggested that those subjects with a relatively higher blood pressure may have a higher relative risk of cerebral hemorrhage than those with a lower (normal range) blood pressure. A previous or family history of stroke also appeared significantly related to cerebral hemorrhage.  (+info)

Evaluation of focal defects of the nerve fiber layer using optical coherence tomography. (2/1081)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze glaucomatous eyes with known focal defects of the nerve fiber layer (NFL), relating optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings to clinical examination, NFL and stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) photography, and Humphrey 24-2 visual fields. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prevalence study. PARTICIPANTS: The authors followed 19 patients in the study group and 14 patients in the control group. INTERVENTION: Imaging with OCT was performed circumferentially around the ONH with a circle diameter of 3.4 mm using an internal fixation technique. One hundred OCT scan points taken within 2.5 seconds were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measurements of NFL thickness using OCT were performed. RESULTS: In most eyes with focal NFL defects, OCTs showed significant thinning of the NFL in areas closely corresponding to focal defects visible on clinical examination, to red-free photographs, and to defects on the Humphrey visual fields. Optical coherence tomography enabled the detection of focal defects in the NFL with a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 81%. CONCLUSION: Analysis of NFL thickness in eyes with focal defects showed good structural and functional correlation with clinical parameters. Optical coherence tomography contributes to the identification of focal defects in the NFL that occur in early stages of glaucoma.  (+info)

Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy. (3/1081)

Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC) is usually seen in young males with Type A personality. Clinical evaluation of the macula with fundoscopy and biomicroscopy, coupled with fluorescein angiography establishes the diagnosis. Indocyanine green angiographic studies have reinformed that the basic pathology lies in choriocapillaries and retinal pigment epithelium. Most of the ICSC resolve completely in four months, and some of them could resolve early with direct photocoagulation of the leaking site. Oral steroids have no role, and could even cause an adverse reaction.  (+info)

The optic disc in glaucoma. I: Classification. (4/1081)

Five different descriptive types of glaucomatous optic discs are described, based on the examination of X2 magnification stereophotographs of 252 patients from the files of the Glaucoma Service at Wills Eye Hospital. The method of analysis is described in detail. These types include: overpass cupping, cupping without pallor of the neuroretinal rim, cupping with pallor of the neuroretinal rim, focal notching of the neuroretinal rim, and bean-pot cupping. These morphological types may be caused by variations in factors contributing to the pathogenesis of glaucomatous eyes. Recognition of these differing types may help in determining the factors in each case.  (+info)

Recessive mutations in the RLBP1 gene encoding cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein in a form of retinitis punctata albescens. (5/1081)

PURPOSE: To determine the frequency and spectrum of mutations in the RLBP1 gene encoding cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) in patients with hereditary retinal degeneration. METHODS: The single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique and a direct genomic sequencing technique were used to screen the coding exons of this gene (exons 2-8) for mutations in 324 unrelated patients with recessive or isolate retinitis pigmentosa, retinitis punctata albescens, Leber congenital amaurosis, or a related disease. Variant DNA fragments revealed by SSCP analysis were subsequently sequenced. Selected alleles that altered the coding region or intron splice sites were evaluated further through segregation analysis in the families of the index cases. RESULTS: Four novel mutations were identified in this gene among three unrelated patients with recessively inherited retinitis punctata albescens. Two of the mutations were missense: one was a frameshift, and one affected a canonical splice donor site. CONCLUSIONS: Recessive mutations in the RLBP1 gene are an uncommon cause of retinal degeneration in humans. The phenotype produced by RLBP1 mutations seems to be a form of retinitis punctata albescens.  (+info)

The use of internal limiting membrane maculorrhexis in treatment of idiopathic macular holes. (6/1081)

The purpose of this study was to assess surgical results of internal limiting membrane (ILM) maculorrhexis in macular hole surgery. This study is a part of continuing prospective clinical trial of our team of researchers. Thirteen eyes of 13 patients with idiopathic macular hole underwent vitrectomy with the removal of posterior cortical vitreous, peeling of the macular ILM, and intraocular gas tamponade, followed by postoperative face-down positioning. The excised specimens were evaluated with transmission electron microscopy. Complete closure of the hole was observed in all 13 eyes (100% anatomic success rate). Visual improvement of 2 or more lines on ETDRS visual acuity chart was achieved in 11 (85%) of the 13 eyes. Six (54.5%) eyes attained visual acuity of 20/50 or better. Electron microscopy showed ILM in the removed specimens. ILM maculorrhexis is a promising new surgical approach to close idiopathic macular holes but requires further investigation and long-term evaluation.  (+info)

Diagnosis and management of idiopathic macular holes. (7/1081)

Modern vitreoretinal surgery is now one of the most effective tools for treating posterior segment diseases. Recent advances in the pathogenesis and classification and better indicators of visual outcome for idiopathic macular holes have led to a renewed interest in this clinical entity. Refinements in the techniques and instrumentation have led to improvement in surgical results. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of idiopathic macular holes.  (+info)

Posterior scleritis: clinical profile and imaging characteristics. (8/1081)

Posterior scleritis is relatively uncommon and is often misdiagnosed due to its protean manifestations. We report eight cases of posterior scleritis to analyse the clinical profile, ultrasonographic and computed tomography (CT) scan features of this rare disorder. Fundus findings included serous retinal detachment, choroidal folds, retinal folds, subretinal mass, choroidal detachment, disc edema, and macular edema. There was associated anterior scleritis and anterior uveitis in the majority of the cases. In all cases ultrasound with or without CT scan confirmed the clinical diagnosis. All patients responded to systemic steroids except one who required immunosuppressive therapy. This paper describes the clinical profile of a series of posterior scleritis cases highlighting varied clinical presentation, and the role of ultrasound and CT scan findings in the diagnosis.  (+info)

  • Mydriatic fundus camera to undertake a fundus oculi and a retinal angiography. (
  • Patients attended screenings for microvascular complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic polyneuropathy (DP), and DR. Single-field retinal imaging with a digital, nonmydriatic fundus camera was used to assess DR. Prevalence and incidence of microvascular complications were analyzed and the ratio of newly diagnosed to preexisting complications for all entities was calculated in order to differentiate natural progress from missed DRs. Results . (
  • exudative retinopathy a condition marked by masses of white or yellowish exudate in the posterior part of the fundus oculi, with deposits of cholestrin and blood debris from retinal hemorrhage, and leading to destruction of the macula and blindness. (
  • Fundus examination showed myopic changes, with no evidence of retinal tear bilaterally. (
  • On examination, retinal abnormalities were identified in all 8 patients, with 7 (87.5%) oculus dexter and 1 (12.5%) oculus sinister, and with 1 (12.5%) inferotemporally, 3 (37.5%) superonasally, 3 (37.5%) inferonasally, and 1 (12.5%) inferiorly. (
  • Evaluation of diagnostic technology PARTICIPANTS: 1,796 retinal fundus images from 1,612 diabetic patients. (
  • The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the inner wall of the posterior eye, which consists of the choroid, retina, fovea, macula, optic disc, and retinal vessels (Figure 1). (
  • RESULTS: Biomicroscopy and fundus photographs disclosed an apparent thinning of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the areas minimally affected, where possible changes in the transparent sensory retina were not visible. (
  • The ocular fundus, page 131. (
  • Concerning diabetic changes of the ocular fundus, patients are often referred to an ophthalmologist, which requires a good network for exchange of relevant findings as well as possible arising consequences for adaption of diabetes therapy and control of other risk factors [ 7 ]. (
  • For the American Journal of Pathology, Kevorkian wrote up his research in "The Fundus Oculi and the Determination of Death. (
  • 1917) The Fundus Oculi of Birds: Especially as Viewed by the Ophthalmoscope: A Study in the Comparative Anatomy and Physiology (Lakeside Press). (
  • The differential diagnosis includes several entities that can present with fundus color change in light and dark adaptation: X-linked recessive (1,2) and dominant cone dystrophy (3), Oguchi disease (4), and X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (5). (
  • The results indicate that implementing nonmydriatic, digital fundus imaging in a diabetes outpatient clinic can contribute to improved early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. (
  • Proposed classification of posterior staphylomas based on analyses of eye shape by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and wide-field fundus imaging. (
  • Morphological evaluations of the fundus oculi represent a fundamental tool for the clinical approach to the patient with hypertension. (
  • The extreme importance of repeated examinations of the fundi oculi in all types of hypertension in pregnancy is emphasized. (
  • The patients were followed during this period at regular intervals, with determination of visual field, fundus oculi, visual acuity, and eventual onset of local and systemic side effects. (
  • A previously developed image processing and recognition system, documented elsewhere and briefly described here, was successfully tested in pre-clinical experiments and applied in the evaluation of normal as well as of pathological fundus. (
  • Clinical and biochemical effects of the E139K missense mutation in the TIMP3 gene, associated with Sorsby fundus dystrophy. (
  • Growth retardation associated with muscle, liver, brain, and eye abnormalities marked by hypotonia, congestive pericarditis with elevated venous pressure, triangular face often with hydrocephaloid skull, hepatomegaly, yellowish dots and pigment dispersion in the fundus oculi, and borderline mental deficiency Most reported cases come from Finland. (
  • This phenomenon is characterized by a change in the color of the fundus from red in the dark-adapted state to golden immediately or shortly after the onset of the light. (
  • The fundus photograph was taken 8 weeks after the onset. (
  • Ischemic lesions were found by magnetic resonance imaging at fundus oculi. (
  • Although it has been reported that striae-shaped or slit-shaped lamina pores are more frequent in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), this observation is based only on fundus photography. (
  • Easy observation of the fundus oculi makes retinopathy the most frequently reported chronic complication of diabetes and, consequently, the one we know best in terms of epidemiology and natural history. (
  • The Fundus Oculi with an Ophthalmoscopic Atlas illustrating its Physiological Pathological Conditions. (
  • The paper concentrates on the results and the implications of a computerized approach to the automatic extraction of numerical indexes describing morphological details of the fundus oculi. (
  • A normal disc and unremarkable macula are noted, but there is a marked golden-yellow sheen to the fundus extending beyond the arcades. (
  • 6,7) The color of the fundus reflex in the light adapted state has also been described as golden-yellow, gray-white, and yellow-white. (