The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
Tomography, Optical Coherence
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Retinal Pigment Epithelium
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Eye Diseases, Hereditary
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)
Visual Field Tests
Pigment Epithelium of Eye
Optic Disk Drusen
Optic disk bodies composed primarily of acid mucopolysaccharides that may produce pseudopapilledema (elevation of the optic disk without associated INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION) and visual field deficits. Drusen may also occur in the retina (see RETINAL DRUSEN). (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p355)
The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.
Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Outer Segment
Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy
Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.
Wet Macular Degeneration
Color Vision Defects
Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.
A prospective study of cerebrovascular disease in Japanese rural communities, Akabane and Asahi. Part 1: evaluation of risk factors in the occurrence of cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis. (1/1081)An epidemiological study of cerebrovascular disease in Akabane and Asahi, Japan, was made. (These cities are located near Nagoy, Japan.) The study population included 4,737 men and women aged 40 to 79 at the time of entry into the study. There were 4,186 persons who were examined and, of these, 264 cases of cerebrovascular attacks were observed between 1964 and 1970. The incidence rate of stroke in those persons not responding to the survey was 15.9 times higher than in those persons examined according to person-year observation in Akabane. The risk factors for cerebral hemorrhage and thrombosis were evaluated by age-adjusted and sex-adjusted relative risks. The predisposing factors to cerebral hemorrhage appeared to be high blood pressure, high left R wave, ST depression, T abnormality, capillary fragility counts, previous medical history of stroke and albuminuria. For cerebral thrombosis, the predisposing factors appeared to be high blood pressure, ST depression and funduscopic sclerotic findings, and those factors assumed to be significant were glycosuria and smoking habits. Ocular funduscopic abnormality was the most prominent risk factor for cerebral thrombosis, while high blood pressure and ECG abnormalities were highly related to cerebral hemorrhage. It was suggested that those subjects with a relatively higher blood pressure may have a higher relative risk of cerebral hemorrhage than those with a lower (normal range) blood pressure. A previous or family history of stroke also appeared significantly related to cerebral hemorrhage. (+info)
Evaluation of focal defects of the nerve fiber layer using optical coherence tomography. (2/1081)OBJECTIVE: To analyze glaucomatous eyes with known focal defects of the nerve fiber layer (NFL), relating optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings to clinical examination, NFL and stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) photography, and Humphrey 24-2 visual fields. DESIGN: Cross-sectional prevalence study. PARTICIPANTS: The authors followed 19 patients in the study group and 14 patients in the control group. INTERVENTION: Imaging with OCT was performed circumferentially around the ONH with a circle diameter of 3.4 mm using an internal fixation technique. One hundred OCT scan points taken within 2.5 seconds were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measurements of NFL thickness using OCT were performed. RESULTS: In most eyes with focal NFL defects, OCTs showed significant thinning of the NFL in areas closely corresponding to focal defects visible on clinical examination, to red-free photographs, and to defects on the Humphrey visual fields. Optical coherence tomography enabled the detection of focal defects in the NFL with a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 81%. CONCLUSION: Analysis of NFL thickness in eyes with focal defects showed good structural and functional correlation with clinical parameters. Optical coherence tomography contributes to the identification of focal defects in the NFL that occur in early stages of glaucoma. (+info)
Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy. (3/1081)Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC) is usually seen in young males with Type A personality. Clinical evaluation of the macula with fundoscopy and biomicroscopy, coupled with fluorescein angiography establishes the diagnosis. Indocyanine green angiographic studies have reinformed that the basic pathology lies in choriocapillaries and retinal pigment epithelium. Most of the ICSC resolve completely in four months, and some of them could resolve early with direct photocoagulation of the leaking site. Oral steroids have no role, and could even cause an adverse reaction. (+info)
The optic disc in glaucoma. I: Classification. (4/1081)Five different descriptive types of glaucomatous optic discs are described, based on the examination of X2 magnification stereophotographs of 252 patients from the files of the Glaucoma Service at Wills Eye Hospital. The method of analysis is described in detail. These types include: overpass cupping, cupping without pallor of the neuroretinal rim, cupping with pallor of the neuroretinal rim, focal notching of the neuroretinal rim, and bean-pot cupping. These morphological types may be caused by variations in factors contributing to the pathogenesis of glaucomatous eyes. Recognition of these differing types may help in determining the factors in each case. (+info)
Recessive mutations in the RLBP1 gene encoding cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein in a form of retinitis punctata albescens. (5/1081)PURPOSE: To determine the frequency and spectrum of mutations in the RLBP1 gene encoding cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) in patients with hereditary retinal degeneration. METHODS: The single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique and a direct genomic sequencing technique were used to screen the coding exons of this gene (exons 2-8) for mutations in 324 unrelated patients with recessive or isolate retinitis pigmentosa, retinitis punctata albescens, Leber congenital amaurosis, or a related disease. Variant DNA fragments revealed by SSCP analysis were subsequently sequenced. Selected alleles that altered the coding region or intron splice sites were evaluated further through segregation analysis in the families of the index cases. RESULTS: Four novel mutations were identified in this gene among three unrelated patients with recessively inherited retinitis punctata albescens. Two of the mutations were missense: one was a frameshift, and one affected a canonical splice donor site. CONCLUSIONS: Recessive mutations in the RLBP1 gene are an uncommon cause of retinal degeneration in humans. The phenotype produced by RLBP1 mutations seems to be a form of retinitis punctata albescens. (+info)
The use of internal limiting membrane maculorrhexis in treatment of idiopathic macular holes. (6/1081)The purpose of this study was to assess surgical results of internal limiting membrane (ILM) maculorrhexis in macular hole surgery. This study is a part of continuing prospective clinical trial of our team of researchers. Thirteen eyes of 13 patients with idiopathic macular hole underwent vitrectomy with the removal of posterior cortical vitreous, peeling of the macular ILM, and intraocular gas tamponade, followed by postoperative face-down positioning. The excised specimens were evaluated with transmission electron microscopy. Complete closure of the hole was observed in all 13 eyes (100% anatomic success rate). Visual improvement of 2 or more lines on ETDRS visual acuity chart was achieved in 11 (85%) of the 13 eyes. Six (54.5%) eyes attained visual acuity of 20/50 or better. Electron microscopy showed ILM in the removed specimens. ILM maculorrhexis is a promising new surgical approach to close idiopathic macular holes but requires further investigation and long-term evaluation. (+info)
Diagnosis and management of idiopathic macular holes. (7/1081)Modern vitreoretinal surgery is now one of the most effective tools for treating posterior segment diseases. Recent advances in the pathogenesis and classification and better indicators of visual outcome for idiopathic macular holes have led to a renewed interest in this clinical entity. Refinements in the techniques and instrumentation have led to improvement in surgical results. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of idiopathic macular holes. (+info)
Posterior scleritis: clinical profile and imaging characteristics. (8/1081)Posterior scleritis is relatively uncommon and is often misdiagnosed due to its protean manifestations. We report eight cases of posterior scleritis to analyse the clinical profile, ultrasonographic and computed tomography (CT) scan features of this rare disorder. Fundus findings included serous retinal detachment, choroidal folds, retinal folds, subretinal mass, choroidal detachment, disc edema, and macular edema. There was associated anterior scleritis and anterior uveitis in the majority of the cases. In all cases ultrasound with or without CT scan confirmed the clinical diagnosis. All patients responded to systemic steroids except one who required immunosuppressive therapy. This paper describes the clinical profile of a series of posterior scleritis cases highlighting varied clinical presentation, and the role of ultrasound and CT scan findings in the diagnosis. (+info)
Manual of ocular fundus examination - کتابخانه دیجیتال جندی شاپور اهواز
Manual of ocular fundus examination , Manual of ocular fundus examination , کتابخانه دیجیتال جندی شاپور اهواز
Fundus Flavimaculatus - Asymptomatic - Retina Gallery ~ Full Sized Retina Images
45 year old man was told to come in because of white spots on their retina. He now has to take his glasses off to read labels. He has always had trouble with oncoming headlights messing up his vision for a short time. VA OD: cc20/20 NscJ1 OS: cc20/20 NscJ1+ Pisciform lesions in the macula of both eyes. ...
Time-lapse angiography of the ocular fundus: a new video-angiography | BMC Medical Imaging | Full Text
Ocular fundus angiography is an indispensable component of the tests utilized for fundus diseases. Dynamic angiography results can provide additional information; however, many difficulties remain. In this study, we introduce a modified method, time-lapse angiography (TLA), to dynamically present imaging results. TLA, combining time-lapse photography and fundus angiography (using Heidelberg retina angiography II, Germany), includes pre-photographing and post- photosynthesis and ultimately produces a video that is approximately 15 s in length. Four typical videos in the article showed the characteristics of TLA, including a short and rapid but continuous and integral presentation, highly valid information, high definition, etc. TLA is beneficial for the diagnosis of diseases and the assessment of progression and is convenient for peer communication, patient interpretation, and student education. The application of time-lapse photography in ocular fundus angiography is a monumental and innovative attempt.
OSA | Three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels extracted from retinal fundus images
We present a 3D reconstruction of retinal blood vessel trees using two views of fundus images. The problem is addressed by using well known computer vision techniques which consider: 1) The recovery of camera-eyeball model parameters by an auto-calibration method. The camera parameters are found via the solution of simplified Kruppa equations, based on correspondences found by a LMedS optimisation correlation between pairs of eight different views. 2) The extraction of blood vessels and skeletons from two fundus images. 3) The matching of corresponding points of the two skeleton trees. The trees are previously labelled during the analysis of 2D binary images. Finally, 4) the lineal triangulation of matched correspondence points and the surface modelling via generalised cylinders using diameter measurements extracted from the 2D binary images. The method is nearly automatic and it is tested with 2 sets of 10 fundus retinal images, each one taken from different subjects. Results of 3D vein and ...
Featuring over 250 illustrations, this detailed full-color textbook provides up-to-date information on the use of fundus autofluorescence imaging in the evaluation of retinal disease.
Featuring over 250 illustrations, this detailed full-color textbook provides up-to-date information on the use of fundus autofluorescence imaging in the evaluation of retinal disease.
Statistically strong label-free quantitative identification of native fluorophores in a biological sample | Scientific Reports
Bioimaging using endogenous cell fluorescence, without any external biomarkers makes it possible to explore cells and tissues in their original native state, also in vivo. In order to be informative, this label-free method requires careful multispectral or hyperspectral recording of autofluorescence images followed by unsupervised extraction (unmixing) of biochemical signatures. The unmixing is difficult due to the scarcity of biochemically pure regions in cells and also because autofluorescence is weak compared with signals from labelled cells, typically leading to low signal to noise ratio. Here, we solve the problem of unsupervised hyperspectral unmixing of cellular autofluorescence by introducing the Robust Dependent Component Analysis (RoDECA). This approach provides sophisticated and statistically robust quantitative biochemical analysis of cellular autofluorescence images. We validate our method on artificial images, where the addition of varying known level of noise has allowed us to quantify
An autofluorescence image can be used to determine problems with the retinal pigment epithelium. Learn more today with Dr. Chauhan.
2021 ICD-10-CM Code H30.143 - Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, bilateral
H30.143 is a billable diagnosis code used to specify a medical diagnosis of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy, bilateral. Code valid for the fiscal year 2021
Fundus Fluorescein Angiography Centres Near Me in Hyderabad - Book Appointment Online, View Reviews, Timings | Practo
Fundus Fluorescein Angiography Centres Near Me in Hyderabad. Book appointment online with the best Fundus Fluorescein Angiography Centres, find list of Fundus Fluorescein Angiography Centres, reviews for the best Fundus Fluorescein Angiography Centres in Hyderabad
Sorsbys fundus dystrophy. A clinical study
A survey was undertaken of a family known to have Sorsbys fundus dystrophy. Fifty members were reviewed, and 14 were found to be affected. Many of Sorsbys original conclusions were confirmed, including the pattern of inheritance and age of visual loss. Yellow material was present at the level of B …
The Molecular Characterisation of TIMP3 Mutations Responsible for Sorsbys Fundus Dystrophy: is there a link to Age-related...
Alsaffar, Fatimah (2017) The Molecular Characterisation of TIMP3 Mutations Responsible for Sorsbys Fundus Dystrophy: is there a link to Age-related Macular Degeneration. PhD thesis, The University of Sheffield. ...
Ocular Fundus Abnormalities in Pre-Dialytic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 10% - 16% of the adult population. Although ocular findings related to renal insufficiency include cataract, conjunctival calcification, lid edema, conjunctival pallor and xanthalesma, by far the most important is retinopathy. Objective: To evaluate the ocular fundus abnormalities in pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease patients of the adult population. Methodology: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Department of Nephrology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from April 2012 to March 2014. A total of 100 hospital admitted CKD patients were purposively selected for this study. Age, gender, blood pressure, Body Mass Index (BMI), 24 hours Urinary Total Protein (UTP), haemoglobin level, serum creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride and color fundus photography findings of both eyes were recorded for each patient. Inter-group comparisons were made between patients with retinopathy and
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An Efficient fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) Agent : [email protected] Nanoprisms | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose : Nano-materials have been used widely applied for medical research because of its small size in recent years, however it is a virgin area in the field of ophthalmology. We created a new Silver-oxides core-shell nanoprisms ([email protected] NPs) -Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) that be excited the fluorescence signal by 488nm. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate Ag @oxides nanoprisms can be used as a new effective agent in fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA). Methods : Ag NPs were synthesized using a seed-mediated procedure. [email protected] NPs were prepared via a simple sol-gel route. The thickness of the oxides shell can be precisely tuned from 1 to 15 nm through changing the reaction time and amount of oxides sol-gel precursor. Cytotoxicity of Ag NP were tested in OCM-1 cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. OCM-1 cells were incubated with [email protected] NPs for 24 h and then imaged with the fluorescence microscope. Fundus of C57BL/6J mice were ...
Kyrieleis plaques in cytomegalovirus retinitis | Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection | Full Text
CMV retinitis typically presents with focal areas of retinal necrosis with primary lesions usually located adjacent to blood vessels, secondary to hematogenous spread of the virus . On funduscopic examination, the appearance of CMV retinitis can range from a dry-appearing irregular and granular border with satellite lesions to an edematous and confluent area of thick, yellow-white necrosis associated with retinal hemorrhages and vascular sheathing .. Vascular involvement in CMV retinitis can result in vascular sheathing. Exudates around retinal vessels, more commonly veins, can result in focal areas of fluffy white cuffing or sheathing, with or without skip areas . When the perivascular sheathing is severe, the retinal arteries and veins appear frosted, and the term frosted branch angiitis is used to describe this entity . Kyrieleis plaques can be differentiated from vascular sheathing and frosted branch angiitis by its clinical and fluorescein angiographic features. Kyrieleis ...
Fluorescein angiogram of eye - Stock Image C004/0835 - Science Photo Library
FLUORESCEIN ANGIOGRAM OF EYE Photo essay at the hospital of Meaux (77), France. Department of ophtalmology. Mydriatic fundus camera to undertake a fundus oculi and a retinal angiography. On screen a diabetic retinopathy. - Stock Image C004/0835
Outpatient Ultra wide-field intravenous fundus fluorescein angiography in infants using the Optos P200MA scanning laser...
Results Twelve infants with a variety of proliferative retinopathies underwent UWF-IV-FFA over a 7-month period. The mean age was 3.4 months (range 2-6 months) and the mean image acquisition time was 4 min (range 3-5). Pseudocolour fundus images and the venous, recirculation and late phases of UWF-IV-FFA were captured successfully in all infants (100%). Choroidal and arterial phases were captured in one (8.3%) and 10 (83.3%) infants, respectively. Image artefacts due to eyelashes and corneal desiccation occurred in nine (75%) and six (50%) infants, respectively. No adverse medical problems were noted.. ...
Ophthalmic diagnosis using deep learning with fundus images - A critical review<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ophthalmic diagnosis using deep learning with fundus images - A critical review. AU - Sengupta, Sourya. AU - Singh, Amitojdeep. AU - Leopold, Henry A.. AU - Gulati, Tanmay. AU - Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan. PY - 2020/1. Y1 - 2020/1. N2 - An overview of the applications of deep learning for ophthalmic diagnosis using retinal fundus images is presented. We describe various retinal image datasets that can be used for deep learning purposes. Applications of deep learning for segmentation of optic disk, optic cup, blood vessels as well as detection of lesions are reviewed. Recent deep learning models for classification of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy are also discussed. Important critical insights and future research directions are given.. AB - An overview of the applications of deep learning for ophthalmic diagnosis using retinal fundus images is presented. We describe various retinal image datasets that can be used for deep ...
Atlas of diseases of the ocular fundus - کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران
Atlas of diseases of the ocular fundus , Atlas of diseases of the ocular fundus , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران
A Longitudinal Study of Stargardt Disease: Quantitative Assessment of Fundus Autofluorescence, Progression and Genotype...
Full clinical examination and fundus autofluorescence (AF) imaging was undertaken in a cohort of 68 patients. The baseline data were compared with those at follow-up. Patients were classified into three AF subtypes: type 1 had a localised low signal at the fovea surrounded by a homogeneous background; type 2 had a localised low signal at the macula surrounded by a heterogeneous background with numerous foci of abnormal signal; type 3 had multiple low signal areas at the posterior pole with a heterogeneous background. At baseline, there were 19 patients with type 1, 41 with type 2, and 8 with type 3. The areas of reduced AF signal were measured with custom software and a yearly rate of atrophy enlargement (RAE) was calculated. Molecular screening of ABCA4 was undertaken.. ...
Saffron Supplementation in Stargardt's Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The general area of research in which this project has been designed is that of retinal degeneration related to mutations in the ABCR gene, responsible of Stargardt disease/fundus flavimaculatus retinal dystrophy (STD/FF). STG/FF is one of the major causes of vision impairment in the young age. STG/FF originates typically from the dysfunction and loss of cone and rod photoreceptors, developing through a photo-oxidative mechanism. The major disease locus is the central retina, i.e. the macula, whose neurons have the highest density and underlie critical functions such as visual acuity, color vision and contrast sensitivity. There is currently no cure for STG/FF. Recent experimental findings indicate that Saffron, derived from the pistils of Crocus Sativus, may have a role as a retinal neuro-protectant against oxidative damage. The stigmata of Crocus sativus contain biologically high concentrations of chemical compounds including crocin, crocetin, whose multiple C=C bonds provide the antioxidant ...
This is Stargardts - Say Hello 2 Blindness Accessories
Stargardt disease is also known as Stargardt macular dystrophy, juvenile macular dystrophy and fundus flavimaculatus. It is an inherited eye condition that affects your macula which is the tiny central part of your retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of your eye.
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colour photographs - Paolo Saccheri
Colour photography was my approach, then my professional tool, afterwords its been neglected for a decade when I only shot b/w, and now it is among my artistic tools again.
best photography universities - Artesi IDF
Photography is an art of capturing every moment you find in your surroundings. Photography is the true essence of a real moment that looks beautiful than the reality because photography is all about freezing a real moment and admiring the moment. There are people who think photography doesnt require having to go to a course and learn it. However, to be an advanced photographer requires some skills to be developed and become a professional in photography. This is the reason, the photography major has been introduced in almost all the universities handling Bachelor of Arts as B.A in Photography. Best universities for Photography:. ...
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Source: Insight: Non-Destructive Testing & Condition Monitoring. Mar2016, Vol. 58 Issue 3, p135-141. 7p. 1 Color Photograph, 3 Diagrams, 7 Charts, 4 Graphs. ...
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When certain compounds are illuminated with high energy light, they emit light of a lower frequency. This effect is known as fluorescence. Often specimens show their characteristic autofluorescence image, based on their chemical makeup.. This method is of critical importance in the modern life sciences, as it can be extremely sensitive, allowing the detection of single molecules. Many different fluorescent dyes can be used to stain different structures or chemical compounds. One particularly powerful method is the combination of antibodies coupled to a fluorophore as in immunostaining. Examples of commonly used fluorophores are fluorescein or rhodamine.. The antibodies can be tailor-made for a chemical compound. For example, one strategy often in use is the artificial production of proteins, based on the genetic code (DNA). These proteins can then be used to immunize rabbits, forming antibodies which bind to the protein. The antibodies are then coupled chemically to a fluorophore and used to ...
The Online Photographer: Speaking of Great Color Photography...
...Youve got to see this, a Vimeo slideshow retrospective posted by Leica Camera to commemorate Steve McCurry being awarded the 2011 Leica Hall of Fame Award*. Possibly the best short presentation of McCurrys work ever? And a compelling argument for...
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6. LABELLING The label states в thenumberofmicrogramsofPRPperhumandose; в thetypeandnominalamountofcarrierproteinpersingle human dose.
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18. (b) Fundoscopic photo shows that propranolo l ectatic retina nasal to the disk is out of focus visual input on this part of the retina is also poorly focused and therefore sensitivity is reduced.
Churchville Photography Club - Club Library
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Joan M OBrien, M.D. » CAROT
Zheng Y, VanderBeek B, Xiao R, Daniel E, Stambolian D, Maguire M, OBrien J, Gee J: Retrospective illumination correction of retinal fundus images from gradient distribution sparsity. Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), 2012 9th IEEE International Symposium on IEEE. Page: 972-975, May 2012 ...
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Portable and affordable professionals choice. Smartscope PRO fundus camera is lightweight and can also be integrated with Fluorescein Angiography module.
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ISBN 978-1-58890-338-9. Google books Salus, Robert; Aldstein, Ernst (1939). "The fundus oculi in generalized hypertension and ...
Salus, Robert; Waldstein, Ernst (1939). "The fundus oculi in generalized hypertension and arteriosclerosis". Arch Ophthalmol. ...
Casey Albert Wood
He published a work on The Fundus Oculi of Birds (1917). He then lived in the Vatican where he studied foreign language works ...
Wood, Casey Albert (1917). The Fundus Oculi of Birds, Especially as Viewed by the Ophthalmoscope. Chicago, IL, USA: Lakeside ...
"Atlas of ophthalmoscopy, representing the normal and pathological conditions of the fundus oculi as seen with the ...
Wood (1917), The Fundus Oculi of Birds, Especially as Viewed by the Ophthalmoscope: A Study in Comparative Anatomy and ... Wood, Casey Albert (1917). The Fundus Oculi of Birds, Especially as Viewed by the Ophthalmoscope: A Study in Comparative ... "The Fundus Oculi of Birds, Especially as Viewed by the Ophthalmoscope: A Study in Comparative Anatomy and Physiology" (1917) ... The upper half of the fundus is covered by a mass of dull gray dots. There is a well defined reflex near both maculae, each ...
List of MeSH codes (A09)
... fundus oculi MeSH A09.371.729.522 - macula lutea MeSH A09.371.729.522.436 - fovea centralis MeSH A09.371.729.690 - optic disk ...
The fibrous tunic, also known as the tunica fibrosa oculi, is the outer layer of the eyeball consisting of the cornea and ... If an ophthalmoscope is used, one can see the fundus, as well as vessels (which supply additional blood flow to the retina) ... The vascular tunic, also known as the tunica vasculosa oculi or the "uvea", is the middle vascularized layer which includes the ... also known as the tunica nervosa oculi, is the inner sensory layer which includes the retina. Contributing to vision, the ...
Rorýs ostnitý - Wikipedie
The Fundus Oculi of Birds, Especially as Viewed by the Ophthalmoscope. Chicago, IL, USA: Lakeside Press, 1917. Dostupné online ...
... orbicularis oculi) and eye (extra-ocular muscles). This results in ptosis and ophthalmoplegia respectively. KSS involves a ... primarily in the posterior fundus. The appearance is described as a "salt-and-pepper" appearance. There is diffuse ...
Ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography have long been used to examine the retina. Recently, adaptive optics has been used to ... or pecten oculi, located on the blind spot or optic disk. This organ is extremely rich in blood vessels and is thought to ... "Retinal fundus images - Ground truth of vascular bifurcations and crossovers". University of Groningen. Retrieved 20 April 2018 ... of retinal blood vessel structure can be evaluated against the ground truth data of vascular bifurcations of retinal fundus ...
This is due to the facial nerves' innervation of the muscles of facial expression, namely orbicularis oculi, responsible for ... the taste fibers continue as the intermediate nerve which goes to the upper anterior quadrant of the fundus of the internal ... frontalis and orbicularis oculi). Lower motor neuron lesions can result in a CN VII palsy (Bell's palsy is the idiopathic form ...
Visual field test
Microperimetry Microperimetry assesses the macular function in a similar way to perimetry, however, with the aid of a fundus ... Oculus Easyfield perimeter, Olleyes VisuALL, etc. Techniques used to perform this test include the confrontation visual field ...
Latin oculus dexter) for the right eye. OS (Latin oculus sinister) for the left eye. OU (Latin oculi uterque) for both eyes. ... ISBN 978-3-7266-0068-6. Rohrschneider, K. (2004). "Determination of the location of the fovea on the fundus". Investigative ...
Index of anatomy articles
... disc optic foramen optic nerve optic papilla optic radiation optic recess optic tract ora serrata oral cavity orbicularis oculi ... ventricle frontal lobe frontal nerve frontal plane frontal pole frontal sinus frontonasal duct fundiform ligament fundus ... muscle occiput occlusion oculocephalic reflex oculomotor oculomotor complex oculomotor nerve oculomotor nucleus oculus odontoid ...
Glossary of medicine
In the human, the lower end of the uterus, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the upper end, the fundus, is connected to ... Orbicularis oculi muscle - Orbicularis oris muscle - Orthopedic surgery - Ossicles - Otitis - Otorhinolaryngology - Ovary - ...
POST-MORTEM CHANGES IN THE FUNDUS OCULI | The BMJ
Diseases of the Fundus Oculi | Journal of Medical Genetics
Diseases of the Fundus Oculi | Journal of Medical Genetics
Biallelic intragenic duplication in ADGRB3 ( BAI3 ) gene associated with intellectual disability, cerebellar atrophy, and...
Laser treatment in eyes with large drusen. Short-term effects seen in a pilot randomized clinical trial. Choroidal...
Retinal separation, retinotomy, and macular relocation: II. A surgical approach for age-related macular degeneration?
Dengue Eye Disease | The BMJ
Safety Study of Mesenchymal Precursor Cells in Type 2 Diabetes - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Similar articles for PubMed (Select 30209314) - PubMed - NCBI
Fundus oculi changes in myopia].. Radocea R.. Oftalmologia. 2006;50(1):31-45. Review. Romanian. ... Myopia-related fundus changes in Singapore adults with high myopia.. Chang L, Pan CW, Ohno-Matsui K, Lin X, Cheung GC, Gazzard ... FEATURES OF POSTERIOR STAPHYLOMAS ANALYZED IN WIDE-FIELD FUNDUS IMAGES IN PATIENTS WITH UNILATERAL AND BILATERAL PATHOLOGIC ... of posterior staphylomas based on analyses of eye shape by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and wide-field fundus ...
Sands of Sahara after LASIK in Avellino Corneal Dystrophy
Ranibizumab for choroidal neovascular membrane in a rare case of Bietti's crystalline dystrophy: a case report.
Fundus Oculi. Humans. Intravitreal Injections. Male. Retinal Diseases / complications*, diagnosis. Tomography, Optical ... Fundus examination showed scarred CNVM in both eyes [Figs. 2a and b] which was confirmed on OCT [Figs. 2c and d]. The ... Pre-treatment fundus photograph of both eyes (a, b) showed retinal crystals with CNVM. Subretinal hemorrhage was seen in the ... Color fundus photograph 12 months after the last injection in the left eye shows scarred choroidal neovascular membrane in the ...
Quantitative fundus autofluorescence in healthy eyes.
Fundus autofluorescence was quantified (qAF) in subjects with healthy retinae using a standardized approach. The objective was ... Fundus Oculi. Humans. Lipofuscin / metabolism. Male. Melanins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Ophthalmoscopes. Ophthalmoscopy / ... PURPOSE: Fundus autofluorescence was quantified (qAF) in subjects with healthy retinae using a standardized approach. The ... data and identify factors that influence the accumulation of RPE lipofuscin and/or modulate the observed AF signal in fundus ...
Table 3 - Clinical and Multimodal Imaging Findings and Risk Factors for Ocular Involvement in a Presumed Waterborne...
Falcons pursue prey using visual motion cues: new perspectives from animal-borne cameras | Journal of Experimental Biology
Veratrum Album. - THE GUIDING SYMPTOMS OF OUR MATERIA MEDICA By CONSTANTINE HERING, M.D.
Pneumocephalus as a complication of metastases and eroding infection in the sacral region | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery ...
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Sudden Visual Loss Differential Diagnoses
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Case 452 --Neuropathology Case
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Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
Retinal vascular findings and penile cavernosal artery blood flow - Kawanishi - 2003 - BJU International - Wiley Online Library
JP4921201B2 - Optical image measurement device and program for controlling optical image measurement device - Google...
Fundus analyzing appartus and fundus analyzing method EP1935329B1 (en) 2012-05-02. Fundus oculi observation device and fundus ... In addition, when a region on the fundus oculi Ef (fundus image Ef ′) is designated, the fundus oculi observation device 1 sets ... a two-dimensional image of the surface of the fundus oculi Ef obtained by the fundus camera unit 1A, and a fundus oculi Ef ... First, the fundus oculi observation device 1 captures a fundus oculi image Ef ′ of the eye E (S1). The control unit 210 ...
CN101133943A - Eye movement measuring apparatus, eye movement measuring method and recording medium - Google Patents
... and an image analysis part configured to analyze the formed fundus oculi image to determine eye movement of the eye. ... An eye movement measuring apparatus comprises: an image forming part configured to obtain data optically to form a fundus oculi ... eye fundus image Ef) on the captured Ef surface, optical fundus of fundus camera unit 1A and the detection signal that is ... optical fundus capturing element of the present invention for example comprises: the eye fundus image of fundus camera 1A, ...
Serpiginous Choroiditis | SpringerLink
human eye | Definition, Structure, & Function | Britannica.com
Fluorescein angiogram of eye - Stock Image C004/0835 - Science Photo Library
Mydriatic fundus camera to undertake a fundus oculi and a retinal angiography. On screen a diabetic retinopathy. - Stock Image ... Mydriatic fundus camera to undertake a fundus oculi and a retinal angiography. On screen a diabetic retinopathy. ... fundus camera, fundus oculi, funduscopy, health, health professional, hospital, hospital of meaux, hospital staff, human, meaux ...
FluoresceinAutofluorescenceOPHTHALMOSCOPYRetinaOphthalmoscopeDexterOrbicularis oculiAngiographyPathologyCorneal topographyPathological ConditionsBilateralLesionsUterqueInferiorlyUnremarkableCrystallineExaminationsDiagnosisPosteriorHypertensionClinicalYellowishNormalDiagnosticExamination showedGlaucomaObservationLeft eyePhotographyOnsetColorImagePhotographsDots
- Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) was done which showed reversal of the pattern of fluorescence. (lww.com)
- Top left) - Fundus fluorescein angiography mid-arteriovenous phase showing reversal of pattern seen in fundus autofluorescence [ Figure 2 top]. (lww.com)
- Imaging studies, including fundus color photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography were also performed. (ovid.com)
- Adjunctive multimodal imaging (fundus color photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine angiography, and spectral-domain enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography) was useful in the diagnosis of vortex vein varices in the authors' clinical cases. (ovid.com)
- METHODS: We used fundus photography, intravenous fluorescein angiography (IVFA) enhanced ocular coherence tomography (OCT) scans, microperimetry and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) in an attempt to locate the mildest changes in SCRA. (lsh.is)
- Quantitative fundus autofluorescence in healthy eyes. (biomedsearch.com)
- PURPOSE: Fundus autofluorescence was quantified (qAF) in subjects with healthy retinae using a standardized approach. (biomedsearch.com)
- Arantes TE, Matos K, Garcia CR, Silva TG, Sabrosa AS, Muccioli C. Fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in recurrent serpiginous choroiditis: case report. (springer.com)
- Leopard mottling was seen temporal to the fovea oculus dexter with corresponding hyper- and hypo-autofluorescent lesions on fundus autofluorescence. (lww.com)
- Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) showed areas of alternating hypo- and hyper-autofluorescence [giraffe pattern - Fig. 2 bottom left]. (lww.com)
- Bottom left) - Typical giraffe pattern seen in fundus autofluorescence. (lww.com)
- Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence were also executed. (unimi.it)
- Fundus autofluorescence identified round hypofluorescent rings surrounding weakly hyperfluorescent lesions in all patients. (ovid.com)
- Clinical examination and imaging of affected individuals with color fundus photography, scanning laser ophthalmoscope (fundal autofluorescence), and optical coherence tomography was performed. (nih.gov)
- Page 19 - ATLAS OF OPHTHALMOSCOPY: representing the Normal and Pathological Conditions of the Fundus Oculi as seen with the Ophthalmoscope. (google.co.in)
- 1. Conversant with the use of Slit-lamp biomicroscopy , Applanation tonometry (Goldmann, Perkins), Gonioscopy, Indirect and direct ophthalmoscopy, Stereo biomicroscopic examination of fundus. (icoph.org)
- The image of the green ball in the fundus oculi on the retina. (sciencephoto.com)
- leukemic retinopathy a condition occurring in leukemia, with paleness of the fundus resulting from infiltration of the retina and choroid with leukocytes, and swelling of the disk with blurring of its margin. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Before focusing on the retina, confirm that the oculus dexter indicator is selected, then use the focus knob to zoom into the retina until the big vessels are clearly visible in the fundus image on the left side of the monitor screen. (jove.com)
- The ophthalmoscope is primarily used to examine the fundus, or the inner wall of the posterior eye, which consists of the choroid, retina, fovea, macula, optic disc, and retinal vessels (Figure 1). (stichtingdoel.com)
- RESULTS: Biomicroscopy and fundus photographs disclosed an apparent thinning of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the areas minimally affected, where possible changes in the transparent sensory retina were not visible. (lsh.is)
- 1917) The Fundus Oculi of Birds: Especially as Viewed by the Ophthalmoscope: A Study in the Comparative Anatomy and Physiology (Lakeside Press). (mcgill.ca)
- Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/60, N18 oculus dexter (OD) and 20/20 N6 oculus sinister. (lww.com)
- Upon initial presentation, his best-corrected visual acuity on a decimal chart was 1.5 oculus dexter and 0.6 oculus sinister. (dovepress.com)
- On examination, retinal abnormalities were identified in all 8 patients, with 7 (87.5%) oculus dexter and 1 (12.5%) oculus sinister, and with 1 (12.5%) inferotemporally, 3 (37.5%) superonasally, 3 (37.5%) inferonasally, and 1 (12.5%) inferiorly. (ovid.com)
- It is enclosed by the lacrimal fascia and the orbicularis oculi muscle . (radiopaedia.org)
- Mydriatic fundus camera to undertake a fundus oculi and a retinal angiography. (sciencephoto.com)
- For the American Journal of Pathology, Kevorkian wrote up his research in "The Fundus Oculi and the Determination of Death. (pbs.org)
- The preoperative corneal topography using Pentacam (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) revealed bilateral regular astigmatism, with no specific findings identified on the anterior or posterior elevation maps. (harvard.edu)
- The Fundus Oculi with an Ophthalmoscopic Atlas illustrating its Physiological Pathological Conditions. (lazarusbooks.co.uk)
- The fundus oculi showed bilateral papillary edema. (biomedcentral.com)
- Anterior segment was unremarkable oculus uterque. (lww.com)
- The lacrimal sac has a superior fundus that tapers inferiorly to a slimmer body. (radiopaedia.org)
- A normal disc and unremarkable macula are noted, but there is a marked golden-yellow sheen to the fundus extending beyond the arcades. (harvard.edu)
- Fundus examination revealed diffuse RPE alterations with numerous intraretinal crystalline deposits in both eyes suggestive of BCD. (biomedsearch.com)
- The extreme importance of repeated examinations of the fundi oculi in all types of hypertension in pregnancy is emphasized. (journals.co.za)
- The differential diagnosis includes several entities that can present with fundus color change in light and dark adaptation: X-linked recessive (1,2) and dominant cone dystrophy (3), Oguchi disease (4), and X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (5). (harvard.edu)
- Proposed classification of posterior staphylomas based on analyses of eye shape by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and wide-field fundus imaging. (nih.gov)
- exudative retinopathy a condition marked by masses of white or yellowish exudate in the posterior part of the fundus oculi, with deposits of cholestrin and blood debris from retinal hemorrhage, and leading to destruction of the macula and blindness. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Morphological evaluations of the fundus oculi represent a fundamental tool for the clinical approach to the patient with hypertension. (spie.org)
- A previously developed image processing and recognition system, documented elsewhere and briefly described here, was successfully tested in pre-clinical experiments and applied in the evaluation of normal as well as of pathological fundus. (spie.org)
- Clinical and biochemical effects of the E139K missense mutation in the TIMP3 gene, associated with Sorsby fundus dystrophy. (nih.gov)
- Growth retardation associated with muscle, liver, brain, and eye abnormalities marked by hypotonia, congestive pericarditis with elevated venous pressure, triangular face often with hydrocephaloid skull, hepatomegaly, yellowish dots and pigment dispersion in the fundus oculi, and borderline mental deficiency Most reported cases come from Finland. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- Evaluation of diagnostic technology PARTICIPANTS: 1,796 retinal fundus images from 1,612 diabetic patients. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Although it has been reported that striae-shaped or slit-shaped lamina pores are more frequent in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), this observation is based only on fundus photography. (octnews.org)
- Easy observation of the fundus oculi makes retinopathy the most frequently reported chronic complication of diabetes and, consequently, the one we know best in terms of epidemiology and natural history. (ebscohost.com)
- Fundus photo of the left eye. (harvard.edu)
- Fundus color photography showed an elevated lesion in seven patients and a nonelevated red lesion in one patient. (ovid.com)
- 6,7) The color of the fundus reflex in the light adapted state has also been described as golden-yellow, gray-white, and yellow-white. (harvard.edu)
- Use the micro-manipulator to adjust the position of the camera, as necessary, turning the sensitivity knob to reduce or increase the brightness of the fundus image, as appropriate. (jove.com)
- The AMD status was assessed by a masked analysis of fundus photographs or angiographs. (cdc.gov)
- A very rare inherited malformation characterized by very small stature (dwarfism), pericardial constriction and yellow dots in fundus of the eye. (rightdiagnosis.com)