A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Acidic protein found in SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM that binds calcium to the extent of 700-900 nmoles/mg. It plays the role of sequestering calcium transported to the interior of the intracellular vesicle.
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Glucose in blood.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
glycogen depletion in brain cells[42][64]. *reactive oxygen species impairing skeletal muscle function[65] ... Cardiac biomarkersEdit. Prolonged exercise such as marathons can increase cardiac biomarkers such as troponin, B-type ... since skeletal muscle, the other major glycogen reservoir, is incapable of doing so. Unlike skeletal muscle, liver cells ... cardiopulmonary function, hematology, biomechanics, skeletal muscle physiology, neuroendocrine function, and central and ...
"Impaired Ca2+ store functions in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells from sarcalumenin-deficient mice". The Journal of Biological ... end-specific cDNA library of human skeletal muscle by DNA sequencing and filter hybridization". Genome Research. 6 (1): 35-42. ... "Sarcalumenin is essential for maintaining cardiac function during endurance exercise training". American Journal of Physiology ... Sarcalumenin is a calcium-binding protein that can be found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle. Sarcalumenin is ...
In cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, plectin is localized to specialized entities known as Z-discs. Plectin binds several ... "Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs in skeletal muscle fibers". Journal of Cell Science. 112 (6): 867-76. ... "Targeted inactivation of plectin reveals essential function in maintaining the integrity of skin, muscle, and heart ... Skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues were also significantly affected. Cardiac intercalated discs were disintegrated and ...
Magnesium is needed for the adequate function of the Na+/K+-ATPase pumps in cardiac myocytes, the muscles cells of the heart. A ... it makes skeletal and muscle receptors less sensitive to parathyroid hormone. Through relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle it ... Intravenous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) can be given in response to cardiac arrhythmias to correct for hypokalemia, preventing ... Digitalis, displaces magnesium into the cell. Digitalis causes an increased intracellular concentration of sodium, which in ...
"Rbfox-regulated alternative splicing is critical for zebrafish cardiac and skeletal muscle functions". Developmental Biology. ... 7 March 2016). "Repression of Pumilio Protein Expression by Rbfox1 Promotes Germ Cell Differentiation". Dev. Cell. 36 (5): 562- ... Cell. 125 (4): 801-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. S2CID 13709685. Zhou HL, Baraniak AP, Lou H (February ... Cell. 164 (3): 487-498. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.12.038. ISSN 1097-4172. PMC 4733397. PMID 26777405. Gallagher TL, Arribere JA, ...
This junction functions like a synapse. However, unlike most neurons, somatic efferent motor neurons innervate skeletal muscle ... Unlike in cardiac muscle, where gap junctions are confined to the ends of cardiac myocytes, smooth muscle gap junctions occur ... Many smooth muscle cells in a transverse section through a muscle bundle show regions of very close apposition to adjacent ... Muscle effectors are bundles rather than single smooth muscle cells that are connected by gap junctions which allow ...
Magnesium is needed for the adequate function of the Na+/K+-ATPase pumps in cardiac myocytes, the muscles cells of the heart. A ... Furthermore, it makes skeletal and muscle receptors less sensitive to parathyroid hormone. ... It is involved in protein synthesis, muscle and nerve functioning, bone development, energy production, the maintenance of ... Complications may include seizures or cardiac arrest such as from torsade de pointes. Those with low magnesium often have low ...
... airway and skeletal muscle and the immune system, reflecting wide-ranging functions in cells and tissues. It is estimated that ... S-nitrosylation similarly contributes to physiology and dysfunction of cardiac, ... Cell. Biol. 6:150-166 (2005) Zhang R, Hess DT, Qian Z, Hausladen A, Fonseca F, Chaube R, Reynolds JR, Stamler JS. Proc. Natl. ... Mol Cell; 69: 451-464 (2018) Stamler JS, Simon DI, Osborne JA, Mullins ME, Jaraki O, Michel T, Singel DJ, Loscalzo J. Proc Natl ...
... and is localized to costamere structures in cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, and to focal adhesions in smooth muscle and non- ... muscle cells. Talin-1 functions to mediate cell-cell adhesion via the linkage of integrins to the actin cytoskeleton and in the ... and localized to intercalated discs of cardiac muscle and to costamere structures of both skeletal and cardiac muscles, in ... Talin-1 is also found at focal adhesions of smooth muscle cells and non-muscle cells. In undifferentiated cultures of myoblasts ...
... knockout depletes muscle taurine levels and results in severe skeletal muscle impairment but leaves cardiac function ... Taurine has been shown to reduce the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells.[23] High concentrations of ... Physiological functions. Taurine is essential for cardiovascular function and development and function of skeletal muscle, the ... It is essential for cardiovascular function, and development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central ...
... skeletal and cardiac myofibers. When these cells are depolarized, the L-type calcium channels open as in smooth muscle. In ... the β subunit functions initially to regulate the current density by controlling the amount of α1 subunit expressed at the cell ... In cardiac muscle, opening of the L-type calcium channel permits influx of calcium into the cell. The calcium binds to the ... and cardiac muscle and for hormone secretion in endocrine cells. The α1 subunit pore (~190 kDa in molecular mass) is the ...
... of dephosphorylation came from a series of experiments examining the enzyme phosphorylase isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle ... On the cellular level, the dephosphorylation of ATPases determines the flow of ions into and out of the cell. Proton pump ... April 2012). "Mouse and computational models link Mlc2v dephosphorylation to altered myosin kinetics in early cardiac disease ... The reversible phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reaction occurs in every physiological process, making proper function of ...
... are extensions of the cell membrane that penetrate into the centre of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. With membranes that ... Muscle contraction Hong, TingTing; Shaw, Robin M. (2017-01-01). "Cardiac T-Tubule Microanatomy and Function". Physiological ... They are found in ventricular muscle cells in most species, and in atrial muscle cells from large mammals. In cardiac muscle ... In cells lacking T-tubules such as smooth muscle cells, diseased cardiomyocytes, or muscle cells in which T-tubules have been ...
... are extensions of the cell membrane that penetrate into the centre of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. With membranes that ... "The structure and function of cardiac t-tubules in health and disease". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ... They are found in ventricular muscle cells in most species, and in atrial muscle cells from large mammals.[4] In cardiac muscle ... causing the muscle cell to contract.[10] In skeletal muscle cells, however, the L-type calcium channel is directly attached to ...
The encoded protein is highly expressed in various brain regions and cardiac and skeletal muscle. It is specifically localized ... The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to ... 2001). "Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of ryanodine receptors: a novel role for leucine/isoleucine zippers". J. Cell Biol ... Cell. UNITED STATES. 101 (4): 365-76. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80847-8. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 10830164. Marx, S O; Reiken S; ...
Cellular cardiomyoplasty is a method which augments myocardial function and cardiac output by directly growing new muscle cells ... A special pacemaker is implanted to make the skeletal muscle contract. If cardiomyoplasty is successful and increased cardiac ... These cell populations are endothelial progenitor cells, hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Adipose tissue ... Nevertheless, all methods aforementioned have been associated with limited cardiac function improvements and limited cell ...
... potential of muscle cells and is therefore critical for maintaining the normal functions of skeletal and cardiac muscle. ... and depolarises the resting membrane potential of cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. Cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, when ... slowing the rate of repolarisation which can be seen in individual cardiac muscle cells as a longer action potential and on the ... most cases by a mutation in the KCNJ2 gene which encodes an ion channel that transports potassium out of cardiac muscle cells. ...
... cells demonstrate rapid development and maturation into functional skeletal muscle cells or cardiac muscle cells, having ... The rate of muscle formation from C2C12 cells can be controlled by the introduction of loss-of-functions genes vital for the ... in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells has been shown. C2C12 cells were used to elucidate inactivated X chromosome (Xi) replication ... leading to the precursors of contractile skeletal muscle cells in the process of myogenesis. C2C12 cells are used to study the ...
In contrast to smooth and skeletal muscle MLCKs, cMLCK expression is restricted to cardiac myocytes. Overexpression of cMLCK ... Kuramochi Y, Cote GM, Guo X, Lebrasseur NK, Cui L, Liao R, Sawyer DB (December 2004). "Cardiac endothelial cells regulate ... and enhancing pumping function. Downstream effectors of NRG-1/ErbB, include cardiac-specific myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK ... MacDougall LK, Jones LR, Cohen P (March 1991). "Identification of the major protein phosphatases in mammalian cardiac muscle ...
... accounting for its potentially toxic but reversible effects on cardiac and skeletal muscles, causing myositis. AZT crystallizes ... Thus AZT inhibits HIV replication without affecting the function of uninfected cells. At sufficiently high dosages, AZT begins ... At very high doses, AZT's triphosphate form may also inhibit DNA polymerase used by human cells to undergo cell division, but ... reduction of intracellular L-carnitine or apoptosis of the muscle cells. Anemia due to AZT was successfully treated using ...
ALC-1 is expressed very early in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle development; two E-boxes and CArG box in the MYL4 promoter ... mRNAs with an identical protein-coding region of the human embryonic myosin alkali light chain in skeletal muscle cells". ... Normal atrial function is essential for embryogenesis, as inactivation of the MYL7 gene was embryonic lethal at ED10.5-11.5. ... ALC-1 is expressed in fetal cardiac ventricular and fetal skeletal muscle, as well as fetal and adult cardiac atrial tissue. ...
In electrically excitable cells, such as skeletal and cardiac muscles and neurons, membrane depolarization leads to a Ca2+ ... Calcium's function in muscle contraction was found as early as 1882 by Ringer. Subsequent investigations were to reveal its ... Cell signalingEdit. Ca2+ ions are usually kept at nanomolar levels in the cytosol of plant cells, and act in a number of signal ... "Cell Biology by the Numbers: What are the concentrations of different ions in cells?". book.bionumbers.org. Retrieved 24 March ...
skeletal muscle tissue consists of elongated muscle cells called muscle fibers. Skeletal muscle tissue is responsible for ... skeletal or striated muscle; smooth or non-striated muscle; and cardiac muscle. Smooth and cardiac muscle contracts ... the ciliary muscle, and iris of the eye. The structure and function is basically the same in smooth muscle cells in different ... Cardiac muscle is one of three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle. These three types of muscle ...
... is fundamentally different from skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle in terms of structure, function, regulation of ... Although the structure and function is basically the same in smooth muscle cells in different organs, their specific effects or ... Atromentin has been shown to be a smooth muscle stimulant. Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle "10.8 Smooth Muscle - Anatomy and ... Alpha actin is also expressed as distinct genetic isoforms such as smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle specific ...
... unlike skeletal muscle cells which typically contain many nuclei. Cardiac muscle cells contain many mitochondria which provide ... Play media The physiology of cardiac muscle shares many similarities with that of skeletal muscle. The primary function of both ... T-tubules in cardiac muscle are bigger and wider than those in skeletal muscle, but fewer in number. In the centre of the cell ... cardiac muscle cells are roughly rectangular, measuring 100-150μm by 30-40μm. Individual cardiac muscle cells are joined ...
The cardiac neural crest cells have a number of functions including creation of the muscle and connective tissue walls of large ... glial cells, pigment-containing cells in skin, skeletal tissue cells in the head, and many more. Cardiac neural crest cells ( ... Cardiac crest cells furthest away from FGF secreting cells will receive lower concentrations of FGF8 signalling than cells ... Tomita Y. et al "Cardiac neural crest cells contribute to the dormant multipotent stem cell in the mammalian heart." J Cell ...
"The transcriptional corepressor RIP140 regulates oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle". Cell Metab. 6 (3): 236-245. doi: ... of the metabolic regulator receptor-interacting protein 140 results in cardiac hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function". ... skeletal muscle, and liver. A major role for RIP140 in adipose tissue is to block the expression of genes involved in energy ... Cell. Biol. 16 (11): 6029-36. doi:10.1128/MCB.16.11.6029. PMC 231605. PMID 8887632. Yan ZH, Karam WG, Staudinger JL, et al. ( ...
Unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle cells are unicellular. These cells are connected to each other by intercalated disks, ... The main function of striated muscle tissue is to create force and contract. These contractions will either pump blood ... There are two types of striated muscles: Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) Skeletal muscle (muscle attached to the skeleton) ... Skeletal muscle includes skeletal muscle fibers, blood vessels, nerve fibers, and connective tissue. Skeletal muscle is wrapped ...
Cardiomyocytes show striations similar to those on skeletal muscle cells. Unlike multinucleated skeletal cells, the majority of ... These functions are critical to the proper form during the beating of the heart. Cardiac pacemaker cells carry the impulses ... are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle). Each cardiac muscle cell contains myofibrils, ... Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes) ...
The striated appearance of both skeletal and cardiac muscle results from the regular pattern of sarcomeres within their cells. ... Muscle Architecture and Muscle Fiber Anatomy". Skeletal Muscle: Form and Function (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. pp ... The body contains three types of muscle tissue: (a) skeletal muscle, (b) smooth muscle, and (c) cardiac muscle. (Same ... Cardiac muscle (myocardium), is also an "involuntary muscle" but is more akin in structure to skeletal muscle, and is found ...
7.1 Muscular Tissues and Cells 7.2 Physiology of Skeletal Muscle 7.3 Cardiac and Smooth Muscle 7.4 Anatomy of the Muscular ... Chapter 6The Skeletal System 6.1 Skeletal Structure and Function 6.2 Bone Development and Metabolism 6.3 The Axial Skeleton 6.4 ... 3.1 The General Structure of Cells 3.2 The Cell Surface 3.3 The Cell Interior 3.4 The Life Cycle of Cells Chapter 4Histology- ... Chapter 8The Nervous System I-Nerve Cells, the Spinal Cord, and Reflexes 8.1 Cells and Tissues of the Nervous System 8.2 The ...
7.1 Muscular Tissues and Cells 7.2 Physiology of Skeletal Muscle 7.3 Cardiac and Smooth Muscle 7.4 Anatomy of the Muscular ... Chapter 6 The Skeletal System 6.1 Skeletal Structure and Function 6.2 Bone Development and Metabolism 6.3 The Axial Skeleton ... 7.1 Muscular Tissues and Cells 7.2 Physiology of Skeletal Muscle 7.3 Cardiac and Smooth Muscle 7.4 Anatomy of the Muscular ... 3.1 The General Structure of Cells 3.2 The Cell Surface 3.3 The Cell Interior 3.4 The Life Cycle of Cells Chapter 4 Histology- ...
Skeletal muscle - satellite cells Cardiac muscle - incapable(fibrosis) Smooth muscle - limited(cell division) ... Sarcoplasmic reticulum is a smooth endoplasmic reticulum in muscle whose function is to store and release Ca when needed ... Skeletal, cardiac and smooth Flashcards Preview Year 1 - Module 102 , Module 102 - The Bodys muscle: Skeletal, cardiac and ... Flashcards in Module 102 - The Bodys muscle: Skeletal, cardiac and smooth Deck (31): ...
Mitochondrial Adaptation and Maladaptin in Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle. Janet M. Shaw, University of Utah, USA Mitochondrial ... Dynamics and Function in Eukaryotic Cells. Mary-Elizabeth Patti, Joslin Diabetes Center, USA The Mitochondrial Hypothesis and ... Short Talk: Imaging of Insulin Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Living Mice Shows Major Role of T-Tubules. ... Insulin and AMPK Signaling in Skeletal Muscle: Validation of Targets to Prevent and Treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. ...
In skeletal and cardiac muscle it is known as the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The smooth ER synthesize fatty substances and is the ... Function. Microvilli (not shown). Extensive folding of the cell membrane found in certain cells with an absorptive capacity. ... Microtubules usually function for transport in cells. They are particullarly numerous in the long axons of nerve cells. ... Two layer outer membrane with numerous pores, encloses cells DNA.. Directs all functions of Cell. Nucleolus is a collection of ...
Fifty Years of Research covers the history of the sliding filament mechanism in muscle contraction from its discovery in 1954 ... Cytoplasmic Free Concentrations of Ca2+ in Skeletal Muscle Cells. Mysterious Beauty of Beating Heart: Cardiac Mechano. ... Bridge Function. Molecular Synchronization in Actomyosin Motors from Single Molecule to Muscle Fiber via Nanomuscle. ... Skeletal Muscle Mechanics. General Discussion Part II: Skeletal Muscle Energetics. General Discussion Part III: Skeletal Muscle ...
Skeletal muscle and cardiac function (Foteini Mourkioti, Ph.D.). * Bone metabolism, diseases, and stem cell biology (Ling Qin, ... Connective tissue extracellular matrix biophysics and cell biology (Carl T. Brighton, M.D., Ph.D. and Charles C. Clark, Ph.D.) ... Cell lineage, growth and development, and tissue-engineered repair of tendons and ligaments (Nathaniel A. Dyment, Ph.D.) ... Stem cell mechanobiology and soft tissue engineering (Robert L. Mauck, Ph.D.) ...
Skeletal muscle stem cells do not transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes after cardiac grafting. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002; 34: ... Characteristics of Cultured Skeletal Myoblasts. Before Tx, more than 80% of the cultured skeletal muscle cells were skeletal ... Cell transplantation preserves cardiac function after infarction by infarct stabilization: augmentation by stem cell factor. J ... Skeletal Muscle Preconditioning, Cell Isolation, and Culture. Bupivacaine (0.5 mL) was injected into rat hind limb tibialis ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Cells: The Living Units. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word ... Enzyme functions of smooth ER in skeletal & cardiac muscle. called Sarcoplasmic Reticulum...storage & release of calcium ( ... Organismal functions depend on _____ & _____. individual & collective cell functions. Biochemical activities of cells are _____ ... cell is the smallest structural & functional living unit..organismal functions depend on individual & collective cell functions ...
microRNA and thyroid hormone signaling in cardiac and skeletal muscle Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling plays critical roles in ... Citation: Cell & Bioscience 2017 7:53 Content type: Editorial. Published on: 19 October 2017 ... The Expanding Functions of Thyroid Hormone. * The expanding functions of thyroid hormone Authors: Jiemin Wong and Shaochung ... including heart and skeletal muscle. Due to the significant ... Authors: Duo Zhang, Yan Li, Shengnan Liu, Yu-cheng Wang, Feifan ...
Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative aspects of mitochondrial function in human skeletal and cardiac muscles. ... Activation of satellite cells and the regeneration of human skeletal muscle are expedited by ingestion of nonsteroidal anti- ... Extensive inflammatory cell infiltration in human skeletal muscle in response to an ultraendurance exercise bout in experienced ... The biology of satellite cells and telomeres in human skeletal muscle: effects of aging and physical activity. ...
This enzyme helps sense and respond to energy demands within cells. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... It is active in many different tissues, including heart (cardiac) muscle and muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). AMP- ... implications for kinase function and disease pathogenesis. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2003 Oct;35(10):1251-5. Citation on PubMed ... Other mutations in the PRKAG2 gene have been associated with disorders affecting both cardiac and skeletal muscle. These ...
They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Their function is to produce force and cause motion. ... Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. ... Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse") is a contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal ... They support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. There are 206 ...
Alpha-actin is present in skeletal muscle but not cardiac muscle. Overall, this protein makes up 10%-20% of all muscle protein. ... Functions include cytoskeletal modulation, regulation of gene transcription, ubiquitination, cell migration, and myofibril ... KLHL40 is more abundant in fetal skeletal muscle than in adult muscle and localizes to the A-band. Muscle pathology from ... 22] KBTBD13 protein localizes to the cytoplasm of skeletal and cardiac muscle. More than 60 proteins of the BTB/Ketch family ...
Utilizes both glycolytic and oxidative pathways • Liver cell ( hepatocyte) functions: • Carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid ... skeletal muscle • Vastus- Type II (fast glycolytic) skeletal muscle • Liver- both glycolytic and • Cardiac- highly oxidative • ... assistor muscle of expiration • Abdominal muscles - weak assistor muscles of expiration Muscles of Ventilation SI,r0C te.oc- ... Unformatted text preview: • Utilizes both glycolytic and oxidative pathways • Liver cell ( hepatocyte) functions: • ...
Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These ... Involved in myogenesis by inhibiting skeletal muscle and cardiac myocyte differentiation and promoting muscle precursor cells ... Function. Transcriptional regulator (lacking a basic DNA binding domain) which negatively regulates the basic helix-loop-helix ... Inhibits the binding of E2A-containing protein complexes to muscle creatine kinase E-box enhancer. Regulates the circadian ...
Journal Article] Impaired Ca2+ store functions in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells from sarcalumenin-deficient mice.2005. *. ... Basal cardiac function was relatively maintained in AC5KO, however, after chronic isoproterenol infusion by the use of osmotic ... Journal Article] Caveolin regulates microtubule polymerization in the vascular smooth muscle cells2006. *. Author(s). Kawabe J ... In the current research, we have investigated the role of this adenylyl cyclase subtype in not only regulating cardiac function ...
Skeletal and cardiac muscle cells without enough functional dystrophin become damaged as the muscles repeatedly contract and ... Little is known about the function of dystrophin in nerve cells. Research suggests that the protein is important for the normal ... cardiac muscle cells become damaged as the heart muscle repeatedly contracts and relaxes. The damaged muscle cells weaken and ... This protein is located primarily in muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) and in heart (cardiac) muscle. Small amounts ...
... and the performance of skeletal and cardiac muscles.. Cammarato A, Dambacher CM, Knowles AF, Kronert WA, Bodmer R, Ocorr K, ... Cardiac-Restricted Expression of VCP/TER94 RNAi or Disease Alleles Perturbs Drosophila Heart Structure and Impairs Function. ... J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2010 Sep;31(3):171-9. doi: 10.1007/s10974-010-9221-x. Epub 2010 Jul 24. ... Fropofol decreases force development in cardiac muscle.. Ren X, Schmidt W, Huang Y, Lu H, Liu W, Bu W, Eckenhoff R, Cammarato A ...
... cardiac and skeletal muscle hexokinase and low-flow cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. ... Chapter 5: Reduced hexokinase II impairs muscle function 2 weeks after ischemia-reperfusion through increased cell necrosis and ... Chapter 4: Partial hexokinase II knockout results in acute ischemia-reperfusion damage in skeletal muscle of male, but not ... Chapter 3: Reduction in hexokinase II levels results in decreased cardiac function and altered remodeling after ischemia- ...
Cell: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles. Metabolic function: utilizes glucose, FAs and AAs to fuel muscular activity ... Cell: hepatocyte. Metabolic function: maintains metabolic homeostasis by normalizing blood glucose and synthesizing and ... occurs in all cells but mostly in the liver. lactate or pyruvate is converted to glucose. **energetically costly 4 ATP 2 GTP 2 ... Glycogen is broken down into lactate in muscle. lactate is released to blood and goes to liver. in the liver lactate is made ...
Electrical signaling occurs in all cells of the body and is of primary importance to excitable cell function. Neurons, skeletal ... v α subunit isoforms through skeletal muscle development. Nav1.4 is essentially the sole Nav α subunit in adult skeletal muscle ... Together, these data describe a mechanism by which cardiac function and likely function of other excitable tissues are ... on cardiac function for several reasons that include: (i) Cardiac dysfunctions including arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy that ...
Mol Cell. 2014,55(4):592), emphasizing the importance of regulated splicing in cardiac and skeletal muscle function. Recent ... To identify gene expression programs contributing to aging-associated decline in cardiac and skeletal muscle function. ... Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 are expressed in heart and skeletal muscle. Double knockout of Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 in adult skeletal muscle ... Our research aims to better understand how gene expression programs in cardiac and skeletal muscle respond to biological, ...
Our results suggest that NDUFA4L2 expression affects vital functions in muscle cells and at least part of this effect is ... NDUFA4L2: Connecting metabolic signals and mitochondrial function in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Chaillou, Thomas Karolinska ... Here the aim was to characterize the role of NDUFA4L2 in the mitochondria-rich tissues skeletal and cardiac muscle. We show ... NDUFA4L2 overexpression resulted in functional effects on skeletal and cardiac muscle; e.g. it alters cellular Ca2+ signaling ...
Human Upper skeletal and Connecting Muscles 3D Model available on Turbo Squid, the worlds leading provider of digital 3D ... They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Their function is to produce force and cause motion. ... Muscle is the contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Muscle cells ... Human Upper skeletal and Connecting Muscles 3d model digitallab body parts bones cells skin biology fibers science collective ...
They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Their function is to... ... Muscle is a contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Muscle cells ... They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Their function is to... ... Muscle is a contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Muscle cells ...
They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Their function is to produce force and cause motion. Muscles can ... Muscles require a large amount of energy to function. This is provided primarily by mitochondria in cells that consume a lot of ... Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. ... We therefore find more of these powerhouses of the cell in muscle cells than in other ... ...
... and the performance of skeletal and cardiac muscles. Mol Biol Cell. 2008 Feb;19(2):553-62. Epub 2007 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: ... Cardiac-Restricted Expression of VCP/TER94 RNAi or Disease Alleles Perturbs Drosophila Heart Structure and Impairs Function. J ... J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2010 Sep;31(3):171-9. doi: 10.1007/s10974-010-9221-x. Epub 2010 Jul 24. PubMed PMID: 20658179. ... alphaB-crystallin maintains skeletal muscle myosin enzymatic activity and prevents its aggregation under heat-shock stress. J ...
Calsequestrin functions as a luminal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor in both cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. This ... functions as a calcium regulator in the mitochondria of skeletal muscle. This protein is absent in patients with Duchenne and ... This gene encodes the skeletal muscle specific member of the calsequestrin protein family. ... An autosomal dominant mild muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of muscle cramping and weakness as well as increased ...
... function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... Calsequestrin functions as a luminal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor in both cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. This ... Chromosome mapping of five human cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum protein genes. (PMID: 8406504) Otsu K … ... functions as a calcium regulator in the mitochondria of skeletal muscle. This protein is absent in patients with Duchenne and ...
  • Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling plays critical roles in the differentiation, growth, metabolism, and physiological function of all organs or tissues, including heart and skeletal muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here the aim was to characterize the role of NDUFA4L2 in the mitochondria-rich tissues skeletal and cardiac muscle. (diva-portal.org)
  • It is active in many different tissues, including heart (cardiac) muscle and muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues were also significantly affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • These differentiated cells group together to form tissues. (reference.com)
  • A group of tissues that perform similar functions are known as organs. (reference.com)
  • Muscle tissues are broken into three different types of muscle known as skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. (reference.com)
  • Their functions depend on the cell type that the tissues are comprised of and the amount of cells present. (reference.com)
  • Advancing functional engineered cardiac tissues toward a preclinical model of human myocardium. (abcam.com)
  • Regenerative medicine-which involves regrowing damaged or dysfunctional cells, tissues, and organs, in order to treat and cure human disease-holds great promise. (sciencemag.org)
  • Phosphorus in the form of organic and inorganic phosphate has a variety of important biochemical functions in the body and is involved in many significant metabolic and enzymatic reactions in almost all organs and tissues. (drugs.com)
  • Contractile force measurements of MDSC-EMT demonstrated functional properties of immature cardiac and skeletal muscle in both tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Use of 3D engineered tissues as a vehicle for cell transplantation has been shown to provide a microenvironment which is optimal for cell survival and integration [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In biology, an organ is a collection of tissues joined in structural unit to serve a common function. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Glucose homeostasis is essential because certain tissues, such as brain, erythrocytes, and cells of the renal medulla are obligate glucose users [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Methods to study cells and tissues. (univr.it)
  • Muscle tissues. (univr.it)
  • Epithelial tissues: main types and functions. (univr.it)
  • Evaluation of the blood compatibility of materials, cells and tissues: Basic concepts, test models and practical guidelines. (springer.com)
  • Authors: N M, Soni P, Anand R, Bali S, Hari Abstract Amyloidosis is a conglomeration of diseases due to production and deposition of amyloid, a proteinaceous substance, into organs, tissues, nerves and other places in the body affecting their normal function. (medworm.com)
  • In relation to a vertebrae body, skeletal muscles are the tissues that are in the highest abundance. (reference.com)
  • Dense connective tissues are thick and dense which makes them good tendons to connect the muscle to bone. (smore.com)
  • Cadherins are calcium-dependent, transmembrane intercellular adhesion proteins with morphoregulatory functions in the development and maintenance of tissues. (nih.gov)
  • A structure within the body made up of tissues that allow it to perform a particular function. (studystack.com)
  • The chapters on muscle - skeletal, cardiac and smooth - show how the concepts elaborated for nerve cells are relevant to contractile tissues, and how the electrical signals are translated into movement. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • In several adult tissues, they retain the ability to self-renew and differentiate into a variety of specialized cells, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis and repair throughout life span. (springer.com)
  • Growing and developing tissues are particularly vulnerable to alcohol's influence, suggesting that stem- and progenitor-cell function could be affected. (springer.com)
  • Accordingly, recent studies have revealed the possible relevance of alcohol exposure in impairing stem-cell properties, consequently affecting organ development and injury response in different tissues. (springer.com)
  • To identify ERRα-regulated pathways in tissues with high energy demand such as the heart, gene expression profiling was performed with primary neonatal cardiac myocytes overexpressing ERRα. (asm.org)
  • For example, in adults, ERRα and ERRγ expression is enriched in tissues that rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism for energy generation, such as heart, brown adipose, and slow-twitch skeletal muscle ( 16 , 43 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • Cross-bridge Formation Detected by Stiffness Measurements in Single Muscle Fibers. (buecher.de)
  • Non Cross-bridge Stiffness in Skeletal Muscle Fibers at Rest and During Activity. (buecher.de)
  • In skeletal and cardiac muscles, dystrophin is part of a group of proteins (a protein complex) that work together to strengthen muscle fibers and protect them from injury as muscles contract and relax. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We show hypoxia induced NDUFA4L2 expression in isolated muscle fibers and in cardiomyocytes with full activation after ~3-6 h in hypoxia. (diva-portal.org)
  • There are two broad types of voluntary muscle fibers: slow twitch and fast twitch. (phys.org)
  • Your muscle cells, also known as muscle fibers, have one principal function -- generating movement. (livestrong.com)
  • Muscle fibers primarily use the sugar glucose along with other chemicals in the cell to generate the energy needed to power each contraction. (livestrong.com)
  • Fast-twitch muscle fibers are adapted for rapid movements and activities that require maximum effort, such as jumping and lifting. (livestrong.com)
  • But they are much smaller than skeletal muscle fibers, like smooth muscle cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Skeletal muscles are made up of skeletal muscle fibers, or cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are typically two types of skeletal muscle fibers found in humans, each one with unique properties. (wisegeek.com)
  • Skeletal muscles are considered striated, meaning one can find alternating bands of dark and light crossing the width of the muscle fibers. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are believed to be two types of muscle fibers common to the human species, type I and type IIb. (wisegeek.com)
  • Type I muscle fibers generally contract slowly. (wisegeek.com)
  • They typically do not succumb to fatigue as quickly as type IIb muscle fibers might. (wisegeek.com)
  • Large amounts of myoglobin , the protein that carries oxygen to cells, are usually found in type I muscle fibers. (wisegeek.com)
  • Type I muscle fibers are often found in their highest concentrations in the skeletal muscle tissue of the back, legs, and neck, as these muscles must work constantly to maintain posture and facilitate movement. (wisegeek.com)
  • Type IIb muscle fibers typically contract quickly. (wisegeek.com)
  • They do not generally receive the larger supplies of oxygen that type I muscle fibers receive. (wisegeek.com)
  • Type IIb muscle fibers are believed to fatigue more quickly than type I muscle fibers. (wisegeek.com)
  • Skeletal muscle tissue, however, is usually made up of a mix of both types of fibers, with the average person possessing 40 percent type I fibers and 60 percent type IIb fibers. (wisegeek.com)
  • The fasciculi are made up of even smaller bundles that consist of cylindrical and elongated muscle cells known as fibers. (reference.com)
  • Types of skeletal fibers and muscle energy metabolism. (unibo.it)
  • Muscle cells form the bundles of muscle fibers that make up individual muscles. (livestrong.com)
  • Muscle fibers are divided into sections called sarcomeres, and each sarcomere contains tiny structures called myofilaments, which cause muscle contractions by sliding across each other, which shortens the length of the muscle fiber. (livestrong.com)
  • Equine skeletal muscle aging was accompanied by a shift in fiber type composition towards a higher percentage of type I and IIA muscle fibers, decrease in mitochondrial density and cytochrome c oxidase activity, but preserved mitochodnrial respiratory function. (ufl.edu)
  • Muscle (from Latin musculus , "little mouse"), the contractile tissue of animal bodies, comprises fibers specialized to contract and effect bodily movement. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Muscle fibers contain many myofibrils, the contractile units of muscles. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Muscle fibers can be very short, such as 1 millimeter, to very long, such as 30 centimeters (11.8 inches). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Individual muscle fibers (including the sarcolemma) are then surrounded by endomysium, a connective tissue . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Muscle fibers, perhaps 10 to 100 or more, are bound together by perimysium, a connective tissue, into bundles called fascicles. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Skeletal muscle is also called striated because the fibers appear striped under a microscope , with alternating light and dark bands. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Although significant differences exist, the basic mechanism in both muscle types involves interactions between actin and myosin similar to those in skeletal fibers. (scribd.com)
  • Concentration gradients of sodium and potassium across the cell membrane produce the membrane potential and provide the means by which electrochemical impulses are transmitted in nerve and muscle fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cell lineage, growth and development, and tissue-engineered repair of tendons and ligaments ( Nathaniel A. Dyment, Ph.D . (upenn.edu)
  • Considering that significant changes in cardiac geometry and function are affected by relatively few engrafted cells 5,6 in the inhospitable environment of the myocardial scar tissue that do not transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes, 7 paracrine effects induced by the implanted cells have been proposed as likely mechanisms for the prevention of cardiac failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Muscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse") is a contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. (etsu.edu)
  • These post-transcriptional mechanisms increase proteomic diversity, or cause a change in protein abundance/distribution, ultimately affecting cellular or tissue function. (mcw.edu)
  • Biotechnologists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a system to accurately measure muscle weakness caused by structural changes in muscle tissue. (phys.org)
  • A group of cells that performs a similar function is known as a tissue. (reference.com)
  • In total there are four basic tissue types: connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue and epithelial tissue. (reference.com)
  • All types of muscle tissue contract and relax to help organisms move and function. (reference.com)
  • Each tissue type performs specific functions in specific organisms. (reference.com)
  • Discoveries in stem cell research and tissue engineering as well as advances in regulatory and industry support have brought regenerative medicine treatments closer than ever to the clinic. (sciencemag.org)
  • significant progress has been made in using stem cell sources to produce this tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • CHF often occurs following the massive loss of cardiomyocytes and the development of cell-free scar tissue as the pathological result of a myocardial infarction (MI) 1 . (jove.com)
  • While the heart is a partially self-renewing organ, the resident stem and progenitor cell pool responsible for executing tissue regeneration significantly diminishes in abundance and function in aged patients, often becoming insufficient for optimal recovery after injury. (jove.com)
  • It is imperative that the donor cells not only restore the structure of the tissue, but also achieve the functional recovery of the affected myocardium. (jove.com)
  • The native heart employs heart tissue-resident and endogenous bone marrow-originated stem cells for post-injury repair 2 , 3 , 4 . (jove.com)
  • We constructed 3-dimensional collagen-based engineered muscle tissue (EMT) using MDSCs (MDSC-EMT) and compared the biochemical and contractile properties with EMT using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiac cells (iPS-EMT). (hindawi.com)
  • We previously showed that rodent MDSCs differentiate into CM-like cells with cardiac-like electrophysiological, biochemical, and contractile properties using cell aggregate formation and 3-dimensional (3D) culture in a collagen-based scaffold [ 5 ], but engineered tissue models of human MDSCs in the context of their relationship to cardiac development and disease have not been investigated before. (hindawi.com)
  • Scientists at the University of Bristol are engineering human skin on artificial robotic muscles that can stretch and bend the tissue just like in the real world. (phys.org)
  • How can damaged cardiac tissue following a heart attack best be treated with replacement muscle cells? (phys.org)
  • Nervous tissue: general features and functions. (univr.it)
  • What is Skeletal Muscle Tissue? (wisegeek.com)
  • Skeletal muscle tissue is one of three types of muscle tissue commonly found in the body, along with cardiac and smooth muscle tissue. (wisegeek.com)
  • Skeletal muscle tissue generally allows for physical movements of all sorts. (wisegeek.com)
  • The cells that make up skeletal muscle tissue are long and fibrous. (wisegeek.com)
  • A whole muscle, such as a bicep, is enclosed in connective tissue known as the epimysium. (reference.com)
  • We report here the identification of several candidate cell/tissue specific cIRK1 regulatory domains by comparing promoter activities in expressing (Qm7) and non-expressing (DF1) cells using in vitro transcription assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 10) The muscle tissue that normally exhibits voluntary contractions is __________ muscle. (scribd.com)
  • Epithelial tissue cells are tightly packed together to form a protective layer for the outside of our body, inside surfaces of our body, and the lining of cavities, tubes, ducts, and blood vessels. (smore.com)
  • Why is Eplithelial the best type of tissue for its function and location? (smore.com)
  • If a loosely packed group of cells created the outside tissue of our body then our skin would not be able to protect our bodies, and it would easily break. (smore.com)
  • Skeletal muscle tissue is long, elastic, and connected to your bones to allow movement, which is its main function. (smore.com)
  • Loose connective tissue can stretch and move because of its loose connections between cells. (smore.com)
  • Endomysium is the fine sheath of tissue that surrounds each single muscle fiber. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The majority of the nervous system is tissue made up of two classes of cells: neurons and neuroglia. (innerbody.com)
  • The walls of these organs contain smooth muscle, a type of tissue which enables them to constrict or dilate, in this way retarding or facilitating fluid movement as required. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The functioning of each type of smooth muscle is intimately tied up with the organ or system of which it is a part, so that this type of tissue is perhaps best appreciated if one abandons the attempt to generalize and considers, for example, the blood vessels. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Rather, they exist in a dynamic state of partial constriction, regulated by the smooth muscle cells which form much of the vascular wall, where they are arranged in multiple layers embedded in a tough and elastic matrix of connective tissue . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Understanding the signals that tell stem cells what type of cell to become, and then harnessing those cues to get a single desired cell type, is key to any effort to use these or more primitive embryonic stem cells to regenerate or repair damaged tissue. (eurekalert.org)
  • List the 4 primary tissue types and give the general characteristics and functions of each one. (majortests.com)
  • Muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. (majortests.com)
  • This converges into a response that is detrimental to cell and tissue homeostasis. (kenyon.edu)
  • Previous reports have shown that the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) components are locally expressed in the heart ( 4 ), and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes results in a decrease of active cardiac tissue kallikrein levels ( 5 , 6 ), resulting in increased thickness of the left ventricle wall and cardiac hypertrophy ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, transgenic rats overexpressing the human tissue kallikrein gene resulted in reduction of isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and these protective effects were abolished by icatibant ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1. A transgenic mouse, whose genome comprises an indicator gene under the control of a transcriptional regulatory element, wherein said transcriptional regulatory element comprises a MEF2 binding site and said indicator gene is (a) expressed in embryonic cardiac tissue, (b) not expressed in adult cardiac tissue, and (c) expressed in adult cardiac tissue in response to hypertrophic signals. (google.com)
  • Involved in myogenesis by inhibiting skeletal muscle and cardiac myocyte differentiation and promoting muscle precursor cells proliferation. (rcsb.org)
  • MicroRNAs promote skeletal muscle differentiation of mesodermal iPSC-derived progenitors. (abcam.com)
  • MSCs can differentiate into mesenchymal lineages, including cardiac cell types, but complete differentiation into functional cells has not yet been achieved. (jove.com)
  • Here, we present a differentiation method using MSC aggregates on cardiomyocyte feeder layers to produce cardiomyocyte-like contracting cells. (jove.com)
  • Human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) have been shown to have a greater differentiation potential than commonly investigated MSC types, such as bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs). (jove.com)
  • Using this differentiation protocol, FTM and term HUCPVCs achieved significantly increased cardiomyogenic differentiation compared to BMSCs, as indicated by the increased expression of cardiomyocyte markers ( i.e., myocyte enhancer factor 2C, cardiac troponin T, heavy chain cardiac myosin, signal regulatory protein α, and connexin 43). (jove.com)
  • Applying aggregate-based differentiation, FTM HUCPVCs showed increased aggregate formation potential and generated contracting cells clusters within 1 week of co-culture on cardiac feeder layers, becoming the first MSC type to do so. (jove.com)
  • In vitro differentiation methods have been used extensively to achieve high-efficiency, stem cell-based cardiomyocyte production 5 , 6 . (jove.com)
  • The expression profile of cardiac lineage markers is used to define the process of stem cell differentiation towards the cardiac lineage 7 . (jove.com)
  • Results suggest that the EMT from MDSCs mimics developing cardiac and skeletal muscle and can serve as a useful in vitro functioning striated muscle model for investigation of stem cell differentiation and therapeutic options of MDSCs for cardiac repair. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies have shown that cell aggregate culture can enhance cell-cell interactions and modulate gene expression, facilitating differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • Enables skeletal muscle and cardiac myocyte differentiation by sequestring Id proteins in the cytosol and promoting their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. (rcsb.org)
  • Techniques are provided which can isolate pluripotent stem cells at high purity capable of differentiation into at least a myocardial cell to regenerate the cardiac muscle. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In vitro studies with primary satellite cell cultures under standard conditions suggest that satellite cells isolated from aged horses displayed compromised proliferative, differentiation and fusion capacity in vitro. (ufl.edu)
  • Casz1 is required for Xenopus heart ventral midline progenitor cell differentiation. (xenbase.org)
  • Vertebrate CASTOR is required for differentiation of cardiac precursor cells at the ventral midline. (xenbase.org)
  • In this review, M-, N-, and R-cadherin are discussed as important players in the terminal differentiation and possibly also in the commitment of skeletal muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • The types of cells that come from mesenchymal stem cells all have shapes specific to their functions, so we wondered whether the stem cells' shapes could actually direct their differentiation," says Christopher Chen, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Johns Hopkins. (eurekalert.org)
  • The answer is that shape is critical to the stem cells' differentiation. (eurekalert.org)
  • It can actually induce molecular signals known to encourage fat cell or bone cell development and causes complete, uniform differentiation. (eurekalert.org)
  • To really understand whether it was the cells' shape or some aspect of their neighbors that directed differentiation, M.D./Ph.D. candidate Rowena McBeath used a special technique, developed in Chen's lab, that restricts individual cells to small spaces without requiring cellular neighbors to do the crowding. (eurekalert.org)
  • McBeath also showed that a molecule called RhoA, known to be activated when cells spread out, can mimic the effect of shape on the stem cells' differentiation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Perpetually active RhoA caused the stem cells to move toward bone, while inactive RhoA pushed them toward becoming fat cells, even when exposed to factors known to encourage differentiation toward the opposite cell type. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cellular differentiation during mammalian development is first evident at the blastocyst stage with the appearance of two distinct cell types, the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass (ICM). (biologists.org)
  • OCT4 prevents trophectoderm and perhaps somatic-cell differentiation of the ICM in addition to being crucial for maintaining the pluripotent state during embryonic development. (biologists.org)
  • Human cardiac mesoangioblasts isolated from hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are greatly reduced in proliferation and differentiation potency. (nature.com)
  • Resistance Training Alone or Combined With N-3 PUFA-Rich Diet in Older Women: Effects on Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy. (nih.gov)
  • In nearly all cardiac pathologies including hypertrophy, heart failure, and long QT syndrome (LQTS), at least one type of remodeling occurs ( 3 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Particularly, the HIP rats show diastolic dysfunction ( 6 ), cardiac hypertrophy ( 7 ), and cardiac dilation ( 7 ), which resemble some of the pathogenic mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy in humans ( 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cardiac hypertrophy associated with impaired regulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor by calmodulin and S100A1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In addition, STZ diabetes also induces key symptoms including increased glycogen storage in the myocardium, depressed ventricular performance, and cardiac hypertrophy ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our recent studies using gene transfer approaches have demonstrated that the KKS improves cardiac function in animal models of myocardial ischemia, chronic heart failure, and cardiac hypertrophy ( 9 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The present invention relates to cardiac hypertrophy. (google.com)
  • More particularly, the present invention defines the molecular events linking calcium stimulation to cardiac hypertrophy. (google.com)
  • Thus, the present invention provides methods of treating cardiac hypertrophy as well as transgenic constructs for preparing transgenic animals. (google.com)
  • Further provided are methods of using the transgenic animals of the present invention, or cells isolated therefrom, for the detection of compounds having therapeutic activity toward cardiac hypertrophy. (google.com)
  • Prolonged cross-bridge binding triggers muscle dysfunction in a Drosophila model of myosin-based hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (nih.gov)
  • alphaB-crystallin maintains skeletal muscle myosin enzymatic activity and prevents its aggregation under heat-shock stress. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Alternative S2 hinge regions of the myosin rod differentially affect muscle function, myofibril dimensions and myosin tail length. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Myosin transducer mutations differentially affect motor function, myofibril structure, and the performance of skeletal and cardiac muscles. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Drosophila UNC-45 prevents heat-induced aggregation of skeletal muscle myosin and facilitates refolding of citrate synthase. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Both MDSC-EMT and iPS-EMT expressed cardiac specific troponins, fast skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain, and connexin-43 mimicking developing cardiac or skeletal muscle. (hindawi.com)
  • Troponin and tropomyosin keep the actin and myosin apart so that your muscles do not remain perpetually contracted. (livestrong.com)
  • When the troponin and tropomyosin move, this activates the actin and myosin to move toward each other and contract the muscle. (livestrong.com)
  • When the calcium dissipates, the troponin and tropomyosin move back into position, the myosin and actin separate, and the filaments slide apart to relax the muscle. (livestrong.com)
  • 189 14) The heads of the myosin myofilaments are called __________ when they link the thick and thin filaments together during skeletal muscle contraction. (scribd.com)
  • mutations in individual myosin genes are responsible for diseases including hypertrophic cardiac myopathy, blindness and deafness disorders, and neurological defects. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Sellers's early work focused on the regulation of the myosin II isoforms found in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Sellers has focused on studying myosin diversity as a means of understanding meaningful molecular differences that give rise to disparate functions. (nih.gov)
  • While Dr. Sellers is using electron microscopy to complement mechanical and kinetic studies to further his molecular levels of understanding, he and his colleagues are also pursuing cell biological and organismal approaches to study changes in cellular localization of single myosin molecules as a tool to answer functional questions in the context of single cells. (nih.gov)
  • In striated muscle, such as skeletal and cardiac muscle , the actin and myosin filaments each have a specific and constant length on the order of a few micrometers, far less than the length of the elongated muscle cell (a few millimeters in the case of human skeletal muscle cells). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As in striated muscles, contraction occurs because the rise in cellular calcium causes an interaction between cellular action and myosin filaments, although the arrangement of these filaments within the cells is not of a similar consistent pattern. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This protein is located primarily in muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) and in heart (cardiac) muscle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Research suggests that the protein is important for the normal structure and function of synapses, which are specialized connections between nerve cells where cell-to-cell communication occurs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Without enough of this protein, cardiac muscle cells become damaged as the heart muscle repeatedly contracts and relaxes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, enough of this protein is present to prevent weakness and wasting of the skeletal muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase is activated during times of cellular stress (such as low oxygen levels or muscle exercise), when ATP is broken down rapidly to produce energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies indicate that changes in AMP-activated protein kinase activity allow a complex sugar called glycogen to build up abnormally within cardiac muscle cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Functional roles for glycans in cellular communication include cell adhesion, self-recognition, protein trafficking and clearance, and receptor activation ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Inhibits the binding of E2A-containing protein complexes to muscle creatine kinase E-box enhancer. (rcsb.org)
  • Catecholamines released from the synaptic terminal bind to catecholamine receptors, leading to the activation of the stimulatory G protein and then adenylyl cyclase, leading to increased cardiac contractility and heart rate. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This gene encodes the skeletal muscle specific member of the calsequestrin protein family. (nih.gov)
  • This protein, also known as calmitine, functions as a calcium regulator in the mitochondria of skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
  • Calsequestrin is a high-capacity, moderate affinity, calcium-binding protein and thus acts as an internal calcium store in muscle (PubMed:28895244). (nih.gov)
  • Plectin is a giant protein found in nearly all mammalian cells which acts as a link between the three main components of the cytoskeleton: actin microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In muscle, plectin binds to the periphery of Z-discs, and along with the intermediate filament protein desmin, may form lateral linkages among neighboring Z-discs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although normally a cytoplasmic protein, plectin is expressed on the cell membrane in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and can therefore be used to target PDAC cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene specifies the cardiac muscle family member of the calsequestrin family. (genecards.org)
  • The protein is a calcium binding protein that stores calcium for muscle function. (genecards.org)
  • Nuclear Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II Signaling Enhances Cardiac Progenitor Cell Survival and Cardiac Lineage Commitment. (abcam.com)
  • The most important of these is the muscle protein alanine. (hindawi.com)
  • Rbfox1, and the related protein Rbfox2, bind the consensus RNA sequence motif (U)GCAUG within introns to exert their functions as alternative splicing factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This macromineral impacts carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid uptake and protein synthesis, all of which aid in milk production as well as reproductive performance, immune function and cow wellbeing. (agweb.com)
  • Also, the mechanism whereby calcium stimulates this interaction in smooth muscle differs from that in striated muscle, in that it involves activation of a different signalling protein ( calmodulin rather than troponin ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Using a rubber-like material, stamps are created that each have a specific pattern of microscopic squares, each coated with a protein that attracts cells (fibronectin). (eurekalert.org)
  • Transcriptomic analyses of cardiosphere-derived cells from human donors have revealed that their therapeutic potency correlates with Wnt/β-catenin signalling and with β-catenin protein levels. (nature.com)
  • We also demonstrate that exosomes from high-potency cardiosphere-derived cells exhibit enhanced levels of miR-92a (a known potentiator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway), and that they activate cardioprotective bone-morphogenetic-protein signalling in cardiomyocytes. (nature.com)
  • Their success at obtaining a structural map of a protein known as leiomodin 2 (Lmod2) attached to two actin subunits offers a path forward for the study of nemaline myopathy, a hereditary disorder that weakens the muscles and can sometimes be fatal. (healthcanal.com)
  • Ma and Wang were then most interested in the structure of Lmod2, a protein that nucleates actin and then mediates the formation of actin filaments within muscle cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • A 3d model of Human Upper Skeletal and Connecting Muscles. (turbosquid.com)
  • In muscle, the heterodimers α-tropomyosin slow -β-tropomyosin (slow twitch) and α-tropomyosin fast -β-tropomyosin (fast twitch) are most common. (medscape.com)
  • Skeletal muscle cells come in slow-twitch and fast-twitch varieties. (livestrong.com)
  • In the current research, we have investigated the role of this adenylyl cyclase subtype in not only regulating cardiac function but regulating and inducing cardiac myocyte apoptosis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These results are consistent with the pathological role of amylin deposition in the pancreas, uncover a novel contributing mechanism to cardiac myocyte injury in type 2 diabetes, and suggest a potentially treatable link of type 2 diabetes with diabetic heart disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although further studies are necessary, these data also suggest that IL-1β might function as a sensor of myocyte amylin uptake and a potential mediator of myocyte injury. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the heart, significant amylin deposits were identified in areas of cardiac myocyte injury ( 6 , 7 ) and in myocyte lysates ( 7 ), suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic heart disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A muscle fiber , also technically known as a myocyte , is a single cell of a muscle. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Basal cardiac function was relatively maintained in AC5KO, however, after chronic isoproterenol infusion by the use of osmotic minipump, cardiac function in wild type mice deteriorated significantly while that in AC5KO remained relatively conserved. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Low dystrophin levels increase survival and improve muscle pathology and function in dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout mice. (abcam.com)
  • Generation of embryonic stem cells and mice for duchenne research. (abcam.com)
  • To further determine the impact of hyperamylinemia on cardiac myocytes, we investigated human myocardium, compared diabetic HIP rats with diabetic rats expressing endogenous (nonamyloidogenic) rat amylin, studied normal mice injected with aggregated human amylin, and developed in vitro cell models. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Pitx2 null mice are characterized by failure of body wall closure, axial and cardiac malformations and arrest of organ development. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Anesthetized mice had up to a 25 percent reduction in heart function measures within 20 minutes of being exposed to the chemical. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Reciprocal bone marrow transplantation in sublethally irradiated mice revealed that enhanced susceptibility of PHD3-deficient mice to sepsis-related lethality was specifically caused by loss of PHD3 in myeloid cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Viable skNAC(-/-) adult mice had reduced postnatal skeletal muscle growth and impaired regenerative capacity after cardiotoxin-induced injury. (ca.gov)
  • Satellite cells isolated from skNAC(-/-) mice had impaired survival compared with wild-type littermate satellite cells. (ca.gov)
  • Our results indicate that skNAC plays a critical role in ventricular cardiomyocyte expansion and regulates postnatal skeletal muscle growth and regeneration in mice. (ca.gov)
  • Relative roles of direct regeneration versus paracrine effects of human cardiosphere-derived cells transplanted into infarcted mice. (nature.com)
  • These results were validated by independent analyses in cardiac myocytes, C 2 C 12 myotubes, and cardiac and skeletal muscle of ERRα −/− mice. (asm.org)
  • Smooth muscle cells are structured to produce involuntary movement, such as propelling food through your digestive system. (livestrong.com)
  • Skeletal muscles are also considered crucial to some involuntary functions, like breathing. (wisegeek.com)
  • this helps them with the function of controlling involuntary movement in internal organs. (smore.com)
  • Voluntary muscles that can be consciously controlled, unlike involuntary muscles that work whether the body is conscious or unconscious. (studystack.com)
  • Smooth muscle, also known as "visceral muscle" or "involuntary muscle" is found within the walls of organs and structures such as the esophagus, stomach , intestines , bronchi, uterus, urethra, bladder, and blood vessels . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cardiac muscle is also an "involuntary muscle" but is a specialized kind of muscle found only within the heart . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Smooth muscle thus subserves all internal, involuntary functions, except the movements of breathing and the beating of the heart . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Essential role of the zinc finger transcription factor Casz1 for mammalian cardiac morphogenesis and development. (xenbase.org)
  • This implies that OCT4 and CDX2 constitute the `prime movers' in establishing the first cell-type-specific lineages during mammalian development, although how the fate of each blastomere is determined remains speculative. (biologists.org)
  • Our findings show that the modulation of canonical Wnt signalling can turn therapeutically inert mammalian cells into immortal exosome factories for cell-free therapies. (nature.com)
  • Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. (etsu.edu)
  • Mutations likely impair the proper formation, maintenance, or function of thin filaments, which results in accumulation of sarcomeric components and formation of nemaline bodies (rods) and associated muscle weakness. (medscape.com)
  • In vitro motility of native thin filaments from Drosophila indirect flight muscles reveals that the held-up 2 TnI mutation affects calcium activation. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Researchers at Osaka University used electron cryomicroscopy (CryoEM) to image essential cardiac muscle components, known as thin filaments, with unprecedented resolution. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Answer: tendons Diff: 1 Page Ref: 185 13) The __________ zone of a sarcomere contains no actin filaments while the skeletal muscle is at rest (noncontractile state).12) Skeletal muscle is often attached to bone by strong. (scribd.com)
  • Bundles of filaments form fiber-like scaffolds that allow the elongated cells to expand and contract. (healthcanal.com)
  • Small amounts of dystrophin are present in nerve cells in the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Little is known about the function of dystrophin in nerve cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Muscle Nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nerve cells physiology and general organization of the nervous system. (unibo.it)
  • The sympathetic nerve and renin-angiotensin system is activated to compensate for a reduced cardiac output in CHF, resulting in increased afterload and reduced peripheral perfusion (2) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • Neurons, also known as nerve cells, communicate within the body by transmitting electrochemical signals. (innerbody.com)
  • The white matter of the spinal cord functions as the main conduit of nerve signals to the body from the brain. (innerbody.com)
  • This can be triggered by an impressive array of chemical signals, that differ depending on the type of smooth muscle involved, including a variety of neurotransmitters released at autonomic nerve endings. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Written with undergraduate students in mind, the new edition of this classic textbook provides a compact introduction to the physiology of nerve and muscle. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • It first explores the nature of nerve impulses, clarifying their mechanisms in terms of ion flow through molecular channels in cell membranes. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Huang has taken on the mammoth task of bringing the book up to date and has succeeded in maintaining the enthusiastic and eminently readable approach of Keynes and Aidley who created one of the greatest physiology books covering the crucial areas of nerve and muscle. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The new edition shows how the important discoveries in the twentieth century remain central today, and the book provides the groundwork for the enormous and exciting task that still lies ahead, namely the understanding of how nerve transmission in the central nervous system is integrated to achieve the higher functions of the human brain, memory, learning and consciousness. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Proteins serve many functions including transportation of ions and other molecules. (wikibooks.org)
  • The cell membrane is composed of almost entirely proteins and lipids. (wikibooks.org)
  • Peripheral proteins serve a number of functions, and in many cases serve to activate the integral proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • [ 7 ] Tropomyosins are a family of actin-binding coiled-coil proteins that help to regulate calcium-dependent muscle contraction. (medscape.com)
  • The dystrophin complex acts as an anchor, connecting each muscle cell's structural framework (cytoskeleton) with the lattice of proteins and other molecules outside the cell (extracellular matrix). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The dystrophin complex may also play a role in cell signaling by interacting with proteins that send and receive chemical signals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Neuronal and muscle APs are transient membrane depolarizations produced by the concerted activities of many types of voltage-gated ion channels and transport proteins. (pnas.org)
  • The heart's ability to beat normally over a lifetime is predicated on the synchronized work of proteins embedded in the cells of the heart muscle. (medicalxpress.com)
  • During development, cardiac and skeletal muscle share major transcription factors and sarcomere proteins which were generally regarded as specific to either cardiac or skeletal muscle but not both in terminally differentiated adult cardiac or skeletal muscle. (hindawi.com)
  • At the transcriptional level, MDSC-EMT and iPS-EMT upregulated both cardiac and skeletal muscle-specific genes and expressed Nkx2.5 and Myo-D proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Each muscle cell contains many long, stringlike proteins called myofilaments. (livestrong.com)
  • When these proteins connect and slide past one another in a complex interaction, the muscle fiber contracts and generates movement. (livestrong.com)
  • Many of the causal genes for inherited hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) encode for proteins involved in the proper function of the cardiac sarcomere. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, DNA microarray analysis of limb pre-myogenic progenitor cells indicates that Pitx2 regulates several transcription factors and structural proteins. (oregonstate.edu)
  • We have shown that triclosan potently impairs muscle function by interfering with signaling between two proteins that are of fundamental importance to life," said Pessah. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Cardiac and skeletal muscle development and maintenance require complex interactions between DNA-binding proteins and chromatin remodeling factors. (ca.gov)
  • We previously reported that Smyd1, a muscle-restricted histone methyltransferase, is essential for cardiogenesis and functions with a network of cardiac regulatory proteins. (ca.gov)
  • Proteins are in constant motion as they carry out their functions. (healthcanal.com)
  • Lmod2 is one of a family of proteins central to actin functions in many types of muscle cells, including cardiac and skeletal muscles. (healthcanal.com)
  • Skeletal muscle: muscle fiber, sarcomere. (univr.it)
  • Voluntary contraction of the skeletal muscles is used to move the body and can be finely controlled. (phys.org)
  • Skeletal muscle cells are primarily specialized for voluntary movements, like dancing or snapping your fingers. (livestrong.com)
  • Skeletal muscle cells power voluntary movements, stabilize your joints and enable you to maintain an upright posture. (livestrong.com)
  • Skeletal muscles usually function in pairs, and their control is typically voluntary. (wisegeek.com)
  • Skeletal muscles can generally be contracted and relaxed at will to perform voluntary functions, such as movement. (wisegeek.com)
  • It makes sense when you think about it, as every voluntary move you make is performed by a skeletal muscle. (wisegeek.com)
  • The skeletal muscles are voluntary mus. (reference.com)
  • What Are Voluntary Muscles? (reference.com)
  • Voluntary muscle contraction is used to move the body, and can be finely controlled, like movements of the eye, or gross movements like the quadriceps muscle of the thigh. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Skeletal muscle, also known as "striated muscle" or "voluntary muscle," is anchored (with some exceptions) by tendons to bone and is used to affect skeletal movement such as locomotion and in maintaining posture (the tongue is an example of a skeletal muscle that lacks bony supports). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Skeletal muscles are responsible for voluntary movement. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • [5] [6] Hill and German physician Otto Meyerhof shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their independent work related to muscle energy metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In your second year, you develop your knowledge of gene regulation, cell biology, microbiology, animal and plant physiology, and human health and disease. (kent.ac.uk)
  • The modules at this stage go into greater depth and subjects can include animal form and function, plant physiology and adaptation, gene expression, infection and immunity, microbial physiology and skills for bioscientists 2. (kent.ac.uk)
  • She is very knowledgeable and has taught me many great skills regarding to muscle physiology. (ufl.edu)
  • They support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. (etsu.edu)
  • It serves as a scaffold which supports organs, anchors muscles, and protects organs such as the brain, lungs and heart. (turbosquid.com)
  • Muscles can cause either locomotion of the organism itself or movement of internal organs. (phys.org)
  • We begin our study of the human body with an overview of the basic concepts that underlie the functions of cells and organs within the body and their integration to maintain life. (coursera.org)
  • We will return to these basic concepts again as we progress through the organs systems and consider how they respond to perturbations incurred in daily functions and in disease. (coursera.org)
  • Smooth muscle cells perform automatic movements in the hollow organs of your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Its function is to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Efferent nerves in the PNS carry signals from the control center to the muscles, glands, and organs to regulate their functions. (innerbody.com)
  • smooth muscle The cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory systems are composed mostly of hollow organs (tubular or sacular), which transport and/or store fluids (either liquids or gases) within the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By creating diverse structural arrangements of smooth muscle and other associated cells, and at the same time varying the mechanisms that control contraction, evolution has achieved a remarkable diversity of smooth muscle-containing organs, each of which is designed to fill a unique functional niche. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many of these disorders (see list below) are actually caused by prescription drugs, vaccines and/or other toxic chemicals that are poisoning the mitochondria in our brains, nerves, muscles and other organs. (sott.net)
  • Switching what the powerhouses of heart cells consume for energy could help the heart regenerate when cells die, a new study led by UT Southwestern researchers suggests. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Mesodermal iPSC-derived progenitor cells functionally regenerate cardiac and skeletal muscle. (abcam.com)
  • However, the ability to regenerate muscle and replace damaged myofibers declines with age. (ufl.edu)
  • Conclusions- Regardless of whether the cells were injected into the infarct or the noninfarcted myocardium early after an myocardial infarction or later, skeletal myoblasts improved cardiac function by preventing ventricular dilation and preserving matrix architecture in the remote region, likely mediated by paracrine effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1-4 However, improvements in ventricular function were less impressive in the clinical trials than in animal studies, perhaps due to advanced age and comorbidities in the patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • We expect that implanted skeletal myoblasts prevent progressive ventricular dilation by influencing the healing of not only the infarct scar, but also the remote, noninfarcted myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
  • The current study evaluated the effects on ventricular remodeling of varying the timing (early or late after MI) and site (into the infarct or noninfarcted myocardium) of skeletal myoblast delivery in rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mutations in this gene cause stress-induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, also referred to as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 2 (CPVT2), a disease characterized by bidirectional ventricular tachycardia that may lead to cardiac arrest. (genecards.org)
  • Our results showed that loss of Casz1 during mouse development led to heart defect including cardiac noncompaction and ventricular septal defect, which phenocopies 1p36 deletion syndrome related CHD . (xenbase.org)
  • Ventricular tachycardia, catecholaminergic polymorphic, 2 (CPVT2) [MIM:611938]: An arrhythmogenic disorder characterized by stress-induced, bidirectional ventricular tachycardia that may degenerate into cardiac arrest and cause sudden death. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Extensive alternative splicing transitions during postnatal skeletal muscle development are required for calcium handling functions. (abcam.com)
  • Identifying the mechanisms responsible for the functional improvements may permit clinicians to adapt cell therapies for elderly patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • cell is the smallest structural & functional living unit. (studystack.com)
  • Skeletal and cardiac muscle cells without enough functional dystrophin become damaged as the muscles repeatedly contract and relax with use. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thus, NDUFA4L2 might act as an integrator of the nutritional, environmental and functional status in muscle cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Functional scaffold-free 3-D cardiac microtissues: a novel model for the investigation of heart cells. (abcam.com)
  • The specialized structure of the 3 types of muscle cells in the human body enables their functional purposes. (livestrong.com)
  • Heart, or cardiac, muscle cells have structural and functional characteristics of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Because neurons are extremely specialized cells that are essential to body function and almost never reproduce, neuroglia are vital to maintaining a functional nervous system. (innerbody.com)
  • HF is a condition characterized by cardiac decompensation due to organic or functional impaired pumping capacity. (intechopen.com)
  • Reduced exercise capacity in patients with HF can also cause organic and functional abnormality of skeletal muscle not only due to abnormal LVEF. (intechopen.com)
  • Human cardiosphere-derived cells from advanced heart failure patients exhibit augmented functional potency in myocardial repair. (nature.com)
  • During embryonic development, both isoforms are expressed in heart and skeletal muscle, suggesting that they serve functional roles during development as well as for maintaining function in differentiated muscle. (asm.org)
  • These conditions occur almost exclusively in males and are characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy) and a heart condition called dilated cardiomyopathy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The damaged cells weaken and die over time, causing the characteristic muscle weakness and heart problems seen in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This heart condition enlarges and weakens the cardiac muscle, preventing the heart from pumping blood efficiently. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The damaged muscle cells weaken and die over time, leading to the heart problems characteristic of X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These channels, which transport positively charged atoms (ions) into and out of heart muscle cells, play critical roles in maintaining the heart's normal rhythm. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people with these mutations also have features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a form of heart disease that enlarges and weakens the heart (cardiac) muscle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Individuals with these genetic changes typically experience muscle pain and stiffness, particularly following exercise, in addition to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and abnormal electrical signaling within the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is not known why the effects of some PRKAG2 mutations appear to be confined to the heart, while other mutations cause signs and symptoms affecting both cardiac and skeletal muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thus, the cardiac glycome, defined as the complete set of glycan structures produced in the heart, is remodeled. (pnas.org)
  • A global in vivo Drosophila RNAi screen identifies NOT3 as a conserved regulator of heart function. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A mighty small heart: the cardiac proteome of adult Drosophila melanogaster . (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Researchers from the group of Jeroen Bakkers at the Hubrecht Institute (KNAW) have found that the muscle cells in the heart of zebrafish change their metabolism, the way in which they generate energy, during heart regeneration. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Billions of cardiac muscle cells are lost during a heart attack. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The human heart cannot replenish these lost cells, so the default mechanism of repair is to form a cardiac scar. (medicalxpress.com)
  • And sometimes during the course of its unrelenting contractions and relaxations, the heart muscle can no longer bear the strain. (medicalxpress.com)
  • If a fish or salamander suffers heart damage, for instance, their cells are able to divide and successfully repair the injured organ. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A new Junior Research Group at the Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention will focus on metabolic adaption of heart muscle cells to find new therapies for combating heart disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • During this time, he initiated clinical trials in heart failure along with Dr. Andre Terzic, using stem cells to restore cardiac function and treating over 400 patients. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although cardiomyocytes (CMs), the contractile cells of the heart, have a modest rate of turnover, ranging from 1% in youth to less than 0.5% in old age [ 1 ], this level is not enough to compensate for the large number of cardiomyocytes which are lost as a result of heart injury. (hindawi.com)
  • Cardiac muscle cells keep your heart beating and have features of both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Your heart muscle cells are highly coordinated to contract together with each heartbeat. (livestrong.com)
  • A special electrical signaling system in your heart stimulates the coordinated contraction of the muscle cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Like skeletal muscle cells, heart muscle cells have a highly organized internal structure. (livestrong.com)
  • Recent studies also identified amylin deposits in failing hearts from patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes and demonstrated that hyperamylinemia accelerates the development of heart dysfunction in rats expressing human amylin in pancreatic β-cells (HIP rats). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cardiac muscle and heart function. (unibo.it)
  • Individuals with severe calcium deficiencies will experience muscle weakness, numbness and tingling in the fingers, and abnormal heart rhythms. (livestrong.com)
  • In a previous report [ 8 ], an approximately 5.5 kb cIRK1 transcript was detected, in addition to one 2.5 kb in length, in brain, cerebellum, heart, skeletal muscle, and cochlea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cardiac muscle cells are arranged in bundles to allow strong rhythmic contractions in the heart, which is its main function. (smore.com)
  • Our aim is to determine 1p36 gene CASZ1 function at regulating heart development in mammals. (xenbase.org)
  • This suggests that CASZ1 is a novel 1p36 CHD gene and that the abnormal expression of cardiac morphogenesis and contraction genes induced by loss of Casz1 contributes to the heart defect. (xenbase.org)
  • But that era may be passing, especially after the release this week of a University of California, Davis and University of Colorado study showing that the widely used chemical impairs muscle functions, including the heart. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • In the new research, the universities found that triclosan impairs heart and skeletal muscle contractions in living animals. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The muscle of the heart adapted to continued rhythmic contraction. (studystack.com)
  • Here we show that the muscle-specific transcription factor skNAC is the major binding partner for Smyd1 in the developing heart. (ca.gov)
  • CPK enzymes are in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles. (healthline.com)
  • This marker is highly specific for heart muscle injury and rises rapidly during a heart attack. (healthline.com)
  • Much muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival, like the contraction of the heart , or peristalsis (which pushes food through the digestive system ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which 60°C sauna treatment improves cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). (onlinejacc.org)
  • In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), clinical symptoms due to reduced peripheral perfusion, such as muscle fatigue, heaviness in the limbs, edema, appetite loss and constipation, are often observed (1) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • In patients with heart failure (HF), it is important to perform exercise therapy with a focus on the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle. (intechopen.com)
  • Potassium affects muscular activities, notably those of the heart, intestines, and respiratory tract, and also affects neural stimulation of the skeletal muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ashur, C. & Frishman, W. H. Cardiosphere-derived cells and ischemic heart failure. (nature.com)
  • Oh, H. Cell therapy trials in congenital heart disease. (nature.com)
  • Potency of human cardiosphere-derived cells from patients with ischemic heart disease is associated with robust vascular supportive ability. (nature.com)
  • The aim of this course is to illustrate the molecular e cellular basis, as well as the main homeostatic control and integration mechanisms, of selected functions of humans and animals. (unibo.it)
  • Neurons look quite different from other cells in the body due to the many long cellular processes that extend from their central cell body. (innerbody.com)
  • The cell body is the roughly round part of a neuron that contains the nucleus, mitochondria, and most of the cellular organelles. (innerbody.com)
  • On a cellular level, however, all smooth muscles share many characteristics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Stretching out pushes the stem cells toward becoming bone cell precursors, and no collection of fat-encouraging signals was able to subsequently overcome the early effect of shape," says McBeath, an M.D./Ph.D. candidate in the Cellular and Molecular Medicine graduate program. (eurekalert.org)
  • Intact kinin binds to the bradykinin B2 receptor and transduces signals through nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP and prostacyclin-cAMP pathways, thereby modulating a broad spectrum of cellular functions ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Finally, the emphasis turns to the consequences of excitable activity in the activation of contraction in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle, highlighting the relationships between cellular structure and function. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Activation of satellite cells and the regeneration of human skeletal muscle are expedited by ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication. (nih.gov)
  • A new study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden shows how an unexpectedly high number of mutations in the stem cells of muscles impair cell regeneration. (medicalxpress.com)
  • He is also working on new methods for the endogenous regeneration of pancreatic beta cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Involved in skeletal muscle regeneration, specifically at the onset of cell fusion. (abcam.com)
  • skNAC, a Smyd1-interacting transcription factor, is involved in cardiac development and skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. (ca.gov)
  • Home › About CIRM › Our Publications › Grantee publications › skNAC, a Smyd1-interacting transcription factor, is involved in cardiac development and skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. (ca.gov)
  • Both skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles contain striations among muscle cells and produce strong contractions, according to class notes from Yale Univers. (reference.com)
  • The cells are termed 'smooth' because they lack the regular bands or striations which are prominent in skeletal muscle fibres and cardiac muscle cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Molecular Synchronization in Actomyosin Motors from Single Molecule to Muscle Fiber via Nanomuscle. (buecher.de)
  • The different muscle groups of the body usually consist of different concentrations of each type of muscle fiber , depending on the functions of each individual muscle group. (wisegeek.com)
  • This type of skeletal muscle fiber is often found in the highest concentrations in the arms and shoulders, as these muscles are generally used less frequently than those of the back and neck. (wisegeek.com)
  • Every fiber is known as a synctium, and these cells are classified by their many nuclei. (reference.com)
  • The sarcolemma is the cell membrane enclosing each muscle fiber (muscle cell). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 1. Muscle fiber: Contractile cells. (scribd.com)
  • 2. Sarcolemma: Plasma membrane of muscle fiber. (scribd.com)
  • This is provided primarily by mitochondria in cells that consume a lot of energy. (phys.org)
  • Energy needed to perform short lasting, high intensity bursts of activity is derived from anaerobic metabolism within the cytosol of muscle cells, as opposed to aerobic respiration which utilizes oxygen, is sustainable, and occurs in the mitochondria . (wikipedia.org)
  • To further understand the underlying cause for the age-associated decrement of mitochondrial density and function in equine skeletal muscle, expression of factors involved in mitochondria biogenesis and mitochondria-selective autophagy pathways, two of the most prominent quality control mechanisms that have been described, were analyzed. (ufl.edu)
  • Site-specific acetyl-mimetic modification of cardiac troponin I modulates myofilament relaxation and calcium sensitivity. (nih.gov)
  • We designed morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting the exon 13 splice donor site in the zebrafish cardiac troponin T ( tnnt2 ) gene, in order to precisely recapitulate a human TNNT2 mutation that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). (biologists.org)
  • In an effort to define the earliest elements of the response to hypertrophic stimuli, we have generated a zebrafish model of a human cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) mutation known to cause HCM. (biologists.org)
  • In order to precisely recapitulate a human TNNT2 disease mutation in the zebrafish, we designed morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (oligos) that target the intron 13 splice donor site in the zebrafish cardiac troponin T ( tnnt2 ) mRNA. (biologists.org)
  • Methods and Results- Skeletal myoblasts (5×10 6 ) or control media were injected into the infarct or noninfarcted myocardium at 5 or 30 days after coronary artery ligation in rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • cells delivered into the noninfarcted myocardium preserved wall thickness. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, there is great interest in developing experimental treatments that involve the transplantation of healthy donor cells into the damaged myocardium. (jove.com)
  • Regenerative cells- host- and donor-derived alike- must have the capacity to obtain the appropriate phenotype and function in the microenvironment of the remodeling myocardium, along with the ability to efficiently and safely replace the lost cells. (jove.com)
  • We hypothesized that the sauna restores endothelial function and then improves cardiac function. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Slow-twitch muscle cells are adapted for endurance activities and maintaining posture. (livestrong.com)
  • Neurons, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle communicate through production and conduction of orchestrated electrical signals called action potentials (AP). (pnas.org)
  • We start by considering the function of the individual cells (neurons) and then how they interact as an integrative system. (coursera.org)
  • Small tree-like structures called dendrites extend from the cell body to pick up stimuli from the environment, other neurons, or sensory receptor cells. (innerbody.com)
  • Long transmitting processes called axons extend from the cell body to send signals onward to other neurons or effector cells in the body. (innerbody.com)
  • Also known as motor neurons, efferent neurons transmit signals from the central nervous system to effectors in the body such as muscles and glands. (innerbody.com)
  • Interneurons form complex networks within the central nervous system to integrate the information received from afferent neurons and to direct the function of the body through efferent neurons. (innerbody.com)
  • Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of particular VGCCs allows Ca2+ to rush into the cell, which, depending on the cell type, results in activation of calcium-sensitive potassium channels, muscular contraction, excitation of neurons, up-regulation of gene expression, or release of hormones or neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calsequestrin functions as a luminal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor in both cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • Calsequestrin is localized to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac and slow skeletal muscle cells. (genecards.org)
  • Note: This isoform of calsequestrin occurs in the sarcoplasmic reticulum's terminal cisternae luminal spaces of cardiac and slow skeletal muscle cells. (avivasysbio.com)
  • this plays an important role in triggering muscle contraction. (nih.gov)
  • Cardiac and smooth muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival. (phys.org)
  • If you do not get enough calcium from your diet, your body will pull calcium from your bones to fuel muscle contractions and other vital functions. (livestrong.com)
  • The accumulation of this substance enlarges these cells, which may lead to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The release of calcium bound to calsequestrin through a calcium release channel triggers muscle contraction. (avivasysbio.com)
  • The incredible benefits of stem cell therapy have been widely known for decades. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Juan Domínguez-Bendala, Ph.D., is director of the Stem Cell Development for Translational Research and research associate professor of surgery at the Diabetes Research Institute (DRI), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. (sciencemag.org)
  • He obtained his Ph.D. there and acquired considerable experience in embryonic stem cell research and state-of-the-art genetic engineering techniques. (sciencemag.org)
  • Working with other DRI faculty and international collaborators, Dr. Domínguez-Bendala is currently involved in several projects that focus on the use of stem cells to obtain pancreatic islets that could be safely and efficiently transplanted into patients with type 1 diabetes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Through that experience, it was discovered that exosome secretion was the primary driver of the regenerative action of stem cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising option for cell-based therapies to replace current, invasive techniques. (jove.com)
  • Here, we investigated whether artificial muscle constructed from human skeletal muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) recapitulates developmental similarities between cardiac and skeletal muscle. (hindawi.com)
  • Muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells are among the types of stem cells under investigation for cardiac repair. (hindawi.com)
  • MDSCs are a multipotent, somatic stem cell which can be obtained from skeletal muscle via a modified preplate method [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers are now able to use induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) to form a model of human adult-like cardiac muscle by introducing electric and mechanical stimulation at an early stage. (phys.org)
  • Stem cells. (univr.it)
  • 25. The pluripotent stem cell group according to claim 24, wherein the pluripotent stem cells are Sox-2-positive, Cripto-positive, Nanog-positive, Oct-4-positive, Bmi-1-positive, and Brcp-positive. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 26. The pluripotent stem cell group according to claim 24, wherein the pluripotent stem cells have an ability to be differentiated into one or more cells selected from the group consisting of skeletal muscle cell, smooth muscle cell, myocardial cell, blood cell, vascular endothelial cell, fat cell, cartilage cell, osteoblastic cell, and neural cell. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 27. The pluripotent stem cell group according to claim 24, wherein the pluripotent stem cells have an ability to be differentiated at least into pulsatile myocardial cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Innate immunity as orchestrator of bone marrow homing for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. (springer.com)
  • and 3) examine differences in the intrinsic regenerative capacity of muscle stem cells isolated from skeletal muscle of young and aged horses. (ufl.edu)
  • Myogenic stem cells, commonly referred to as satellite cells, are responsible for muscle growth and repair in adults. (ufl.edu)
  • We generated a Casz1 knock-out mouse using Casz1 -trapped embryonic stem cells. (xenbase.org)
  • Johns Hopkins scientists report that restricting the shape and personal space of human stem cells from bone marrow is more important than any known molecular signal in determining the cell type they become. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the April issue of Developmental Cell, the Hopkins researchers report that mesenchymal (pronounced mez-EHN-kih-mal) stem cells forced to be spherical efficiently transform into precursors to fat cells, while those allowed to stretch and flatten move closer to becoming bone cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the first week of laboratory studies, about 45 percent of stem cells forced to be round moved toward fat cell development, and 50 percent of spread-out cells got closer to being bone cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • By four weeks, all cells had followed the path dictated by their shape, Chen says, making shape the most powerful factor in whether human mesenchymal stem cells become fat or bone in the lab. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ever since these stem cells were first isolated in the late 1990s, scientists have recognized that which cell type they become depends on the density at which they are grown in the lab. (eurekalert.org)
  • McBeath's experiments showed that mesenchymal stem cells on the small islands balled up and, biologically speaking, moved closer to becoming fat cells, while those on large islands stretched out and got closer to becoming bone cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • In subsequent experiments, she proved that shape can't be overcome by known molecular signals traditionally used to encourage mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into either fat or bone cell precursors. (eurekalert.org)
  • and the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Y.G., R.C.R.), the Department of Comparative Medicine (C.P.), the Department of Pathology (A.J.C.), the Department of Plastic Surgery (M.T.L.), and the Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (J.C.W. (ahajournals.org)
  • Consequently, Tead4 -/- morulae do not produce trophoblast stem cells, trophectoderm or blastocoel cavities, and therefore do not implant into the uterine endometrium. (biologists.org)
  • However, Tead4 -/- embryos can produce embryonic stem cells, a derivative of ICM, and if the Tead4 allele is not disrupted until after implantation, then Tead4 -/- embryos complete development. (biologists.org)
  • In vitro, it is the trophectoderm that gives rise to trophoblast stem (TS) cells, and the ICM that gives rise to embryonic stem (ES) cells. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, in mouse embryonic stem cells, the relative amount of OCT4 ultimately determines cell fate ( Boiani and Scholer, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • Stem cells drive embryonic and fetal development. (springer.com)
  • Here, we review the main studies describing the effects of alcohol on different types of progenitor/stem cells including neuronal, hepatic, intestinal and adventitial progenitor cells, bone-marrow-derived stromal cell, dental pulp, embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells, and tumor-initiating cells. (springer.com)
  • Stem Cell Rep. 10 , 942-955 (2018). (nature.com)
  • Stem Cells Transl. (nature.com)
  • Potassium-channel mutations and cardiac arrhythmias--diagnosis and therapy. (xenbase.org)
  • New exciting developments relate to the role of mitochondrial function in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, in the mechanism of action of insulin sensitizers and in the development of diabetic complications. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Skeletal muscle aerobic capacity, mitochondrial function and regenerative capacity have been found to decline with age in humans and rodents. (ufl.edu)
  • However, not much is known about age-related changes in mitochondrial function in equine skeletal muscle. (ufl.edu)
  • chem signals in the embryo channel cells into specific developmental pathways by turning some genes off. (studystack.com)
  • Inhibits cell growth via p53/ TP53 and RB1 -dependent and independent pathways. (rcsb.org)
  • Thus, hyperamylinemia contributes to pathogenic pathways for both type 2 diabetes and the co-occurring cardiac disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In line with compromised myogenic potential of aged muscle-derived satellite cells, there were age-related alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy pathways, with satellite cells derived from TRI being more susceptible to impairments with age. (ufl.edu)
  • Recent studies demonstrated the mechanism and treatment strategy for HF, and multiple signaling pathways involved in HF result in reduced exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mass. (intechopen.com)
  • We conclude that ERRα serves as a critical nodal point in the regulatory circuitry downstream of PGC-1α to direct the transcription of genes involved in mitochondrial energy-producing pathways in cardiac and skeletal muscle. (asm.org)
  • VEGF 165 possesses a combination of these properties, and although it is diffusible, a significant fraction remains bound to the cell surface and the extracellular matrix. (springer.com)
  • Once in the host extracellular environment, virus entry mechanisms depend on cell polarity. (kenyon.edu)
  • Conversely, the concentration of potassium is about 30 times higher within the cell than in the serum or extracellular fluid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Severe calcium deficiencies can also lead to cardiac arrest and death. (livestrong.com)
  • Mutations that cause Becker muscular dystrophy, which typically has milder features and appears at a later age than Duchenne muscular dystrophy, usually lead to an abnormal version of dystrophin that retains some function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although dilated cardiomyopathy is a sign of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (described above), X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy is typically not associated with weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Brain function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Muscular function declines with age. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The high degree of potency of the oligomer in targeting all muscles and the lack of detectable toxicity and immune response support the feasibility of testing the novel oligomer in treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. (pnas.org)
  • The muscular system consists of approximately 700 muscles that belong to one of three distinct categories: skeletal, smooth or cardiac. (reference.com)
  • Transplantation of the engineered fibroblasts into a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction led to improved cardiac function and mouse survival, and in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, exosomes secreted by the engineered fibroblasts improved exercise capacity and reduced skeletal-muscle fibrosis. (nature.com)
  • Exosome-mediated benefits of cell therapy in mouse and human models of duchenne muscular dystrophy. (nature.com)
  • Plays a role in embryonic development, including limb and cardiac morphogenesis, and skeletal muscle development through its versican remodeling properties. (uniprot.org)
  • In the course of embryonic development, muscle is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Plectin isoform P1b and P1d deficiencies differentially affect mitochondrial morphology and function in skeletal muscle. (abcam.com)
  • Isoform 1 is expressed in placenta and skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. (abcam.com)
  • Moreover, NDUFA4L2 upregulates antioxidant gene expression and silencing NDUFA4L2 makes cardiac cells less tolerant to hypoxia/re-oxygenation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our results suggest that NDUFA4L2 expression affects vital functions in muscle cells and at least part of this effect is mediated by a link between NDUFA4L2 and nuclear gene expression. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our research aims to better understand how gene expression programs in cardiac and skeletal muscle respond to biological, nutritional, and environmental cues to grow and mature after birth, and to identify mechanisms contributing to aging-associated decline in muscle function (cardiac dysfunction and sarcopenia). (mcw.edu)
  • Two layer outer membrane with numerous pores, encloses cells DNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • For example Insulin exerts its effects on the cell by binding onto a special receptor (see Membrane Dynamics ). (wikibooks.org)
  • Myopathy, tubular aggregate, 1 (TAM1): A rare congenital myopathy characterized by regular arrays of membrane tubules on muscle biopsies without additional histopathological hallmarks. (nih.gov)
  • In addition plectin links the cytoskeleton to junctions found in the plasma membrane that structurally connect different cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess the effects during cardiac development of mutations that cause human cardiomyopathy, we modeled a sarcomeric gene mutation in the embryonic zebrafish. (biologists.org)
  • Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction: Fifty Years of Research covers the history of the sliding filament mechanism in muscle contraction from its discovery in 1954 by H.E. Huxley through and including modern day research. (buecher.de)
  • Here we show that regulated and aberrant glycosylation modulate cardiac ion channel activity and electrical signaling through a cell-specific mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • A mechanism is described by which cardiac function is controlled and modulated through physiological and pathological processes that involve regulated and aberrant glycosylation. (pnas.org)
  • Sympathetic nervous system is a major mechanism of regulating cardiac function. (nii.ac.jp)
  • cessation of mitosis & cell aging are programmed into genes. (studystack.com)
  • and cardiac arrhythmia associated ion channel coding genes ABCC9 and CACNA1D . (xenbase.org)
  • CDX2-deficient embryos form blastocysts but fail to implant, and genes such as Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1 - Mouse Genome Informatics) and Nanog , that are normally expressed only in the ICM, are ectopically expressed in the outer cells of the blastocyst, resulting in eventual death of the embryo. (biologists.org)
  • When the number of apoptotic cardiac myocytes were counted, we found that the number was significantly decreased in AC5KO. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We found that amylin deposition negatively affects cardiac myocytes by inducing sarcolemmal injury, generating reactive aldehydes, forming amylin-based adducts with reactive aldehydes, and increasing synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) independently of hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. (turbosquid.com)
  • Skeletal muscles are generally to be found attached to the skeleton, usually by tendons . (wisegeek.com)
  • Electrical signaling occurs in all cells of the body and is of primary importance to excitable cell function. (pnas.org)
  • There then follows an account of the synaptic transmission processes by which one excitable cell influences activity in another. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Energetics, Mechanics, and Molecular Engineering of Calcium Cycling in Skeletal Muscle. (buecher.de)
  • Calcium Homeostasis In Skeletal Muscle Cells. (uglycc.com)
  • Does Calcium Help Muscles Contract? (livestrong.com)
  • Calcium serves several vital functions within your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Calcium also plays a vital role in muscle contraction, including your cardiac and skeletal muscles. (livestrong.com)
  • When the brain signals the muscle to contract, the body pulls calcium from the blood into the muscle cells. (livestrong.com)
  • What Does Too Much Calcium Do to Muscles? (livestrong.com)
  • Why Is Calcium Important to Muscle Function? (livestrong.com)
  • For example, renal disease, in which the kidney nephron is unable to function normally, causes a retention of water, sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and calcium as the glomerular filtration rate falls. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Calcium also influences the permeability of cell membranes and thereby regulates neuromuscular activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The concentration of calcium (Ca2+ ions) is normally several thousand times higher outside the cell than inside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutations that cause X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy preferentially affect the activity of dystrophin in cardiac muscle cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The mutations that cause X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy often lead to reduced amounts of dystrophin in skeletal muscle cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Background- The inability of skeletal myoblasts to transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes suggests that their beneficial effects on cardiac function after a myocardial infarction are mediated by paracrine effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • Myopathy, vacuolar, with CASQ1 aggregates (VMCQA): An autosomal dominant mild muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of muscle cramping and weakness as well as increased levels of serum creatine kinase. (nih.gov)
  • HL-1 cells: a cardiac muscle cell line that contracts and retains phenotypic characteristics of the adult cardiomyocyte. (xenbase.org)
  • An average adult male is made up of 40-50 percent of skeletal muscle and an average adult female is made up of 30-40 percent. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Glycogen is broken down into lactate in muscle lactate is released to blood and goes to liver in the liver lactate is made into glucose via gluconeogensis (uses ATP). (brainscape.com)
  • Elevated liver enzymes may be due to inflammation or damaged liver cells. (healthline.com)
  • There are several markers that can be used to test liver function. (healthline.com)
  • These markers help separate whether or not the injury is to the liver parenchyma (liver cells) or to the biliary system. (healthline.com)
  • They are also advantageous because they are resistant to hypoxia, attenuate fibrosis, and readily differentiate into contractile cells [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Neonatal cardiac dysfunction and transcriptome changes caused by the absence of Celf1. (abcam.com)
  • Patients with HF have multiple clinical symptoms due to cardiac dysfunction. (intechopen.com)
  • He is a member of the Biophysical Society, American Society for Cell Biology, and American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. (nih.gov)
  • In polarized cells, such as epithelial cells that have two heterogeneous, dissimilar, opposing membranes, the CAR is on tight junctions (TJ) where cells contact each other, and far from the apical surface where CVB is present (9, 14, 17). (kenyon.edu)
  • Cardiac function was significantly improved after kallikrein gene transfer as evidenced by increased cardiac output and ±Δ P /Δ t (maximum speed of contraction/relaxation), along with elevated cardiac sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (Ca 2+ + Mg 2+ )-ATPase (SERCA)-2a, phosphorylated phospholamban, NOx and cAMP levels, and GLUT4 translocation into plasma membranes of cardiac and skeletal muscle. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Quantitative activation suppression assay to evaluate human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell potency. (nature.com)