Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Chemokine CCL5: A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.Chemokine CCL19: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards T LYMPHOCYTES and B LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokines, CC: Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.Chemokine CCL20: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR6 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS; T-LYMPHOCYTES; and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Chemokine CCL1: A CC-type chemokine secreted by activated MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CCR8 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CCL3: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES; and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Chemokine CCL7: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Receptors, CCR1: CCR receptors with specificity for a broad variety of CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in MONOCYTES; tissue MACROPHAGES; NEUTROPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS.Receptors, CCR2: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL2 and several other CCL2-related chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; BASOPHILS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Chemokine CCL4: A CC chemokine with specificity for CCR5 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for NK CELLS; MONOCYTES and a variety of other immune cells. This chemokine is encoded by multiple genes.Chemokine CXCL10: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON and is chemotactic for MONOCYTES and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Receptors, CCR3: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Receptors, CXCR3: CXCR receptors that are expressed on the surface of a number of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; NK CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and a subset of B-LYMPHOCYTES. The receptors are activated by CHEMOKINE CXCL9; CHEMOKINE CXCL10; and CHEMOKINE CXCL11.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Receptors, CCR8: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL1. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CX3CL1: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins: Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.Chemokine CCL8: A monocyte chemoattractant protein that attracts MONOCYTES; LYMPHOCYTES; BASOPHILS; and EOSINOPHILS. Chemokine CCL8 has specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS and CCR5 RECEPTORS.Chemokine CXCL9: An INTEFERON-inducible CXC chemokine that is specific for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Receptors, Interleukin-8B: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and T-LYMPHOCYTES. These receptors also bind several other CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Chemokine CXCL11: A CXC chemokine that is induced by GAMMA-INTERFERON. It is a chemotactic factor for activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and has specificity for the CXCR3 RECEPTOR.Receptors, Interleukin-8A: High-affinity G-protein-coupled receptors for INTERLEUKIN-8 present on NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and BASOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Receptors, CXCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CXC CHEMOKINES.Chemokine CXCL6: A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Receptors, CCR6: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL20. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Chemokine CXCL5: A CXC chemokine that is predominantly expressed in EPITHELIAL CELLS. It has specificity for the CXCR2 RECEPTORS and is involved in the recruitment and activation of NEUTROPHILS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins: Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CHeterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chemokines, CX3C: Group of chemokines with the first two cysteines separated by three amino acids. CX3C chemokines are chemotactic for natural killer cells, monocytes, and activated T-cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Chemotactic Factors: Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil: Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Chemokines, C: Group of chemokines without adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes only.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell SeparationThymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
It is a G protein-coupled receptor which functions as a chemokine receptor in the CC chemokine group. CCR5's cognate ligands ... include CCL3, CCL4 (also known as MIP 1α and 1β, respectively), and CCL3L1. CCR5 furthermore interacts with CCL5 (a chemotactic ... and HIV co-receptor activity. HIV-1 most commonly uses the chemokine receptors CCR5 and/or CXCR4 as co-receptors to enter ... It lacks the unique structure of a chemokine, however it is still capable of binding to the CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokine receptors ...
This suggested that 'Peptide 3' functions as a chemokine receptor antagonist. This mechanism was later proved to not be in ... When the 12-amino acid sequence of 'peptide 3'/CCL2 is aligned with the sequences of the other chemokines CCL3, CXCL8 and ... It has been suggested that blockage of chemokine function using these molecules should not have a detrimental toxicological ... CCL3, CXCL8 and CXCL12 with roughly equal potency of 10μM, but not migration induced by other non-chemokine chemoattractants ...
Examples are: CXCL-8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10. The main function of chemokines is to manage the migration of ... CCL1 for the ligand 1 of the CC-family of chemokines, and CCR1 for its respective receptor. The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) ... C4-CC chemokines), but a small number of CC chemokines possess six cysteines (C6-CC chemokines). C6-CC chemokines include CCL1 ... while the N-terminal domain of the chemokine receptor determines ligand binding specificity. Chemokine receptors associate with ...
... and CCL3. Chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES) acts through a specific receptor CCR3 on the surface of eosinophils, and ... FunctionEdit. Chemokines released by infected or damaged cells form a concentration gradient. Attracted cells move through the ... ReceptorsEdit. Further information: Chemokine receptor. Chemokine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors containing 7 ... C chemokinesEdit. The third group of chemokines is known as the C chemokines (or γ chemokines), and is unlike all other ...
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The functions of CCL18 have ... The classical receptors for chemokines are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which have 7 transmembrane regions. Following ... that CCL18 arose as a result of a gene fusion event between CCL3-like protein encoding genes and gained a different function ... However, for a long time, the physiological receptor has not been found until very recently. To date, are three receptors that ...
Specialized pro-resolving mediators
CMKLR1 (chemokine receptor-like 1), also termed the ChemR23 or E series resolvin receptor (ERV), is expressed on inflammation- ... host-derived pro-inflammatory chemokines (e.g. CXCL8, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL10), platelet-activating factor, and ... is involved in multiple physiologic functions and dysfunctions. With respect to the SPMS, both receptors mediate the perception ... stimulates their expression the chemokine receptor, CCR5, to inhibit chemokine signaling, enhances their phagocyte activity, ...
Index of immunology articles
C-C chemokine receptor type 6 C-C chemokine receptor type 7 Calreticulin Cancer immunology Cancer immunoprevention Cancer ... Linear epitope Lipid A Lipopolysaccharide binding protein Low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor LPHN1 Lymphocyte function- ... CCL1 CCL11 CCL12 CCL13 CCL14 CCL15 CCL16 CCL17 CCL18 CCL19 CCL2 CCL20 CCL21 CCL22 CCL23 CCL24 CCL25 CCL26 CCL27 CCL28 CCL3 CCL5 ... 4 receptor Interleukin-5 receptor Interleukin-6 receptor Interleukin-7 receptor Interleukin-7 receptor-α Interleukin-8 receptor ...
Role of microglia in disease
"HIV-1 can enter the microglial cell via CD4 receptors and chemokine co-receptors such as CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4, with CCR5 being ... The chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, all of which bind to CCR5, are inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in ... "Many of the normal trophic functions of glia may be lost or overwhelmed when the cells become chronically activated in ... The chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia in the central nervous system. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is the exclusive ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; p55/60) and TNFR2 (TNF receptor type 2; CD120b; p75/80). TNFR1 ... Molecular function. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis ... positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • positive regulation of JUN kinase activity. • positive ... receptor biosynthetic process. • activation of MAPK activity. • immune response. • leukocyte tethering or rolling. • positive ...
It functions as a pattern-recognition receptor for a variety of β-1,3-linked and β-1,6-linked glucans from fungi and plants, ... Activation of dectin-1 also triggers expression of many protecting antifungal cytokines and chemokines (TNF, CXCL2, IL-1b, IL- ... 1a, CCL3, GM-CSF, G-CSF and IL-6) and the development of Th17. Dectin-1 can also operate as a co-stimulatory molecule via ... The C-type lectin receptors are class of signalling pattern recognition receptors which are involved in antifungal immunity, ...
Molecular function. • chemokine activity. • cytokine activity. • heparin binding. • protein binding. • CXCR3 chemokine receptor ... Agonists: CCL3 (MIP-1α). *CCL4 (MIP-1β). *CCL5 (RANTES). *CCL8 ... regulation of receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor ... This chemokine elicits its effects on its target cells by interacting with the cell surface chemokine receptor CXCR3, with a ... C-X-C motif chemokine 11 is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also called Interferon-inducible T- ...
IL-24 is a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family of cytokines that signals through two heterodimeric receptors: IL-20R1/IL- ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ... Molecular function. • protein binding. • cytokine activity. Cellular component. • extracellular region. • extracellular space. ... "The expression of IL-20 and IL-24 and their shared receptors are increased in rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy". ...
Molecular function. • interferon-gamma receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • protein binding. Cellular component. • ... positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process. • regulation of insulin secretion. • extrinsic apoptotic signaling ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... positive regulation of NMDA glutamate receptor activity. • JAK-STAT cascade. • positive regulation of receptor biosynthetic ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6
Molecular function. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. • chemokine receptor activity. • ... Chemokine receptor 6 also known as CCR6 is a CC chemokine receptor protein which in humans is encoded by the CCR6 gene. CCR6 ... receptor activity. • protein binding. • C-C chemokine receptor activity. • C-C chemokine binding. ... "Chemokine Receptors: CCR6". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Molecular function. • cytokine activity. • interleukin-1 receptor binding. Cellular component. • extracellular region. • ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ... function as an antagonist and agonist of NF-kappa B activation through the orphan IL-1 receptor-related protein 2". J. Immunol ... Function. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling ...
... forms a homotrimer that binds three receptor molecules. Function. TRAIL binds to the death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-RI ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • receptor binding. • zinc ion ...
Molecular function. • cytokine activity. • CD40 receptor binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • protein binding. ... as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Schönbeck U, Libby P (January 2001). "The CD40/CD154 receptor/ligand dyad". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 58 (1): 4-43 ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... Chemokine. CCL. *CCL1. *CCL2/MCP1. *CCL3/MIP1α. *CCL4/MIP1β. *CCL5/RANTES ... 4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1 ... By function/. cell. *proinflammatory cytokine *IL1. *TNFA. *Monokine. *Lymphokine *Th1 *IFNγ ...
साँचा:Cytokines - विकिपीडिया
Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha
Molecular function. • C-X-C chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • ... Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha is a chemokine receptor. This name and the corresponding gene symbol IL8RA have been replaced by ... chemokine receptor activity. • interleukin-8 receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. Cellular component. • integral ... "Chemokine Receptors: CXCR1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Chemokines. CCL3, CCL26, CXCL7 Immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs). thalidomide and its analogues (lenalidomide, pomalidomide ... Hypothesized mechanisms include re-polarisation of the Th1 / Th2 response and modulation of dendritic cell function.[44 ... The virus integrates the receptor into the T cells' genome. The cells are expanded non-specifically and/or stimulated. The ... The diagram above represents the process of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR), this is a method of immunotherapy, ...
Prostaglandin DP2 receptor
Molecular function. • prostaglandin D receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • prostaglandin J receptor ... and CCL3) and increased production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). ... with the C5a receptor, Formyl peptide receptor 1, and Formyl peptide receptor 2 receptors. DP2 has little or no such amino acid ... "Prostanoid Receptors: DP2". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Ackr2 - Atypical chemokine receptor 2 - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) - Ackr2 gene & protein
... or chemokine-scavenging receptor or chemokine decoy receptor. Acts as a receptor for chemokines including CCL2, CCL3, CCL3L1, ... resulting instead in chemokine sequestration, degradation, or transcytosis. Also known as interceptor (internalizing receptor) ... increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. By scavenging chemokines in tissues, on the surfaces of ... Atypical chemokine receptor that controls chemokine levels and localization via high-affinity chemokine binding that is ...
CCR5 - Wikipedia
It is a G protein-coupled receptor which functions as a chemokine receptor in the CC chemokine group. CCR5s cognate ligands ... include CCL3, CCL4 (also known as MIP 1α and 1β, respectively), and CCL3L1. CCR5 furthermore interacts with CCL5 (a chemotactic ... and HIV co-receptor activity. HIV-1 most commonly uses the chemokine receptors CCR5 and/or CXCR4 as co-receptors to enter ... It lacks the unique structure of a chemokine, however it is still capable of binding to the CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokine receptors ...
Mouse CCL3/MIP-1 alpha DuoSet ELISA DY450-05: R&D Systems
Build your own Mouse CCL3/MIP-1 alpha ELISA with R&D Systems DuoSet Development Kit. Assay Range: 8-500 pg/mL. Versatile, ... Human CCL3L1/LD78b binds and signals through chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR5. When compared to CCL3/LD78a, CCL3L1/LD78b has ... Chorionic gonadotropin alleviates thioglycollate-induced peritonitis by affecting macrophage function. Authors: Wan H, Coppens ... C-C motif chemokine 3; MIP1-(a); AI323804; CCL3; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3; G0S19-1; LD78a; LD78alpha; MIP1 alpha; MIP-1 ...
Chemokines (CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5) Inhibit ATP-Induced Release of IL-1β by Monocytic Cells
... α9 inhibits P2X7 receptor function and, hence, maturation and secretion of IL-1β. It is still unclear if nAChR subunits of ... Chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 are known agonists of chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR3, and CCR5 . CXCL16 binds to receptor ... Figure 3: Signaling via chemokine receptor CCR1. (a) The mRNA expression of chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR6 was ... We propose that when U937 cells are stimulated with ATP and chemokine CCL3 concomitantly, chemokine receptor CCR1 activates the ...
ccl21c Protein, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21C (leucine) - Creative BioMart
Protein Function. Ccl21c has several biochemical functions, for example, chemokine activity, chemokine receptor binding. Some ... Related Protein CCL3L1; CCL17; CCL24; CXCL10; CXCL3; CCL3; CCL19A.1; CXCL12B; CCL34B.4; CCL3L3 ... C-C motif chemokine 21c;6Ckine;Ccl21-leu;C-C motif chemokine 21b;beta chemokine exodus-2;beta-chemokine exodus-2;Small- ... We selected most functions Ccl21c had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with Ccl21c. You can find most of ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | CD147 Promotes CXCL1 Expression and Modulates Liver Fibrogenesis | HTML
... we showed an important role of CD147 in promoting liver fibrosis by activating HSCs and upregulating expression of chemokines. ... CXC chemokine-ligand-1 (CXCL1) is expressed on HSCs. We previously found that the CD147 is overexpressed in activated HSCs. In ... HSCs also have immunological functions-they express functional chemokine receptors and chemokines, including CXCL1, CXCL8, ... CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5 . CXC chemokine-ligand-1 (CXCL1), also known as Gro-alpha, is a ligand for G-protein- ...
US28 - G-protein coupled receptor homolog US28 - Human cytomegalovirus (strain AD169) (HHV-5) - US28 gene & protein
Binds to a number of different CC-chemokines including CCL5/RANTES, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1-alpha as well as CX3CL1/Fractalkine ... The US28 receptor also exhibits high levels of agonist-independent signaling activity and agonist-independent endocytosis. ... Functioni. Receptor for a C-C type chemokine. Binds to a number of different CC-chemokines including CCL5/RANTES, CCL2/MCP-1, ... Molecular function. G-protein coupled receptor, Receptor, Transducer. Biological process. Host-virus interaction, Inhibition of ...
Maximal T Cell-Mediated Antitumor Responses Rely upon CCR5 Expression in Both CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells | Cancer Research
CCR5, the receptor for chemotactic chemokines MIP1alpha, MIP1beta, and RANTES (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5), exerts major regulatory ... CCR5 and its ligands CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 have emerged as key regulators of T-cell function. CCR5 is a central element in ... Chemokines and their receptors: drug targets in immunity and inflammation. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;48:171-97. ... A role for chemokine receptor transactivation in growth factor signaling. EMBO Rep 2001;2:151-6. ...
Significance of N-Terminal Proteolysis of CCL14a to Activity on the Chemokine Receptors CCR1 and CCR5 and the Human...
CC chemokine MIP-1β can function as a monomer and depends on Phe13 for receptor binding. Biochemistry 39: 3401-3409. ... the two-site binding model has also been suggested for the binding of chemokines to US28 (54). For the chemokines CCL3, CCL4, ... The chemokines mediate their effect through binding to their cognate chemokine receptors, which belong to the class of G ... Binding of CCL14a analogs to the HCMV-encoded chemokine receptor US28. US28 is a promiscuous receptor that binds a large ...
ccl5 Protein, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 - Creative BioMart
It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it ... This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and ... Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is ... This gene is one of several chemokine genes clustered on the q-arm of chromosome 17. ...
Chemokine Receptor CCR1 | SpringerLink
CCR-1; CD191; CC-CKR-1; CKR1; CMKBR1; HM145; MIP1aR Chemokines represent a large group of chemotactic proteins, with more than ... CCR1 is a chemokine receptor that responds to a large number of CC chemokines including CCL3 (MIP-1alpha), CCL5 (RANTES), CCL7 ... Structure and Functions. Human CCR1 is a serpentine protein comprising of 355 amino acids with three potential glycosylation ... Differential chemokine activation of CC chemokine receptor 1-regulated pathways: ligand selective activation of Galpha 14- ...
Co-Receptor Conundrum | Treatment Action Group
The functions of all the known chemokine receptors and chemokines are not fully characterized, but broadly speaking, they seem ... among which were cells expressing the chemokine receptor CCR1 (which can also bind to CCL3 and CCL5). The researchers tried ... that the redundancy present in the chemokine/chemokine receptor system may allow other receptors to assume the function of CCR5 ... binding of the chemokine to the receptor causes the chemokine/receptor complex to submerge into the cell and initiate a cascade ...
Frontiers | Involvement of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 Family Members in the Development of Diabetic Neuropathy and Their...
Performed additionally, immunofluorescence staining undoubtedly revealed that CCL3, CCL9 and their receptors (CCR1 and CCR5) ... Performed additionally, immunofluorescence staining undoubtedly revealed that CCL3, CCL9 and their receptors (CCR1 and CCR5) ... Concomitantly, protein analysis has shown that, 7 days following STZ injection, the levels of CCL3 and CCL9 (but not CCL4) are ... In vitro studies provided evidence that the observed expression of CCL3 and CCL9 may be partially of glial origin, however this ...
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1alpha (MIP-1a)/Chemokine CC Motif Ligand 3 (CCL3) Antibody
Research proven purified goat polyclnal MIP1 alpha or CCL3 antibody. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA ... Human CCL3L1/LD78b binds and signals through chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR5. When compared to CCL3/LD78a, CCL3L1/LD78b has ... higher binding affinity to CCR5, which also functions as a coreceptor for HIV-1 entry. The copy number of CCL3L1 is one of ... Whereas the human CCL3/LD78a is a single-copy gene, the human CCL3L1/LD78b gene copy number varies within the population. ...
CCL7 and CXCL10 Orchestrate Oxidative Stress-Induced Neutrophilic Lung Inflammation | The Journal of Immunology
... chemokines often bind more than one chemokine receptor, and chemokine receptors typically bind more than one class of chemokine ... This group of chemokines includes CXCL10 (10.6-fold increase, p ≤ 0.01), CCL3 (3.9-fold increase, p ≤ 0.05), and CCL7 (13.1- ... simultaneous expression of multiple chemokines with partially overlapping functions is often observed. Second, ... To detect these chemokines or chemokine receptors, Western blotting was performed using rabbit anti-murine chemokine Abs ( ...
Analysis of key genes and their functions in placental tissue of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus | SpringerLink
... chemokines (CCL3, CCL4L1, CCL4, and CCL8), and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type C (PTPRC). Open image in new window ... Chemokine receptor specific for IP10 and mig: structure, function, and expression in activated T-lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 1996; ... In the MF category, the most significantly enriched terms were antigen binding, chemokine receptor binding, and MHC protein ... To assess the functions and significantly enriched pathways of the DEGs, ClusterProfiler  was used to identify the ...
JCI - Pivotal role of the CCL5/CCR5 interaction for recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells in mouse wound healing
Redundancy exists in the interaction among several chemokines and chemokine receptors. CCR5 is used by 3 specific ligands, CCL3 ... Oppermann M. Chemokine receptor CCR5: insights into structure, function, and regulation. Cell Signal. 2004;16(11):1201-1210. ... Chemokines bind to heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors (4, 6). Each chemokine receptor uses multiple additional and ... CCL3, acting via the chemokine receptor CCR5, leads to independent activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and Gi proteins. FEBS ...
Frontiers | Conopeptides [V11L;V16D]ArIB and RgIA4: Powerful Tools for the Identification of Novel Nicotinic Acetylcholine...
Instead, different metabotropic functions of α7* and α9* nAChRs have been described in monocytic cells including the inhibition ... A subset of these peptides known as α-conotoxins, are antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These ... Instead, different metabotropic functions of α7* and α9* nAChRs have been described in monocytic cells including the inhibition ... Unlike in neurons and cochlear hair cells, where α7* and α9* nAChRs, respectively, function as ligand-gated ion channels, in ...
Vaccines | Free Full-Text | Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants | HTML
This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. ... Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing ... This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential ... Table 1. Chemokine nomenclature, corresponding receptors, and category based on function. Adopted from [6,7]. Chemokines used ...
Innate Immune Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 Exacerbates Viral Myocarditis by Reducing CCR5+CD11b+ Monocyte...
RNA levels of chemokine ligands (in CD45− cells) and chemokine receptors (in CD45high cells) were analyzed by quantitative ... To this end, we stimulated BMM with CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5. As hypothesized, only IFN-α was significantly overexpressed in IRAK4 ... The MyD88-dependent antiviral pathway may exert a more protective function than the MyD88-independent one after murine ... To determine the mechanism of IRAK4-mediated inhibition of CCR5 expression, we first measured chemokine receptors on CVB3- ...
Role of chemokines in hepatocellular carcinoma (Review)
Chemokine receptors. Chemokine. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CCR1. CCL3,. Chemotactic T cells and. -. ... Chemokine receptors. Chemokines. Functions. Signaling pathways. Role in HCC. (Refs.). CXCR1. CXCL6,. Chemotactic neutrophils. - ... In addition to typical chemokine receptors, chemokines can bind to the atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR) subfamily, which is a ... Exosomes containing chemokines or expressing receptors for chemokines may improve chemotaxis to HCC and may thus be exploited ...
NR58-3.14.3 - Wikipedia
This suggested that Peptide 3 functions as a chemokine receptor antagonist. This mechanism was later proved to not be in ... When the 12-amino acid sequence of peptide 3/CCL2 is aligned with the sequences of the other chemokines CCL3, CXCL8 and ... It has been suggested that blockage of chemokine function using these molecules should not have a detrimental toxicological ... CCL3, CXCL8 and CXCL12 with roughly equal potency of 10μM, but not migration induced by other non-chemokine chemoattractants ...
Mediators of Inflammation in Acute Kidney Injury
D. Cugini, N. Azzollini, E. Gagliardini et al., "Inhibition of the chemokine receptor CXCR2 prevents kidney graft function ... Also, CCR1 deficient mice had reduced content of the CCR1 ligands CCL3 (MIP-1alpha) and CCL5 (RANTES). ... S. Segerer, P. J. Nelson, and D. Schlondorff, "Chemokines, chemokine receptors, and renal disease: from basic science to ... It has been reported that various chemokines and chemokine receptors contribute to tissue injury in animal models of ...
Mutation of the DRY Motif Reveals Different Structural Requirements for the CC Chemokine Receptor 5-Mediated Signaling and...
... of the DRY Motif Reveals Different Structural Requirements for the CC Chemokine Receptor 5-Mediated Signaling and Receptor ... This constitutive activity of the receptor was abrogated by TAK779 (N,N-dimethyl-N-[4-[[[2-(4-methylphenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5H- ... Mutation of the DRY Motif Reveals Different Structural Requirements for the CC Chemokine Receptor 5-Mediated Signaling and ... that initiates intracellular signaling in response to CC chemokines, including CCL3/MIP-1, CCL4/MIP-1, CCL5/RANTES, and CCL8/ ...
Evidence That Formation of Vimentin·Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Complex Mediates Mast Cell Activation following...
... expressing CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1), a receptor for CCL3, and bone marrow-derived murine mast cells (11-14). These ... Ivaska J., Pallari H. M., Nevo J., Eriksson J. E. (2007) Novel functions of vimentin in cell adhesion, migration, and signaling ... Insights into new therapies targeting chemokines and chemokine receptors. Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol. 3, 351-364 [PubMed] ... Identification of genes and proteins specifically regulated by costimulation of mast cell Fcϵ receptor I and chemokine receptor ...
Chemokines in Atherosclerosis | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Differential chemokine receptor expression and function in human monocyte subpopulations. J Leukoc Biol. 2000; 67: 699-704. ... Antibodies against the monocyte-selective chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 but not CCL3 and CXCL2, significantly inhibited ... Differential Chemokine Receptor Usage by Distinct Monocyte Subsets. *The Transmembrane Chemokine CX3CL1 and its Receptor CX3CR1 ... Differential Chemokine Receptor Usage by Distinct Monocyte Subsets. *The Transmembrane Chemokine CX3CL1 and its Receptor CX3CR1 ...
Ccr1 gene cDNA ORF clone, Rattus norvegicus(Norway rat) - GenScript
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from Ccr1 C-C motif chemokine receptor 1 available at GenScript, starting from $99.00 ... C-C motif chemokine receptor 1. Names. C-C chemokine receptor type 1. chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1. macrophage inflammatory ... GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions Whats a GeneRIF?. demonstrate that specific receptors of RANTES/CCL5 such as G ... A novel role for CCL3 (MIP-1?) in myeloma-induced bone disease via osteocalcin downregulation and inhibition of osteoblast ...
Chemokines enhance immunity by guiding naive CD8+ T cells to sites of CD4+ T cell-dendritic cell interaction
... some critical functions of these lymphocytes depend on helper activity provided by a distinct population of CD4+ T cells. ... Receptors, CCR5 / metabolism Substances * Ccl3 protein, mouse * Ccl4 protein, mouse * Chemokine CCL3 ... naive CD8+ T cells in immunogen-draining lymph nodes upregulate the chemokine receptor CCR5, permitting these cells to be ... Chemokines enhance immunity by guiding naive CD8+ T cells to sites of CD4+ T cell-dendritic cell interaction Nature. 2006 Apr ...
A database of human genes and a gene network involved in response to tick-borne encephalitis virus infection | BMC Evolutionary...
... proinflammation and tissue damage pathway triggered by chemokine receptor CCR5 interacting with CD4, CCL3, CCL4, CCL2. Among ... was found that the subnetworks formed by CCR5 and IFNAR1 and their neighbors were a fragments of two key pathways functioning ... but also modulating chemokine activity towards neural cells and CD4 glycoprotein functioning. In favor of this assumption are ... CCR5 encodes a cell surface receptor from the beta chemokine receptor family and is known to be an important co-receptor for a ...
Chemokines and Transplant Vasculopathy | Circulation Research
Differential role of CCR2 in islet and heart allograft rejection: tissue specificity of chemokine/chemokine receptor function ... Based on the finding of elevated levels of CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5, as well as their shared receptor, CCR5, during acute cardiac ... each class of chemokine-chemokine receptor axis are discussed separately.. Chemokine/Chemokine Receptors. Chemokines are a ... CXC Chemokine/CXC Chemokine Receptor. CXC chemokines are divided based on the presence or absence of the sequence glutamic acid ...
Beta chemokineLigandMacrophageUptakeImmuneRANTESLigandsCCR1 and CCR5Inflammatory chemokinesMotifProtein-coupled receptorsCXCR3Role of ChemokinesCCR2CXCR4ProteinsMonocytesBeta-chemokine receptorNeutrophilsMoleculesCysteineTransmembraneAntagonistsBindMonocyteGenesPathwaysAbstractFunctionallySuperfamilyRolesAffinityHuman chemokine receptorsRecruitmentResiduesHomeostatic chemokinesConstitutively expressedMacrophage inflammatory protein-1 aProinflammatoryPathogenesis
- The normal ligands for this receptor, RANTES, MIP-1β, and MIP-1α, are able to suppress HIV-1 infection in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
- Gao JL, Kuhns DB, Tiffany HL, McDermott D, Li X, Francke U, Murphy PM. Structure and functional expression of the human macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha/RANTES receptor. (springer.com)
- Documentation of suppression of RANTES, CCL3, CXCL9, CCR5 and CXCR3 with simultaneous decrease of donor T cell alloreactivity was demonstrated 6 days after transplantation, along with reduction of levels of inflammatory cytokines, suppression of STAT 5A/B phosphorylation, increased expression of CCR7 and increased production of nitrous oxide by hMSCs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Synthesis of the chemokines MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES has been shown to be associated with a Th1 response ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In vitro chemotaxis assays have shown that, whereas MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES were efficient chemoattractants for Th1 cells to induce a dose-dependent transmigration, Th2 cells were not attracted by these chemokines ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The evaluation of chemokine levels in plasma showed that regulated on activation of normal T-cell-expressed and -secreted (RANTES) protein was reduced in plasma from patients with severe HUS, and this decrease correlated with thrombocytopenia. (portlandpress.com)
- Although CCR5 participates in the response to various pathogens in mice and humans ( 11, 12 ), the relevance of this receptor and its ligands in the immune control of tumors is debated. (aacrjournals.org)
- Impressively, chemokine receptors act as cofactors for HIV-1 entry into CD4 cells and their ligands can suppress HIV replication. (jimmunol.org)
- It functions as one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5), and it suppresses in vitro replication of the R5 strains of HIV-1, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor. (creativebiomart.net)
- Treg cells specifically express the chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8 and represent a major subset of circulating CD4 + T cells responding to the chemokines macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/CCL22, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17, I-309/CCL1, and to the virokine vMIP-I (ligands of CCR4 and CCR8). (rupress.org)
- Treg cells specifically express the chemokine receptors CCR4 and CCR8 and respond to the chemokines macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17), I-309/CCL1, and the virokine vMIP-I, which are agonistic ligands of these receptors. (rupress.org)
- We conclude that LRP1, NFκB, and miR-155 function as members of a previously unidentified system that has the potential to inhibit or sustain inflammation, depending on the continuum of LRP1 ligands present in the macrophage microenvironment. (pnas.org)
- Exogenous application of IFN-γ in the tumor augmented levels of ligands of the chemokine receptor CXCR3, increased NK cell accumulation, and prolonged survival. (aacrjournals.org)
- One prominent activating receptor is NKG2D that recognizes multiple ligands, including RAE-1 family members ( 12 , 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carnosic acid on CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) ligands, which are involved in Th1 cells migration and accumulation, production in interleukin (IL)-27-stimulated human oral epithelial cells (TR146 cells). (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
- 7 The CCR5 receptor expressed by cHL cells is fully functional and its ligands function as both paracrine and autocrine growth factors. (haematologica.org)
- The absence of known ligands for FCRL4 and Siglec-6 suggests these receptors may regulate BCR signaling through their own constitutive or tonic signaling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- These receptors recognize distinct ligands and trigger the activation of specific intracellular signaling pathways, and thus play an important role in the regulation of immune responses ( 7 - 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Although its ligands, if any, are currently unknown, functional analyses of the ITIM-containing intracellular domain of FCRL4 indicated that FCRL4 had a profound negative regulatory effect on B cell receptor (BCR) signaling by inhibiting BCR-mediated calcium mobilization, tyrosine phosphorylation of several intracellular proteins, and activation of MAPK Erk and protein kinase B Akt pathways ( 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- D6 is a chemokines scavenger receptor that binds with high affinity CC chemokines, internalizes and targets the ligands for degradation. (unicatt.it)
- Until now, attempts to deorphanize this receptor have proven unsuccessful, and BILF1 ligands still remain unknown. (aspetjournals.org)
- CCR5 ligands were differentially associated with beta-cell function and clinical remission. (uni.lu)
- Further study of this receptor and its ligands may reveal a specific role of this receptor in cattle. (biomedcentral.com)
- The native agonist chemokine ligands of CCR5 induce conformational changes in the receptor that promote activation of pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive, heterotrimeric G-proteins (Gi/o-type G-proteins) by catalyzing an exchange of GTP for GDP on the G subunit. (dentisty.org)
CCR1 and CCR53
- CCL14a(1-74) is converted into CCL14a(9-74) by the proteases urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasmin and is a highly active agonist for the chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5. (jimmunol.org)
- Performed additionally, immunofluorescence staining undoubtedly revealed that CCL3, CCL9, and their receptors (CCR1 and CCR5) are expressed predominantly by neurons. (frontiersin.org)
- CCL3 is monocyte and macrophage chemoattractant [ 13 ], acting through the receptors CCR1 and CCR5. (beds.ac.uk)
- Some inflammatory chemokines have proven essential in memory T cell generation [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Inflammatory chemokines are indispensable "gate-keepers" of inflammation and immunity against cancer, but tumor cells can subvert chemokines into acting as tumor-promoting molecules. (haematologica.org)
- Inflammatory chemokines function mainly as chemoattractants for leukocytes , recruiting monocytes , neutrophils and other effector cells from the blood to sites of infection or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
- Certain inflammatory chemokines activate cells to initiate an immune response or promote wound healing . (wikipedia.org)
- Conclusion This study highlights important inflammatory chemokines involved in regulating neutrophil migration, which may have potential value as therapeutic targets for the treatment of ARDS. (bmj.com)
- Our aim was to explore the capacity of dermal fibroblasts to produce inflammatory chemokines potentially involved in fibrosis occurring in response to contact with polarized human T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Inflammatory chemokines and their receptors have been demonstrated to have a role in the immune response to a myriad of pathogens both in humans and in other species. (biomedcentral.com)
- Homeostatic chemokines are generally constitutively expressed whereas the inflammatory chemokines are up-regulated following stimulation of the cell, for instance by cytokines or pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
- It has recently been demonstrated that many of the inflammatory chemokines and their receptors exist in clustered groups in the mammalian genome and it is thought that these clustered chemokines have evolved relatively recently in evolutionary terms [ 4 , 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The spectrum of the inflammatory chemokines targeted by the CBPs of BPSV and PVNZ suggest that like orf virus, these Parapoxviruses target inflammation as a strategy to subvert immune cell activation and recruitment to infected tissue. (otago.ac.nz)
- Rattus norvegicus C-C motif chemokine receptor 1 (Ccr1), mRNA. (genscript.com)
- Mutation of the DRY Motif Reveals Different Structural Requirements for the CC Chemokine Receptor 5-Mediated Signaling and Receptor Endocytosis 2005? (39kf.com)
- Furthermore, neutrophils isolated from the blood or BAL fluid differentially regulated the cell surface expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 during ARDS. (bmj.com)
- This gene encodes a beta chemokine receptor, which is predicted to be a seven transmembrane protein similar to G protein-coupled receptors. (avivasysbio.com)
- G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a crucial role in many biological processes and represent a major class of drug targets. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition to binding endogenous chemokines, these viral G protein-coupled receptors (vGPCRs) have acquired the ability to signal in a constitutive manner. (aspetjournals.org)
- G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential mediators of cellular communication. (aspetjournals.org)
- The chemokine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors with a conserved seven hydrophobic transmembrane structure and an extracellular N-terminus and intracellular C-terminus. (biomedcentral.com)
- Background G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play an essential role in lots of natural processes and represent a significant class of drug targets. (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Certain chemokine receptors, including CCR2 ( 18 ), CCR5 ( 19 ), CXCR3 ( 9 ), and CX3CR1 ( 20 ), were described to direct NK cells to sites of inflammation. (aacrjournals.org)
- 7 Furthermore, NK cells express the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3, which interact with the chemokines produced by activated pDCs, 8 suggesting that pDCs may also influence their recruitment. (bloodjournal.org)
- Th1 cells express CCR5 and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) following activation, whereas activated T helper 2 (Th2) cells express CCR3, CCR4, and CCR8 ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Recruitment of activated CD8 + T cells to nonlymphoid tissue sites is mediated by chemokine receptors that promote tissue entry, such as CCR9 and CXCR3 ( 12 - 14 ). (thehub.press)
Role of Chemokines4
- Since the role of chemokines in atherosclerotic vascular disease has been reviewed in this journal, significant progress has been accomplished in defining the regulation of chemokine expression and function in atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
- The considerable leap in insight over recent years leads us to anticipate further advances in comprehending the role of chemokines in atherosclerosis, allowing targeted interventions for its prevention and therapy. (ahajournals.org)
- Given the central role of chemokines in the regulation of immunity, we postulated that some of these molecules could participate in turning off adaptive immune responses by recruiting cells with immunoregulatory functions. (rupress.org)
- The major role of chemokines is to act as a chemoattractant to guide the migration of cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Title: Temporal expression and cellular origin of CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 in the central nervous system: insight into mechanisms of MOG-induced EAE. (genscript.com)
- Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), acting through its receptor CCR2, appears to play an early and important role in the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic lesions and in the formation of intimal hyperplasia after arterial injury. (ahajournals.org)
- Because of their critical roles in monocyte recruitment in vascular and nonvascular diseases, MCP-1 and CCR2 have become important therapeutic targets, and efforts are underway to develop potent and specific antagonists of these and related chemokines. (ahajournals.org)
- The CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 are critical for the recruitment of mononuclear phagocytes to the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neuroinflammatory diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- Presently, we investigated the role of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) in acute EAE. (rupress.org)
- We have recently shown that susceptibility of human renal allograft recipients to acute rejection episodes is influenced by their CCR5 and CCR2 receptor genotypes ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Utilizing a rodent model that incorporates the viral coat protein, gp120, and the NRTI, 2'3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), we examined the degree to which chemokine receptor signaling via CCR2 and CXCR4 potentially influences the resultant chronic hypernociceptive behavior. (biomedcentral.com)
- Tactile hypernociception in gp120 treated animals was reversed following treatment with a CCR2 receptor antagonist at POD 14. (biomedcentral.com)
- HIV-1 most commonly uses the chemokine receptors CCR5 and/or CXCR4 as co-receptors to enter target immunological cells. (wikipedia.org)
- It lacks the unique structure of a chemokine, however it is still capable of binding to the CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
- Similarly, now that large human studies of coreceptor inhibitors are underway, outstanding questions regarding the biological functions of CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors in humans have inspired research and regulatory interest in the possibility of unpredictable toxicities. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
- Both CCR5 and CXCR4 belong to a family of molecules known as 7-transmembrane receptors. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
- A critical question facing developers of co-receptor inhibitors is whether CCR5 and CXCR4 inhibitor compounds interfere with chemokine/receptor interactions, and if so, whether such interference has harmful consequences. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
- The EBV-encoded BILF1 receptor presents limited homology to chemokine receptors, with highest homology to CXCR4. (aspetjournals.org)
- CCR5 and CXCR4 are chemokine receptors that are also receptors for HIV. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Although other chemokine receptors have been identified that can facilitate HIV infection in vitro (7), it is now well recognized that only CCR5 and CXCR4 are the critical coreceptors for HIV infection in vivo. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Some of the functions are cooperated with other proteins, some of the functions could acted by Ccl21c itself. (creativebiomart.net)
- We selected most functions Ccl21c had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with Ccl21c. (creativebiomart.net)
- The CCR5 protein belongs to the beta chemokine receptors family of integral membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Chemokines form a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. (creativebiomart.net)
- Chemokines represent a large group of chemotactic proteins, with more than 50 members that regulate the trafficking and activation of immune cells. (springer.com)
- The receptors are composed of seven transmembrane domains connected by extracellular and intracellular loops and transfer signals by heterotrimeric Gi proteins ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Transduction of signals by GPCRs depends on the interaction of the receptors with distinct families of proteins, including heterotrimeric G proteins, G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), second messenger-dependent protein kinases, and -arrestins. (39kf.com)
- Arrestins not only target desensitized receptors to clathrin-coated pits for endocytosis but also act as scaffolding proteins that link GPCRs to the stimulation of additional signaling pathways (Shenoy and Lefkowitz, 2003). (39kf.com)
- In this review, we summarize roles of the chemokines, a family of small secreted proteins that selectively recruit monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes to sites of vascular injury, inflammation, and developing atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Chemokines ( chemo tactic cyto kines ) are small heparin-binding proteins that direct the migration of circulating leukocytes to sites of inflammation or injury. (ahajournals.org)
- Chemokines (Greek -kinos , movement) are a family of small cytokines , or signaling proteins secreted by cells . (wikipedia.org)
- All of these proteins exert their biological effects by interacting with G protein -linked transmembrane receptors called chemokine receptors , that are selectively found on the surfaces of their target cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) are a group of vertebrate-specific small (8-14 kDa) proteins that, depending on the presence and the position of conserved cysteine residues, are categorized into four subgroups (C, CC, CXC and CX3C). (biologists.org)
- Cytokines are a family of secreted proteins that function in inflammatory and immunoregulatory processes. (nih.gov)
- Chemokines are a family of small cytokines , or proteins secreted by cells . (wikidoc.org)
- Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics such as small size (they are all approximately 8-10 kilodaltons in size), and the presence of four cysteine residues in conserved locations that are key to forming their 3-dimensional shape. (wikidoc.org)
- Proteins are classified into the chemokine family based on their structural characteristics, not just their ability to attract cells. (wikidoc.org)
- Typical chemokine proteins are produced as pro-peptides , beginning with a signal peptide of approximately 20 amino acids that gets cleaved from the active (mature) portion of the molecule during the process of its secretion from the cell. (wikidoc.org)
- Transcriptional targets of E2-2 encode proteins associated with pDC development, homeostasis and function. (nih.gov)
- Any of several protein receptors for chemokines that spans the cell membrane and links to intracellular G proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Chemokines are a large family of chemotactic proteins that regulate recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection or inflammation, as well as homeostatic migration of leukocytes through lymphoid organs. (otago.ac.nz)
- Moreover, structural modelling based on the crystal structure of the orf virus CBP, predicted a similar beta-sheet sandwich for both proteins, suggesting that like ORFV-CBP, BPSV-CBP may have broad-spectrum chemokine binding properties. (otago.ac.nz)
- Although sequence analysis of the PVNZ-CBPs showed a moderate degree of identity (30-40%) with the ORFV-CBP, it predicted a conserved structural core for PVNZ-CBPs, suggesting a certain chemokine-binding activity for these viral proteins. (otago.ac.nz)
- Abolishing CCR5 interaction with NF G-proteins eliminates high-affinity binding of CCR5 chemokines but preserves receptor endocytosis, indicating that chemokines preferentially endocytose low-affinity receptors. (dentisty.org)
- This chemokine, a member of the CC subfamily, functions as a chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T helper cells and eosinophils. (creativebiomart.net)
- After binding to the receptors, chemokines primarily serve a role in migration of leukocytes, such as monocytes, eosinophils and dendritic cells (DCs) ( 11 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- In general, CXC chemokines are potent chemoattractants of neutrophils or lymphocytes, whereas CC chemokines are chemoattractants for monocytes. (otago.ac.nz)
- Oxidative injury from O 3 exposure has been shown to induce recruitment of neutrophils and decrement in lung function in patients with asthma ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Chemokine receptor expression on neutrophils from blood or BAL fluid of patients with ARDS was analysed by flow cytometry. (bmj.com)
- These inflammatory, clustered chemokines also tend to share functional properties, for example the CXCL chemokines, previously named Gro chemokines, are all capable of attracting neutrophils. (biomedcentral.com)
- among those molecules, chemokines seem to be especially important. (frontiersin.org)
- AKI results in the upregulation of chemokines like fractalkine and CXCL1 and adhesion molecules like P-selectin in the endothelium of blood vessels in the kidney. (hindawi.com)
- It has been suggested that blockage of chemokine function using these molecules should not have a detrimental toxicological effect. (wikipedia.org)
- The fundamental importance of chemokines for atherogenesis, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques is now widely appreciated, but the degree of complexity, specificity, and cooperativity harnessed by these signal molecules to govern atherogenic cell recruitment and homeostasis is still being refined. (ahajournals.org)
- In addition, VCE-004.8 downregulated the expression of several genes closely associated with MS physiopathology, including those underlying the production of chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules. (springer.com)
- Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, play an important role in innate immunity, binding microorganism-derived molecules, and initiating proinflammatory cell signaling ( 1 , 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
- NK cell activation is regulated by a delicate balance of activating and inhibitory signals with most inhibitory receptors being specific for self MHC class I molecules ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- According to the "missing self" hypothesis of NK cell function, cytolysis is inhibited when appropriate MHC class I molecules are expressed by target cells and enhanced when target cells are deficient in MHC class I expression ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- NK cell migration is mediated by adhesion molecules, chemokine receptors, and chemokines ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The innate immune system, which functions as a first-line of defense to invading pathogens (antigens), is composed of cells and molecules that provide rapid host protection without memory or specificity for the responses in which they engage. (clicktocurecancer.info)
- These cells and molecules function early following host challenge by pathogens. (clicktocurecancer.info)
- Molecules of the complement system, along with other inflammatory cell products, including chemokines and cytokines function in innate immunity. (clicktocurecancer.info)
- Specifically, two molecules known as chemokines help guide them toward the cells that release these activation signals. (innovations-report.com)
- Over the past decade, functional studies of these molecules have revealed their importance for cell migration processes during embryogenesis, which, in addition to providing mechanistic insights into embryonic development, could complement information about chemokine function in the immune system. (biologists.org)
- These data are consistent with HIV-1 evading chemokine inhibition by exploiting CCR5 conformational heterogeneity, shed new light into the inhibitory mechanisms of anti-HIV-1 chemokine analogs and provide insights for the development of new anti-HIV molecules. (dentisty.org)
- To date, >50 chemokines have been found, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, according to the different positions of the conserved N‑terminal cysteine residues. (spandidos-publications.com)
- 50 chemokines have been identified, which can be divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC and XC, based on the different positions of the conserved N-terminal cysteine residues ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Chemokines belong to a large group of structurally related and secretable, largely basic, chemotactic cytokines, which can be divided into 4 families (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, XC) based on the position of the first 2 cysteine residues. (ahajournals.org)
- The largest family is known as the CC chemokines because the first two of the four conserved cysteine residues that are characteristic of chemokines are adjacent to each other. (ahajournals.org)
- Both the chemokines and their receptors are grouped into four families, CC, CXC, XC and CX 3 C chemokines, depending on the location of C terminal cysteine residues in the chemokines with the receptors classified based on the chemokine family they bind. (biomedcentral.com)
- All chemokines share a typical Greek key structure that is stabilised by disulphide bonds between conserved cysteine residues. (wikidoc.org)
- Intramolecular disulphide bonds typically join the first to third, and the second to fourth cysteine residues, numbered as they appear in the protein sequence of the chemokine. (wikidoc.org)
- The first two cysteines, in a chemokine, are situated close together near the N-terminal end of the mature protein, with the third cysteine residing in the centre of the molecule and the fourth close to the C-terminal end . (wikidoc.org)
- Members of the chemokine family are classified as CXC, CC, C and CX3C based on the arrangement of cysteine residues at the N terminus. (otago.ac.nz)
- These receptors are snake-like structures with portions both inside and outside of the cell (think of a picture of the mythical Loch Ness monster with a trail of humps visible above the water line -- 7- transmembrane receptors have seven loops protruding from the cellular membrane). (treatmentactiongroup.org)
- The contribution of the transmembrane chemokines CX 3 CL1 and CXCL16 with their respective receptors CX 3 CR1 and CXCR6 in the recruitment of T cell and monocyte subsets and shear-mediated plaque modulation will be discussed. (ahajournals.org)
- FK consists of a soluble chemokine domain fused to a mucin-like stalk and a transmembrane domain. (ahajournals.org)
- Thus, unlike other soluble chemokines, it is a type 1 transmembrane protein. (ahajournals.org)
- It was blunted after silencing CCR1 or calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) by siRNA and was sensitive to antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing subunits α 7 and α 9. (hindawi.com)
- Discovery and lead optimization of a novel series of CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1)-selective piperidine antagonists via parallel synthesis. (springer.com)
- Horuk R. Chemokine receptor antagonists: overcoming developmental hurdles. (springer.com)
- A subset of these peptides known as α-conotoxins, are antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). (frontiersin.org)
- The antagonists, receptor-associated protein (RAP) and lactoferrin (LF), and LRP1-specific antibody had the entirely opposite effect, promoting inflammatory mediator expression and mimicking LRP1 deletion. (pnas.org)
- Because binding to CD4 alone can sometimes result in gp120 shedding, gp120 must next bind to co-receptor CCR5 in order for fusion to proceed. (wikipedia.org)
- Notably, chemokine receptors can be rather promiscuous in their ability to bind different chemokines. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
- Chemokines bind to a variety of different receptors, which belong to the G-protein-binding receptor family, and there are ~23 types of chemokine receptors that have been discovered ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- The chemokine system is complex in that multiple chemokines can bind to one chemokine receptor and vice versa . (biomedcentral.com)
- While native CCR5 chemokines bind with subnanomolar affinity to NF G-protein-coupled CCR5, gp120/HIV-1 does not discriminate between NF G-protein-coupled and uncoupled CCR5. (dentisty.org)
- Somatostatin receptors bind two isoforms of the tetradecapeptide, SST-14 and -28 [9, (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Furthermore, some genetic alterations, such as those of the genes encoding β3-adrenergic receptor [ 14 ] and transcription factor 7-like 2 polymorphism [ 15 ], were also found to be associated with GDM. (springer.com)
- Recently, several microarray studies have verified that the cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 ( CYP1A1 ), estrogen receptor 1 ( ESR1 ) [ 16 ], fibronectin 1 ( FN1 ), and leptin ( LEP ) [ 17 ] genes were essential for the pathogenesis of GDM. (springer.com)
- Large numbers of responsive cytokines, chemokines and immune regulatory genes linked to innate immune cell recruitment and tumor regression were identified, as were several immunosuppressive factors that may contribute to the observed escape of some tumors from metronomic CPA-induced, immune-based regression. (biomedcentral.com)
- The three compartments also revealed distinct repertoires of apoptosis-associated genes, chemokines and chemokine receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
- The MGZ was characterized by high expression of many chemokines genes e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
- Differentially expressed genes that did not belong to the above categories include the well characterized BCL6 and CD10 and many others whose function is not known. (biomedcentral.com)
- The availability of the bovine chemokine receptor sequences will allow further characterisation of the function of these genes and will confer wide-reaching benefits to the study of this important aspect of the bovine immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
- Chemokines are involved in the inflammatory response, tumor immune response, proliferation, invasion and metastasis via modulation of various signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Accumulating evidence points to cross-talk between FcϵRI and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Increased expression of many host (mouse) immune networks was also seen in both tumor models, including complement components, toll-like receptors, interferons, and cytolysis pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- Key upstream regulators activated by metronomic cyclophosphamide include members of the interferon, toll-like receptor, inflammatory response, and PPAR signaling pathways, whose activation may contribute to anti-tumor immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this Review, we summarize recent progress in the field of pDC biology, focusing on the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development and functions of pDCs, the pathways involved in their sensing of pathogens and endogenous nucleic acids, their functions at mucosal sites, and their roles in infection, autoimmunity and cancer. (nih.gov)
- Spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) δ isoform are essential for B-cell receptor signal transduction but also mediate the effect of other pathways engaged in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in the tissue-microenvironment. (haematologica.org)
- B7 family members and their receptors play a central role in the regulation of T-cell responses through T-cell co-stimulation and co-inhibition pathways that constitute attractive targets for the development of immunotherapeutic drugs. (bioseek.eu)
- Chemokines dictate regional trafficking of functionally distinct T cell subsets. (rupress.org)
- We sought to test this by functionally expressing two medically important mammalian GPCRs, somatostatin receptor 2 (Sstr2) and chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) in the gustatory neurons of C. elegans . (biomedcentral.com)
- The distinction between roles in homoeostasis and disease has been used as a means of functionally classifying both chemokines and chemokine receptors, although several chemokines have both homeostatic and inflammatory functions [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- These findings highlight the important roles of CCL3 and CCL9 in the pathology of diabetic neuropathic pain and suggest that they play pivotal roles in opioid analgesia. (frontiersin.org)
- In the context of cancer, the chemokine-chemokine receptor system plays paradoxical roles. (mdpi.com)
- In the present review, the literature on the multifactorial roles of exosomes in HCC from PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase were obtained, with a specific focus on the functions and mechanisms of chemokines in HCC. (spandidos-publications.com)
- It has been found that chemokine networks may serve pivotal roles in inducing organ-specific metastasis ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- When compared to CCL3/LD78a, CCL3L1/LD78b has higher binding affinity to CCR5, which also functions as a coreceptor for HIV-1 entry. (rndsystems.com)
- The SPR results showed high-affinity binding of the BPSV-CBP to a wide-range of inflammatory murine chemokines within the CXC, CC and XC classes. (otago.ac.nz)
- However, we showed here that different CCR5 conformations at the cell surface are differentially engaged by chemokines and gp120, making chemokines weaker inhibitors of HIV infection than would be expected from their binding affinity constants for CCR5. (dentisty.org)
- Interestingly, the antiviral activity of chemokines is G-protein independent , suggesting that 'low-chemokine affinity' NF G-protein-uncoupled conformations of CCR5 represent a portal for viral entry. (dentisty.org)
- Furthermore, chemokines are weak inducers of CCR5 endocytosis, as is revealed by EC 50 values for chemokine-mediated endocytosis reflecting their low-affinity constant value for NF G-protein-uncoupled CCR5. (dentisty.org)
Human chemokine receptors2
- In structure-function studies using a panel of somatostatin-14 analogues, we identified key residues involved in the interaction of somatostatin-14 with Sstr2. (biomedcentral.com)
- In structure-function research using a -panel of somatostatin-14 analogues, we recognized key residues mixed up in conversation of somatostatin-14 with Sstr2. (exposed-skin-care.net)
Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 a1
- The report provides comprehensive information on the C-C Chemokine Receptor Type 1 (HM145 or LD78 Receptor or Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1-Alpha Receptor or CD191 or CCR1), targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Association of Weight problems with Coronary Microvascular Function Although weight problems may impact the center through advancement of additional risk factors, such as for example dyslipidemia, blood sugar intolerance, insulin level of resistance, and proinflammatory and/or prothrombotic says, and through numerous potential unrecognized systems, the result of weight problems on vascular function in the coronary vascular bed should be considered as an integral (but insufficiently comprehended) pathogenetic element . (healthyconnectionsinc.com)
- As such, these viral receptors seem to play a prominent role during viral pathogenesis and life cycle and thus represent innovative antiviral therapies. (aspetjournals.org)
- Such studies also suggest a central role of glucosylceramide in altered macrophage function as an initiator of the disease pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
- We previously demonstrated a role for chemokines in acute and relapsing EAE pathogenesis. (rupress.org)