Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Colestipol: Highly crosslinked and insoluble basic anion exchange resin used as anticholesteremic. It may also may reduce triglyceride levels.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Lymphotoxin-alpha: A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Inbred C57BLSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Tumor Necrosis Factors: A family of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to cause NECROSIS of NEOPLASMS. Their necrotic effect on cells is mediated through TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS which induce APOPTOSIS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tumor Necrosis Factor Decoy Receptors: A subclass of tumor necrosis family receptors that lack cell signaling domains. They bind to specific TNF RECEPTOR LIGANDS and are believed to play a modulating role in the TNF signaling pathway. Some of the decoy receptors are products of distinct genes, while others are products of ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the MRNA for the active receptor.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.I-kappa B Proteins: A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Pentoxifylline: A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Mice, Inbred C3HNiclosamide: An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Peptides and Proteins: Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins that bind directly or indirectly to the cytoplasmic portion of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Nialamide: An MAO inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Nonsuppressible Insulin-Like Activity: A blood protein (NSILA) which mimics the biological activity of insulin in serum, but is not suppressed by insulin antibodies. During acid-ethanol extraction of Cohn fraction III, 10% of the activity is found in the supernatant (NSILA-S) and the remaining activity in the precipitate (NSILA-P). The latter is a large molecular compound, much less stable than the soluble fraction. NSILA-S is a more potent growth factor than insulin and exhibits sulfation activity.GalactosamineTetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Campylobacter rectus: A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Caspase 8: A long pro-domain caspase that contains a death effector domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 8 plays a role in APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES. Activation of this enzyme can occur via the interaction of its N-terminal death effector domain with DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Monokines: Soluble mediators of the immune response that are neither antibodies nor complement. They are produced largely, but not exclusively, by monocytes and macrophages.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Mice, Inbred DBAVascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6: A signal transducing tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor that is involved in regulation of NF-KAPPA B signalling and activation of JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Arthritis, Psoriatic: A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that plays a role in intracellular signal transduction by interacting with a variety of signaling adaptor proteins such as CRADD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEIN; TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTOR 2; and TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Although they were initially described as death domain-binding adaptor proteins, members of this family may contain other protein-binding domains such as those involving caspase activation and recruitment.Polymyxin B: A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 25: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype with specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 15. It is found in tissues containing LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte homeostasis and APOPTOSIS. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.

*Tumor necrosis factor alpha

TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ... The binding of TNF to its receptor and its displacement by LT confirmed the functional homology between the two factors. The ... The primary role of TNF is in the regulation of immune cells. TNF, being an endogenous pyrogen, is able to induce fever, ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...

*Tumor necrosis factor alpha

The binding of TNF to its receptor and its displacement by LT confirmed the functional homology between the two factors. The ... The primary role of TNF is in the regulation of immune cells. TNF, being an endogenous pyrogen, is able to induce fever, ... TNFA) was cloned in 1985. It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kilobases and contains 4 exons. The last exon shares ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...

*Insulin resistance

... visceral adipose cells produce significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), ... Recent study have found out the specific role of the MLK family of protein in the activation of JNK during obesity and insulin ... "Tunable ultrasensitivity: functional decoupling and biological insights". Sci Rep. 6: 20345. Feb 5, 2016. doi:10.1038/srep20345 ... Several associated risk factors include the following: Genetic factors (inherited component): Family history of type 2 diabetes ...

*Sarcoidosis

"Relationship between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFA) gene polymorphisms and cardiac sarcoidosis". In Vivo. Athens, Greece. 28 (6 ... Gamma-interferon produced by activated lymphocytes and macrophages plays a major role in the synthesis of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D3. ... as well as improving functional and maximal exercise capacity and respiratory muscle strength. The duration, frequency, and ... "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment for sarcoidosis". Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. 4 (6): 1305-13. ...

*P-selectin

... increased levels of P-selectin mRNA and protein are induced by inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), ... Role in cancer[edit]. P-selectin has a functional role in metastasis of tumor similar to E-selectin.[20] P-selectin is ... platelet alpha granule membrane. • platelet dense granule membrane. • external side of plasma membrane. • extracellular space. ... "Five tumor necrosis factor-inducible cell adhesion mechanisms on the surface of mouse endothelioma cells mediate the binding of ...

*HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2

June 2004). "Genetic polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF-beta in a population-based study of systemic ... In type 1 diabetes both DR3 and DQ2 appear to play a role. DR3-DQ2.5 can be established to other genes like TNF-305A (TNF2) ... Starting from B8, immediately followed by the MICA and MICB which stand for MHC I-like chain A and B. These two functional ... 1993). "Polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor beta gene in systemic lupus erythematosus: TNFB-MHC haplotypes". ...

*Factor de necrose tumoral alfa, a enciclopedia libre

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) na Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina dos EUA. ... "A physical and functional map of the human TNF alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway". Nat. Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. ... O xene humano que codifica o TNFα, denominado TNFA foi clonado en 1985.[17] Foi mapado no 6p21.3, e abrangue uns 3 kb e contén ... The diseasome of physical inactivity - and the role of myokines in muscle-fat cross talk. Bente K Pedersen. J Physiol. 2009 ...

*Lactalbumin

... decreased plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-a), improved immune functions, and increased ... Oxidative stress plays a role in the tumor-cytotoxic effect of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy and also in certain adverse ... There are alpha and beta lactalbumins; both are contained in milk.. Scientific studies suggest that certain types of ... While awaiting surgery, functional walking capacity increased (20 m) in a higher proportion of the prehabilitation group ...

*Insulin resistance

... visceral adipose cells produce significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), ... Flier JS (May 1998). "Clinical review 94: What's in a name? In search of leptin's physiologic role". The Journal of Clinical ... "Tunable ultrasensitivity: functional decoupling and biological insights". Scientific Reports. 6: 20345. Bibcode:2016NatSR... ... Associated risk factorsEdit. Several associated risk factors include the following: *Genetic factors (inherited component): * ...

*RANK

Romas E, Gillespie MT, Martin TJ (2002). "Involvement of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand and tumor necrosis factor-alpha ... Hofbauer, Lorenz C.; Heufelder, Armin E. (3 May 2001). "Role of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and ... "Structural and Functional Insights of RANKL-RANK Interaction and Signaling". The Journal of Immunology. 184 (12): 6910-6919. ... to be a critical mediator of fever response to lipopolysaccharide-induced fever and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1B and TNFa. ...

*TRAIL

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • receptor binding. • zinc ion ... Interferon alpha (interferon alfa, IFN-α). *Interferon alfa (IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA4, IFNA5, IFNA6, IFNA7, IFNA8, IFNA10, IFNA13, ... The cytoplasmic domain of DcR2 is functional and activates NFkappaB. In cells expressing DcR2, TRAIL binding therefore ... "Divergent Roles for TRAIL in Lung Diseases". Frontiers in Medicine. 5: 212. doi:10.3389/fmed.2018.00212. PMC 6072839. PMID ...
MarketResearchReports.biz has recently announced the addition of a market study " Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 ", is a comparative analysis of the global market.. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016. Summary. Global Markets Directs, Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or CD40) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 5 (B Cell Surface Antigen CD40 or Bp50 or CDw40 or CD40L Receptor or TNFRSF5 or ...
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 1A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 or Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type I or p55 or p60 or CD120a - Market research report and industry analysis - 12355963
The flavonoids comprise a large class of low-molecular-weight plant metabolites ubiquitously distributed in food plants. These dietary antioxidants exert significant antitumor, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The molecular mechanisms of their biological effects remain to be clearly understood. We investigated the anti-inflammatory potentials of a safe, common dietary flavonoid component, quercetin, for its ability to modulate the production and gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Our results showed that quercetin significantly inhibited TNF-α production and gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our results provide direct evidence of the anti-inflammatory effects of quercetin by PBMC, which are mediated by the inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α via modulation of NF-κβ1 and Iκβ. ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 4 (ACT35 Antigen or TAX Transcriptionally Activated Glycoprotein 1 Receptor or OX40L Receptor or CD134 or TNFRSF4) - Pipeline Review, H1 2018 report by Global Markets Direct. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 4 (ACT35 Antigen or...
Intravenous injection of Candida albicans into mice produced elevated serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. We hypothesized that immunostimulants released in vivo from C. albicans during fungal sepsis might contribute to the elevated levels of TNF-alpha in serum. We tested this hypothesis in mice with C. albicans mannan (CAM). Increased serum TNF-alpha levels were observed following intravenous and intraperitoneal injections of CAM. Injection of CAM into mice resulted in increased serum TNF-alpha concentrations that reached 1,200 pg/ml of blood, compared with 2,400 microg/ml of blood following injection of 10 microg of endotoxin. The response to CAM was concentration dependent, requiring a minimum dose of 20 microg of CAM per g of body weight. Sera from mice were tested 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after intravenous injections with CAM. TNF-alpha ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiviral effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha in combination with natural interferon-beta in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 1. AU - Schmitt, David A.. AU - Sasaki, Hidetaka. AU - Pollard, Richard B.. AU - Suzuki, Fujio. PY - 1992/10/1. Y1 - 1992/10/1. N2 - The protective effects of combination therapy utilizing recombinant human TNF-alpha (rTNF-α) and natural murine interferon-beta (IFN-β) in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was investigated. Mice treated with rTNF-α alone at all of the doses tested (a single i.v. administration, 2.3-2,300 μg/kg; multiple i.p. administrations 0.4-250 μg/kg) as well as mice that received IFN-β alone at doses of 16 × 104 U/kg or less resulted in a 0% survival rate. Combination therapy consisting of a single administration of rTNF- α (230 and 23 μg/kg) and multiple administrations of IFN-β (4 × 104 U/kg) resulted in a 40% ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide production by dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists in mice. AU - Haskó, G.. AU - Szabó, C.. AU - Merkel, K.. AU - Bencsics, A.. AU - Zingarelli, B.. AU - Kvetan, V.. AU - Vízi, E.. PY - 1996/3. Y1 - 1996/3. N2 - The effects of various agonists and antagonists of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production was investigated in mice. Pretreatment of animals with bromocryptine or quinpirole, agonists of dopamine D2 receptors caused a blunting of both the TNF-α and MO responses to LPS injected intraperitoneally. Sulpiride, an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors, decreased the LPS-induced TNF-α plasma levels in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the LPS-induced NO production by peritoneal macrophages. ...
|p|Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1A is a member of the Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which also contains TNFRSF1B. This protein is one of the major receptors for the tumor necrosis factor-alpha. This receptor can activate the transcription factor NF-kB, mediate apoptosis, and function as a regulator of inflammation. Antiapoptotic protein BCL2-associated athanogene 4 (BAG4/SODD) and adaptor proteins TRADD and TRAF2 have been shown to interact with this receptor, and thus play regulatory roles in the signal transduction mediated by the receptor. Germline mutations of the extracellular domains of this receptor were found to be associated with the human genetic disorder called periodic fever syndrome. Impaired receptor clearance is thought to be a mechanism of the disease.|/p|
The human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene is one of the earliest genes transcribed after the stimulation of a B cell through its antigen receptor or via the CD-40 pathway. In both cases, induction of TNF-alpha gene transcription can be blocked by the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and FK506, which suggested a role for the NFAT family of proteins in the regulation of the gene in B cells. Furthermore, in T cells, two molecules of NFATp bind to the TNF-alpha promoter element kappa 3 in association with ATF-2 and Jun proteins bound to an immediately adjacent cyclic AMP response element (CRE) site. Here, using the murine B-cell lymphoma cell line A20, we show that the TNF-alpha gene is regulated in a cell-type-specific manner. In A20 B cells, the TNF-alpha gene is not regulated by NFATp bound to the kappa 3 element. Instead, ATF-2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nutritional parameters observed during 28-day infusion of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α. AU - Hardin, T. C.. AU - Koeller, J. M.. AU - Kuhn, J. G.. AU - Roodman, G. D.. AU - Von Hoff, D. D.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - In conjunction with a Phase I investigation of the antineoplastic activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), administered as a 28- day continuous infusion, selected nutritional parameters were evaluated to identify any effect that might be attributed to the TNF infusion. Seven clinically stable men with a variety of tumor types were studied. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of significant malnutrition before entry into the study. Five patients received 10 μg of recombinant human TNF-α per square meter per day and two patients received 25 μg/m2 per day. Indirect calorimetry assessment of resting energy expenditure, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and characterization of cDNAs for two distinct tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily genes from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. AU - Park, Chan Il. AU - Kurobe, Tomofumi. AU - Hirono, Ikuo. AU - Aoki, Takashi. PY - 2003/5/1. Y1 - 2003/5/1. N2 - Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily regulates diverse biologic functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, in addition to providing costimulatory signals for programmed cell death or apoptosis. In this study, cDNA fragments for two distinct TNFR homologues were obtained from a Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, cDNA library. Full-length cDNAs of TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 homologues were obtained by using these cDNA fragments as probes. The cDNA for the Japanese flounder TNFR-1 homologue predicts a peptide of 395 amino acids that is 35% identical to the extracellular region of mouse ...
A Tumor Necrosis Factor Family member that is released by activated Lymphocytes. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type I; Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Type II; and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a Membrane-bound heterodimer with Lymphotoxin-beta that has specificity for the Lymphotoxin beta Receptor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel tumor necrosis factor-mediated mechanism of direct epithelial sodium channel activation. AU - Czikora, István. AU - Alli, Abdel. AU - Bao, Hui Fang. AU - Kaftan, David. AU - Sridhar, Supriya. AU - Apell, Hans Jürgen. AU - Gorshkov, Boris. AU - White, Richard. AU - Zimmermann, Astrid. AU - Wendel, Albrecht. AU - Pauly-Evers, Meike. AU - Hamacher, Jürg. AU - Garcia-Gabay, Irène. AU - Fischer, Bernhard. AU - Verin, Alexander. AU - Bagi, Zsolt. AU - Pittet, Jean Francois. AU - Shabbir, Waheed. AU - Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa. AU - Chakraborty, Trinad. AU - Lazrak, Ahmed. AU - Matthay, Michael A.. AU - Eaton, Douglas C.. AU - Lucas, Rudolf. PY - 2014/9/1. Y1 - 2014/9/1. N2 - Rationale: Alveolar liquid clearance is regulated by Na+ uptake through the apically expressed epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and basolaterally localized Na+-K+-ATPase in type II alveolar epithelial cells. Dysfunction of these Na+ transporters during pulmonary inflammation ...
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, metabolism, cellular survival and cellular longevity. Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration. The journal fills a significant void in todays scientific literature and serves as an international forum for the scientific community worldwide to translate pioneering
Preoperative oral treatment with lactulose is used to prevent complications after surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice. The effect is perhaps the result of an inactivation of gut derived endotoxins but the exact mechanism of action is, however, unknown. Tumour necrosis factor is an important mediator of endotoxin toxicity. The cytokine tumour necrosis factor is mainly produced by mononuclear phagocytes. In this study, the effect of lactulose on the endotoxin induced tumour necrosis factor release by monocytes was investigated. The direct effect of lactulose on endotoxin was tested in a chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Polymyxin B a known inactivator of endotoxin was used as control in both experiments. Lactulose has a limited capacity to inactivate endotoxin as measured in the endotoxin assay. In contrast lactulose significantly reduced endotoxin induced tumour necrosis ...
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature, is crucial for primary tumor growth and metastasis (1, 2, 3) . Tumor cells stimulate angiogenesis by producing polypeptide factors that act in a paracrine manner to promote endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and ultimately, vessel assembly and stabilization (1, 2, 3) . One of these proangiogenic polypeptides, vascular endothelial cell growth factor, is now recognized as an important regulator of both normal vessel growth and tumor neovascularization, and indeed a humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody has been approved for use in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer patients (4) . Nevertheless, it is likely that other tumor-derived angiogenic factors also function as key regulators of tumor neovascularization, and the identification ...
Phase I trial of recombinant human gamma-interferon and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer.
The chromatographic behaviour of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor beta (rhTNF-β) (pI ~9.0) during cation-exchange chromatography at pH 7.5 is investigated. Without prior treatment of the Escherichia coli cell extract with polyethyleneimine (PEI), very little rhTNF-β was bound to the column. However, upon addition of 5% PEI (100 μl ml-1) to the cell lysate, rhTNF-β was shown to bind to cation-exchange columns normally. TNF-β was readily precipitated from the clarified cell extract by 20% ammonium sulphate, but only ca. 25% of this precipitate could be re-solubilized for further purification. However, when 5% PEI was included in the solubilization buffer, the balance of the rhTNF-β could be recovered. It is proposed that charge interaction between rhTNF-β and nucleic acids in the cell extract is responsible for both of these anomalous phenomena, and that PEI (a cationic polyelectrolyte) was able to disrupt this interaction by displacing rhTNF-β from the charge complex ...
We have shown that high plasma levels of sTNFR1 during the acute phase are associated with long-term all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death in HF following AMI. Previously, Rauchhaus et al. (7) reported that sTNF-R1 emerged among all cytokine parameters as the strongest and most accurate prognostic marker in chronic HF. Recently, Valgimigli et al. (8) reported that among several inflammatory markers, sTNF-R1 remained the only independent predictor of death and HF after MI. The present study confirms and extends these findings, evaluating the prognostic significance of raised plasma sTNF-R1 in HF both in the acute phase and during follow-up. In fact, we show that non-survivors have raised plasma levels of sTNFR1 compared with survivors not only at baseline but at all time points during the observation period. Importantly, we show that sTNF-R1 has predictive power independent of other well-established risk markers such as N-BNP and hsCRP (9), possibly reflecting that we are focusing on a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acetazolamide treatment prevents in vitro endotoxin-stimulated tumor necrosis factor release in mouse macrophages. AU - West, Michael A.. AU - Lemieur, Timothy L.. AU - Hackam, David. AU - Bellingham, Janet. AU - Claire, Laurel. AU - Rodriguez, Jorge L.. PY - 1998/12. Y1 - 1998/12. N2 - We previously showed that incubation in carbon dioxide (CO2), but not air or helium (He), markedly decreased macrophage intracellular pH (pHi) and resulted in reversible inhibition of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 release. We sought to determine whether carbonic anhydrase inhibition with acetazolamide would prevent CO2-mediated inhibition of LPS-stimulated TNF release. Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with acetazolamide for 1 h under control atmosphere (95% air/5% CO2) and then switched to incubator modules containing: 1) 80% CO2/20% O2, 2) 80% ...
Incubation of the human U937 histiocytic lymphoma cell line with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) rendered the cells responsive to induction of TNF by LPS. Treatment with IL-6 reduced TNF production in GM-CSF-primed U937 cells. The inhibitory effect was most pronounced (approximately equal to 80%) when IL-6 was added either along with GM-CSF or within the first 3 h of GM-CSF treatment. Both GM-CSF or IL-6 inhibited [3H]TdR uptake in U937 cells, and simultaneous treatment with GM-CSF and IL-6 resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. However, the inhibition of TNF production could not be explained by the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on cell growth, nor was it due to a reduction in cell viability. An inhibition of TNF production by IL-6 was also demonstrated in cultured human peripheral blood monocytes. Treatment with IL-6 also resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of the 17-kDa TNF band revealed by SDS-PAGE after labeling monocytes with ...
Looking for online definition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (alpha) in the Medical Dictionary? tumor necrosis factor-alpha (alpha) explanation free. What is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (alpha)? Meaning of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (alpha) medical term. What does tumor necrosis factor-alpha (alpha) mean?
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor I (TNFRI) is a 55 kDa pleiotropic cytokine that is considered a primary modifier of the inflammatory and immune reactions of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effects of lipoprotein lipase on tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ-mediated gene expression in human endothelial cells. AU - Kota, Rama S.. AU - Ramana, Chilakamarti V.. AU - Tenorio, Fatima A.. AU - Enelow, Richard I.. AU - Rutledge, John C. PY - 2005/9/2. Y1 - 2005/9/2. N2 - Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in the hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteine. In vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. We examined the role of LPL in modulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)- and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-mediated inflammatory cytokine signal transduction pathways in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). LPL significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced gene expression, and this suppression was reversed by tetrahydrolipstatin and heparinase. In contrast, LPL ...
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) are pluripotent cytokines and have multiple functions during the inflammatory response. Using a murine model of autoimmune myocarditis, we studied the role of TNF and IFN-gamma in myocardial inflammation. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against TNF-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma were administered to myosin-immunized A/J mice to assess the effect on the severity of myocardial inflammation. Anti-TNF treatment significantly reduced the severity of myocarditis compared with rat immunoglobulin G or saline controls (p less than 0.0007) when given before myosin immunization. Myosin-specific lymph node T-cell proliferation studies showed no difference in the proliferative response between the anti-TNF-treated mice and controls. Administration of anti-TNF to mice after myosin immunization had no effect on the severity of inflammation. This suggests that TNF is an important ...
HTF Market Intelligence released a new research report of 41 pages on title Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 6 (Apo 1 Antigen or Apoptosis Mediating Surface Antigen FAS or FASLG Receptor or TNFRSF6 or CD95 or FAS) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 with detailed analysis, forecast and strategies. The study covers key regions and important players such as KAHR medical Ltd, Silence Therapeutics Plc
Control of Trypanosoma congolense infections requires an early cell-mediated immune response. To unravel the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in this process, 6 different T. congolense strains were used in 6 different gene-deficient mouse models that included TNF(-/-), TNF receptor-1 (TNFp55)(-/-), and TNF receptor-2 (TNFp75)(-/-) mice, 2 cell type-specific TNF(-/-) mice, as well as TNF-knock-in mice that expressed only membrane-bound TNF. Our results indicate that soluble TNF produced by macrophages/neutrophils and TNFp55 signaling are essential and sufficient to control parasitemia. The downstream mechanism in the control of T. congolense infection depends on inducible nitric oxide synthase activation in the liver. Such a role for nitric oxide is corroborated ex vivo, because the inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine blocks the trypanolytic activity of the adherent liver cell population, whereas exogenous interferon- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor necrosis factor-α is decreased in the umbilical cord plasma of patients with severe preeclampsia. AU - Kupferminc, Michael J.. AU - Peaceman, Alan M.. AU - Dollberg, Shaul. AU - Socol, Michael L.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - We investigated the role of the fetal immune system in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia by assessing umbilical cord plasma levels of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Nineteen nulliparous patients with severe preeclampsia composed the study group (group A). A comparison group was comprised of 19 healthy nulliparous patients with uneventful pregnancies (group B). Mixed umbilical cord blood was collected immediately after delivery. Plasma was prepared and all samples were assayed for TNF-α and IL-1β by specific enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs). Data are presented as the median with range of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictors of early minimal disease activity in patients with psoriatic arthritis treated with tumor necrosis factor-α blockers. AU - Iervolino, Salvatore. AU - Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario. AU - Peluso, Rosario. AU - Lofrano, Mariana. AU - Russolillo, Anna. AU - Di Minno, Giovanni. AU - Scarpa, Raffaele. PY - 2012/3. Y1 - 2012/3. N2 - Objective. To identify predictors of early minimal disease activity in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) receiving tumor necrosis factor-&αλπηα; (TNF-α) antagonists. Methods. In total 146 consecutive patients with PsA eligible for anti-TNF- &αλπηα; therapy were enrolled. At baseline (T0) information about age, sex, PsA subset, disease duration, comorbidities, and treatments was collected. All subjects were tested for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and/or liver steatosis. A clinical and laboratory evaluation was performed at T0 and at 3 months (T3). Changes in ...
Objective To evaluate the role of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the pathogenesis of bilateral erosive sacroiliitis in human tumour necrosis factor transgenic (hTNFtg) mice, an animal model of ankylosing spondylitis (AS).. Methods Histological sections of the sacroiliac joints from hTNFtg and IL-6−/−hTNFtg mice were evaluated, and wild type and IL-6−/−mice served as controls. mRNA levels of inflammation and tissue degradation related genes isolated from sacroiliac joints were also evaluated by quantitative PCR.. Results Severe, erosive bilateral sacroiliitis in 14-week-old hTNFtg animals was accompanied by an upregulation of mRNAs related to tissue inflammation such as matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), MMP9 and MMP13 or osteoclast activation such as cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. In addition, IL-6 was increased in the sera and in the sacroiliac joints of hTNFtg animals. However, high expression of these marker genes in sacroiliac joints from ...
Objective To evaluate the role of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the pathogenesis of bilateral erosive sacroiliitis in human tumour necrosis factor transgenic (hTNFtg) mice, an animal model of ankylosing spondylitis (AS).. Methods Histological sections of the sacroiliac joints from hTNFtg and IL-6−/−hTNFtg mice were evaluated, and wild type and IL-6−/−mice served as controls. mRNA levels of inflammation and tissue degradation related genes isolated from sacroiliac joints were also evaluated by quantitative PCR.. Results Severe, erosive bilateral sacroiliitis in 14-week-old hTNFtg animals was accompanied by an upregulation of mRNAs related to tissue inflammation such as matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), MMP9 and MMP13 or osteoclast activation such as cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. In addition, IL-6 was increased in the sera and in the sacroiliac joints of hTNFtg animals. However, high expression of these marker genes in sacroiliac joints from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The inhibition in tumor necrosis factor-α-induced attenuation in endothelial thrombomodulin expression by carvedilol is mediated by nuclear factor-κB and reactive oxygen species. AU - Lin, Pen-Yuan. AU - Shen, Hsi Che. AU - Chen, Chien Jen. AU - Wu, Shu En. AU - Kao, Hsien Li. AU - Huang, Jen-Hung. AU - Wang, Danny Ling. AU - Chen, Shih-Chung. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist, has been shown to possess antioxidant effects and reduce the risk of hospitalization and death in patients with severe congestive heart failure, which is featured by the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and leads to thrombotic complications. Thrombomodulin (TM) plays protective roles against thrombosis. Treatment of ECs with TNF-α resulted in a down-regulation in the TM expression in a ...
Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor release from cultured rat Kupffer cells by agents that reduce graft failure from storage injury.
RPB499Hu01, CD120A; P55; TBP1; FPF; TNF-R; TNF-R-I; TNF-R55; TNFAR; TNFR1; TNFR55; TNFR60; P55-R; P60; Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1; Tumor necrosis factor-binding protein 1 | Products for research use only!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1α, and interleukin-6 during murine coccidioidomycosis. AU - Cox, R. A.. AU - Magee, Dewey. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were induced in mice infected with Coccidioides immitis. Analyses of the cytokine profiles of two inbred mouse strains which differ in their susceptibility to pulmonary challenge with C. immitis revealed higher levels of IL-6 in lungs from DBA/2 mice (resistant strain) than in those from BALB/c mice (susceptible strain) beginning at day 6 and continuing through day 15 postinfection. Spleen cells from both mouse strains secreted TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 in vitro in response to stimulation with killed spherules but differed in that spleen cells from the resistant strain produced ...
article{7e0a6fdc-7d33-427d-bbba-4e9f6dfd8fb7, author = {Saxne, Tore and Larsson, Lotta and Geborek, Pierre}, issn = {1529-0131}, language = {eng}, number = {9}, pages = {3049--3050}, publisher = {John Wiley & Sons}, series = {Arthritis and Rheumatism}, title = {Results of anakinra treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients previously treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade: comment on the article by Buch et al}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.20640}, volume = {50}, year = {2004 ...
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels were measured by bioassay and immunoassay in sera of children infected with Plasmodium falciparum and uninfected children in the same community in Kilifi District, Kenya. Seventy-one children, mean age 2.9 years (range 4 months-6.8 years), were enrolled; 34 children had severe malaria, 23 had mild (non-severe) malaria and 14 had no malaria. TNF alpha levels were significantly elevated in children with severe malaria compared with those with non-severe malaria and the uninfected group (P | 0.001 and P | 0.00001, respectively). The levels correlated directly with parasite densities (r = 0.54, P | 0.002). Among the children with severe malaria, TNF alpha levels correlated directly with the degree of anaemia but inversely with age. High tumour necrosis factor levels were associated with manifestations of severe malaria infection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in cerebrospinal fluid of children with bacterial meningitis. AU - Tang, Ren Bin. AU - Lee, Bor Huey. AU - Chung, Ruey Lung. AU - Chen, Shu Jen. AU - Wong, Tai-Tong. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Certain cytokines may contribute to the sequence of events that lead to meningeal inflammation in bacterial meningitis. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with bacterial meningitis and aseptic meningitis of different etiologies. We determined the concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in the CSF of 171 specimens of 144 patients whose cases were classified as follow: bacterial meningitis (n=23), aseptic meningitis (n=26) and non-meningitis (n=95). The detectable IL-1β concentration (≥20 pg/ml) in the bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis ...
To observe the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in peripheral blood and joint synovia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to verify the clinical efficacy of E
0018] The soluble TNFR polypeptides or fragments of the invention may be fused with a second polypeptide to form a chimeric protein. The second polypeptide may promote the spontaneous formation by the chimeric protein of a dimer, trimer or higher order muimer that is capable of binding a TNFα and/or LTα molecule and preventing it from binding to cell-bound receptors. Chimeric proteins used as antagonists include, for example, molecules derived from an antibody molecule and a TNFR. Such molecules are referred to herein as TNFR-Ig fusion proteins. A preferred TNFR-Ig fusion protein suitable for treating diseases in humans and other mammals is recombinant TNFR:Fc, a term which as used herein refers to "etanercept," which is a dimer of two molecules of the extracellular portion of the p75 TNFα receptor, each molecule consisting of a 235 amino acid TNFR-derived polypeptide that is fused to a 232 amino acid Fc portion of human IgG1. Etanercept is currently sold by Immunex Corporation under the ...
0018] The soluble TNFR polypeptides or fragments of the invention may be fused with a second polypeptide to form a chimeric protein. The second polypeptide may promote the spontaneous formation by the chimeric protein of a dimer, trimer or higher order muimer that is capable of binding a TNFα and/or LTα molecule and preventing it from binding to cell-bound receptors. Chimeric proteins used as antagonists include, for example, molecules derived from an antibody molecule and a TNFR. Such molecules are referred to herein as TNFR-Ig fusion proteins. A preferred TNFR-Ig fusion protein suitable for treating diseases in humans and other mammals is recombinant TNFR:Fc, a term which as used herein refers to "etanercept," which is a dimer of two molecules of the extracellular portion of the p75 TNFα receptor, each molecule consisting of a 235 amino acid TNFR-derived polypeptide that is fused to a 232 amino acid Fc portion of human IgG1. Etanercept is currently sold by Immunex Corporation under the ...
Utilizado en el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide y la reducción de los efectos adversos del factor de necrosis tumoral (TNF). TNF es una citoquina natural que interviene en inflamatoria normal y la respuesta inmune. Los niveles elevados de TNF se encuentran en los tejidos y fluidos de los pacientes con artritis reumatoide, artritis psoriásica, la espondilitis anquilosante (AS), y psoriasis en placa. Etanercept se une específicamente al factor de necrosis tumoral (TNF) y bloquea su interacción con los receptores de la superficie celular TNF ...
RA is a multigene disorder with genetic polymorphisms influencing a wide spectrum of its clinical presentations. Disease progression, pattern of joint disease, and extra-articular manifestations are highly variable.6 Several data suggested also that RA is histopathologically heterogeneous.2,3 Histological analyses in this and in previous studies showed that most rheumatoid synovia are characterised by differences in the density of the diffuse infiltrate of mononuclear cells, and lack any further specific microanatomical organisation. Such synovia may be classified as diffuse synovitis.3 In about one third of RA synovia, categorised as follicular synovitis, the formation of lymphoid conglomerates was demonstrated.2,3 The presence of lymphoid follicles was associated with a greater degree of immunological activation, and greater potential for joint tissue destruction.2-5 All these findings support the concept of the clinical and histological heterogeneity of RA.. Mononuclear cells infiltrating the ...
This gene encodes a member of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) receptor superfamily. The encoded protein functions in signal transduction pathways that activate inflammatory and inhibitory T-cell immune response. It binds herpes simplex virus (HSV) viral envelope glycoprotein D (gD), mediating its entry into cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014 ...
Quercetin (Que) is one of main compounds in Lysimachia christinae Hance (Christina loosestrife), and has both medicinal and nutritional value. Glycosides from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. (léi gōng téng [the thunder duke vine]; TG) have diverse and broad bioactivities but with a high incidence of liver injury. Our previous study reported on the hepatoprotective properties of an ethanol extract from L. christinae against TG-induced liver injury in mice. This research is designed to observe, for the first time, the possible protective properties of the compound Que against TG-induced liver injury, and the underlying mechanisms that are involved in oxidative stress and anti-inflammation. The results indicated that TG caused excessive elevation in serum levels of alanine/aspartate transaminase (ALT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as well as ...
BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is known to increase the concentrations of interleukin (IL) 6 and C reactive protein (CRP) and to induce proatherogenic changes in the lipid profile and may increase the cardiovascular risk of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory disorders. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether anti-TNF therapy modifies the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with RA. METHODS: The lipoprotein spectrum and the inflammation markers CRP and IL6 were investigated in 33 patients with RA treated with human anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies (D2E7, adalimumab, Humira) and 13 patients with RA given placebo, before and after 2 weeks treatment. RESULTS: In the anti-TNF treated group, the mean (SD) concentrations of HDL-cholesterol were significantly higher after 2 weeks treatment (0.86 (0.30) mmol/l v 0.98 (0.33) mmol/l, p,0.01), whereas LDL and triglyceride levels were not significantly changed. Additionally, a significant decrease in CRP ...
Research proven purified goat polyclonal TRAIL R3, DcR 1 or CD263 antibody. DcR1 is attached to the cell surface through glycophospholipid anchor. It has the extracellular TRAIL binding domain but lacks the cytoplasmic domain to induce apoptotic signal. Hence overexpression of DcR1 inhibits the TRAIL induced apoptosis. Designed for immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and related apllications. IHC image in product description.
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18 (TNFRSF18) also known as activation-inducible TNFR family receptor (AITR) or glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFRSF18 gene. GITR is currently of interest to immunologists as a co-stimulatory immune checkpoint molecule. TNFRSF18 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) superfamily. This receptor has been shown to have increased expression upon T-cell activation, and it is thought to play a key role in dominant immunological self-tolerance maintained by CD25+/CD4+ regulatory T cells. Knockout studies in mice also suggest the role of this receptor is in the regulation of CD3-driven T-cell activation and programmed cell death. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. Human ...
Tu, S. P., Sun, Y. W., Cui, J. T., Zou, B., Lin, M. C. M., Gu, Q., Jiang, S. H., Kung, H. F., Korneluk, R. G. and Wong, B. C. Y. (2010), Tumor suppressor XIAP-Associated factor 1 (XAF1) cooperates with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to suppress colon cancer growth and trigger tumor regression. Cancer, 116: 1252-1263. doi: 10.1002/cncr.24814 ...
Elders, R C and Baines, S J and Catchpole, B (2009) Susceptibility of the C2 canine mastocytoma cell line to the effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY, 130 (1-2). pp. 11-16. ...
Thousands of large intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in the mammalian genome, many of which have important roles in regulating a variety of biological processes. Here, a team led by researchers at the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute used a custom microarray to identify lincRNAs associated with activation of the innate immune response. A panel of 159 lincRNAs was found to be differentially expressed following innate activation of THP1 macrophages. Among them, linc1992 was shown to be expressed in many human tissues and was required for induction of TNFα expression. Linc1992 bound specifically to heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNPL) and formed a functional linc1992-hnRNPL complex that regulated transcription of the TNFα gene by binding to its promoter. Transcriptome analysis revealed that linc1992 was required for expression of many immune-response genes, including other cytokines and transcriptional and posttranscriptional ...
Decreased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and regression of hypertrophy after nonsurgical septal reduction therapy for patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy Academic Article ...
Pichinde virus (PIC) is a reticuloendothelial arenavirus of the New World tropics. A guinea pig passage-adapted strain of this virus (adPIC) is uniformly lethal for inbred guinea pigs, while the related, prototype strain (PIC3739) has attenuated virulence. The abilities of adPIC and PIC3739 to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in vivo and in cultured macrophages were compared. Infection with adPIC, but not PIC3739, was associated with detectable serum TNF that peaked in week 2 of infection. Tumor necrosis factor was found in the spleens of adPIC- and PIC3739-infected animals in week 1 of infection ; TNFα mRNA levels in spleens and livers of adPIC infected animals increased and remained high throughout infection, whereas PIC3739-infected organs showed down regulation of TNFα mRNA late in infection. Peritoneal macrophages explanted from adPIC-infected animals showed enhanced lipopolysaccharide-inducible TNF ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Mycobacterium avium complex-infection treatment on cytokine expression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. T2 - Results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 853. AU - MacArthur, Rodger D.. AU - Lederman, Michael M.. AU - Benson, Constance A.. AU - Chernoff, Miriam C.. AU - MacGregor, Rob Roy. AU - Spritzler, John. AU - Mahon, Laura F.. AU - Yen-Lieberman, Belinda. AU - Purvis, Scott. PY - 2000/5/22. Y1 - 2000/5/22. N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected persons with newly diagnosed Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia were enrolled in an 8- week study to determine whether treatment of MAC infection is associated with decreases in plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. Blood specimens were obtained for quantitative MAC cultures and to determine plasma levels of HIV RNA, TNF-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines. MAC levels decreased by 1.75 log at week 4 (P = .008) and by 2.48 log at ...
Influence of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy (Adalimumab) on regulatory T cells and dendritic cells in rheumatoid arthritis ...
Radiant Insightss Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 11 (Receptor Activator Of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand or Osteoclast Differentiation Factor or TNF Related Activation Induced Cytokine or Osteoprotegerin Ligand or CD254 or TNFSF11) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 11 (Receptor Activator Of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand or Osteoclast Differentiation Factor or TNF Related Activation Induced Cytokine or Osteoprotegerin Ligand or CD254 or TNFSF11) targeted pipeline therapeutics.. The report provides comprehensive information on the Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 11 (Receptor Activator Of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand or Osteoclast Differentiation Factor or ...
Patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite anti-tumor necrosis factor(anti-TNF)agent treatment can switch to either a subsequent anti-TNF agent or a biologic with an alternative mechanism of action, such as rituximab; however, there are limited data available to help physicians decide between these 2 strategies. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effectiveness and safety of rituximab versus a subsequent anti-TNF agent in anti-TNF-experienced patients with RA using clinical practice data from the Corrona registry. Rituximab-naive patients from the Corrona registry with prior exposure to ≥1 anti-TNF agent who initiated rituximab or anti-TNF agents (2/28/2006-10/31/2012) were included. Two cohorts were analyzed: the trimmed population (excluding patients who fell outside the propensity score distribution overlap) and the stratified-matched population (stratified by 1 vs ≥2 anti-TNF agents, then matched based on propensity score). The ...
Patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite anti-tumor necrosis factor(anti-TNF)agent treatment can switch to either a subsequent anti-TNF agent or a biologic with an alternative mechanism of action, such as rituximab; however, there are limited data available to help physicians decide between these 2 strategies. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effectiveness and safety of rituximab versus a subsequent anti-TNF agent in anti-TNF-experienced patients with RA using clinical practice data from the Corrona registry. Rituximab-naive patients from the Corrona registry with prior exposure to ≥1 anti-TNF agent who initiated rituximab or anti-TNF agents (2/28/2006-10/31/2012) were included. Two cohorts were analyzed: the trimmed population (excluding patients who fell outside the propensity score distribution overlap) and the stratified-matched population (stratified by 1 vs ≥2 anti-TNF agents, then matched based on propensity score). The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human papillomavirus type 16 E6-enhanced susceptibility of L929 cells to tumor necrosis factor α correlates with increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species. AU - Liu, Yun. AU - Tergaonkar, Vinay. AU - Krishna, Sudhir. AU - Androphy, Elliot J.. PY - 1999/8/27. Y1 - 1999/8/27. N2 - Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 has been shown to prevent or enhance apoptosis depending on the stimulus and cell type. Here we present evidence that HPV-16 E6 sensitized murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells to tumor necrosis factor α (TNF)-induced cytolysis. The E6-enhanced cytolysis correlated with a precedent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and antioxidant treatment could completely block the E6-dependent sensitization. These findings represent the first demonstration of a link between a viral oncogene-sensitized cytolysis and ROS. Previous studies have shown conflicting results regarding ...
There is considerable evidence implicating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This evidence is based not only on the universal presence of TNF-alpha in arthritic joints accompanied by the upregulation of TNF-alpha receptors but also on the effects of neutralizing TNF-alpha in joint cell cultures. Thus, neutralization of TNF-alpha in vitro results in inhibition of the production of interleukin 1, which like TNF-alpha, is believed to contribute to joint inflammation and erosion. To determine the validity of this concept in vivo, the effect of administering TNF-neutralizing antibodies to mice with collagen-induced arthritis has been studied. This disease model was chosen because of its many immunological and pathological similarities to human rheumatoid arthritis. TN3-19.12, a hamster IgG1 ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis. We have performed a case-control association study of three TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms in a group of Romanian psoriatic arthritis patients versus ethnically matched controls. A second group of patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis was used in order to look for similarities in the genetic background of the two rheumatic disorders. The −857C/T polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to psoriatic arthritis in our population at the individual level (p = 0.03, OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.05-2.57) and in combined haplotypes with the −238G/A and −308G/A SNPs. Regarding the investigated polymorphisms and derived haplotypes, no potential association was found with the susceptibility to undifferentiated spondyloarthritis in Romanian patients.
Oxidative stress is an important part of host innate immune response to foreign pathogens. However, the impact of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation remains unclear in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress and inflammation. CAP patients were enrolled. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-6 were analyzed in CAP patients and LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. MH-S cells were transfected with RFP-LC3 plasmids. Autophagy was measured in LPS-stimulated macrophages cells. Severe CAP patients showed significantly increased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. SOD was significantly decreased in severe CAP. Vitamin C significantly decreased ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, and IL-6. Vitamin C inhibited LPS-induced ROS, DNA damage, TNF-α, IL-6, and p38 in macrophages cells. ...
Background: The relevance of immune-endocrine interactions to the regulation of ovarian function in teleosts is virtually unexplored. As part of the innate immune response during infection, a number of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and other immune factors, are produced and act on the reproductive system. However, TNF alpha is also an important physiological player in the ovulatory process in mammals. In the present study, we have examined for the first time the effects of TNF alpha in vitro in preovulatory ovarian follicles of a teleost fish, the brown trout (Salmo trutta). Methods: To determine the in vivo regulation of TNF alpha expression in the ovary, preovulatory brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were injected intraperitoneally with either saline or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In control and recombinant trout TNF ...
Genetically determined differences in immune responses to environmental agents may underlie susceptibility to many autoimmune and infectious diseases. Leprosy provides an example of a polarity in the type of immune response made to an infectious agent, and there is evidence that the major histocompatibility complex is genetically linked to leprosy type. It was found that HLA-DR2 is associated with both tuberculoid and lepromatous types of leprosy; however, a variant at position -308 of the promoter of the neighboring tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene was increased in frequency in lepromatous (odds ratio = 3.0, P = .02) but not tuberculoid leprosy. Some studies have found higher serum levels of TNF in lepromatous than tuberculoid leprosy, and high TNF levels are found in malaria and leishmaniasis, which are also associated with this TNF allele. It is speculated that this association reflects genetic variability in cytokine production, which influences the ...
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that regulates several biological processes through the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of various target proteins. Mediates Lys-48-linked polyubiquitination of PRR5L and its subsequent proteasomal degradation thereby indirectly regulating cell migration through the mTORC2 complex. Also ubiquitinates the caspases CASP8 and CASP10, promoting their proteasomal degradation, to negatively regulate apoptosis downstream of death domain receptors. Also negatively regulates the tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway through targeting of RIPK1 to ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. Negatively regulates p53/TP53 through its direct ubiquitination and targeting to proteasomal degradation. Indirectly, may also negatively regulate p53/TP53 through ubiquitination and degradation of SFN. May also play a role in endocytic recycling.
The excitatory amino acid domoic acid is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans. The in vitro effects of domoic acid on rat neonatal brain microglia were compared with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known activator of microglia mediator release over a 4 to 24 hour observation period. LPS [3 ng/mL] but not domoic acid [1mM] stimulated a statistically significant increase in TNF-α mRNA and protein generation. Furthermore, both LPS and domoic acid did not significantly affect TGF- β1 gene expression and protein release. Finally, an in vitro exposure of microglia to LPS resulted in statistically significant MMP-9 expression and release, thus extending and confirming our previous observations. However, in contrast, no statistically significant increase in MMP-9 expression and release was observed after domoic acid treatment. Taken together our observations do not support the hypothesis that a short term (4 to 24 hours) in vitro exposure to domoic acid, at a concentration toxic to
Background and Aim Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is a renal dyfunction that arises as a result of exposure to nephrotoxic drugs. Anti-tuberculosis therapy can cause nephrotoxicity and permanent kidney damage. The current study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effects of Ruta graveolens L. leaves extract against isoniazid/rifampicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.. Methods:The experimental rats received isoniazid and rifampicin at dose level of 50 mg/kg, and 50 or 100 mg/kg/day Ruta graveolens leaves extract orally for 45 days.. Results: Isoniazid/ rifampicin administration induced kidney injury evidenced by the histopathological alterations as well as significant (P,0.001) increase in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid. soniazid/rifampicin-intoxicated rats exhibited a significant increase in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (P,0.001), and renal lipid peroxidation (P,0.01) and nitric oxide (P,0.001) levels. On the other hand, ...
During normal pulp tissue healing, inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) or interleukins, act in the initial 48 hours (inflammatory phase) and play important roles not only as chemo-attractants of inflammatory cells and stem/progenitor cells but also in inducing a cascade of reactions toward tissue regeneration or reparative dentin formation or both. Previous reports have shown that inflammatory cytokines regulate the differentiation capacity of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPCs), but none has interrogated the impact of these cytokines on the stem cell phenotype of stem/progenitor cells. This study investigated the effects of a short-term treatment with TNF-α on the stem cell phenotype and differentiation ability of human DPCs. An in vivo mouse model of pulp exposure was performed for analysis of expression of the mesenchymal stem cell marker CD146 in DPCs during the initial stage of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A longitudinal analysis of prevalence of sustained remission and low disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor: an analysis of the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for Rheumatoid Arthritis. AU - Hamann, Philip D H. AU - Shaddick, Gavin. AU - McHugh, Neil. AU - Hyrich, Kimme. AU - Pauling, John D. PY - 2018/4/30. Y1 - 2018/4/30. N2 - Background: Attainment of remission or low disease activity (LDA) are recommended targets for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, and associated with improved functional and radiographic long-term outcomes. However, evidence reporting the prevalence of sustained remission/LDA is sparse. This study examines how often sustained remission/LDA occurs, and how this outcome has changed between 2001 and 2013 in patients with RA treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) using data from the British Society for ...
Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13: A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; and B CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor α in Down-Regulation of Osteoblast Phex Gene Expression in Experimental Murine Colitis. AU - Uno, Jennifer K.. AU - Kolek, Olga I.. AU - Hines, Eric R.. AU - Xu, Hua. AU - Timmermann, Barbara N.. AU - Kiela, Pawel R. AU - Ghishan, Fayez K. PY - 2006/8. Y1 - 2006/8. N2 - Background & Aims: Reduced bone mass is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), although the mechanisms that contribute to osteopenia are not completely understood. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is up-regulated in patients with IBD and has detrimental effects on osteoblasts. Phex gene is expressed predominantly in osteoblasts, and its disruption results in defective bone mineralization. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TNF-α regulates Phex gene expression thus contributing to the abnormal bone metabolism observed in IBD. Methods: Phex gene ...
Purpose : To evaluate the effects of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) on dry eye in a murine model. Methods : Dry eye model was experimentally induced by topical administration of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) in a mouse. EEDK was orally administered throughout the experimental period. Tear break-up time (BUT) test, fluorescein staining, phenol red thread test, and histological analysis were performed on the ocular surface. Apoptotic cell death was tested by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay The protein expression levels of cytokeratin-10, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein- 1 (MCP-1) was detected by western blotting. The cellular proliferation of corneal epithelial cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results : Oral administration of EEDK resulted in prolonged tear break-up time ...
Mantovani G, Macciò A, Massa E, et al. Managing cancer-related anorexia/cachexia. Drugs. 2001;61:499-514. Bruera E, Strasser F, Palmer JL, et al. Effect of fish oil on appetite and other symptoms in patients with advanced cancer and anorexia/cachexia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:129-134. Barber MD. Cancer cachexia and its treatment with fish-oil-enriched nutritional supplementation. Nutrition. 2001;17:751-755. Tisdale MJ, Dhesi JK. Inhibition of weight loss by omega-3 fatty acids in an experimental cachexia model. Cancer Res. 1990;50:5022-5026. Yang M, Cook ME. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid decreased cachexia, macrophage tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, and modifies splenocyte cytokines production. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003;228:51-58. Tisdale MJ, Brennan RA. A comparison of long-chain triglycerides and medium-chain triglycerides on weight loss and tumour size in a cachexia model. Br J Cancer. ...
Low power laser irradiation (LPLI) promotes proliferation of multiple cells, which (especially red and near infrared light) is mainly through the activation of mitochondrial respiratory chain and the initiation of cellular signaling. Recently, the signaling proteins involved in LPLI-induced proliferation merit special attention, some of which are regulated by mitochondrial signaling. Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met), a member of tyrosine protein kinase receptors (TPKR), is phosphorylated during LPLI-induced proliferation, but tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) receptor has not been affected. Activated TPKR could activate its downstream signaling elements, like Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt/eIF4E, PI3K/Akt/eNOS and PLC-gamma/PKC pathways. Other two pathways, ΔΨm/ATP/cAMP/JNK/AP-1 and ROS/Src, are also involved in LPLI-induced proliferation. LPLI-induced cell cycle progression can be regulated by the ...
Background: Oral cancer is one of the life threatening disease which requires an availability of a biomarker for itsearly detection and also for effective treatment strategies. The current study is done to evaluate the efficacy of one suchbiomarker i.e. TNF- α as an indicator for oral precancer and oral cancer. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of Tumournecrosis factor - alpha (TNF)-α as a salivary biomarker in histopathologically diagnosed cases of oral leukoplakia andOral squamous cell carcinoma. To correlate the levels of TNF- α with varying histologic grading in Oral SquamousCell Carcinoma and dysplasia grading in Oral leukoplakia or Hyperkeratosis. Materials and Methods: The studygroup included 90 subjects that were divided into three groups. OSCC (n=30), leukoplakia (n=30) and controls (n=30).Cases were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. Salivary samples were then collected fromall three groups. Salivary levels of TNF-α ...
An imbalance in the production of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the pathophysiology of perimenopausal depression. The aim of this study was to examine serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, in perimenopausal women suffering from depression. Furthermore, to assess whether serum cytokine levels are associated with the presence of hot flashes or the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We also evaluated the possible association of hot flashes and perimenopausal depression. Serum samples from 65 perimenopausal women, 41 with depression and 24 without depression, were assessed for serum IL-6, TNFα and IL-10 by conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Depression was evaluated by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D 17) and a psychiatric interview. The presence and ...
Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent cytokine involved in normal immune functions. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is an association between chronic beryllium disease or beryllium sensitization and two variants of the TAT-a gene located at -308 and -238 called TNF-alpha-308*02 and TNF-alpha-238*02. Methods: TNF-alpha-308 and TNF-alpha-238 genotyping was
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a tumor necrosis factor superfamily member, targets death receptors and selectively kills malignant cells while leaving normal cells unaffected. However, unlike most cancers, many osteosarcomas are resistant to TRAIL. To investigate this resistance, we characterized the response of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and hPOB-tert osteoblast-like cells to TRAIL and agonist antibodies to death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5). We found that MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and hPOB-tert osteoblast-like cells show no or very little response to TRAIL or a DR4 agonist, but MG-63 cells undergo apoptosis in response to a DR5 agonist. Analysis of TRAIL receptor expression showed that normal osteoblastic and osteosarcoma cells express a variety of TRAIL receptors but this does not correlate to TRAIL responsiveness. Production of the soluble decoy receptor ...
Patients receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) therapy are at increased risk for tuberculosis and other granulomatous diseases, but little is known about illness caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in this setting. We reviewed the US Food and Drug Administration MedWatch database for reports of NTM disease in patients receiving anti-TNF-α therapy. Of 239 reports collected, 105 (44%) met NTM disease criteria. Median age was 62 years; the majority of patients (66, 65%) were female, and most (73, 70%) had rheumatoid arthritis. NTM infections were associated with infliximab (n = 73), etanercept (n = 25), and adalimumab (n = 7); most patients were taking prednisone (n = 68, 65%) or methotrexate (n = 58, 55%) concurrently. Mycobacteria avium (n = 52, 50%) was most commonly implicated, and 9 patients (9%) had died at the time their infections were reported. A high rate of extrapulmonary manifestations (n = 46, 44%) was also reported.
This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work may not be downloaded, copied and distributed to any third party ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effects of protein kinase C inhibitors on chemokine production in human synovial fibroblasts. AU - Jordan, Nicola J.. AU - Watson, Malcolm L.. AU - Yoshimura, Teizo. AU - Westwick, John. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - 1. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with the accumulation and activation of selected populations of inflammatory cells within the arthritic joint. One putative signal for this process is the production, by resident cells, of a group of inflammatory mediators known as the chemokines. 2. The chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted) are target-cell specific chemoattractants produced by synovial fibroblasts in response to stimulation with interleukin-1α (IL-1α) or tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα). The signalling pathways involved in their production are not well defined. We therefore used four different protein kinase C ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor inhibits cell growth through apoptotic pathway on ovarian cancer. AU - Nakamura, Keiichiro. AU - Takamoto, Norio. AU - Hongo, Atsushi. AU - Kodama, Junichi. AU - Abrzua, Fernando. AU - Nasu, Yasutomo. AU - Kumon, Hiromi. AU - Hiramatsu, Yuji. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - In light of the poor prognosis for ovarian cancer, research continues for innovative and efficacious treatment modalities. It is now widely accepted that new approaches for the treatment of ovarian cancers are pivotal in further improving prognosis of this disease. Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is an 11.7-kDa non-glycosylated, serine protease inhibitor that has a broad inhibitory spectrum against serine protease. SLPI showed potential therapeutic inhibitory effects mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), TNF-α, death receptor (DR)-4, DR-5 and TNF receptor (TNFR)-I expression which lead ...
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor α family of cytokines that preferentially induces apoptosis in transformed cells, making it a promising cancer therapy. However, many neoplasms are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by mechanisms that are poorly understood. We demonstrate that the expression of the small heat shock protein αB-crystallin (but not other heat shock proteins or apoptosis-regulating proteins) correlates with TRAIL resistance in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Stable expression of wild-type αB-crystallin, but not a pseudophosphorylation mutant impaired in its assembly and chaperone function, protects cancer cells from TRAIL-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, selective inhibition of αB-crystallin expression by RNA interference sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL. In addition, wild-type ...
Uncertainty regarding pathogenic mechanisms has been a major impediment to effective prevention and treatment for human neurologic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, tropical spastic paraparesis, and AIDS demyelinating disease. Here, we implicate lymphotoxin (LT) (tumor necrosis factor beta [TNF-beta]) and TNF-alpha in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of an autoimmune demyelinating disease. In this communication, we report that treatment of recipient mice with an antibody that neutralizes LT and TNF-alpha prevents transfer of clone-mediated EAE. LNC-8, a myelin basic protein-specific T cell line, produces high levels of LT and TNF-alpha after activation by concanavalin A, antibody to the CD-3 epsilon component of the T cell receptor, or myelin basic protein presented in the context of syngeneic spleen cells. LNC-8 cells transfer clinical signs of EAE. When LNC-8 recipient mice ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the microRNA expression pattern in neutrophils from rheumatoid arthritis patients and its contribution to their pathogenic profile and to analyze the effect of specific autoantibodies or inflammatory components in the regulation of microRNAs in rheumatoid arthritis neutrophils and its modulation by biological therapies. Neutrophils were isolated from paired peripheral blood and synovial fluid samples of 40 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and from peripheral blood of 40 healthy donors. A microRNA array was performed using nCounter technology. Neutrophils from healthy donors were treated in vitro with antibodies to citrullinated protein antigens isolated from rheumatoid arthritis patients and tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin-6. A number of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed. In vitro treatments of rheumatoid arthritis-neutrophils with tocilizumab or infliximab were carried out. Transfections with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation in the targeting of TRAIL receptor 1 to cell surface via GODZ for TRAIL sensitivity in tumor cells. AU - Oh, Yumin. AU - Jeon, Y. J.. AU - Hong, G. S.. AU - Kim, I.. AU - Woo, H. N.. AU - Jung, Y. K.. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors, TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5), promote the selective clearing of various malignancies by inducing apoptosis, holding the promise as a potent therapeutic agent for anticancer. Though DR4 and DR5 have high sequence similarity, differential regulation of both receptors in human tumor cells remains largely unexplored. Here, we repot that golgi-specific Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) zinc finger protein (GODZ) regulates TRAIL/DR4-mediated apoptosis. Using the SOS protein recruitment-yeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated GODZ that interacted with the death domain of DR4. GODZ binds to DR4, but not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis protein MAP1305 modulates dendritic cell-mediated T cell proliferation through Toll-like receptor-4. AU - Lee, Su Jung. AU - Noh, Kyung Tae. AU - Kang, Tae Heung. AU - Han, Hee Dong. AU - Shin, Sung Jae. AU - Soh, Byoung Yul. AU - Park, Jung Hee. AU - Shin, Yong Kyoo. AU - Kim, Han Wool. AU - Yun, Cheol Heui. AU - Park, Won Sun. AU - Jung, In Duk. AU - Park, Yeong Min. PY - 2014/2/1. Y1 - 2014/2/1. N2 - In this study, we show that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MAP1305 induces the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), a representative antigen presenting cell (APC). MAP1305 protein induces DC maturation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β) through Toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) signaling by directly binding with TLR4. MAP1305 activates the phosphorylation of MAPKs, such as ERK, p38MAPK, and ...
This randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effects of 24 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on seminal markers of inflammation and oxidative stress as well as markers of male reproductive function and reproductive performance in infertile patients. Of a total of 1296 infertile patients (aged 25-40 years) who were screened, 556 were randomly assigned to exercise (EX, n = 278) and non-exercise (NON-EX, n = 278) groups. Semen samples were taken before, 12 and 24 weeks as well as 7 and 30 days post intervention. The training program reduced seminal proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and markers of oxidative stress [reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-Isoprostane] (P , 0.05). Additional improvements were also achieved in seminal antioxidant defense system [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)] (P , ...
Background and purpose: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to inhibit cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. However, the EP receptor that mediates this beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of PGE2 has not been elucidated definitively. The aim of this study was to identify the EP receptor by which PGE2 inhibits cytokine generation from human lung macrophages. This was determined by using recently-developed EP receptor ligands. Experimental approach: The effects of PGE2 and EP-selective agonists on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) generation from macrophages were evaluated. The effects of EP2-selective (PF-04852946, PF-04418948) and EP4-selective (L-161,982, CJ-042794) antagonists on PGE2 responses were studied. The expression of EP receptor subtypes by human lung macrophages was determined by RT-PCR. Key results: PGE2 inhibited LPS-induced and Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced cytokine generation from human ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Importance of cytokines, nitric oxide, and apoptosis in the pathological process of necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. AU - Leindler, László. AU - Morschl, E.. AU - László, F.. AU - Mándi, Y.. AU - Takács, T.. AU - Jármai, Katalin. AU - Farkas, Gyula. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Objectives: Ischemia-reperfusion injury can be involved in the pathophysiology of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The aim of our study was to determine the production of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), the activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the development of apoptosis during this pathologic process. Methods: Acute pancreatitis was produced in male Wistar rats by injection of 200 μL of 6% taurocholic acid into the main pancreatic duct in combination with the temporary (15 minutes) occlusion of the inferior splenic artery. Six and 24 hours later, the histologic damage was evaluated, and serum amylase, TNF, ...
article{75fb11cd-9b79-4275-9d9c-4adabc269474, abstract = {PURPOSE:: To examine the retinal inflammatory response to ischemia-reperfusion in nondiabetic and diabetic rats injected with either an omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (pravastatin). METHODS:: Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin, and retinal ischemia was induced by ligation of the optic nerve and vessels, followed by reperfusion for 1 hour or 24 hours. Five minutes before surgery, an intravenous injection of DHA, pravastatin, or vehicle (ethanol) was administered. The mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, caspase-1, IL-1beta, P-selectin, vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were compared between ischemic and nonischemic retinas as well as diabetic and nondiabetic ...
Leukocyte recruitment is a key feature in ischemiaâ€"reperfusion (I/R)-induced tissue injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Rho-kinase inhibition on I/R-provoked leukocyte recruitment in the colon. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by clamping of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Intraperitoneal pretreatment with the selective Rho-kinase inhibitors fasudil (4â€"40 mg/kg) and Y-27632 (1â€"10 mg/kg) was administered prior to induction of colonic I/R. Leukocyteâ€"endothelium interactions were analyzed by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Colonic content of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC) were determined by ELISA. Additionally, colonic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a marker of leukocyte infiltration, and malondialdehyde (MDA), were quantified. Fasudil and Y-27632 ...
Methods HUVECs were incubated for 8 days in media containing different glucose concentrations: 5.56 mmol/l (normal glucose), 25 mmol/l (constant high glucose), or a daily alternating 5.56 or 25 mmol/l glucose (intermittent high glucose). Meanwhile, drug intervention was performed in different glucose conditions with TMP at concentrations of 500 μmol/L, 100 μmol/L and 20 μmol/L. Then cell viability was measured by MTT method, cell membrane damage was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and Nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations in the cell culture supernatant were measured. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cell lysate were examined by enzyme method or spectrophotometry.. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Ray Biotech \ Recombinant Human Complement C1q Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Protein 1 \ 228-10151-2 for more molecular products just contact us

The role of pentoxifylline on neuroprotection in neonatal rat model of hypoxic ischemic brain injury.	The role of pentoxifylline on neuroprotection in neonatal rat model of hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

The role of pentoxifylline on neuroprotection in neonatal rat model of hypoxic ischemic brain injury., Hülya Halis, Narin Liman ... Dual role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in brain injury. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 1990; 10: 119-130. ... Functional protection of pentoxifylline against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits: necrosis and apoptosis ... TNF-a Stimulates Caspase-3 Activation and Apoptotic Cell Death in Primary Septo-Hippocampal Cultures. Journal of Neuroscience ...
more infohttp://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/the-role-of-pentoxifylline-on-neuroprotection-in-neonatal-rat-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury.html

Mecp2 regulates tnfa during zebrafish embryonic development and acute inflammation | Disease Models & MechanismsMecp2 regulates tnfa during zebrafish embryonic development and acute inflammation | Disease Models & Mechanisms

In contrast, expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfa) was consistently downregulated in ... Expression of tnfa was unresponsive to inflammatory stimulation, and was partially restored by re-expression of functional ... Both diseases display immunological abnormalities that suggest a role for MeCP2 in controlling immune and inflammatory ... Mecp2 regulates tnfa during zebrafish embryonic development and acute inflammation. M. van der Vaart, O. Svoboda, B. G. Weijts ...
more infohttp://dmm.biologists.org/content/early/2017/10/06/dmm.026922

B-cell activating factor (BAFF) - keep the level steady! | Antibody News: Novus BiologicalsB-cell activating factor (BAFF) - keep the level steady! | Antibody News: Novus Biologicals

... and its downstream signaling plays a critical role in B-cell survival and maturation. ... BAFF belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, ... tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa), APRIL, and BAFF in common ... BAFF is the functional ligand for three receptors:. BAFF-R, transmembrane activator and calcium modulator (TACI), and B-cell ... BAFF belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, and its downstream signaling plays a critical role in B-cell survival ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/antibody-news/antibodies/b-cell-activating-factor-baff-keep-the-level-steady

Tumor necrosis factor alpha - WikipediaTumor necrosis factor alpha - Wikipedia

TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ... The binding of TNF to its receptor and its displacement by LT confirmed the functional homology between the two factors. The ... The primary role of TNF is in the regulation of immune cells. TNF, being an endogenous pyrogen, is able to induce fever, ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TNF-alpha

Tumor necrosis factor alpha - WikipediaTumor necrosis factor alpha - Wikipedia

The binding of TNF to its receptor and its displacement by LT confirmed the functional homology between the two factors. The ... The primary role of TNF is in the regulation of immune cells. TNF, being an endogenous pyrogen, is able to induce fever, ... TNFA) was cloned in 1985. It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kilobases and contains 4 exons. The last exon shares ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tumor_necrosis_factor_alpha

Hepatitis C Virus Induced Endothelial Inflammatory Response Depends on the Functional Expression of TNF alpha Receptor Subtype 2Hepatitis C Virus Induced Endothelial Inflammatory Response Depends on the Functional Expression of TNF alpha Receptor Subtype 2

... effects of viral RNA are specifically mediated by TLR3 and significantly enhanced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa). HCV- ... We provide evidence for a role of receptors of the innate immune system in virally induced inflammation of the endothelium in ... Hepatitis C Virus Induced Endothelial Inflammatory Response Depends on the Functional Expression of TNF alpha Receptor Subtype ... RNA induces the endothelial expression of TNFa and TNFa receptor subtype 2 and we provide evidence that leucocyte adhesion and ...
more infohttps://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/33353/

OPUS Würzburg | SearchOPUS Würzburg | Search

... the role of IFN-c in lung endothelial cells (LEC) is less defined. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) is another mediator ... To study the functional role of CTGF in LEC, endogenous CTGF expression was down-regulated by a lentiviral system. CTGF ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) plays a key role in airway remodeling and has been implicated in the pathogenesis ... Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is an angiogenetic and profibrotic factor, acting downstream of TGF-b, involved in ...
more infohttps://opus.bibliothek.uni-wuerzburg.de/solrsearch/index/search/searchtype/authorsearch/author/Christian+P.+Speer

TNFA2 and d2 alleles of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism are associated with onset/occurrence of idiopathic...TNFA2 and d2 alleles of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism are associated with onset/occurrence of idiopathic...

For -308 TNFA polymorphism, distribution of genotypes was significantly different between IMN and controls (chi(2)=16.25; P= ... We have analyzed genotypes and alleles distributions and the role of these polymorphisms in disease progression towards end- ... We have studied the influence of two functional polymorphisms; the -308 (promoter region) and the TNFd microsatellites on ... TNFA2 and d2 alleles of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism are associated with onset/occurrence of idiopathic ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=25268

A Relaxing Way To Cut Heart Disease Risk 50%A Relaxing Way To Cut Heart Disease Risk 50%

... and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) levels in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: 54 breast cancer survivors completed the ... Diagnosis Disclosure: Patient Preferences and the Role of the Breast Nurse Navigator. ... Secondary outcomes included valve function, functional status, and quality of life at follow-up. RESULTS: Mean (± standard ... NRK-2 expression dramatically increases in mouse and human ischemic heart however, the specific role of NRK-2 in the ...
more infohttps://medworm.com/736515205/a-relaxing-way-to-cut-heart-disease-risk-50/

Geographic tongue and psoriasis: clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic correlation - a literature reviewGeographic tongue and psoriasis: clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic correlation - a literature review

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha -238 and -308 as ... Investigation of functional gene polymorphisms: IL-1B, IL-6 and TNFA in benign migratory glossitis in Brazilian individuals. J ... 41 Cabrijan L, Lipozencic J, Batinac T, Peternel S, Pastar Z. The role of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes and macrophages in psoriasis ... Psychosomatic factors are mentioned as possible etiological factors due to the clinical observation that outbreak or ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0365-05962016000400410&lng=en&tlng=en

SEA133Gu | 肿瘤坏死因子α(TNFa)检测试剂盒(酶联免疫吸附试验法) | Cavia (Guinea pig ,SEA133Gu | 肿瘤坏死因子α(TNFa)检测试剂盒(酶联免疫吸附试验法) | Cavia (Guinea pig ,

TNFa), 肿瘤坏死因子α(TNFa)检测试剂盒(酶联免疫吸附试验法), DIF; TNF-A; TNFSF2; Cachectin; Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 2 , ... 肿瘤坏死因子α(TNFa)检测试剂盒(酶联免疫吸附试验法). ELISA Kit for Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFa). DIF; TNF-A; TNFSF2; Cachectin; Tumor Necrosis ... possible roles of Rho kinase- and AMP kinase-mediated nuclear factor κB signaling pathways [Pubmed:26758998]. ... Journal of Functional Foods. Impact of purified oat 1-3
more infohttp://www.uscnk.cn/uscn/ELISA-Kit-for-Guinea-Pig-Tumor-Necrosis-Factor-Alpha-TNF-a-2563.htm

Leicester Research Archive: Proinsulin C-peptide : activation of intracellular signalling pathways and modulation of...Leicester Research Archive: Proinsulin C-peptide : activation of intracellular signalling pathways and modulation of...

C-peptide is able to protect against tumor necrosis factor-alpha- (TNF-a) induced proximal tubular cells toxicity. Stimulation ... In recent years an increasingly substantial body of data, supports a role for C-peptide in several biological activities. ... C-peptide was found to be a functional mitogen in this cell type stimulating significantly increased cell proliferation. ... Incubation of cells with 300ng/ml TNF-a for 24 hours induced apoptosis, but C-peptide pr-etreatment protected against TNF-a ...
more infohttps://lra.le.ac.uk/handle/2381/29949

Efficacy, safety, and synovial effects of intra-articular hyaluronic acid in treating recalcitrant hemophilic arthropathy of...Efficacy, safety, and synovial effects of intra-articular hyaluronic acid in treating recalcitrant hemophilic arthropathy of...

... and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) leading to chronic proliferative synovitis, hypervascularity, cartilage damage, and ... role limitation due to physical health problems, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role limitation due ... reported 27 hemophilic patients with a mean 7-year follow-up who had excellent results regarding pain relief and functional ... Immunolocalization of stromelysin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, and TNF receptors in atrophied canine articular cartilage ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Efficacy%2C+safety%2C+and+synovial+effects+of+intra-articular+hyaluronic...-a0571910499

Anti-apoptotic and Pro-inflammatory Signaling in Cancer Cells : Status and Modulation by Chemotherapeutic DrugsAnti-apoptotic and Pro-inflammatory Signaling in Cancer Cells : Status and Modulation by Chemotherapeutic Drugs

NFkB in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells could not be activated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) due to absence of the ... The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkB) plays a pivotal role in the immune response but is also involved in ... Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells possess a functional NFkB pathway exhibiting basal NFkB activity in unstimulated cells ... NFkB in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells could not be activated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) due to absence of the ...
more infohttps://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/7880

A Role for Sphingolipids in Producing the Common Features of Type 2 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome X, and Cushings Syndrome |...A Role for Sphingolipids in Producing the Common Features of Type 2 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome X, and Cushing's Syndrome |...

Uysal KT, Wiesbrock SM, Hotamisligil GS: Functional analysis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) receptors in TNF-alpha-mediated ... Uysal KT, Wiesbrock SM, Marino WM, Hotamisligil GS: Protection from obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking TNF-a ... Hotamisligil GS, Shargill NS, Spiegelman BM: Adipose expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: direct role in obesity-linked ... Solomon SS, Usdan LS, Palazzolo MR: Mechanisms involved in tumor necrosis factor-alpha induction of insulin resistance and its ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/54/3/591

Polymorphisms of TNF-enhancer and gene for FcγRIIa correlate with the severity of falciparum malaria in the ethnically diverse...Polymorphisms of TNF-enhancer and gene for FcγRIIa correlate with the severity of falciparum malaria in the ethnically diverse...

... sites in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene (TNFA) promoter. Genes Immun. 2001, 2: 105-109. 10.1038/sj.gene.6363721.View ... Functional role of IgG subclasses. Res Immunol. 1990, 141: 529-42. 10.1016/0923-2494(90)90021-P.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ... Tsytsykova AV, Goldfeld AE: Inducer-specific enhanceosome formation controls Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha gene expression in T ... Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) is involved in multiple inflammatory and immune responses and plays an important role in the ...
more infohttps://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2875-7-13

Tumor necrosis factor alpha - wikidocTumor necrosis factor alpha - wikidoc

The binding of TNF to its receptor and its displacement by LT confirmed the functional homology between the two factors. The ... The primary role of TNF is in the regulation of immune cells. TNF, being an endogenous pyrogen, is able to induce fever, ... The human TNF gene (TNFA) was cloned in 1985.[18] It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kilobases and contains 4 exons. ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...
more infohttp://es.wikidoc.org/index.php/Tumor_necrosis_factor_alpha

Nham Tran | University of Technology SydneyNham Tran | University of Technology Sydney

... or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a)- induced cell death in colorectal cancer cells. We demonstrate the utility of this ... MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which play an important role in tumor metastasis by targeting genes involved in ... Tran, NT, Cairns, MJ, Dawes, IW & Arndt, GM 2003, Expressing functional siRNAs in mammalian cells using convergent ... or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)- induced cell death in colorectal cancer cells. We demonstrate the utility of this ...
more infohttps://www.uts.edu.au/staff/nham.tran

CCL17 | definition of CCL17 by Medical dictionaryCCL17 | definition of CCL17 by Medical dictionary

... tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a); IL-6; and IL-17 and CC and CXC chemokines CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, and ... Phenotypic and functional characterization of tumour infiltrating t cells in cervical cancer ... Role of chemokine receptor CCR4 and its ligand thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine CCL17 for lymphocyte recruitment in ... CCL17 binds CCR4 and CCR8, is chemotactic for T cells (but not monocytes or granulocytes), and plays key roles in T-cell ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/CCL17

Proinflammatory legal definition of proinflammatoryProinflammatory legal definition of proinflammatory

... and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and various chemokines such as CXC and CC chemokines CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, ... This patent pertains to the discovery that the functional polymorphism (Ser/Gly248) in the cytoplasmic domain of Fc alpha ... role of leptin ... Human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNF-RI) and ... Spurious tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] and interleukin-6 production by human monocytes from blood collected in endotoxin- ...
more infohttp://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/proinflammatory

Cinnamon in Anticancer Armamentarium: A Molecular ApproachCinnamon in Anticancer Armamentarium: A Molecular Approach

... tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2). The expressions of these cytokines remained almost the same ... 5. Role of Cinnamon on Apoptosis. Apoptosis or programmed cell death, a complex interplay among numerous functional molecules ... An increased expression of cytolytic factors, IFNc and TNF-a, has been observed in CE treated cells as compared to the control ... In this process, hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) play pivotal roles. In B16F10 and Clone ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2018/8978731/

Pharmaceuticals  | Free Full-Text | Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases |...Pharmaceuticals | Free Full-Text | Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases |...

... inhibits tumor necrosis factor-a production by the activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons and reduces the severity ... Further studies are required to clarify the role of TRPV1 and neuropeptides, which are released because of TRPV1 activation in ... attenuate renal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a mRNA expression, increase renal interleukin (IL)-10 mRNA expression, and improve ... Somatostatin reduces the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in a rat model of endotoxemia induced by lipopolysaccharide. Res ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/5/8/837/htm

A Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Golimumab (CNTO 148) in Subjects With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Previously Treated With...A Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Golimumab (CNTO 148) in Subjects With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Previously Treated With...

Golimumab is a fully human protein (antibody) which binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa). TNFa is increased in patients ... This 20-question instrument assesses the degree of difficulty a person has in accomplishing tasks in 8 functional areas ( ... with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and plays a major role in causing the joint pain, swelling and damage from RA. Other marketed ... Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (GO-AFTER ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00299546

Effect of photodynamic therapy on the extracellular matrix and associated componentsEffect of photodynamic therapy on the extracellular matrix and associated components

... and factors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and interleukins (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) may also have a ... functional activity of matrix-associated growth factors such as TGF-ß and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and decreased ... Role of thromboxane and prostacyclin release on photodynamic therapy-induced tumor destruction. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 2599-2603. ... Growth factors and growth factor receptors. Growth factors are polypeptides that control the growth and differentiation of ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2007000800002

Polymorphisms of Cytokine Genes in Genital Endometriosis | Springer for Research & DevelopmentPolymorphisms of Cytokine Genes in Genital Endometriosis | Springer for Research & Development

F. Wieser, G. Fabjani, C. Tempfer, et al., "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotor polymorphisms and endometriosis," J. Soc. ... T. Harada, T. Iwabe, and N. Terakawa, "Role of cytokines in endometriosis," Fertil. Steril., 76, No. 1, 1-10 (2001).PubMed ... Gromova, "Functional polymorphism of the genes for regulatory cytokines," Tsitokin. Vospal., 4, No. 1, 3-12 (2005).Google ... the G-308A polymorphism of the TNFA gene (A allele and AA genotype), and the C-590T polymorphism of the TGFB (T allele and CT ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11055-019-00825-w
  • Thus, Mecp2 is required for tnfa expression during zebrafish development and inflammation. (biologists.org)
  • We provide evidence for a role of receptors of the innate immune system in virally induced inflammation of the endothelium in vitro and in vivo. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We recently demonstrated that SA13353 (1-[2-(1-adamantyl)ethyl]-1-pentyl-3-[3-(4-pyridyl)propyl]urea), a novel TRPV1 agonist, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-a production by the activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons and reduces the severity of symptoms in kidney injury, lung inflammation, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis. (mdpi.com)
  • Further studies are required to clarify the role of TRPV1 and neuropeptides, which are released because of TRPV1 activation in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • 2016) Mangiferin inhibits macrophage classical activation via downregulating interferon regulatory factor 5 expression. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the focus of the present paper is related to the effects of PDT observed on the extracellular matrix and on the molecules associated with it, such as, adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, growth factors, and immunological mediators. (scielo.br)
  • In 1968, Gale A Granger from the University of California, Irvine , reported a cytotoxic factor produced by lymphocytes and named it lymphotoxin (LT). Credit for this discovery is shared by Nancy H. Ruddle from Yale University , who reported the same activity in a series of back-to-back articles published in the same month. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data emphasizes the need for addressing the contribution of human genetic factors in malaria in the context of disease epidemiology and population genetic substructure within India. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previously, we showed that an oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) with AAAG repeats (AAAG ODN) rescued mice from fatal acute lung injury (ALI) induced by influenza virus and inhibited production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF - α) in the injured lungs. (springer.com)
  • This ability to neutralize the collagenases, stromelysins, gelatinases, and membrane-type-MMPs that destroy basement membranes and tissue matrices is central to their potency as suppressors of tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. (springer.com)
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over-expression of the high risk E6 oncoprotein down-regulated miR-496, impacting upon the post-transcriptional control of the transcription factor E2F2. (edu.au)
  • In recent years an increasingly substantial body of data, supports a role for C-peptide in several biological activities. (le.ac.uk)
  • Home » Antibody News » B-cell activating factor (BAFF) - keep the level steady! (novusbio.com)
  • BAFF belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, and its downstream signaling plays a critical role in B-cell survival and maturation. (novusbio.com)
  • Downregulation of TNF-R1 by HDIs could also be shown for other tumor entities and normal cell lines. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV), notably type 16, is a risk factor for up to 75% of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). (edu.au)
  • Blobel C. P. (1997) Metalloprotease-Disintegrins: Links to cell adhesion and cleavage of TNFa and Notch. (springer.com)
  • NRK-2 expression dramatically increases in mouse and human ischemic heart however, the specific role of NRK-2 in the pathophysiology of ischemic cardiac diseases is u. (medworm.com)
  • The first is to understand the expression and role of miRNAs in the development of head and neck cancer. (edu.au)
  • It has been demonstrated that small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs play a vital role in the cellular transformation process. (edu.au)
  • Der Transkriptionsfaktor NFkB (nuclear factor kappa-B) ist ein zentraler Mediator des Immunsystems. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Responses in each functional area are scored from 0, indicating no difficulty, to 3, indicating inability to perform a task in that area based on the worst score from the questions that pertain to that task. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 2008) Insights into interferon regulatory factor activation from the crystal structure of dimeric IRF5. (springer.com)
  • 18 ] Functional activation of microglia and astrocytes and the resulting neuroinflammation are associated with infection, autoimmunity, and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. (nnjournal.net)
  • We discuss known miRNA to miRNA interactions, potential mechanisms, and their role in cancer. (edu.au)
  • Another recent autoimmune review from Lanteri's group examined the role of serum free light chains of immunoglobulins (sFLC) in systemic sclerosis (SSc)2. (novusbio.com)
  • In addition to this aim, we were compelled to investigate if these exosomal molecules also had a major role in cancer development. (edu.au)
  • Repeated joint bleeding leads to chronic synovitis, cartilage damage and bony destruction, which is associated with the limitation of range of motion (ROM), pain, muscle atrophy, functional impairment and poor quality of life. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The main factors determining whether chronic conditions are induced by metals appear to be exposure and genetic, which determines individuals' immune sensitivity and ability to excrete and detoxify metals. (amalgam.org)
  • ALS is not a unique disease with a single cause or factor, but instead it is a result of damage to motor neurons and the motor neurons' support system. (amalgam.org)
  • genetic factors are then computationally predicted by identifying genomic regions where the pattern of genetic variation correlates with the distribution of trait values among the inbred strains. (stanford.edu)
  • Secondary outcomes included valve function, functional status, and quality of life at follow-up. (medworm.com)
  • An alternative explanation is that fat-derived circulating factors initiate the various deleterious manifestations of these diseases ( 7 - 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)