Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Membrane Transport Modulators: Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cathepsin F: A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.Fructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Alkyl and Aryl Transferases: A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.5' Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Organelle Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Enzyme Assays: Methods used to measure the relative activity of a specific enzyme or its concentration in solution. Typically an enzyme substrate is added to a buffer solution containing enzyme and the rate of conversion of substrate to product is measured under controlled conditions. Many classical enzymatic assay methods involve the use of synthetic colorimetric substrates and measuring the reaction rates using a spectrophotometer.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Umbelliferones: 7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Corpora Allata: Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Cell SeparationATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Dicarboxylic AcidsVoltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2: Voltage-dependent anion channel 2 is a low abundance mammalian isoform of VDAC that interacts with the inactive form of BAK PROTEIN.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
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... functional expression and enzymatic characterization". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 75 (2): 377-86. doi:10.1007/s00253-006-0836 ... Suzuki Y, Yoda T, Ruhul A, Sugiura W (2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of the gene coding for azoreductase from ... Matsumoto K, Mukai Y, Ogata D, Shozui F, Nduko JM, Taguchi S, Ooi T (2009). "Characterization of thermostable FMN-dependent ...
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Coughlin SR, Vu TK, Hung DT, Wheaton VI (Feb 1992). "Characterization of a functional thrombin receptor. Issues and ... Wojtukiewicz MZ, Tang DG, Ben-Josef E, Renaud C, Walz DA, Honn KV (Feb 1995). "Solid tumor cells express functional "tethered ... Vu TK, Hung DT, Wheaton VI, Coughlin SR (Mar 1991). "Molecular cloning of a functional thrombin receptor reveals a novel ... Schmidt VA, Vitale E, Bahou WF (Apr 1996). "Genomic cloning and characterization of the human thrombin receptor gene. ...
Functional Plant Biology, 35, 1183-1193. McGeehan, G., Burkhart, W., Anderegg, R., Becherer, J. D., Gillikin, J. W., & Graham, ... Sequencing and Characterization of the Soybean Leaf Metalloproteinase. Plant Physiol., 99, 1179-1183. Carrilho, D., Duarte, I ... Functional Plant Biology, 35, 1183-1193. McGeehan, G., Burkhart, W., Anderegg, R., Becherer, J. D., Gillikin, J. W., & Graham, ... The ECM has a functional structure, along with aid in the regulation of turgor, which acts as a protective barrier and ...
Alpy F, Latchumanan VK, Kedinger V, Janoshazi A, Thiele C, Wendling C, Rio MC, Tomasetto C (2005). "Functional characterization ...
Liu X, Zhang C, Xing G, Chen Q, He F (Feb 2001). "Functional characterization of novel human ARFGAP3". FEBS Lett. 490 (1-2): 79 ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ... "Characterization, chromosomal assignment, and tissue expression of a novel human gene belonging to the ARF GAP family". ...
Molecular cloning, biochemical and functional characterization". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (51): 39954-63. doi:10.1074/jbc.M001562200 ... 2004). "Molecular identification and functional roles of a Ca2+-activated K+ channel in human and mouse hearts". J. Biol. Chem ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ...
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Cloning, tissue distribution, and functional characterization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (45): 35486-35490. doi ... Functional interaction of carbonic anhydrase II and chloride/bicarbonate exchangers". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 ... Piermarini, Peter M.; Choi, Inyeong; Boron, Walter F. (2007-06-01). "Cloning and characterization of an electrogenic Na/HCO3- ...
... functional characterization and interindividual variability". Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. 20 (1): 45-57. doi:10.1097/FPC. ... "Entrez Gene: ABCB11". Noé J, Stieger B, Meier PJ (Nov 2002). "Functional expression of the canalicular bile salt export pump of ...
Sequence analysis, expression, and functional characterization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (45): 26931-9. doi: ... Sequence analysis, expression, and functional characterization". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (45): 26931-9. doi: ... "cDNA cloning and molecular characterization of human brain metalloprotease MP100: a beta-secretase candidate?". Journal of ...
In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, a unitary operator is a surjective bounded operator on a Hilbert space ... ISBN 0-387-97245-5. Doran, Robert S.; Belfi (1986). Characterizations of C*-Algebras: The Gelfand-Naimark Theorems. New York: ... 127, page 69 Conway 1990, Proposition I.5.2 Conway 1990, Definition I.5.1 Conway, J. B. (1990). A Course in Functional Analysis ...
The delta-functional, i.e., the collection of the infinite number of delta-functions, ensures that only solutions of the ... doi:10.1016/0550-3213(80)90460-5. Nicolai, H. (1980-01-28). "On a new characterization of scalar supersymmetric theories". ... In the standard manner, the dynamical partition function can be promoted to the generating functional by coupling the model to ... Namely, one considers the following functional integral, W = ⟨ ∫ … ∫ J ( ∏ τ δ ( x ˙ ( τ ) − F ( x ( τ ) ) ) ) D x ⟩ noise , {\ ...
2003). "One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications". Advanced Materials. 15 (5): 353-389. ... and Advanced Functional Materials (2001-). He has also served as a Guest Editor of special issues for Advanced Materials, ... Advanced Functional Materials]], MRS Bulletin, and Accounts of Chemical Research. Xia has received a number of prestigious ... Advanced Functional Materials. 13 (12): 907-918. doi:10.1002/adfm.200300002. Xia, Y.; Yang, P.; Sun, Y.; et al. ( ...
James MA, Wen W, Wang Y, Byers LA, Heymach JV, Coombes KR, Girard L, Minna J, You M (2012). "Functional Characterization of ...
... biochemical and functional characterization". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 182 (5): 1301-14. doi:10.1084/jem.182.5. ... and acts as functional receptor for platelet factor 4". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 197 (11): 1537-49. doi:10.1084/ ... "Binding and functional properties of recombinant and endogenous CXCR3 chemokine receptors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... "Binding and functional properties of recombinant and endogenous CXCR3 chemokine receptors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
"Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a novel mammalian sphingosine kinase type 2 isoform". The Journal of ... "Functional characterization of human sphingosine kinase-1". FEBS Letters. 473 (1): 81-4. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01510-6. ... "Molecular cloning and functional characterization of murine sphingosine kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (37 ... functional characterization and tissue distribution". Gene. 251 (1): 19-26. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00205-5. PMID 10863092. ...
In chemistry, a ketone /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is a functional group with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon- ... CharacterizationEdit. An aldehyde differs from a ketone because of its hydrogen atom attached to its carbonyl group, making ... For some common chemicals (mainly in biochemistry), keto or oxo refer to the ketone functional group. The term oxo is used ... Ketones are also distinct from other carbonyl-containing functional groups, such as carboxylic acids, esters and amides.[5] ...
Characterization of acute functional tolerance to the hypnotic effects of ethanol in mice. *Ponomarev I ... Initial sensitivity and acute functional tolerance (AFT) to ethanol were assessed in the same group of mice by quantifying BEC ...
Functional characterization and inhibition of the type II DNA topoisomerase coded by African swine fever virus. *Coelho J ... Coelho, J., Ferreira, F., Martins, C., & Leitão, A. (2016). Functional characterization and inhibition of the type II DNA ...
Functional characterization of odorant receptors in the ponerine ant, Harpegnathos saltator. Jesse D. Slone, Gregory M. Pask, ... Functional characterization of odorant receptors in the ponerine ant, Harpegnathos saltator Message Subject (Your Name) has ... We prioritized the characterization of HsOrs that showed enrichment in antennae of males and workers or which belong to OR ... was given to HsOrs that lie phylogenetically outside of the nine-exon subfamily in light of the functional characterization of ...
Composition and functional characterization of yeast 66S ribosome assembly intermediates.. Harnpicharnchai P1, Jakovljevic J, ...
Chen F, Hodson RE (2001) In situ PCR/RT-PCR coupled with in situ hybridization for detection of functional gene and gene ... Dhillon A, Teske A, Dillon J, Stahl DA, Sogin ML (2003) Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Guaymas ... Isolation and characterization of a thermophilic, sulfate reducing archaebacterium, Archaeoglobus fulgidus strain Z. Syst Appl ...
... The group focuses on revealing the chemistry, structure and mechanics of native and ... Ultrastructural and mechanical characterization of native and functionalized plant cell walls via atomic force microscopy. ... Characterization of wood adhesive and primer systems on a cell wall level. Within ... 2] Casdorff K., Keplinger T., Burgert I.: Nano-mechanical characterization of the wood cell wall by AFM studies - comparison ...
Genetic and functional characterization of clonally derived adult human brown adipocytes.. Shinoda K1, Luijten IH2, Hasegawa Y1 ...
Ruppelt A, Liang BT, Soto F (1999) Cloning, functional characterization and developmental expression of a P2X receptor from ... Pharmacological and molecular characterization of functional P2 receptors in rat embryonic cardiomyocytes. ... Bogdanov Y, Rubino A, Burnstock G (1998) Characterisation of subtypes of the P2X and P2Y families of receptors in the foetal ... Ruppelt A, Ma W, Borchardt K, Silberberg SD, Soto F (2001) Genomic structure, developmental distribution and functional ...
Functional characterization of a eukaryotic melibiose transporter.. [Ulrike Lingner, Steffen Münch, Björn Sode, Holger B ... Functional characterization of the MBT1 protein in bakers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) expressing the MBT1 cDNA revealed ... Here, we report on the identification and characterization of MELIBIOSE TRANSPORTER1 (MBT1) from the hemibiotrophic fungus ...
Functional characterization of pathogenic human MSH2 missense mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Alison E Gammie, Naz ... Functional characterization of pathogenic human MSH2 missense mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Alison E Gammie, Naz ... Functional characterization of pathogenic human MSH2 missense mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Alison E Gammie, Naz ... Functional characterization of pathogenic human MSH2 missense mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Message Subject (Your Name ...
Functional Characterization of Intrinsic Cholinergic Interneurons in the Cortex. Jakob von Engelhardt, Marina Eliava, Axel H. ... To facilitate functional studies, we generated transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in ... Morphological and electrophysiological characterization of bipolar EGFP/ChAT-positive neurons. A, Reconstruction showing the ... Although these cells have been characterized anatomically, little is known about their functional role in cortical ...
Functional Characterization of HIP1R in Parkinson s Disease. Rapid Response Innovation Awards, 2014. ... By investigating the functional significance of new proteins involved in PD, the project will help to piece together the puzzle ... If successful, our project will lead to the characterization of HIP1R involvement in PD. It will be important for the future to ... Using molecular and cellular techniques, we will characterize the functional effects of these mutations on vesicle trafficking ...
Kim, Sang-Chul. Functional Characterization of Plant Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolases, dissertation, December 2010; Denton, Texas. ( ...
... Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008 Oct;295(4):C944-53. doi: ...
Identification and Functional Characterization of Cis-Regulatory Elements Controlling Expression of the Cached. * ... Molecular Characterization of Beta(2) Adrenergic Receptor Haplotypes - TJ (Show Context) Citation Context ... Human =-=(25,26)-=- and rat (1) ADRB2 promoterssshow similar functional organization.sThe results obtained in the present study ... Human =-=(25,26)-=- and rat (1) ADRB2 promoterssshow similar functional organization.sThe results obtained in the present study ...
Functional characterization of genetic enzyme variations in human lipoxygenases.. [Thomas Horn, Kumar Reddy Kakularam, Monika ... Due to a lack of a functional expression system we resigned to analyze the functionality of genetic variations in the hALOX12B ... In contrast, genetic variations which affect functional important amino acid residues or lead to truncated enzyme variations ( ... but for most of the described variations no functional data are available. Employing a combined bioinformatical and ...
Expression cloning and functional characterization of the kidney cortex high-affinity proton-coupled peptide transporter. M ... Expression cloning and functional characterization of the kidney cortex high-affinity proton-coupled peptide transporter ... Expression cloning and functional characterization of the kidney cortex high-affinity proton-coupled peptide transporter ... Expression cloning and functional characterization of the kidney cortex high-affinity proton-coupled peptide transporter ...
The present work focuses on structural and functional evaluation of the peptide analogue Pa-MAP, previously isolated as an ...
The functional profile of FCSQ correlates with the natural history of F. heteroclitus suggesting that the eurytolerant function ...
Journal Article: Structural and functional characterization of human and murine C5a anaphylatoxins ... A cell-based functional assay reveals that murine C5a-desArg, in contrast to its human counterpart, exerts the same level of ...
Functional Characterization of the Antibiotic Resistance Reservoir in the Human Microflora. By Morten O. A. Sommer, Gautam ... Functional Characterization of the Antibiotic Resistance Reservoir in the Human Microflora. By Morten O. A. Sommer, Gautam ... Functional Characterization of the Antibiotic Resistance Reservoir in the Human Microflora Message Subject. (Your Name) has ...
3D liver spheroids have been shown to have an enhanced functional lifespan compared to 2D monocultures; however a detailed ... Characterization of a functional C3A liver spheroid model H. Gaskell, P. Sharma, H. E. Colley, C. Murdoch, D. P. Williams and S ... 3D liver spheroids have been shown to have an enhanced functional lifespan compared to 2D monocultures; however a detailed ... characterisation of spatiotemporal function and structure of spheroids still needs further attention before widespread use in ...
Cloning, Expression, and Functional Characterization of TL1A-Ig. Samia Q. Khan, Matthew S. Tsai, Taylor H. Schreiber, Dietlinde ... Cloning, Expression, and Functional Characterization of TL1A-Ig. Samia Q. Khan, Matthew S. Tsai, Taylor H. Schreiber, Dietlinde ... Cloning, Expression, and Functional Characterization of TL1A-Ig Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Cloning, Expression, and Functional Characterization of TL1A-Ig. Samia Q. Khan, Matthew S. Tsai, Taylor H. Schreiber, Dietlinde ...
Cellular and functional characterization of TolDCs in vitro. DC-mediated T cell proliferation is known to be triggered by the ... Development and Functional Characterization of Murine Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells. Hsi-Ju Wei1, John J. Letterio2,3, Tej K. ... Wei, H. J., Letterio, J. J., Pareek, T. K. Development and Functional Characterization of Murine Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells. J ... We have already reported the functional characterization of CDDO-DFPA induced TolDCs37. T cell anergy and deletion of ...
  • Here, we report on the identification and characterization of MELIBIOSE TRANSPORTER1 (MBT1) from the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum graminicola (teleomorph Glomerella graminicola), the causal agent of leaf anthracnose and stalk rot disease in maize (Zea mays). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Both biosimilar ZRC-3197 and the originator HUMIRA ® appeared to show highly comparable key functional properties, as assessed by in vitro cell-based assay and surface plasmon resonance technique. (dovepress.com)
  • In Vitro Characterization of the Mechanisms Responsible for Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Denne videoen viser i detalj en in vitro single-fiber elektrofysiologisk registrering protokollen ved hjelp av en mus colorectum-nerve forberedelse. (jove.com)
  • Functional characterization of the MBT1 protein in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) expressing the MBT1 cDNA revealed that α-D-galactopyranosyl compounds such as melibiose, galactinol, and raffinose are substrates of MBT1, with melibiose most likely being the preferred substrate. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Despite the absence of a cytologically visible heterochromatin, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has distinct chromosomal regions which, like heterochromatin, confer a heritable state of transcriptional repression on otherwise functional promoters. (asm.org)
  • A new insight to understanding nanoparticle solvent interactions is provided using coarse-grained computational models and experimental characterization of oleate-capped NPs in various solvents. (rice.edu)
  • Functional characterization of four allelic variants of human cytochrome P450 1A2. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition, the group aims at using the wood inherent cellulose scaffold for the development of high performance novel functional composite materials. (empa.ch)
  • Various classes of chemoreceptors have been hypothesized to play essential roles in the origin and evolution of eusociality in ants, through their functional roles in pheromone detection that characterizes reproductive status and colony membership. (pnas.org)
  • We use these data to quantify the relationship between sequence and functional divergence, and to identify CpG deamination as a potentially important force in driving changes in enhancer activity during primate evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Composition and functional characterization of yeast 66S ribosome assembly intermediates. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of the microbial composition and quality of lightly salted grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets with vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This symposium proceedings volume represents the recent advances in various areas of deposition, processing, characterization and integration of functional oxide materials, with particular emphasis on the relationship among the structure, composition, stability and functional properties. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The analysis showed that graphene oxide layers, as well as oxidative debris contain different functional groups such as phenolic -OH, ketone, lactone, carboxyl, quinone and epoxy. (mdpi.com)
  • Aliyev E, Filiz V, Khan MM, Lee YJ, Abetz C, Abetz V. Structural Characterization of Graphene Oxide: Surface Functional Groups and Fractionated Oxidative Debris. (mdpi.com)
  • As the characteristic dimensions of oxide systems shrink into the nanometer range, there are increased technological challenges for synthesis, processing and characterization to ensure high uniformity, reproducibility and cost reduction. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Two distinct previously unreported variant chromosome breakage sequences were found, each in two or more functional Cbs elements. (genetics.org)
  • Furthermore, based on TPS enclaves created by distinct branching patterns, the TPS-d subfamily is divided into three groups according to sequence similarities and functional assessment. (uniprot.org)
  • Ku, H.-M. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene ( CmSPI ) in Potyviruses Resistance. (mdpi.com)
  • The functional characterization of a key enzyme in the phosphatidylinositol (PI) signaling pathway in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is the focus of the research summarised in this thesis. (dymocks.com.au)
  • Although presurgical network connectivity has been previously characterized in these patients, the objective of this study was to characterize presurgical to postsurgical functional network connectivity changes across the brain after mTLE surgery. (thejns.org)
  • Using modern surface characterization techniques, it is demonstrated that a chemical linker can be attached to polystyrene surfaces using carbene-based chemistry, and that further chemical functionality can be added to this chemical linker via an azo-coupling reaction. (bl.uk)
  • To that end, a class of alternating aliphatic polyketones (copolymers of ethylene and propylene with carbon monoxide, PK30) was functionalized with a variety of amines employing the Paal-Knorr reaction, a relatively straightforward reaction-route to synthesize functional polyketones. (degruyter.com)
  • In addition, to the determination of the macroscopic mechanical properties of the composites a special focus will be laid on a detailed characterization of the structural and mechanical characteristics on the cell wall level via atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to gain new insights into the relevant structure-function relationships at the micro- and nanoscale. (empa.ch)
  • However, little is known about cortical cholinergic neurons because their scarcity has precluded systematic functional/electrophysiological investigations. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using intrinsic signal optical imaging techniques, I characterized the functional properties of primary visual cortical retinotopic maps in Zic4 and Ten_m3 null mice and identified complementary changes in the ipsilateral representation of V1, as well as evidence for eye-specific mismatch in the cortical binocular zone. (mit.edu)
  • The reputation of NPL's expertise in functional materials has been built up through years of research and lies in the characterisation of materials that have some extra function apart from their obvious mechanical or chemical properties. (npl.co.uk)
  • A multi-functional OCT system tailored for small animal retinal imaging was utilized, providing OCT angiography (OCTA) and polarization-sensitive (PS)-OCT contrast in addition to the conventional reflectivity information. (arvojournals.org)
  • Although papillary muscle (PM) displacement is recognized in functional mitral regurgitation, its role in TR is less well characterized. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Surface functional groups of GO layers and the oxidative debris (OD) stacked on them were investigated after OD was extracted. (mdpi.com)