Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Connectome: A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Dichotic Listening Tests: Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Rest: Freedom from activity.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Nursing Theory: Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Adolescent Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSignal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.ReadingSystems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mice, Inbred C57BLAstrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical: The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Imagination: A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
How the Modern Age Is Rewiring Your Mind. Rodale. ISBN 978-1-59486-054-6. Inside the mind of a racist: scans may reveal brain's ... Liu, D., Sabbagh, M. A., Gehring, W. J., & Wellman, H. (2009). Neural correlates of children's theory of mind development. ... Masaki, H., Gehring, W. J., Takasawa, N., Yamazaki, K. (2004). The functional significance of the error-related negativity in ... Liu, D., Sabbagh, M. A., Gehring, W. J., & Wellman, H. (2009). Neural correlates of children's theory of mind development. ...
Fractionating theory of mind: a meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies. Ventral striatal activation during reward ... "Fractionating theory of mind: a meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 42 ... Rubia, K.; Alegria, A.A.; Cubillo, A.I.; Smith, A.B.; Brammer, M.J.; Radua, J. (2014). "Effects of stimulants on brain function ... He subsequently received his PhD in biostatistics of brain imaging at King's College London and conducted a Río Hortega ...
"Other minds in the brain: a functional imaging study of "theory of mind" in story comprehension". Cognition. 57 (2): 109-128. ... 2001). "Mind reading: neural mechanisms of theory of mind and self-perspective". NeuroImage. 14 (1 Pt 1): 170-81. doi:10.1006/ ... Mind, Brain (2010) Consciousness and the Social Brain (2013) The Spaces Between Us: A Story of Neuroscience, Evolution, and ... According to the attention schema theory, when the brain computes that person X is aware of thing Y, it is in effect modeling ...
"Unmediated resonance" is a similar theory by Goldman and Sripada (2004). Empathy can be a product of the functional mechanism ... in our brain that creates embodied simulation. The other we see or hear becomes the "other self" in our minds. Other ... In the brain, understanding and sharing other individuals' emotions would thus be a combination of emotional contagion and ... Research in humans shows an activation of the premotor cortex and parietal area of the brain for action perception and ...
The role of interoceptive inference in theory of mind. Brain and Cognition, 112, 64-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2015.08 ... 1999). Predictive coding in the visual cortex: a functional interpretation of some extra-classical receptive-field effects. ... Brain Structure and Function, 218(3), 611-643. Barrett, L. F. (2017). The theory of constructed emotion: An active inference ... As a mechanistic theory, predictive coding has not been mapped out physiologically on the neuronal level. One of the biggest ...
... is a philosophy about the mind and man's place in nature. It is a Darwinian theory, which considers language an ... Memes are meanings, i.e. iso-functional neuroanatomical constructs corresponding to signs in the sense of Ferdinand de Saussure ... organism residing in the human brain and claims that language is a memetic life form. Symbiosism is defined by the Leiden ... The symbiotic theory of language propounded by George van Driem grew out of the Leiden school of language evolution, fathered ...
Default mode network
Tsoukalas, Ioannis (2017). "Theory of Mind: Towards an Evolutionary Theory". Evolutionary Psychological Science. 4: 38-66. doi: ... "Functional Brain Networks Develop from a 'Local to Distributed' Organization". PLoS Computational Biology. 5 (5): e1000381. doi ... Deep brain stimulation - Alterations in brain activity with deep brain stimulation may be used to balance resting state ... Theory of mind: Thinking about the thoughts of others and what they might or might not know ...
Jeffrey Alan Gray
... because the theory claims that conscious experience relates only to functions performed in the brain, and does not arise as a ... 2002) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of synaesthesia: activation of V4/V8 by spoken words Nature Neuroscience 5, 371-5 ... 419-26 Quantum-mind Higgins, E. Tory (1997). Beyond Pleasure and Pain. American Psychologist, 52(12), 1280-1300. Reinforcement ... The brain was argued to take account of plans as to what to do next, plus memories of past regularities, in assessing what is ...
One theory of the mind that was examined in these experiments was the "brain as serial computer" philosophical metaphor of the ... These include the dual-code theory, the propositional theory, and the functional-equivalency hypothesis. The dual-code theory, ... Pinker, S. (1999). How the Mind Works. New York: Oxford University Press. Paivio, Allan. 1941. Dual Coding Theory. Theories of ... Pylyshyn, Zenon W (1973). "What the mind's eye tells the mind's brain: a critique of mental imagery". Psychological Bulletin. ...
Brain, 122(4), 657-666. Goel, V., & Dolan, R.J. (2001). The functional anatomy of humor: segregating cognitive and affective ... Samson, A.C. (2008). Cognitive and Neural Humor Processing: The influence of structural stimulus properties and Theory of Mind ... That is, even when a patient understands that a joke is funny (based on quantitative brain activity), they do not respond with ... Subjects with damage to this part of the brain show a preference for gallows humor. The frontal lobes are also ...
... theory of mind, and fairness. His research interests also include Social Cognitive Neuroscience, Neural Bases of Automatic and ... 1] UCLA  Putting Feelings Into Words  Brain Scans Reveal Why Meditation Works  Which ads are winners? Your brain knows ... Lieberman uses functional neuroimaging (fMRI) and neuropsychology to test new hypotheses regarding social cognition. Lieberman ... Lieberman, M. D. (2013). Social: Why our brains are wired to connect. New York, NY: Crown Lieberman, M. D. (2010). Social ...
Amen has produced television programs about his theories. One of them, "Change Your Brain, Change Your Life," was aired by PBS ... "Brain scans as mind readers? Don't believe the hype". Wired. Archived from the original on May 25, 2008. Retrieved 2014-03-11. ... Amen's clinics claim to have the world's largest database of functional brain scans for neuropsychiatry. As of 2009[update] ... Images of Human Behavior: A Brain SPECT Atlas (2004) ISBN 9781886554047. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Tucker, ...
Neural correlates of consciousness
Brain. 7: 1263-1289. Chalmers, D (1995). The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. Philosophy of Mind. Oxford: ... Villablanca J.R. (2004) Counterpointing the functional role of the forebrain and of the brainstem in the control of the sleep- ... "Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: A neurophysiological model of mind/brain interaction" (PDF). See Chalmers 1998 ... mind-body problem). Progress in neuropsychology and neurophilosophy has come from focusing on the body rather than the mind. In ...
It is explains a functional governor mechanism by which the mind coordinates attention and executes responsive action. ... Dual process theory According to the steering cognition model, dual process System 1 functions as a serial cognitive steering ... The brain's associative simulation capacity, centered around the imagination, plays an integrator role to perform this function ... "Mind.World". Retrieved 4 February 2016. Preece, Roger. "Understanding and Using Power". Retrieved 4 February 2016. Abell, Sarah ...
"What about theory of mind after severe brain injury?". Brain Injury. Taylor & Francis. 20 (1): 83-91. doi:10.1080/ ... Gallagher, Helen L.; Frith, Christopher D. (1 February 2003). "Functional imaging of 'theory of mind'". Trends in Cognitive ... Such an ability to develop a mental awareness of what is in the other minds is known as the theory of mind (ToM), and the "Mind ... Smukler, David (February 2005). "Unauthorized Minds: How 'Theory of Mind' Theory Misrepresents Autism". Mental Retardation. 43 ...
Neural processing for individual categories of objects
Functional neuroanatomy of face and object processing: a positron emission tomography study. Brain 115:15-36 Martin, A., Wiggs ... object recognition Domain specificity Face perception Modularity of mind Principles of grouping Structural information theory ... Thus it appears that tools and animals, at least, are not wholly processed by discrete brain areas (despite selective ... It may be that the use of distinct brain regions for processing different object categories results from different processing ...
Meltzoff, A. & Prinz, W. (2002). "The Imitative Mind: Development, Evolution and Brain Bases." Cambridge: Cambridge University ... This theory is at the core of what has been called Motor cognition. In neuroscience, evidence for the common coding theory ... to functional neuroimaging experiments in humans which indicate that the neural circuits involved in action execution partly ... cognitive psychology and philosophy of mind. He is the founder of the common coding theory between perception and action that ...
Other minds in the brain: A functional imaging study of "theory of mind" in story comprehension. Cognition, 57, 109-128. Happé ... "Theory of mind" in the brain. Evidence from a PET scan study of Asperger syndrome. NeuroReport, 8, 197-201. Happé, F. (1999) ... Her thesis was entitled Theory of Mind and Communication in Autism for which she was supervised by Uta Frith. Happé has held a ... As well as cognitive methods, her research has involved functional imaging studies, exploration of acquired brain lesions, and ...
One theory of the mind that was examined in these experiments was the "brain as serial computer" philosophical metaphor of the ... These include the dual-code theory, the propositional theory, and the functional-equivalency hypothesis. The dual-code theory, ... Pylyshyn, Zenon W (1973). "What the mind's eye tells the mind's brain: a critique of mental imagery". Psychological Bulletin. ... Kosslyn, Stephen M. (1983). Ghosts in the Mind's Machine: Creating and Using Images in the Brain. New York: Norton. ...
Imprinted brain theory
... theory which predicts the opposite. In both mild and severe autism and severe schizophrenia the theory of mind is impaired. ... Functional imaging shows overactivation of certain brain regions involved in social functioning in schizophrenia while the same ... The imprinted brain theory is a variant of the conflict theory of imprinting which argues that in diploid organisms, such as ... The imprinted brain theory is an evolutionary psychology theory regarding the causes of autism spectrum disorders and psychosis ...
Crone, Eveline A.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard (April 2011). "The developing brain: from theory to neuroimaging and back" (PDF). ... Johnson, M.H. (2000). "Functional brain development in infants: elements of an interactive specialization framework". Child ... Neural networks do not work in isolation, such as in the modularity of mind perspective. Instead, different regions interact ... The sensory systems limit the possible information the brain can receive and therefore act as a filter. However, the brain may ...
Magnificent Mind at Any Age: Natural Ways to Unleash Your Brain's Maximum Potential (2009) ISBN 9780307339102 ... Amen has produced television programs about his theories. One of them, "Change Your Brain, Change Your Life," was aired by PBS ... Amen's clinics claim to have the world's largest database of functional brain scans for neuropsychiatry. As of 2009[update] ... Change Your Brain, Change Your Body: Use Your Brain to Get and Keep the Body You Have Always Wanted (2010) ISBN 9780748124046 ...
Theory of mind requires the collaboration of functionally related regions of the brain to form the distinction between self and ... a functional MRI study". Schizophrenia Research. 134 (2-3): 158-64. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2011.08.019. PMID 21943555. Lee, J; ... In general the theory of mind process is mediated by the dopaminergic-serotonergic system, which involves the TPJ as well as ... Studies also show that there is a relation between theory of mind and moral judgment, once again signifying the role of the ...
Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian (2009-11-30). "Prefrontal Structural and Functional Brain Imaging findings in Antisocial, Violent, ... "affective theory of mind" is associated with right ventromedial prefrontal damage". Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology. 18 (1 ... Brain: A Journal of Neurology. 132 (Pt 3): 617-627. doi:10.1093/brain/awn279. PMID 18971202. Iacoboni, Marco; Mazziotta, John C ... The main brain regions that are involved in the regulation of moral cognition and behavior are those of the ventromedial ...
Functionalism (philosophy of mind)
... can be independent of the functional relations in the brain. Thus, it begs the question of functional mental states: its ... Armstrong, D.M. (1968). A Materialistic Theory of the Mind. London: RKP. Putnam, Hilary. (1960). "Minds and Machines". ... 1975a). Mind, Language, and Reality. Cambridge: CUP. Searle, John (1980). "Minds, Brains and Programs". Behavioral and Brain ... Searle, John (1980). "Minds, Brains and Programs". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 3. doi:10.1017/s0140525x00005756. Archived ...
Functional specialization (brain) Behavioral neuroscience Evolutionary psychology Povinelli D., Preuss T (1995). Theory of mind ... Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31(02), 109-130. PMID 18479531 C. M. Heyes (1998). Theory of mind in nonhuman primates. ... doi 10.1073/pnas.122352999 PMID 12177409 Heyes, C.M. (1998). Theory of mind in nonhuman primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences ... Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behav. Sci. 4: 515-526 Pinker, S. (1999). How the mind works. Annals of the New York ...
Common coding theory
For instance, one functional MRI study demonstrated that the brain's response to the 2/3 power law of motion (i.e., which ... Sperry, R.W. (1952). "Neurology and the mind-body problem". American Scientist. 40: 291-312. Massaro, D. W. (1990). An ... As concerns mirror systems, common coding seems to reflect the functional logic of mirror neurons and mechanisms in the brain. ... Common coding theory is a cognitive psychology theory describing how perceptual representations (e.g. of things we can see and ...
Dual-coding theory Functional specialization (brain) Lateralization of brain function Roger Sperry Split-brain Edwards, Betty ( ... ISBN 978-0-553-37492-6. Schwartz, Tony (December 11, 1989). "The Art of the Mind". New York Magazine. pp. 42-59. ISSN 0028-7369 ... Underlying the method is the notion that the brain has two ways of perceiving and processing reality - one verbal and analytic ... Her company, Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain, develops special drawing tools, materials, and videos to help individuals ...
... theory of mind, and empathy. Brain Struct Funct, 2011". Brain Structure and Function. 217: 783-796. 2012-01-24. doi:10.1007/ ... 2010). "A functional imaging investigation of moral deliberation and moral intuition". NeuroImage. 49: 2707-2716. doi:10.1016/j ... and in particular the development of theory of mind abilities. The brain areas that are consistently involved when humans ... Other theories are that increasing complexity was simply a correlate of increasing group size and brain size, ...
Structural and functional brain correlates of theory of mind impairment post-stroke - DRO
Structural and functional brain correlates of theory of mind impairment post-stroke. Dominguez Duque, Juan F, Nott, Zoie, Horne ... Structural and functional brain correlates of theory of mind impairment post-stroke ... Structural and functional brain correlates of theory of mind impairment post-stroke, Cortex, vol. 121, pp. 427-442, doi: ... Theory of mind. Lesion symptom mapping. Stroke. Social neuroscience. Reading the mind in the eyes. Social cognition ...
Frontiers | The Functional Architecture of the Brain Underlies Strategic Deception in Impression Management | Human Neuroscience
... results suggest that different social strategies are supported by distinct patterns of directional connectivity among key brain ... results suggest that different social strategies are supported by distinct patterns of directional connectivity among key brain ... Are there theory of mind regions in the brain? a review of the neuroimaging literature. Hum. Brain Mapp. 30, 2313-2335. doi: ... Brain functional integration can be investigated by the statistical models of the information flows traveling among brain ...
The reorienting system of the human brain: from environment to theory of mind. - PubMed - NCBI
Functional Connectivity Defines Separate Dorsal and Ventral Networks. (Top panel) Four dorsal frontoparietal regions from the ... The reorienting system of the human brain: from environment to theory of mind.. Corbetta M1, Patel G, Shulman GL. ... The Reorienting System of the Human Brain: From Environment to Theory of Mind ... The Reorienting System of the Human Brain: From Environment to Theory of Mind ...
Examining brain structures associated with dispositional envy and the mediation role of emotional intelligence | Scientific...
Gallagher, H. L. & Frith, C. D. Functional imaging of theory of mind. Trends Cogn. Sci. 7, 77-83 (2003). ... Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression. Brain ... Van Overwalle, F. Social cognition and the brain: a meta-analysis. Hum Brain Mapp. 30, 829-858 (2009). ... Figure 1: Brain regions exhibiting positive correlation with dispositional envy.. Regional gray matter volumes (GMV) in the ...
Amygdala lesions do not compromise the cortical network for false-belief reasoning | PNAS
2014) Fractionating theory of mind: A meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 42:9-34. ... 2009) Are there theory of mind regions in the brain? A review of the neuroimaging literature. Hum Brain Mapp 30(8):2313-2335. ... 2004) The impact of early and late damage to the human amygdala on theory of mind reasoning. Brain 127(Pt 7):1535-1548. ... 2004) The impact of extensive medial frontal lobe damage on Theory of Mind and cognition. Brain 127(Pt 4):914-928. ...
Color Theory Presented by Dr. Amanda Pike from The Florida Art Therap…
... mind-color" and may relate to gamma brain wave states Brain Wave Experience Effect Gamma Enhanced memory, speed of thought, ... 2004) Consciousness and Recognition of Five Colors-Using Functional-MRI and Brain Wave Measurements. J Intl Soc Life Info Sci ... Color Theory Presented by Dr. Amanda Pike from The Florida Art Therapy Association * 1. Color Theory & Art Therapy Amanda ... 9. Color and the Brain Color has a profound impact on the brain. Color is a fundamental aspect of human perception, and it ...
Cognitively preserved MS patients demonstrate functional differences in processing neutral and emotional faces | SpringerLink
2009). Evidence for deficits in facial affect recognition and theory of mind in multiple sclerosis. Journal of the ... 2011). The functional correlates of face perception and recognition of emotional facial expressions as evidenced by fMRI. Brain ... 2002). Functional brain reorganization for hand movement in patients with multiple sclerosis: defining distinct effects of ... Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews, 45(2), 96-103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
[email protected]: Browsing Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences by Title
What functional magnetic resonance imaging can tell us about theory of mind ... Wandering minds, restless brains and mindful thinking : a network-based perspective Keller, Joseph Barrington (Massachusetts ... To have a theory of mind is to be able to explain and predict human behaviours and experiences in terms of mental states: ... and that variation may be related to individual differences in the intrinsic functional architecture of the human brain. Such ...
Frontiers | Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Temporoparietal Junction and Inferior Frontal Cortex Improves...
This finding conflicts with results from previous brain imaging studies, which could be attributed to methodological ... Lesions to brain regions such as the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and inferior frontal cortex (IFC) are thought to cause ... Lesions to brain regions such as the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and inferior frontal cortex (IFC) are thought to cause ... Fractionating theory of mind: a meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 42, 9-34. doi: ...
Neural correlates of anchoring-and-adjustment during mentalizing | PNAS
1995) Other minds in the brain: A functional imaging study of "theory of mind" in story comprehension. Cognition 57:109-128. ... 2000) Reading the mind in cartoons and stories: An fMRI study of theory of mind in verbal and nonverbal tasks. ... 1992) Why the childs theory of mind is really a theory. Mindand Language 7:145-171. ... 2001) Meta-analysis of theory-of-mind development: The truth about false belief. Child Dev 72:655-684. ...
Towards a Neurotheology of Health: A Transdisciplinary Exploration of Personal Relatedness, Emergence and PNI Function |...
Gallagher, H. L. and Frith, C. D. (2003). Functional Imaging of `Theory of Mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (2), pp.77-83. ... Greenfield, S. (2002). Mind, Brain and Consciousness. British Journal of Psychiatry 181, pp.91-93.. Gregersen, N. H. (2006). ... Theory of mind skills. Mentalising or Theory of mind (ToM) is an automatic high-level cognitive function (Gallagher and Frith ... Stone, V. E., Baron-Cohen, S. and Knight, R. T. (1998). Frontal Lobe Contributions to Theory of Mind. Journal of Cognitive ...
Researchers have shown that activity in a certain region of the brain changes as children learn to reason about what other ... "Theory of Mind Performance in Children Correlates With Functional Specialization of a Brain Region for Thinking About Thoughts" ... Children with a well developed theory of mind say "in the basket". Children who have not developed a theory of mind will say " ... In earlier research, she had already established where theory of mind sits in the adult brain: it occupies a region known as ...
The Philosophy of Neuroscience (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
... causal theories of , mental content: teleological theories of , mental representation , mind/brain identity theory , multiple ... Functional analyses require functional theories, and structurally adequate functional analyses require checks imposed by the ... Addressing the interlocking levels of theory and explanation in the mind/brain using computational resources that have worked ... Craver, C., 2007, Explaining the Brain: What the Science of the Mind-Brain Could Be, Oxford University Press. ...
What does the infant brain tell us about human Theory of Mind? - International Cognition and Culture Institute
Dr Nicola Brunswick | Middlesex University London
Gallagher, H.L., Happé, F., Brunswick, N., Fletcher, P.C., Frith, U. & Frith, C.D. (1998). Theory of mind: A functional ... Brunswick, N. (2009). Mind, brain and education in reading disorders. American Journal of Human Biology, 21, 3, 414-415. ... theory of mind in verbal and non-verbal tasks, Neuropsychologia, 38, 1, 11-21 ... Drawing: Research, Theory and Practice, 2, 2, 287-304.. Brunswick, N. (2015). Dyslexia: Creating impact through innovation. ...
Cognitive Systems - DTU Orbit
Functional Connectivity during Theory of Mind and Empathy tasks, using Machine Learning in Subjects with Schizotypy. Project: ... 24th Annual Meeting of the Organization of Human Brain Mapping. Activity: Attending an event › Participating in or organising a ... Sensorimotor communication and its brain and kinematic signatures". Research output: Contribution to journal › Comment/debate ...
Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis of the Neural Correlates of Social Cognition
... or theory of mind (TOM) paradigms. Data Extraction Activation foci from studies meeting inclusion criteria (n = 33) were ... the functional neuroanatomy of social cognition in either disorder remains unclear due to variability in primary literature. ... 2009) Functional and structural brain correlates of theory of mind and empathy deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 114(1-3 ... Theory of mind Is the Subject Area "Theory of mind" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Startseite | Max-Planck-Institut für Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften
... item analysis of empathy and theory of mind. Human Brain Mapping (2020) ... Tholen, M.; Trautwein, F.-M.; Böckler, A.; Singer, T.; Kanske, P.: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) ... Singer, T.; Engert, V.: It matters what you practice: Differential training effects on subjective experience, behavior, brain ... thoughts in the developing brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117 (12), S. ...
Home | Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences
... with a focus on the neural basis of brain functions like language, emotions and human social behaviour, music and action. ... Research at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences revolves around human cognitive abilities and ... item analysis of empathy and theory of mind. Human Brain Mapping (2020) ... Tholen, M.; Trautwein, F.-M.; Böckler, A.; Singer, T.; Kanske, P.: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) ...
Teaching empathy: Evidence-based tips
Differential pattern of functional brain plasticity after compassion and empathy training. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 9(6):873-9 ... Does Reading a Single Passage of Literary Fiction Really Improve Theory of Mind? An Attempt at Replication. J Pers Soc Psychol ... They made greater advances in emotion comprehension, theory of mind, and empathy, and their positive outcomes "remained stable ... Reading literary fiction improves theory of mind. Science. 342(6156):377-80. ...
The Data on Diversity | November 2014 | Communications of the ACM
In other words, habits of mind help us to save brain power for more difficult tasks. Joseph Piepers classic Leisure, the Basic ... This theory is supported by a study of why women stay in engineering: people who choose to stay are engaged and basically ... However, this process actually stems from an adaptive, often functional psychological process. Mental heuristics and cognitive ... Mentioning one concept will automatically trigger the onset of the other concept in our minds. Essentially, neurons (brain ...
Functional Neuroimaging of the Developing Social Brain in Children with Autism | Autism Speaks
Previous studies which assess brain function in adults with autism using a technique called functional magnetic resonance ... This is part of a domain of skills referred to as theory of mind, social cognition, mentalizing, or mindreading. This is a ... Autism SpeaksScienceGrant SearchResultsFunctional Neuroimaging of the Developing Social Brain in Children with Autism ... Finally, by defining functional brain phenotypes using fMRI, these studies have the potential to help differentiate subtypes of ...
Mind To appear in: H. Morowitz (ed.) "The Mind, the Brain, and Complex Adaptive Systems. Cognitive science is a form of " ... I outline some difficulties which the traditional account of measurement presents for material theories of mind before ... or explaining the functional principles of) systems that have minds. A "Turing" hierarchy of empirical constraints can be ... Materialism and the "Problem" of Quantum Measurement preprints/Phil_of_Mind Forthcoming in _Minds and Machines_ For nearly six ...
Brains Truc 10 | Human Brain | Neuron
review of Philosophy of the Mind - Brain and Consciousness lecture by Patrick Grim. ... Brains Truc 10 - Download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online. ... He developed the electromagnetic theory of light and the electron theory of matter and formulated a consistent theory of ... o Researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging to observe which parts of the brain were activated as groups of men ...
Brain and Language
Understanding particularized and generalized conversational implicatures: Is theory-of-mind necessary?. Abstract A speakers ... To examine this possibility, we conducted a whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis in older and ... Source: Brain and Language - October 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng W, Yu H, Zhou X Tags: Brain Lang Source Type: ... Source: Brain and Language - January 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu Z, Shu S, Lu L, Ge J, Gao JH Tags: Brain Lang ...
Anselms Four Ontological Arguments;" pain in connection with brain-state and functional-state theories; aesthetics in light of ... Art, Mind, and Religion. This volume offers an unusual variety of topics presented during the sixth annual Oberlin Colloquium ... Theory and Method in the Neurosciences. This volume surveys the nature and structure of theories in contemporary neuroscience, ... Theory and Method in the Neurosciences. This volume surveys the nature and structure of theories in contemporary neuroscience, ...
In-degree social network brain volume | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
2014 Fractionating theory of mind: a meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 42, 9-34. (doi ... brain regions involved in the ability to infer other peoples minds, also known as the theory of mind (TOM), can be another ... theory mind comprised of 140 fMRI studies (FDR p , 0.01, k , 700) and the brain regions overlapping with the thresholded ... social brain regions are correlated with the size of social network one maintains. The social brain refers to the brain ...
Graph Theory Based Classification of Brain Connectivity Network for Autism Spectrum Disorder | SpringerLink
Connections in the human brain can be examined efficiently using brain imaging techniques such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI ... Dennis, E.L., Thompson, P.M.: Functional brain connectivity using fMRI in aging and Alzheimer s disease. Neuropsychol. Rev. 24( ... Posner, M.I., Raichle, M.E.: Images of Mind. Scientific American Library/Scientific American Books, New York (1994)Google ... Brain connectivity network Autism Spectrum Disorder Graph theory Machine learning This is a preview of subscription content, ...
Aleman, Prof. André | People and perspectives | News and Events | About us | University of Groningen
2002). Functional anatomy of top-down visuospatial processing in the human brain: evidence from rTMS. Cognitive Brain Research ... Modinos, G., Renken, R., Shamay-Tsoory, S. G., Ormel, J., & Aleman, A. (2010). Neurobiological correlates of theory of mind in ... Functional and Anatomical Brain Connectivity and Self-Reflection in Schizophrenia. Human brain mapping, 36(12), 4859-4868. ... Allen, P., Laroi, F., McGuire, P. K., & Aleman, A. (2008). The hallucinating brain: A review of structural and functional ...
William Gehring - Wikipedia
How the Modern Age Is Rewiring Your Mind. Rodale. ISBN 978-1-59486-054-6. Inside the mind of a racist: scans may reveal brains ... Liu, D., Sabbagh, M. A., Gehring, W. J., & Wellman, H. (2009). Neural correlates of childrens theory of mind development. ... Masaki, H., Gehring, W. J., Takasawa, N., Yamazaki, K. (2004). The functional significance of the error-related negativity in ... Liu, D., Sabbagh, M. A., Gehring, W. J., & Wellman, H. (2009). Neural correlates of childrens theory of mind development. ...
MagneticNeuroscienceCorrelatesConnectivityPeople's mindsCognitionEmpathyPlasticityConsciousnessStructural and functionalChildren with AutismAbility to infer other people'sFunctionalismNear-infrared speBehaviorAmygdalaAutisticHumansBiologicalDifferencesCharles Darwin'sHypothesisAutism SpectrumInferMentally ill or developmentally disabledImpairmentNeuronsBrain's functionalParticipantsStudiesStudyProcessesQualiaEmotionPerson'sPathological brainFMRI brainConsciousImpairmentsOrganizationActivityPhilosophicalCausalDisordersStimuliTasksPatternsPineal glandWorkingsGenesRegionsAttentionalTranscranial direct currEmotionalNetworksResearchFindingsRepresentationCognitive abilityNetworkAbstractSocial brain
- 4 demonstrated that activation of the MPFC, especially the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), is positively correlated with the degree of envy experienced during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task. (nature.com)
- The study in question used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to gauge the level of MNS dysfunction in individuals with ASD. (frontiersin.org)
- Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) item analysis of empathy and theory of mind. (mpg.de)
- Previous studies which assess brain function in adults with autism using a technique called functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have defined the neural circuitry involved in a range of cognitive and psychological processes. (autismspeaks.org)
- The see-sawing brain activity was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging. (bio-medicine.org)
- They used functional magnetic resonance imaging to record the see-sawing brain activity. (redorbit.com)
- By forcing neurons to fire using a moving magnetic field to push electrical charge within the cells themselves, the overall activity of the brain can be shifted from one state to another, in some cases. (psychologytoday.com)
- In January of 2007, Kiehl arranged to have a portable functional magnetic-resonance-imaging scanner brought into Western-the first fMRI ever installed in a prison. (newyorker.com)
- The most promising machine is currently the functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI scanner. (sciencebuddies.org)
- We suggest that formulating a more inclusive brain model of ADHD is facilitated by the new paradigm of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI), which is increasingly revealing the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain [ 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- And, with every copy, we offer a fully upgraded version of Sylvius 4 Online , which includes an interactive tutorial on human neuroanatomy as well as a magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the human brain. (oup.com)
- Scientists can accurately predict which of a thousand pictures a person is looking at by analyzing brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (technologyreview.com)
- The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate connectivity in two brain networks involved in social processing: theory of mind (ToM, otherwise known as the mentalizing system, which allows an individual to infer what others are thinking, their beliefs, their intentions) and the mirror neuron system (MNS, which allows people to understand the meanings and actions of others by simulating and replicating them). (medindia.net)
- The MIT study is the first to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan the brains of children as young as age 3 as they perform a task requiring theory of mind -- in this case, watching a short animated movie involving social interactions between two characters. (medindia.net)
- 4. - 5 The neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have been widely used to image brain functions for many neurodegenerative diseases. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- A functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using the same paradigm replicated the behavioral results and found that diminished recollection was associated with the disruption of functional connectivity in a network involving the left inferior frontal gyrus, hippocampus and visual association cortex. (jneurosci.org)
- In the current study, we first explored the behavioral consequences of exposure to irrelevant visual information on recollection performance, and then investigated the neural basis of interference effects in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. (jneurosci.org)
- Here, for the first time, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and lesion techniques were combined in a single study to test the role of parietal cortex in episodic retrieval. (jneurosci.org)
- We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a neuropsychological study using a "Posner-like" recognition paradigm. (jneurosci.org)
- Thus, we employ a rich interdisciplinary methodological repertoire to address the physiological complexity of the visual and the motor system and their interactions: We combine psychophysics (reaction time tasks, eye movement tracking, threshold estimation) and psychophysiological measures, e.g. obtained by electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with modern innovations in transcranial brain stimulation. (mind-and-brain.de)
- Adolescent and adult patients with moderate to severe TBI have been reported to demonstrate diffuse activation throughout the brain during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (jove.com)
- The patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after the treatment. (hindawi.com)
- Cue reactivity studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have led to the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. (basisonline.org)
- To explore the effects of gratitude and resentment on mental well-being, we acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging and heart rate (HR) data before, during, and after the gratitude and resentment interventions. (nature.com)
- By and large, available neuroscience at the time was ignored by both philosophical friends and foes of early identity theories. (stanford.edu)
- Instead of neuroscience, scientifically-minded philosophers influenced by functionalism sought evidence and inspiration from cognitive psychology and "program-writing" artificial intelligence. (stanford.edu)
- This volume surveys the nature and structure of theories in contemporary neuroscience, exploring many of its methodological techniques and problems. (pitt.edu)
- A major challenge for the science of the mind is how we can better translate between the cold and distant mechanical descriptions that neuroscience produces, and the emotionally engaged intuitive understanding which allows us to relate to one another as people. (bio-medicine.org)
- The emphasis on readability makes Handbook of Functional Neuroimaging of Cognition ideal for classroom use in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in cognitive neuroscience. (mit.edu)
- Roberto Cabeza is Associate Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Core Faculty Member for the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, and Senior Fellow at the Center for Aging and Human Development at Duke University. (mit.edu)
- Leaders in cognitive psychology, comparative biology, and neuroscience discuss patterns of convergence and divergence seen in studies of human and nonhuman primate brains. (mit.edu)
- From Monkey Brain to Human Brain uses the latest findings in cognitive psychology, comparative biology, and neuroscience to look at the complex patterns of convergence and divergence in primate cortical organization and function. (mit.edu)
- Given the penetration of systems theory and related mathematical modeling into every field and neuroscience 's close relationship with mathematics and psychology, the application of network theory to understanding how the brain works has begun to close the gap between mind and brain. (psychologytoday.com)
- Research in social neuroscience has consistently observed several brain regions that contribute ubiquitously to these abilities, including medial prefrontal cortex and aspects of lateral and medial parietal cortex. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Recent advances in systems neuroscience-based approaches to brain dysfunction enable the development of models of ADHD pathophysiology that encompass a number of different large-scale "resting state" networks. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In neuroscience , the default mode network ( DMN ), also default network , or default state network , is a large scale brain network of interacting brain regions known to have activity highly correlated with each other and distinct from other networks in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
- The emergence of cognitive neuroscience as a discipline in its own right over the last two decades is thus an expression of what many see as the next logical step for both neuroscience and cognitive psychology, driven by powerful new methods for studying the human brain. (oup.com)
- By introducing the possible functional role exerted within brain activity by glial cells, cerebrospinal fluid, intra- and extra-cellular fluid is outlined the overcoming of the classical neuroscience paradigm, based on the vision of brain activity as ruled by networks of neurons interconnected by synapses. (scirp.org)
- At the conclusion of this work, it is provided the phenomenological definition of intelligence that does not contemplate the possibility to apply to neuroscience, and to natural and human sciences in general, the paradigm that inspires the research on AI, i.e. computational model and Information Theory. (scirp.org)
- The encounter of neuroscience has led to intense debate in philosophy on how its originally mind-based concepts are related to the brain and its neural function. (springer.com)
- Global workspace theory of consciousness: toward a cognitive neuroscience of human experience. (springer.com)
- Talking Brains: Can neuroscience inform cognitive theories? (talkingbrains.org)
- It seems worthwhile to build a collection of papers that represent success stories in the effort to use neuroscience to constrain cognitive theories. (talkingbrains.org)
- Re the Baddeley & Warrington paper: I see no constraining of cognitive theories by neuroscience here. (talkingbrains.org)
- I think it is a great idea to seek to assemble a collection of papers that represent success stories in the effort to use neuroscience to constrain cognitive theories. (talkingbrains.org)
- Among my favorite examples is how human and non-human neuroscience produced the biased competition view of attention and (to my mind) resolved the cognitive debate about early vs late attention. (talkingbrains.org)
- In a study published Sunday in Nature Neuroscience , researchers using brain scanners could predict people's decisions seven seconds before the test subjects were even aware of making them. (wired.com)
- Discussion of the bicameral mind, Jaynes's neurological model, the dual brain concept and neuroscience research, present and historical. (julianjaynes.org)
- Thanks to massive developments in neuroscience, we understand when our brain is at peak performance and what we can do to maintain it or bring it back to those levels. (lifehack.org)
- The objective of this article is to review extant empirical studies of empathy in narrative reading in light of (a) contemporary literary theory, and (b) neuroscientific studies of empathy, and to discuss how a closer interplay between neuroscience and literary studies may enhance our understanding of empathy in narrative reading. (benjamins.com)
- The precuneus: a review of its functional anatomy and behavioural correlates. (springer.com)
- Although previous studies have separately revealed the neural correlates of PI and GI comprehension, it remains controversial whether they share theory-of-mind (ToM) related inferential processes. (medworm.com)
- The results suggest that the in-degree aspect of social network size not only confirms the previously reported brain correlates of the social network but also shows an association in brain regions involved in the ability to infer other people's minds. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Neural correlates of children's theory of mind development. (wikipedia.org)
- These results suggest that different social strategies are supported by distinct patterns of directional connectivity among key brain regions for social cognition. (frontiersin.org)
- Cross-network interactions in social cognition: A review of findings on task related brain activation and connectivity. (mpg.de)
- Recent human neuroimaging studies further support the social brain hypothesis in that regional volume and connectivity of the 'social brain' regions are correlated with the size of social network one maintains. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Brain connectivity networks are constructed by using image processing and statistical methods, these networks explain how brain regions interact with each other. (springer.com)
- In this study, two types (DTI, fMRI) of brain connectivity networks are examined to retrieve graph theory based knowledge and feature vectors of samples. (springer.com)
- The evaluation of the proposed model is performed on the brain connectivity samples of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (springer.com)
- Thus, graph-based measures computed on brain connectivity networks might help to improve diagnostic capability of in-silico methods. (springer.com)
- Dennis, E.L., Thompson, P.M.: Functional brain connectivity using fMRI in aging and Alzheimer s disease. (springer.com)
- Functional connectivity analysis revealed that among synchronous mothers, left NAcc and right amygdala were functionally correlated with emotion modulation, theory-of-mind, and empathy networks. (nih.gov)
- Differences in brain connectivity may help explain the social impairments common in those who have autism spectrum disorders, new research suggests. (coloradoan.com)
- In the study, Fishman's team used functional MRI scans to look at the connectivity in two brain networks, both involved in social processing. (coloradoan.com)
- Here we targeted high-level category-selective visual areas and tested this prediction by comparing BOLD functional connectivity patterns formed during rest to patterns formed in response to naturalistic stimuli, as well as to more artificial category-selective, dynamic stimuli. (weizmann.ac.il)
- Our results revealed a significant correlation between the resting-state patterns and functional connectivity patterns generated by naturalistic stimuli. (weizmann.ac.il)
- Insights emerging from mapping intrinsic brain connectivity networks provide a potentially mechanistic framework for understanding aspects of ADHD, such as neuropsychological and behavioral inconsistency, and the possible role of primary visual cortex in attentional dysfunction in the disorder. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- These fluctuations persist during tasks, rest, wakefulness [ 18 ], sleep, or even anesthesia [ 19 ] and their correlations reflect the underlying connectivity of the brain's functional units. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adolescents appears to be associated with a typical connectivity in the brain. (medindia.net)
- This excess ToM-MNS connectivity may reflect immature or aberrant developmental processes in two brain networks involved in understanding of others, a domain impairment in ASD. (medindia.net)
- However, functional connectivity between the two structures after injury has not been reported. (jove.com)
- A preliminary examination of functional connectivity of rACC and right amygdala was conducted in adolescents 2 to 3 years after moderate to severe TBI and in typically developing (TD)control adolescents, with the hypothesis that the TBI adolescents would demonstrate altered functional connectivity in the two regions. (jove.com)
- Functional connectivity was determined by correlating fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent(BOLD) signal of the rACC and right amygdala with that of other brain regions. (jove.com)
- Data suggest disrupted functional connectivity in emotion regulation regions. (jove.com)
- Reduced brain activity in ToM-related brain regions and reduced connectivity among these regions in children with autism suggest how deficits in the neurobiological mechanisms can lead to difficulties in cognitive and behavioral functioning, such as theory of mind," said Marcel Just, the D.O. Hebb University Professor of Psychology at Carnegie Mellon University. (eurekalert.org)
- To date, most research investigating the connectivity among core brain regions in ASD has focused on adults, limiting knowledge about how the disorder affects younger individuals. (eurekalert.org)
- Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was conducted to identify the modulatory effects of gratitude on the default mode, emotion, and reward-motivation networks. (nature.com)
- Given that we know this is what typically developing kids show, the next question to ask is how it compares to autistic children who exhibit marked impairments in their ability to think about other people's minds. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- On the other hand, brain regions involved in the ability to infer other people's minds, also known as the theory of mind (TOM), can be another neuroanatomical basis of social network size [ 17 , 18 , 22 , 23 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- How do we understand other people's minds? (prweb.com)
- This result shows that the amygdala is not a necessary part of theory-of-mind function in adulthood and forces a reevaluation of the amygdala's role in social cognition. (pnas.org)
- A central feature of human social cognition is a theory-of-mind (ToM) that enables the representation other people's mental states as distinct from one's own. (pnas.org)
- 2010). Social cognition and theory of mind in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. (springer.com)
- However, the functional neuroanatomy of social cognition in either disorder remains unclear due to variability in primary literature. (plos.org)
- The term social cognition refers to a complex set of processes subserving adaptive social interaction which depend on "theory of mind", or in other words, the ability to make correct attributions of the mental states of others - . (plos.org)
- On the interaction of social affect and cognition: Empathy, compassion and theory of mind. (mpg.de)
- This is part of a domain of skills referred to as theory of mind, social cognition, mentalizing, or mindreading. (autismspeaks.org)
- Larger brain capacity in these regions is associated with better performance in social cognition tasks [ 23 - 25 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- His interdisciplinary work focuses on understanding autism, self-referential and social cognition, human brain development, and the early effects that hormones have for programming later development. (fishpond.com.au)
- Dr. Tager-Flusberg has conducted research on autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders investigating developmental changes in language and social cognition using behavioral and brain imaging methodologies. (fishpond.com.au)
- The book describes theoretical and methodological developments in the use of functional neuroimaging techniques to study the neural basis of cognition, from early scientific efforts to link brain and behavior to the latest applications of fMRI and PET methods. (mit.edu)
- This handbook provides thorough and easily understandable insights into one of the most exciting areas of present and future research: human cognition and its representation in the brain. (mit.edu)
- The contributions are first rate and provide an excellent survey of current research on functional neuroimaging of cognition while capturing the excitement of new the developments. (mit.edu)
- In addition, functional studies have shown hypoactivation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). (scielo.br)
- Thus it is possible to shift the brain from a depressed to a healthy pattern, or shift patterns of disordered cognition or emotion processing in PTSD to restore proper function, or slow down activity in motor areas in the brain to interfere with hyperactive circuits in obsessive compulsive disorder, or reduce activity in the auditory cortex to quell hallucinations, and so on. (psychologytoday.com)
- For example, cognition and emotion are still considered separate processes in the mind and brain, but there is growing evidence that the brain does not respect this division. (edge.org)
- Uncovering the processes of indirect inference, deduction and guesswork through which perceivers understand the minds of others is one of the central pursuits in the study of social cognition. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- While no theory is without its difficulties, each different approach to the autistic disorder has played an important role in developing the philosophical understanding of social cognition. (utm.edu)
- Analogous to the role lesion studies and other neuropsychological disorders play in our understanding of cognition, brain structure and function and neural organization, autism may provide valuable insight into social cognition. (utm.edu)
- This article begins with the clinical definition of autism from the DSM-IV, then discusses the role autism has played in three main theories of cognition: Theory of Mind (hereafter ToM), Simulation Theory and the Executive Control or Metacognitive theory. (utm.edu)
- 1 Several studies have indicated that schizophrenic patients showed impaired performance in various aspects of social cognition, including theory of mind, emotion processing, and agency judgments. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- Some cognitive theories have attempted to address atypical autistic cognition. (alliedacademies.org)
- Address correspondence to Dr Elisabeth A. H. von dem Hagen, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge, CB2 7EF, UK. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- An introduction to some of the philosophical roots of empathy is followed by tracing its application in contemporary literary theory, in which scholars have pursued empathy with varying degrees of conceptual precision, often within the context of embodied/enactive cognition. (benjamins.com)
- We need to understand the psychology of empathy, and the basic skills that children need to share emotions, read minds, and offer help. (parentingscience.com)
- He is author of Mindblindness (1995), The Essential Difference (2003), Prenatal Testosterone in Mind (2005), and Zero Degrees of Empathy (2011). (fishpond.com.au)
- Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training. (mpg.de)
- The maternal brain and its plasticity in humans. (nih.gov)
- Neural Darwinism contains a theory of memory that is built around the idea of plasticity in the neural network in response to the environment. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- This increases our brains plasticity - the ability to change and think differently. (lifehack.org)
- 2004) Consciousness and Recognition of Five Colors-Using Functional-MRI and Brain Wave Measurements. (slideshare.net)
- review of 'Philosophy of the Mind - Brain and Consciousness' lecture by Patrick Grim. (scribd.com)
- Brain Report Philosophy of the Mind - Brain and Consciousness Dr. Francisco J. (scribd.com)
- The course addresses the brain, consciousness and thinking machines (artificial intelligence). (scribd.com)
- Jack said that a philosophical question inspired the study design: "The most persistent question in the philosophy of mind is the problem of consciousness. (bio-medicine.org)
- The Remembered Present contains a theory of consciousness. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- Edelman expounds a biological theory of consciousness, which he explicitly locates within Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection and Darwinian theories of population dynamics. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- Edelman argues that the mind and consciousness are wholly material and purely biological phenomena, occurring as highly complex cellular processes within the brain, and that the development of consciousness and intelligence can be satisfactorally explained by Darwinian theory. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- Jack said, "The most persistent question in the philosophy of mind is the problem of consciousness. (redorbit.com)
- No, wait… In reality, split-brain surgery does not split consciousness in any meaningful sense. (uncommondescent.com)
- Finally, we discuss the roles of quantum entanglement in spin-mediated consciousness theory. (cogprints.org)
- Hu, H. & Wu, M. Spin-mediated consciousness theory: possible roles of oxygen unpaired electronic spins and neural membrane nuclear spin ensemble in memory and consciousness. (cogprints.org)
- Many consider the brain as a computer, and they attempt to explain consciousness as emerging at a critical, but unspecified, threshold level of complex computation among neurons. (springer.com)
- The brain-as-computer model, however, fails to account for phenomenal experience and portrays consciousness as an impotent, after-the-fact epiphenomenon lacking causal power. (springer.com)
- Exploring Frontiers of the Mind-Brain Relationship argues against the purely physical analysis of consciousness and for a balanced psychobiological approach. (springer.com)
- This book … brings together some precious observations about the fundamental mystery of the nature of consciousness … It raises many questions that serve to invite each of us to be more aware of the uncertainty of our preconceptions about consciousness … This book on the frontiers of mind-body relationships is a scholarly embodiment of creative and open-minded science. (springer.com)
- A newly developed model of mind, Dichotomized Operating System Model (DOS Model), explains what mind is, how it emerges from the brain, how it develops over time and why do we have it, besides solving thousands of years old mysteries like consciousness, free will, etc. without any requirement of prior knowledge to understand the same. (prweb.com)
- The model explains how brain creates mind by explaining such simple mechanisms and processes, while solving thousands of years old mysteries like consciousness, free will, etc. (prweb.com)
- It looks at the challenges that the mind-brain relation presents for clinical practice as well as for theories of consciousness. (oup.com)
- 11. Does consciousness spring from the brain? (oup.com)
- A different way of thinking about it is that your consciousness is only aware of some of the things your brain is doing. (wired.com)
- On the ground of detailed philological evidence, Jaynes' thought- provoking book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976) argued that in the second millennium B.C. the ancient populations had not as yet developed our modern concept of consciousness. (bmj.com)
- The shift from an obvious bicameral state to a singular sense of I (except when it breaks down) was not the emergence of an advanced state of consciousness but the final domination of a very degenerate state of consciousness facilitated by the left side of the brain. (julianjaynes.org)
- A model of consciousness is a theoretical description that relates brain properties of consciousness (e.g., fast irregular electrical activity, widespread brain activation) to phenomenal properties of consciousness (e.g., qualia , a first-person-perspective, the unity of a conscious scene). (scholarpedia.org)
- While the identification of correlations between aspects of brain activity and aspects of consciousness may constrain the specification of neurobiologically plausible models, such correlations do not by themselves provide explanatory links between neural activity and consciousness . (scholarpedia.org)
Structural and functional8
- Accordingly, structural and functional characteristics of the amygdala and its highly connected OFC regions have shown the most consistent positive correlation with the individual differences in social network size [ 14 - 21 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Bullmore, E., Sporns, O.: Complex brain networks: graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional systems. (springer.com)
- This model has been largely supported by an ever-increasing number of structural and functional imaging studies [ 7 , 8 ], but divergent evidence such as involvement of occipital or temporal cortex [as noted by 9 ] has tended to be ignored, based on the initially reasonable assumption that unexpected results probably represent false positives. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Underlying the study of language and music is the assumption that the comparison of these two domains can shed light on the structural and functional properties of each, while also serving as a test case for theories of how the mind, and ultimately, the brain work. (worldcat.org)
- In terms of assessment, it focuses on psychological and biological assessment including neurotransmitters systems, structural and functional brain imaging, coping strategies of parents, examines the intertwining of language impairment, specific language impairment and ASD, as well as implicit and spontaneous Theory of Mind reading in ASD. (intechopen.com)
- Proteins are structural and functional macromolecules, some of which carry out enzymatic reactions of cells. (winentrance.com)
- Voxel-based morphometry showed that increased AQ scores were associated with decreased white matter volume in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a region important in processing socially relevant stimuli and associated with structural and functional impairments in ASD. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Gray matter changes have typically been localized to the upper and lower banks of more posterior STS (pSTS) and posterior temporal regions more generally while WM changes extend along its length and into pSTS and adjacent temporoparietal junction (TPJ) (for details of location of previously reported structural and functional changes, see Supplementary Fig. S1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
Children with Autism2
- There have been an enormous number of studies that have found differences (in brains of children with autism)," said Dr. Andrew Adesman, chief of developmental and behavioral pediatrics at the Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York in New Hyde Park, N.Y. (coloradoan.com)
- It focuses on a number of interventions, including speech and language pathology, speech and language assessment instruments, occupational therapy, improving functional language development in autism with natural gestures, communication boards etc as well as helping people with autism using the pictorial support, training of concepts of significant others, theory of mind, social concepts and a conceptual model for empowering families of children with autism cross culturally. (intechopen.com)
Ability to infer other people's1
- This seems to be a version of a theory called functionalism. (uncommondescent.com)
- There are problems with functionalism as an explanation of the mind. (uncommondescent.com)
- Functionalism in the philosophy of mind is a theory about the nature of mental states, according to which they are characterized by their "functional roles. (scholarpedia.org)
- Functionalism was inspired by the computer model of the mind , and in particular by the idea that mental states are analogous to computational states characterized at the level of software rather than at that of whatever hardware is "realizing" them. (scholarpedia.org)
- Early or so-called "machine" functionalism had it that human brains may be described at each of two levels. (scholarpedia.org)
- Teleofunctionalism differs from machine functionalism primarily in the way in which it interprets the relevant notion of function, and in its emphasis on a more biological and multi-level approach to the mind. (scholarpedia.org)
- Functionalism is also a theory which could be considered for the causal efficacy of the mental. (brightkite.com)
- The absent qualia objection to functionalism is based on the belief that a functional state could have all the functional properties of a mental state without having any of its qualitative contents. (primewritings.com)
- Functionalism allows minds to be caused by and realized in things other than human brains. (primewritings.com)
- Reductive theories of mind include logical behaviorism, identity theory, and functionalism. (primewritings.com)
- Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive technique that measures how light scatters differently on the surface of the brain as a function of brain activity. (cognitionandculture.net)
- Functional optical topography (fOT), imaging based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy measurement, is an another noninvasive neuroimaging technique that provides continuous recording of brain hemodynamic activity with detection of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- It matters what you practice: Differential training effects on subjective experience, behavior, brain and body in the ReSource Project. (mpg.de)
- Specifying the neurobiological basis of human attachment: brain, hormones, and behavior in synchronous and intrusive mothers. (nih.gov)
- Animal research has demonstrated that natural variations in patterns of maternal care chart discrete profiles of maternal brain-behavior relationships that uniquely shape the infant's lifetime capacities for stress regulation and social affiliation. (nih.gov)
- To integrate brain, hormones, and behavior in the study of maternal-infant bonding, we examined the fMRI responses of synchronous vs intrusive mothers to dynamic, ecologically valid infant videos and their correlations with plasma Oxytocin. (nih.gov)
- it's a proposed mechanism of the mind, which I think will help explain behavior. (danielwillingham.com)
- He is the author over 50 research articles and book chapters, and editor of two books the common theme of which is captured by the title of his latest book From Behavior Theory to Behavior Therapy (Allyn & Bacon, 1998). (behavior.net)
- For the first time, to our knowledge, we test whether amygdala lesions compromise the cortical implementation of theory-of-mind. (pnas.org)
- Two patients with bilateral amygdala lesions performed a belief reasoning test while undergoing functional MRI. (pnas.org)
- Here we investigated this question directly by conducting functional MRI on two patients with rare bilateral amygdala lesions while they performed a neuroimaging protocol standardized for measuring cortical activity associated with false-belief reasoning. (pnas.org)
- The amygdala is considered a critical node of the "social brain" that contributes to myriad social behaviors exhibited by primates ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
- Lateralization of amygdala activation: a systematic review of functional neuroimaging studies. (springer.com)
- Specific regions of the social brain are typically comprised of two network systems: the amygdala network [ 8 ] and the mentalizing network [ 9 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- For example, one day the concept fear may one day be described by neurotransmitter changes in certain brain structures such as the amygdala. (powershow.com)
- At first, scientists assumed that each emotion could be localized to a specific brain region (e.g., fear occurs in the amygdala), but they found that each region is active for a variety of emotions, more than one would expect by chance. (edge.org)
- Rebecca Saxe, a neuroscientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and colleagues, suggest their findings provide a good basis for studying theory of mind impairments in autistic children . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Perhaps the brains of autistic children show different patterns of activity, says Gweon. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal lobe abnormalities in autistic patients. (scielo.br)
- The understanding of the functional alterations of this important mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies for autistic patients. (scielo.br)
- Each theory takes a different approach to the autistic disorder and theorizes different causes. (utm.edu)
- We have used machine learning multivariate analysis methods to decode emotional states from brain activity, graph-theory based analysis tools to estimate functional complex sub-networks in neurotypical and high-functioning autistic subjects, and inter-subject similarity measures as model-free analysis approaches to study neural mechanisms of mutual understanding. (aalto.fi)
- Humans use a so-called "theory-of-mind" to reason about the beliefs of others. (pnas.org)
- A core social ability of humans that emerges early in childhood has been long studied under the name of "theory-of-mind" (ToM), an ability to impute mental states to other people. (pnas.org)
- Humans have a remarkable capacity for reading the minds of other humans. (pnas.org)
- As such, humans might draw on their own self-knowledge, experience, and mental states to understand the minds of others. (pnas.org)
- That humans routinely use themselves as a source of information about others' minds is supported by a number of distinct empirical observations. (pnas.org)
- Gerald Edelman is the founder and director of The Neurosciences Institute, a nonprofit research centre in San Diego that studies the biological basis of higher brain function in humans. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- This book comprises 26 exciting chapters by internationally renowned scholars, addressing the central psychological process separating humans from other animals: the ability to imagine the thoughts and feelings of others, and to reflect on the contents of our own mindsa theory of mind (ToM). (fishpond.com.au)
- Although the idea of mind-reading implies the possession of supernatural abilities or exotic technology, even ordinary, humdrum humans are artfully accomplished telepaths. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- So how exactly do humans gain access to the inner workings of others' minds? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The psycho-dynamics of the humans mind territory is taken into account according to the four poles of mental functions introduced by C.G. Jung in his Psychological Types (1921), where he introduces a hierarchy of mental functions in two mental bipolar dimensions (dichotomies). (scirp.org)
- Humans have relatively bigger brains and more computing power than other animals, and this allows us to figure out how to live in a wide range of environments. (nap.edu)
- There is currently no evidence that minds can exist apart from biological brains. (powershow.com)
- For these purposes, detailed neuropsychological evaluations, biological measures and brain structural & functional imaging measures are associated for a fully-comprehensive description of the different manifestations of AD through disease progression and toward identifying early markers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This finding conflicts with results from previous brain imaging studies, which could be attributed to methodological differences such as variation in sex, age and ASD. (frontiersin.org)
- The researchers found key differences between the two groups in brain "networks" that help people to figure out what others are thinking, and to understand others' actions and emotions. (coloradoan.com)
- Similarly, they explain differences between mind and body. (powershow.com)
- Piaget's theory does not sufficiently explain individual differences in cognitive development. (wikipedia.org)
- there are considerable similarities but also considerable differences between human and nonhuman primate brains. (mit.edu)
- Traditionally, brain function has looked at the biology and electrophysiology of neurons, and used anatomic studies with basic imaging to determine whether there are differences in size in different parts of the brain or differences in activity or pathology in neurons, and so on. (psychologytoday.com)
- Karl Friston's free energy principle might be the most all-encompassing idea since Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection. (wired.com)
- Based on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, it can be used as a tool to analyze, explain and understand all functions of mind. (prweb.com)
- In Crick's view, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, Gregor Mendel's genetics and knowledge of the molecular basis of genetics, when combined, reveal the secret of life. (winentrance.com)
- The social brain hypothesis proposes that large neocortex size evolved to support cognitively demanding social interactions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- According to the 'social brain hypothesis,' living in a large social group imposes computationally demanding information, so primates evolutionarily developed a bigger neocortex volume to adapt to such a load [ 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The findings offer support for an existing hypothesis that says children develop theory of mind even before they can pass explicit false-belief tests, and that it continues to develop as they get older. (medindia.net)
- According to this hypothesis, the position of Babylonians was surprisingly wise and scientifically-minded: they did not speculate on psychiatric disorders mainly because they were aware of their limitations in understanding them. (bmj.com)
- This issue leads us to the second and perhaps most intriguing hypothesis, which is based on Julian Jaynes' model of the bicameral mind (1). (bmj.com)
- Gazdar offers a critique of the theory of illocutionary force based on the performative hypothesis (that the deep structure of every sentence contains a performative verb). (scaruffi.com)
- Lesions to brain regions such as the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and inferior frontal cortex (IFC) are thought to cause autism-spectrum disorder (ASD). (frontiersin.org)
- The small study compared the brains of 25 teens with an autism spectrum disorder to those of 25 typically developing teens, all aged 11 to 18. (coloradoan.com)
- One reason scientists believe ASD causes impairment in social interactions is due to an inability to effectively infer other's thoughts and feelings through "theory of mind," or ToM -- the ability to understand the mental states of others and oneself. (eurekalert.org)
- By studying children, we were able to show that it is possible to characterize the altered brain circuitry earlier in development, which could lead to designing earlier effective intervention programs that could train children to infer the intentions and thoughts that underlie physical interactions between people," Just said. (eurekalert.org)
Mentally ill or developmentally disabled2
- Brain Anatomy Weight: 1.3-kg (3-lb) mass Color: Pinkish-gray jellylike tissue made up of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons Neuroglia (supporting tissue) cells Vascular (blood-carrying) and other tissues Between the brain and the cranium-the part of the skull that directly covers the brain-is three protective membranes, or meninges. (scribd.com)
- When the brain fires up the network of neurons that allows us to empat. (bio-medicine.org)
- When the brain fires up the network of neurons that allows us to empathize, it suppresses the network used for analysis, a pivotal study led by a Case Western Reserve University researcher shows. (bio-medicine.org)
- The new study, published online in the journal NeuroImage , reveals that when the brain fires up the network of neurons that allows a person to empathize, the network used for analysis is suppressed. (redorbit.com)
- The data are screaming out that essentialism is wrong: individual brain regions, circuits, networks and even neurons are not single-purpose. (edge.org)
- Some neuroscientists (scientists who study the nervous system) believe that a problem with special brain nerve cells, called mirror neurons may be partly at fault. (sciencebuddies.org)
- Neurons in this part of the brain respond to specific aspects of the visual scene, such as a patch of strongly contrasting light and dark, so the activity recorded in each area of the brain scan reflects the visual information being processed by neurons in that area of the brain. (technologyreview.com)
- Current brain-scanning devices have a spatial resolution of approximately one millimeter, an area that contains hundreds of neurons, each responding to different bits of visual information. (technologyreview.com)
- With billions of neurons and trillions of connections, operations of human brain seem to be of highly complex nature. (prweb.com)
- Our results reveal that despite its high level, and varied content nature - abstract thinking activates surprisingly precise and consistent networks in participants' brains. (weizmann.ac.il)
- An important question is whether variation in autism spectrum traits are associated with changes in structure and patterns of activation in typical participants' brains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Recent studies have suggested that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) contributes both to understanding the mental states of others and to introspecting about one's own mind. (pnas.org)
- Studies were required to use fMRI to compare ASD or SZ subjects to a matched healthy control group, provide coordinates in standard stereotactic space, and employ standardized facial emotion recognition (FER) or theory of mind (TOM) paradigms. (plos.org)
- Finally, by defining functional brain phenotypes using fMRI, these studies have the potential to help differentiate subtypes of the autism spectrum, and provide clues into other causes of this disorder. (autismspeaks.org)
- The social brain refers to the brain regions that consistently show activation in neuroimaging studies while engaging in a variety of social cognitive tasks. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Gehring has conducted studies and written a number of papers and articles about the brain and human motivation. (wikipedia.org)
- A number of earlier studies showed that two large scale brain networks are in tension in the brain, one which is known as the default mode network and a second known as the task positive network. (bio-medicine.org)
- Fractionating theory of mind: a meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies. (wikipedia.org)
- Previous studies revealed two large-scale brain networks are in tension in the brain: the default mode network and the task positive network. (redorbit.com)
- Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in autism spectrum disorders. (scielo.br)
- Essentialism can also be seen in studies that scan the human brain, trying to locate the brain tissue that is dedicated to each emotion. (edge.org)
- Most fMRI studies to date have used the technology to pinpoint the parts of the brain involved in different cognitive tasks, such as reading or remembering faces. (technologyreview.com)
- The chapter concludes that modern studies concentrate too much on single regions of the brain and/or on performance of isolated psychological tasks. (cambridge.org)
- Until now, neuroscientists had assumed that theory-of-mind studies involving fMRI brain scans could only be done with children at least 5 years of age, because the children need to be able to lie still in a scanner for about 20 minutes, listen to a series of stories, and answer questions about them. (medindia.net)
- It ties up all mind functions into a single, coherent framework, making it an essential counterpart to mind and brain studies not only to understand them better, but discover more by looking at them from the functional point of view. (prweb.com)
- As compared to the current approach, which requires multidisciplinary studies from diverse and specialized fields, the straightforward approach offered by the DOS model makes it a breeze to understand mind, and thus, workings of the brain. (prweb.com)
- The multifaceted concept ToM inspires varied research investigating its neural underpinnings but few studies compare affective and cognitive ToM directly using functional imaging approaches of the brain. (uni-marburg.de)
- In later studies, Just has demonstrated how this theory accounted for many brain imaging and behavioral findings in tasks that required a substantial role for the frontal cortex. (eurekalert.org)
- Later studies supported Libet's theory that subconscious activity preceded and determined conscious choice - but none found such a vast gap between a decision and the experience of making it as Haynes' study has. (wired.com)
- Cabanis interpreted the mind in light of his previous studies of biology , arguing that sensibility and soul are properties of the nervous system . (thefullwiki.org)
- Studies from 2006 show that exercise has tremendous benefits on our brain. (lifehack.org)
- In our study we used functional MRI (fMRI) to test for potential early adaptive changes in only mildly disabled MS patients performing an emotion recognition task including the facial expressions of the emotions anger, fear and disgust. (springer.com)
- We thank all the patients and controls who participated in this study, and Karin Brodtrager for her help with the acquisition of functional imaging data, and Franz Ebner, MD, for his infrastructural support. (springer.com)
- Now, a new study shows that a region of the brain that was already known to be involved in the use of this skill in adults, changes its pattern of activity in children as they begin to acquire theory of mind reasoning for themselves. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In this latest study, she and her team show that activity in the TPJ changes as children learn to employ theory of mind. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In the study, the researchers used a version of what is commonly known as the "Sally-Anne" False Belief Test, a classic way of studying theory of mind in young children. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This study provides insight into understanding how the social brain is uniquely associated with sociocentric measures derived from a global network. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- This study introduces a graph theory based classification model for diagnostic purposes that can be easily adapted for different neurological diseases. (springer.com)
- Even the most intelligent, complex brains can be taken by a swindler's story, a new study from Case Western Reserve University shows, even stories that prove false upon a second look. (redorbit.com)
- The findings of this new study suggest that established theories about two competing networks within the brain need to be revised. (redorbit.com)
- A more reasonable interpretation of my cafeteria study is this: people have brain systems that support vision, decision making, movement, spatial processing, etc. (danielwillingham.com)
- Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography, single foton emission tomographyand functional MRI have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functioning. (scielo.br)
- Several chapters examine the use of modern technologies to study primate brains, analyzing the potentials and the limitations of neuroimaging as well as genetic and computational approaches. (mit.edu)
- This study was conducted in order to investigate the topological organization of functional and structural brain networks in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and its potential clinical relevance. (springer.com)
- The research] suggests that fMRI-based measurements of brain activity contain much more information about underlying neural processes than has previously been appreciated," says Jack Gallant , a neuroscientist at the University of California, Berkeley, and senior author of the study. (technologyreview.com)
- According to the study, published Wednesday in the online version of the journal Nature , scientists first gathered information about how the brain processes images by recording activity in the visual cortex as subjects looked at several thousand randomly selected pictures. (technologyreview.com)
- Children as young as 3 have brain network devoted to interpreting thoughts of other people, revealed study from MIT. (medindia.net)
- The brain regions involved in theory-of-mind reasoning are behaving like a cohesive network, with similar responses to the movie, by age 3, which is before kids tend to pass explicit false-belief tasks," says Hilary Richardson, an MIT graduate student and the lead author of the study. (medindia.net)
- Richardson wanted to study children younger than that, so that she could delve into what happens in the brain's theory-of-mind network before the age of 5. (medindia.net)
- The purpose of this study is to assess the hemodynamic changes of the PFC and discriminant analysis between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during VFT task by utilizing functional optical topography. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
- The aim of the study was to examine longitudinal patterns of decision making based on risk and reward using a modified version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in children who had sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with orthopedic injury (OI). (jove.com)
- Even if based on a single case study, these preliminary results show functional changes at the cerebral level that seem to support the patient's behavioural improvements. (hindawi.com)
- An innovative brain imaging study has uncovered new evidence explaining why ToM deficiencies are present in ASD children. (eurekalert.org)
- study of the soul " or "study of the mind ") [ 1 ] is an academic and applied discipline which involves the scientific study of human (or animal) mental functions and behaviors . (thefullwiki.org)
- There was also an extensive study that looked at the long-term effects of brain exercises on older individuals. (lifehack.org)
- The study provided brain exercises to 2,832 individuals aged 65 and up. (lifehack.org)
- Skeptics view hypnosis as a little-understood parlor trick, but a new study reveals real changes occur in the brain when a person enters an hypnotic state. (prn.fm)
- Some parts of the brain relax during the trance while others become more active, said study senior author Dr. David Spiegel, associate chair of psychiatry at the Stanford University School of Medicine. (prn.fm)
- Reverse inference is not a fallacy per se: Cognitive processes can be inferred from functional imaging data. (uni-salzburg.at)
- Similarly, two people thinking the same thought may have different brain processes operating. (powershow.com)
- The approach should shed light on how the brain processes visual information, and it might one day be used to reconstruct dreams. (technologyreview.com)
- It is currently unknown whether processes like dreaming and imagination are realized in the brain in a way that is functionally similar to perception," says Gallant. (technologyreview.com)
- The mechanism of how human brain processes the language to express and comprehend the verbal, written, gestures and symbols is still a mystery. (medindia.net)
- Dichotomized Operating System model (DOS model), a functional model of mind, reveals that operations of the brain are driven by many, but simple mechanisms and processes. (prweb.com)
- Once you understand them, you will be able to understand how conscious and unconscious thoughts and processes in your mind influence you, your decisions and your life. (prweb.com)
- It initially explains what mind is by explaining its components and then goes out to explain how various phenomena observed and subjectively felt emerge out of such components through many, but simple mechanisms and processes in the brain. (prweb.com)
- The many, but simple mechanisms and processes driven by model's four basic components make it possible for mind to be explained using common sense logic without using any medical terminology, giving the common man a never before insight of the workings of his own mind. (prweb.com)
- Subjects are evaluated using neuropsychological tests of episodic memory (encoding vs. retrieval), executive functions (inhibition, flexibility, and updating processes), self-judgment, theory of mind, mental imagery and verbal fluency. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Using computer-based brain experiments, researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin studied the decision-making processes involved in voluntary movements. (prn.fm)
- The central idea of GW theory is that conscious cognitive content is globally available for diverse cognitive processes including attention , evaluation, memory , and verbal report. (scholarpedia.org)
- Here we used functional MRI to elucidate the contributions of local and global motion to emotion perception during movie viewing. (weizmann.ac.il)
- Since then, scientists have been searching for the brain essence of each emotion in dedicated brain networks, and in probabilistic patterns across the brain, always with the assumption that each emotion has an essence to be found, rather than abandoning essentialism. (edge.org)
- The fact that different brain regions and networks show increased activity during different emotions is not a problem just for emotion research. (edge.org)
- Outcome of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) includes impaired emotion regulation. (jove.com)
- Taken together, our findings shed light on the effect of gratitude meditation on an individual's mental well-being, and indicate that it may be a means of improving both emotion regulation and self-motivation by modulating resting-state FC in emotion and motivation-related brain regions. (nature.com)
- In other words, even if we start with our own thoughts, feelings, and opinions when contemplating those of others, we also typically need to correct for idiosyncratic aspects of that person's mind. (pnas.org)
- A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside that person. (wikipedia.org)
- The most direct way to test theories about how the brain transforms information is to measure what information is stored in different parts of the person's mind, and how that changes from structure to structure," says Ken Norman , a neuroscientist at Princeton University, in New Jersey, who was not involved in the research. (technologyreview.com)
- They scanned the entire brain, focusing on two distinct networks that have been well-characterized in adults: the theory-of-mind network and another network known as the pain matrix, which is active when thinking about another person's physical state. (medindia.net)
- The brain makes us conscious, emotional, and intelligent. (scribd.com)
- The conscious mind defines human existence. (springer.com)
- Baars BJ, Franklin S. An architectural model of conscious and unconscious brain functions: Global Workspace Theory and IDA. (springer.com)
- According to Jaynes' theory, the notions of volition and decision, intimately bound with the idea of conscious will, did not emerge until a more sophisticated language allowed introspection and self- visualization. (bmj.com)
- ii) how the brain makes a conscious mind? (winentrance.com)
- Putnam's Conscious Computer thought that, experiment is meant to provide a counter example to the identity theory's claim that being in a mental state requires having a brain. (primewritings.com)
- Also, because global availability is necessarily limited to a single stream of content, GW theory may naturally account for the serial nature of conscious experience. (scholarpedia.org)
- Multiple drafts theory was introduced by Daniel Dennett (1991) to challenge the idea of a 'Cartesian theatre' where all perceptions, thoughts, and the other mental contents are presented to a conscious observer. (scholarpedia.org)
- Whole-brain parametric analyses identified a region in the MPFC in which activity was related linearly to this self-other discrepancy when inferring the mental states of others. (pnas.org)
- Researchers have shown that activity in a certain region of the brain changes as children learn to reason about what other people might be thinking. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The findings suggest that as children age, the right TPJ becomes more specific to theory of mind, and over time, its patterns of activity look more like those of adults. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Brain Functions: The brain is the control center for movement, sleep, hunger, thirst, and virtually every other vital activity necessary to survival. (scribd.com)
- Brain activity elicited by positive and negative feedback in preschool-aged children. (wikipedia.org)
- Brain activity in areas that showed preferential responses to emotional content was strongly linked over time with frame-wide variations in global motion, and to a lesser extent with local motion information. (weizmann.ac.il)
- Thoughts can produce actions, and brain activity can produce thoughts. (powershow.com)
- TMS gives us the ability to directly influence brain activity in a highly selective manner, enabling an unprecedented degree of control over how our minds function-for clinical and other applications (e.g. forensic, performance enhancement, etc. (psychologytoday.com)
- The effect of the TMS depends on what areas are targeted, including the depth into the brain, whether the stimulation is used to increase or suppress activity in that area, and how changing activity in that brain area affects the overall function of the brain, and the subjective experience of the individual. (psychologytoday.com)
- 3) adults with ASD in the VR-SCT relative to the active control group will exhibit enhanced neural activity in the brain networks implicated in theory of mind or facial affect processing from baseline to treatment endpoint. (autismspeaks.org)
- However, his ideas were not taken seriously, and a general perception formed among neurologists that only when a focused activity is performed does the brain (or a part of the brain) become active. (wikipedia.org)
- These experiments showed that the brain is constantly active with a high level of activity even when the person is not engaged in focused mental work. (wikipedia.org)
- FMRI detects blood flow in the brain, giving an indirect measure of brain activity. (technologyreview.com)
- By employing computer models to analyze the kinds of information gathered from the neural activity, scientists can try to assess how neural signals are processed in different brain areas and ultimately fused to create a cohesive perception. (technologyreview.com)
- The researchers compiled this information to develop a computer model that would predict the pattern of brain activity triggered by any image. (technologyreview.com)
- Vygotsky-Luria's theory is based on the idea that specifically human higher psychological functions develop in the process of communication and material activity of a developing person in a socio-cultural environment. (cambridge.org)
- In order to assess brain changes, we calculated the Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (ALFF) index of the resting-state fMRI signal, which is interpreted as reflecting the intensity of the spontaneous regional activity of the brain. (hindawi.com)
- Your decisions are strongly prepared by brain activity. (wired.com)
- Haynes updated a classic experiment by the late Benjamin Libet , who showed that a brain region involved in coordinating motor activity fired a fraction of a second before test subjects chose to push a button. (wired.com)
- In the seven seconds before Haynes' test subjects chose to push a button, activity shifted in their frontopolar cortex, a brain region associated with high-level planning. (wired.com)
- Your brain activity is the physiological substance in which your personality and wishes and desires operate,' he said. (wired.com)
- For instance, short-term integrative body-mind training induced better physiological reactions in heart rate (HR) and skin conductance, and stronger anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity than simple relaxation training 18 . (nature.com)
- Empirical discoveries about brain structure and function suggest ways that "naturalistic" programs might develop in detail, beyond the abstract philosophical considerations in their favor. (stanford.edu)
- Three current psychological/philosophical theories attempt to explain autism as the result of certain cognitive deficiencies. (utm.edu)
- Teleofunctionalism is the philosophical theory of mind according to which: what makes a given type of mental state the type that it is, is its distinctive job or function within its subject's psychobiology. (scholarpedia.org)
- Materialists like Novella can explain (away) the causal gap between brains and thoughts by saying "Thoughts are what brains do" and leave it at that. (uncommondescent.com)
- In my essay I will argue that type-identity is the only theory that can secure the causal efficacy of the mental. (brightkite.com)
- However, I hope to show in what follows, that the type-identity theory provides solutions to the problems that both of these theories face using the causal exclusion argument. (brightkite.com)
- Brain networks can be used to train machine learning models that can help the diagnosis of neurological disorders. (springer.com)
- People with certain brain-development problems, such as autism spectrum disorders, have great difficulty lying, and some people with autism never lie. (sciencebuddies.org)
- This theory suggests that cue reactivity activates the reward pathways of the brain and that these regions are more reactive in people with substance use disorders. (basisonline.org)
- The researchers also found the children who did better in tasks where they needed to use theory of mind, were those whose right TPJ was particularly active when they listened to stories about other people's thoughts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- One theory says that we have one network for engaging in goal directed tasks. (bio-medicine.org)
- For example, one theory says that we have one network for engaging in goal directed tasks, positing that our second network allows the mind to wander. (redorbit.com)
- Human brain imaging typically employs structured and controlled tasks to avoid variable and inconsistent activation patterns. (weizmann.ac.il)
- 10 ] conducted some WCC-relevant tasks to examine the relationship between WCC and the ability of theory of mind (ToM). (alliedacademies.org)
- Weaker coordination and communication among core brain areas during social thinking tasks in autism provides evidence for how different brain areas in autism struggle to work together as a team. (eurekalert.org)
- Why can we describe the workings of a brain, but that doesn't tell us what it's like to be that person? (bio-medicine.org)
- The first class-known generically as 'theory-theory'-suggests that perceivers may bring to bear a sophisticated set of rules for deciphering the internal workings of other minds. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- One problem with theories which start with genes and then go on to try to explain complex mental outcomes such as psychosis or autism in the way in which the imprinted brain theory does is that they leave you asking what, if anything, fills the explanatory gap between the two? (psychologytoday.com)
- One major way in which DNA does this is to code for neuro-transmitters, growth factors, and other agents that control and regulate the expression of genes in the development of the brain. (psychologytoday.com)
- The MRI images revealed that social problems deactivated the brain regions associated with analysis and activated the social network, which held true regardless of the media the question was presented in. (redorbit.com)
- The physics questions, on the other hand, deactivated the brain regions associated with empathizing and activated the analytical network. (redorbit.com)
- We see early signatures of this theory-of-mind network being wired up, so the theory-of-mind brain regions which we studied in adults are already really highly correlated with one another in 3-year-olds," Richardson says. (medindia.net)
- The children with ASD showed significantly reduced activation compared to the neurotypical children in the brain regions considered to be part of the ToM network, such as the medial frontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction. (eurekalert.org)
- This schematic shows the brain regions (green) from which the outcome of a participant's decision can be predicted before it is made. (wired.com)
Transcranial direct curr2
- Here we address this issue using functional MRI (fMRI) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). (medworm.com)
- As TMS therapy has been officially used in the U.S. since 2008 for the treatment of major depressive disorder unresponsive to at least one medication , using a rather basic protocol, the future use of TMS (and related neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) will depend on developing more sophisticated understanding of how the brain works. (psychologytoday.com)
- So, for example, if you were shown a photograph of a family member, the fMRI would tell the neuroscientists which parts of your brain were active when you looked at the image of your family member, such as the vision center, the emotional center, and the facial recognition center. (sciencebuddies.org)
- Dalgleish T. The emotional brain. (springer.com)
- Thus, it is possible to predict that individuals with greater brain resources for social information processing can effectively manage larger social networks. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- At rest, our brains cycle between the social and analytical networks. (bio-medicine.org)
- The work suggests that established theories about two competing networks within the brain must be revised. (bio-medicine.org)
- In the last seven to 10 years, people began to understand that we shouldn't be searching for answers in any individual brain area, but looking at the brain as a collection of networks," she said. (coloradoan.com)
- Our brains cycle between the social and analytical networks at rest, when presented with a task, however healthy adults engage the appropriate neural pathway. (redorbit.com)
- When we are at rest, our brains move back-and-forth between the social and analytical networks. (blogspot.com)
- Large-scale functional and structural brain networks were constructed and graph theoretical network analyses were performed. (springer.com)
- The effect of renal function on brain functional and structural networks in DKD patients was further evaluated. (springer.com)
- Global and local efficiency in the structural networks and normalized characteristic path length in the functional networks were associated with information processing speed and/or psychomotor speed. (springer.com)
- Reduced kidney function clearly deteriorated functional and structural brain networks in DKD patients. (springer.com)
- The DMN has been shown to be negatively correlated with other networks in the brain such as attention networks. (wikipedia.org)
- Brain networks of children as young as 3 control theory of mind. (medindia.net)
- Scans of children revealed that even in 3-year-olds, the theory-of-mind and pain networks responded preferentially to the same events that the adult brains did. (medindia.net)
- B = a cognitive theory that has a split phonological level corresponding to auditory and motor networks. (talkingbrains.org)
- Brain Research. (springer.com)
- Saxe is also an associate professor of brain and cognitive sciences and associate member of MIT's McGovern Institute for Brain Research. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In earlier research, she had already established where theory of mind sits in the adult brain: it occupies a region known as the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). (medicalnewstoday.com)
- NWO expects the knowledge gained in this project to be widely applicably in further research into the normal and abnormal brain. (rug.nl)
- Brain Research, 1105, 110-121. (wikipedia.org)
- Brain Research Reviews, 51, 145-160. (wikipedia.org)
- New research shows a simple reason why even the most intelligent, complex brains can be taken by a swindler's story one that upon a second look offers clues it was false. (bio-medicine.org)
- He subsequently received his PhD in biostatistics of brain imaging at King's College London and conducted a Río Hortega Research Training Program in 2013. (wikipedia.org)
- Fixation-related fMRI analysis in the domain of reading research: using self-paced eye movements as markers for hemodynamic brain responses during visual letter string processing. (uni-salzburg.at)
- A major limitation of conventional human brain research has been its basis in highly artificial laboratory experiments. (weizmann.ac.il)
- The essential research tool for scholars in the Brain & Cognitive Sciences. (mit.edu)
- Rebecca Saxe, an MIT professor of brain and cognitive sciences and an associate member of MIT's McGovern Institute for Brain Research, is the senior author of the paper, which appears in the March 12 issue of Nature Communications. (medindia.net)
- Modern research over the last ten years has shown that both thte brain and the gut are operation to cause the very real physical symptoms, but it is NOT 'ibs is made up by anyone and isn't real' anymore. (healingwell.com)
- Published in Molecular Autism , the research reveals disruptions in the brain's circuitry involved in ToM at multiple levels compared to typical brain functioning. (eurekalert.org)
- According to research done in 1999, our brain reaches peak performance between age 16 and 25. (lifehack.org)
- I was genuinely surprised to see how powerfully these findings fit that theory. (bio-medicine.org)
- Students, teachers, and researchers in many fields have a lot to gain from the rich overview of theory and findings in these pages. (mit.edu)
- The findings provide valuable insight into understanding the functional makeup of a vital neural network that is critical for characterizing the social symptoms in individuals with ASD. (eurekalert.org)
- Exploring various concepts of representation employed in neuroscientific theories is an example of the former. (stanford.edu)
- Toward a more sophisticated response representation in theories of medial frontal performance monitoring: the effects of motor similarity and motor asymmetries. (wikipedia.org)
- several brain areas have been identified as parts of a possible "theory of mind" network ( Carrington and Bailey, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Large-scale network functional interactions during distraction and reappraisal in remitted bipolar and unipolar patients. (mpg.de)
- This theory posits that our second network allows the mind to wander. (bio-medicine.org)
- The other theory says that one network is for external attention, and the second network is for internal attention. (bio-medicine.org)
- We see neural inhibition between the entire brain network we use to socially, emotionally and morally engage with others, and the entire network we use for scientific, mathematical and logical reasoning. (bio-medicine.org)
- His work Topobiology contains a theory of how the original neuronal network of a newborn's brain is established during development of the embryo. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
- I test 20 people and find that the same network of three brain areas is always active. (danielwillingham.com)
- Lo and behold, there is a network of six brain areas that is active in every one of my subjects during this task! (danielwillingham.com)
- These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network in autism. (scielo.br)
- Understanding the brain from a network point of view provides the information required to design better treatment protocols and build more accurate models and sims. (psychologytoday.com)
- DKD patients showed enhanced functional and structural brain network disruption and normally appearing functional-structural coupling compared with DM patients, which correlated with kidney function, renal toxins, and cognitive performance. (springer.com)
- DKD patients showed markedly disrupted functional and structural brain network efficiency measures compared with DM patients and healthy controls. (springer.com)
- It was initially assumed that the default mode network was most commonly active when a person is not focused on the outside world and the brain is at wakeful rest, such as during daydreaming and mind-wandering . (wikipedia.org)
- Around this time the idea was developed that this network of brain areas is involved in internally directed thoughts and is suspended during specific goal-directed behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
- Wallace has advocated a network-theoretic modelling perspective on global workspace theory (Wallace 2005). (scholarpedia.org)
- It's almost irresistible to interpret brain imaging results as making visible and thereby, confirming , some abstract construct you use to account for behavioral data. (danielwillingham.com)
- But the job of psychology is to work out the machine program that is being realized by the lower-level neurophysiology and to describe the same brain states in more abstract, computational terms. (scholarpedia.org)