Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Connectome: A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Dichotic Listening Tests: Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Rest: Freedom from activity.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Nursing Theory: Concepts, definitions, and propositions applied to the study of various phenomena which pertain to nursing and nursing research.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Adolescent Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSignal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.ReadingSystems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mice, Inbred C57BLAstrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical: The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Imagination: A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
  • Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive technique that measures how light scatters differently on the surface of the brain as a function of brain activity. (cognitionandculture.net)
  • Functional optical topography (fOT), imaging based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy measurement, is an another noninvasive neuroimaging technique that provides continuous recording of brain hemodynamic activity with detection of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • It matters what you practice: Differential training effects on subjective experience, behavior, brain and body in the ReSource Project. (mpg.de)
  • Specifying the neurobiological basis of human attachment: brain, hormones, and behavior in synchronous and intrusive mothers. (nih.gov)
  • Animal research has demonstrated that natural variations in patterns of maternal care chart discrete profiles of maternal brain-behavior relationships that uniquely shape the infant's lifetime capacities for stress regulation and social affiliation. (nih.gov)
  • To integrate brain, hormones, and behavior in the study of maternal-infant bonding, we examined the fMRI responses of synchronous vs intrusive mothers to dynamic, ecologically valid infant videos and their correlations with plasma Oxytocin. (nih.gov)
  • it's a proposed mechanism of the mind, which I think will help explain behavior. (danielwillingham.com)
  • He is the author over 50 research articles and book chapters, and editor of two books the common theme of which is captured by the title of his latest book From Behavior Theory to Behavior Therapy (Allyn & Bacon, 1998). (behavior.net)
  • For the first time, to our knowledge, we test whether amygdala lesions compromise the cortical implementation of theory-of-mind. (pnas.org)
  • Two patients with bilateral amygdala lesions performed a belief reasoning test while undergoing functional MRI. (pnas.org)
  • Here we investigated this question directly by conducting functional MRI on two patients with rare bilateral amygdala lesions while they performed a neuroimaging protocol standardized for measuring cortical activity associated with false-belief reasoning. (pnas.org)
  • The amygdala is considered a critical node of the "social brain" that contributes to myriad social behaviors exhibited by primates ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lateralization of amygdala activation: a systematic review of functional neuroimaging studies. (springer.com)
  • Specific regions of the social brain are typically comprised of two network systems: the amygdala network [ 8 ] and the mentalizing network [ 9 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For example, one day the concept fear may one day be described by neurotransmitter changes in certain brain structures such as the amygdala. (powershow.com)
  • At first, scientists assumed that each emotion could be localized to a specific brain region (e.g., fear occurs in the amygdala), but they found that each region is active for a variety of emotions, more than one would expect by chance. (edge.org)
  • Rebecca Saxe, a neuroscientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and colleagues, suggest their findings provide a good basis for studying theory of mind impairments in autistic children . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Perhaps the brains of autistic children show different patterns of activity, says Gweon. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal lobe abnormalities in autistic patients. (scielo.br)
  • The understanding of the functional alterations of this important mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies for autistic patients. (scielo.br)
  • Each theory takes a different approach to the autistic disorder and theorizes different causes. (utm.edu)
  • We have used machine learning multivariate analysis methods to decode emotional states from brain activity, graph-theory based analysis tools to estimate functional complex sub-networks in neurotypical and high-functioning autistic subjects, and inter-subject similarity measures as model-free analysis approaches to study neural mechanisms of mutual understanding. (aalto.fi)
  • Humans use a so-called "theory-of-mind" to reason about the beliefs of others. (pnas.org)
  • A core social ability of humans that emerges early in childhood has been long studied under the name of "theory-of-mind" (ToM), an ability to impute mental states to other people. (pnas.org)
  • Humans have a remarkable capacity for reading the minds of other humans. (pnas.org)
  • As such, humans might draw on their own self-knowledge, experience, and mental states to understand the minds of others. (pnas.org)
  • That humans routinely use themselves as a source of information about others' minds is supported by a number of distinct empirical observations. (pnas.org)
  • Gerald Edelman is the founder and director of The Neurosciences Institute, a nonprofit research centre in San Diego that studies the biological basis of higher brain function in humans. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • This book comprises 26 exciting chapters by internationally renowned scholars, addressing the central psychological process separating humans from other animals: the ability to imagine the thoughts and feelings of others, and to reflect on the contents of our own mindsa theory of mind (ToM). (fishpond.com.au)
  • Although the idea of mind-reading implies the possession of supernatural abilities or exotic technology, even ordinary, humdrum humans are artfully accomplished telepaths. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • So how exactly do humans gain access to the inner workings of others' minds? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The psycho-dynamics of the humans mind territory is taken into account according to the four poles of mental functions introduced by C.G. Jung in his Psychological Types (1921), where he introduces a hierarchy of mental functions in two mental bipolar dimensions (dichotomies). (scirp.org)
  • Humans have relatively bigger brains and more computing power than other animals, and this allows us to figure out how to live in a wide range of environments. (nap.edu)
  • The social brain hypothesis proposes that large neocortex size evolved to support cognitively demanding social interactions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • According to the 'social brain hypothesis,' living in a large social group imposes computationally demanding information, so primates evolutionarily developed a bigger neocortex volume to adapt to such a load [ 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The findings offer support for an existing hypothesis that says children develop theory of mind even before they can pass explicit false-belief tests, and that it continues to develop as they get older. (medindia.net)
  • According to this hypothesis, the position of Babylonians was surprisingly wise and scientifically-minded: they did not speculate on psychiatric disorders mainly because they were aware of their limitations in understanding them. (bmj.com)
  • This issue leads us to the second and perhaps most intriguing hypothesis, which is based on Julian Jaynes' model of the bicameral mind (1). (bmj.com)
  • Gazdar offers a critique of the theory of illocutionary force based on the performative hypothesis (that the deep structure of every sentence contains a performative verb). (scaruffi.com)
  • Lesions to brain regions such as the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and inferior frontal cortex (IFC) are thought to cause autism-spectrum disorder (ASD). (frontiersin.org)
  • The small study compared the brains of 25 teens with an autism spectrum disorder to those of 25 typically developing teens, all aged 11 to 18. (coloradoan.com)
  • One reason scientists believe ASD causes impairment in social interactions is due to an inability to effectively infer other's thoughts and feelings through "theory of mind," or ToM -- the ability to understand the mental states of others and oneself. (eurekalert.org)
  • By studying children, we were able to show that it is possible to characterize the altered brain circuitry earlier in development, which could lead to designing earlier effective intervention programs that could train children to infer the intentions and thoughts that underlie physical interactions between people," Just said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Evidence is reviewed suggesting that cooccurrence of a deficit in non-literal language understanding and a deficit in theory of mind may be accounted for by an impairment in context processing associated with a lack of flexibility. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Brain Anatomy Weight: 1.3-kg (3-lb) mass Color: Pinkish-gray jellylike tissue made up of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons Neuroglia (supporting tissue) cells Vascular (blood-carrying) and other tissues Between the brain and the cranium-the part of the skull that directly covers the brain-is three protective membranes, or meninges. (scribd.com)
  • When the brain fires up the network of neurons that allows us to empat. (bio-medicine.org)
  • When the brain fires up the network of neurons that allows us to empathize, it suppresses the network used for analysis, a pivotal study led by a Case Western Reserve University researcher shows. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The new study, published online in the journal NeuroImage , reveals that when the brain fires up the network of neurons that allows a person to empathize, the network used for analysis is suppressed. (redorbit.com)
  • The data are screaming out that essentialism is wrong: individual brain regions, circuits, networks and even neurons are not single-purpose. (edge.org)
  • Some neuroscientists (scientists who study the nervous system) believe that a problem with special brain nerve cells, called mirror neurons may be partly at fault. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • Neurons in this part of the brain respond to specific aspects of the visual scene, such as a patch of strongly contrasting light and dark, so the activity recorded in each area of the brain scan reflects the visual information being processed by neurons in that area of the brain. (technologyreview.com)
  • Current brain-scanning devices have a spatial resolution of approximately one millimeter, an area that contains hundreds of neurons, each responding to different bits of visual information. (technologyreview.com)
  • With billions of neurons and trillions of connections, operations of human brain seem to be of highly complex nature. (prweb.com)
  • Our results reveal that despite its high level, and varied content nature - abstract thinking activates surprisingly precise and consistent networks in participants' brains. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • An important question is whether variation in autism spectrum traits are associated with changes in structure and patterns of activation in typical participants' brains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent studies have suggested that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) contributes both to understanding the mental states of others and to introspecting about one's own mind. (pnas.org)
  • Studies were required to use fMRI to compare ASD or SZ subjects to a matched healthy control group, provide coordinates in standard stereotactic space, and employ standardized facial emotion recognition (FER) or theory of mind (TOM) paradigms. (plos.org)
  • Finally, by defining functional brain phenotypes using fMRI, these studies have the potential to help differentiate subtypes of the autism spectrum, and provide clues into other causes of this disorder. (autismspeaks.org)
  • The social brain refers to the brain regions that consistently show activation in neuroimaging studies while engaging in a variety of social cognitive tasks. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Gehring has conducted studies and written a number of papers and articles about the brain and human motivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of earlier studies showed that two large scale brain networks are in tension in the brain, one which is known as the default mode network and a second known as the task positive network. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Fractionating theory of mind: a meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies revealed two large-scale brain networks are in tension in the brain: the default mode network and the task positive network. (redorbit.com)
  • Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in autism spectrum disorders. (scielo.br)
  • Essentialism can also be seen in studies that scan the human brain, trying to locate the brain tissue that is dedicated to each emotion. (edge.org)
  • Most fMRI studies to date have used the technology to pinpoint the parts of the brain involved in different cognitive tasks, such as reading or remembering faces. (technologyreview.com)
  • The chapter concludes that modern studies concentrate too much on single regions of the brain and/or on performance of isolated psychological tasks. (cambridge.org)
  • Until now, neuroscientists had assumed that theory-of-mind studies involving fMRI brain scans could only be done with children at least 5 years of age, because the children need to be able to lie still in a scanner for about 20 minutes, listen to a series of stories, and answer questions about them. (medindia.net)
  • It ties up all mind functions into a single, coherent framework, making it an essential counterpart to mind and brain studies not only to understand them better, but discover more by looking at them from the functional point of view. (prweb.com)
  • As compared to the current approach, which requires multidisciplinary studies from diverse and specialized fields, the straightforward approach offered by the DOS model makes it a breeze to understand mind, and thus, workings of the brain. (prweb.com)
  • The multifaceted concept ToM inspires varied research investigating its neural underpinnings but few studies compare affective and cognitive ToM directly using functional imaging approaches of the brain. (uni-marburg.de)
  • In later studies, Just has demonstrated how this theory accounted for many brain imaging and behavioral findings in tasks that required a substantial role for the frontal cortex. (eurekalert.org)
  • Later studies supported Libet's theory that subconscious activity preceded and determined conscious choice - but none found such a vast gap between a decision and the experience of making it as Haynes' study has. (wired.com)
  • Cabanis interpreted the mind in light of his previous studies of biology , arguing that sensibility and soul are properties of the nervous system . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Studies from 2006 show that exercise has tremendous benefits on our brain. (lifehack.org)
  • In our study we used functional MRI (fMRI) to test for potential early adaptive changes in only mildly disabled MS patients performing an emotion recognition task including the facial expressions of the emotions anger, fear and disgust. (springer.com)
  • We thank all the patients and controls who participated in this study, and Karin Brodtrager for her help with the acquisition of functional imaging data, and Franz Ebner, MD, for his infrastructural support. (springer.com)
  • Now, a new study shows that a region of the brain that was already known to be involved in the use of this skill in adults, changes its pattern of activity in children as they begin to acquire theory of mind reasoning for themselves. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this latest study, she and her team show that activity in the TPJ changes as children learn to employ theory of mind. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the study, the researchers used a version of what is commonly known as the "Sally-Anne" False Belief Test, a classic way of studying theory of mind in young children. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This study provides insight into understanding how the social brain is uniquely associated with sociocentric measures derived from a global network. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This study introduces a graph theory based classification model for diagnostic purposes that can be easily adapted for different neurological diseases. (springer.com)
  • Even the most intelligent, complex brains can be taken by a swindler's story, a new study from Case Western Reserve University shows, even stories that prove false upon a second look. (redorbit.com)
  • The findings of this new study suggest that established theories about two competing networks within the brain need to be revised. (redorbit.com)
  • A more reasonable interpretation of my cafeteria study is this: people have brain systems that support vision, decision making, movement, spatial processing, etc. (danielwillingham.com)
  • Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography, single foton emission tomographyand functional MRI have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functioning. (scielo.br)
  • Several chapters examine the use of modern technologies to study primate brains, analyzing the potentials and the limitations of neuroimaging as well as genetic and computational approaches. (mit.edu)
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the topological organization of functional and structural brain networks in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and its potential clinical relevance. (springer.com)
  • The research] suggests that fMRI-based measurements of brain activity contain much more information about underlying neural processes than has previously been appreciated," says Jack Gallant , a neuroscientist at the University of California, Berkeley, and senior author of the study. (technologyreview.com)
  • According to the study, published Wednesday in the online version of the journal Nature , scientists first gathered information about how the brain processes images by recording activity in the visual cortex as subjects looked at several thousand randomly selected pictures. (technologyreview.com)
  • Children as young as 3 have brain network devoted to interpreting thoughts of other people, revealed study from MIT. (medindia.net)
  • The brain regions involved in theory-of-mind reasoning are behaving like a cohesive network, with similar responses to the movie, by age 3, which is before kids tend to pass explicit false-belief tasks," says Hilary Richardson, an MIT graduate student and the lead author of the study. (medindia.net)
  • Richardson wanted to study children younger than that, so that she could delve into what happens in the brain's theory-of-mind network before the age of 5. (medindia.net)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the hemodynamic changes of the PFC and discriminant analysis between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during VFT task by utilizing functional optical topography. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The aim of the study was to examine longitudinal patterns of decision making based on risk and reward using a modified version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in children who had sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with orthopedic injury (OI). (jove.com)
  • Even if based on a single case study, these preliminary results show functional changes at the cerebral level that seem to support the patient's behavioural improvements. (hindawi.com)
  • An innovative brain imaging study has uncovered new evidence explaining why ToM deficiencies are present in ASD children. (eurekalert.org)
  • study of the soul " or "study of the mind ") [ 1 ] is an academic and applied discipline which involves the scientific study of human (or animal) mental functions and behaviors . (thefullwiki.org)
  • There was also an extensive study that looked at the long-term effects of brain exercises on older individuals. (lifehack.org)
  • The study provided brain exercises to 2,832 individuals aged 65 and up. (lifehack.org)
  • Skeptics view hypnosis as a little-understood parlor trick, but a new study reveals real changes occur in the brain when a person enters an hypnotic state. (prn.fm)
  • Some parts of the brain relax during the trance while others become more active, said study senior author Dr. David Spiegel, associate chair of psychiatry at the Stanford University School of Medicine. (prn.fm)
  • Here we used functional MRI to elucidate the contributions of local and global motion to emotion perception during movie viewing. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Since then, scientists have been searching for the brain essence of each emotion in dedicated brain networks, and in probabilistic patterns across the brain, always with the assumption that each emotion has an essence to be found, rather than abandoning essentialism. (edge.org)
  • The fact that different brain regions and networks show increased activity during different emotions is not a problem just for emotion research. (edge.org)
  • Outcome of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) includes impaired emotion regulation. (jove.com)
  • Taken together, our findings shed light on the effect of gratitude meditation on an individual's mental well-being, and indicate that it may be a means of improving both emotion regulation and self-motivation by modulating resting-state FC in emotion and motivation-related brain regions. (nature.com)
  • In other words, even if we start with our own thoughts, feelings, and opinions when contemplating those of others, we also typically need to correct for idiosyncratic aspects of that person's mind. (pnas.org)
  • A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside that person. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most direct way to test theories about how the brain transforms information is to measure what information is stored in different parts of the person's mind, and how that changes from structure to structure," says Ken Norman , a neuroscientist at Princeton University, in New Jersey, who was not involved in the research. (technologyreview.com)
  • They scanned the entire brain, focusing on two distinct networks that have been well-characterized in adults: the theory-of-mind network and another network known as the pain matrix, which is active when thinking about another person's physical state. (medindia.net)
  • Even at an early stage of development, neuromodulation tech like TMS gives clinicians the power to directly try to correct pathological brain activity. (psychologytoday.com)
  • You are lying down with your head in a noisy and tightfitting fMRI brain scanner, which is unnerving in itself. (prn.fm)
  • Indeed, the fact that many other disorders (e.g., right hemisphere lesion, traumatic brain injury, autism) are characterized by pragmatic impairments may reflect a heterogeneous range of underlying functional deficits that have to be determined. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Whole-brain parametric analyses identified a region in the MPFC in which activity was related linearly to this self-other discrepancy when inferring the mental states of others. (pnas.org)
  • Researchers have shown that activity in a certain region of the brain changes as children learn to reason about what other people might be thinking. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The findings suggest that as children age, the right TPJ becomes more specific to theory of mind, and over time, its patterns of activity look more like those of adults. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Brain Functions: The brain is the control center for movement, sleep, hunger, thirst, and virtually every other vital activity necessary to survival. (scribd.com)
  • Brain activity elicited by positive and negative feedback in preschool-aged children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain activity in areas that showed preferential responses to emotional content was strongly linked over time with frame-wide variations in global motion, and to a lesser extent with local motion information. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Thoughts can produce actions, and brain activity can produce thoughts. (powershow.com)
  • TMS gives us the ability to directly influence brain activity in a highly selective manner, enabling an unprecedented degree of control over how our minds function-for clinical and other applications (e.g. forensic, performance enhancement, etc. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The effect of the TMS depends on what areas are targeted, including the depth into the brain, whether the stimulation is used to increase or suppress activity in that area, and how changing activity in that brain area affects the overall function of the brain, and the subjective experience of the individual. (psychologytoday.com)
  • 3) adults with ASD in the VR-SCT relative to the active control group will exhibit enhanced neural activity in the brain networks implicated in theory of mind or facial affect processing from baseline to treatment endpoint. (autismspeaks.org)
  • However, his ideas were not taken seriously, and a general perception formed among neurologists that only when a focused activity is performed does the brain (or a part of the brain) become active. (wikipedia.org)
  • These experiments showed that the brain is constantly active with a high level of activity even when the person is not engaged in focused mental work. (wikipedia.org)
  • FMRI detects blood flow in the brain, giving an indirect measure of brain activity. (technologyreview.com)
  • By employing computer models to analyze the kinds of information gathered from the neural activity, scientists can try to assess how neural signals are processed in different brain areas and ultimately fused to create a cohesive perception. (technologyreview.com)
  • The researchers compiled this information to develop a computer model that would predict the pattern of brain activity triggered by any image. (technologyreview.com)
  • Vygotsky-Luria's theory is based on the idea that specifically human higher psychological functions develop in the process of communication and material activity of a developing person in a socio-cultural environment. (cambridge.org)
  • In order to assess brain changes, we calculated the Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (ALFF) index of the resting-state fMRI signal, which is interpreted as reflecting the intensity of the spontaneous regional activity of the brain. (hindawi.com)
  • Your decisions are strongly prepared by brain activity. (wired.com)
  • Haynes updated a classic experiment by the late Benjamin Libet , who showed that a brain region involved in coordinating motor activity fired a fraction of a second before test subjects chose to push a button. (wired.com)
  • In the seven seconds before Haynes' test subjects chose to push a button, activity shifted in their frontopolar cortex, a brain region associated with high-level planning. (wired.com)
  • Your brain activity is the physiological substance in which your personality and wishes and desires operate,' he said. (wired.com)
  • For instance, short-term integrative body-mind training induced better physiological reactions in heart rate (HR) and skin conductance, and stronger anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity than simple relaxation training 18 . (nature.com)
  • Empirical discoveries about brain structure and function suggest ways that "naturalistic" programs might develop in detail, beyond the abstract philosophical considerations in their favor. (stanford.edu)
  • Three current psychological/philosophical theories attempt to explain autism as the result of certain cognitive deficiencies. (utm.edu)
  • Teleofunctionalism is the philosophical theory of mind according to which: what makes a given type of mental state the type that it is, is its distinctive job or function within its subject's psychobiology. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Materialists like Novella can explain (away) the causal gap between brains and thoughts by saying "Thoughts are what brains do" and leave it at that. (uncommondescent.com)
  • In my essay I will argue that type-identity is the only theory that can secure the causal efficacy of the mental. (brightkite.com)
  • However, I hope to show in what follows, that the type-identity theory provides solutions to the problems that both of these theories face using the causal exclusion argument. (brightkite.com)
  • Natural variation in maternal sensitivity is reflected in maternal brain responses to infant stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • One problem with theories which start with genes and then go on to try to explain complex mental outcomes such as psychosis or autism in the way in which the imprinted brain theory does is that they leave you asking what, if anything, fills the explanatory gap between the two? (psychologytoday.com)
  • One major way in which DNA does this is to code for neuro-transmitters, growth factors, and other agents that control and regulate the expression of genes in the development of the brain. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The MRI images revealed that social problems deactivated the brain regions associated with analysis and activated the social network, which held true regardless of the media the question was presented in. (redorbit.com)
  • The physics questions, on the other hand, deactivated the brain regions associated with empathizing and activated the analytical network. (redorbit.com)
  • We see early signatures of this theory-of-mind network being wired up, so the theory-of-mind brain regions which we studied in adults are already really highly correlated with one another in 3-year-olds," Richardson says. (medindia.net)
  • The children with ASD showed significantly reduced activation compared to the neurotypical children in the brain regions considered to be part of the ToM network, such as the medial frontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction. (eurekalert.org)
  • This schematic shows the brain regions (green) from which the outcome of a participant's decision can be predicted before it is made. (wired.com)
  • Here we address this issue using functional MRI (fMRI) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). (medworm.com)
  • As TMS therapy has been officially used in the U.S. since 2008 for the treatment of major depressive disorder unresponsive to at least one medication , using a rather basic protocol, the future use of TMS (and related neuromodulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) will depend on developing more sophisticated understanding of how the brain works. (psychologytoday.com)
  • So, for example, if you were shown a photograph of a family member, the fMRI would tell the neuroscientists which parts of your brain were active when you looked at the image of your family member, such as the vision center, the emotional center, and the facial recognition center. (sciencebuddies.org)
  • Dalgleish T. The emotional brain. (springer.com)
  • It's almost irresistible to interpret brain imaging results as making visible and thereby, confirming , some abstract construct you use to account for behavioral data. (danielwillingham.com)
  • But the job of psychology is to work out the machine program that is being realized by the lower-level neurophysiology and to describe the same brain states in more abstract, computational terms. (scholarpedia.org)
  • However, it remains uncertain how an individual's social connectedness reported by other people is associated with the social brain volume. (royalsocietypublishing.org)