Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A family of immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecules that are involved in NERVOUS SYSTEM patterning.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.
Cell adhesion molecules that mediate neuron-neuron adhesion and neuron-astrocyte adhesion. They are expressed on neurons and Schwann cells, but not astrocytes and are involved in neuronal migration, neurite fasciculation, and outgrowth. Ng-CAM is immunologically and structurally distinct from NCAM.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
"Ksp-cadherin is a functional cell-cell adhesion molecule related to LI-cadherin". Experimental Cell Research. 294 (2): 345-55. ... Those cancer cells can form cell-cell adhesions again and return to an epithelial state.[53] ... cell adhesion molecule binding. • cadherin binding. • identical protein binding. Cellular component. • cell-cell adherens ... homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules. • entry of bacterium into host cell. • protein localization to ...
... layer of the uterine wall is an epithelial tissue called the endometrium that requires cell surface adhesion molecules called ... which ultimately primes trophoblast cells to invade appropriately into the endometrium. When compared to non-functional short ... Integrins are a broad class of cell adhesion molecules that allow cells to bind to extracellular matrix. In this way, they ... This additional paracrine effect of PIF has been shown to increase the expression of the integrin molecule α2β3 on the cell ...
2003). "The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor mediates UTP-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in coronary artery ... 2003). "Expression of purinergic receptors in non-melanoma skin cancers and their functional roles in A431 cells". J. Invest. ... 1997). "Identification and characterization of P2Y2 nucleotide receptors in human retinal pigment epithelial cells". J. ... It may participate in control of the cell cycle of endometrial carcinoma cells. Three transcript variants encoding the same ...
"Ksp-cadherin is a functional cell-cell adhesion molecule related to LI-cadherin". Exp. Cell Res. 294 (2): 345-55. PMID 15023525 ... July 2005). "The transcription factor snail induces tumor cell invasion through modulation of the epithelial cell ... Wijnhoven BP, Dinjens WN, Pignatelli M (2000). "E-cadherin-catenin cell-cell adhesion complex and human cancer.". The British ... Dobrosotskaya IY, James GL (April 2000). "MAGI-1 interacts with beta-catenin and is associated with cell-cell adhesion ...
... of cell-cell adhesion molecules such as E-cadherins will promote structural integrity and an epithelial arrangement of cells, ... Wilkie AO, Tang Z, Elanko N, Walsh S, Twigg SR, Hurst JA, Wall SA, Chrzanowska KH, Maxson RE (April 2000). "Functional ... Cells will express msx2 when exposed to signaling molecules BMP-2 and BMP-4 in situ. Expression of msx2 leads to the ... "The homeobox genes MSX2 and MOX2 are candidates for regulating epithelial-mesenchymal cell interactions in the human placenta ...
"Ksp-cadherin is a functional cell-cell adhesion molecule related to LI-cadherin". Experimental Cell Research 294 (2): 345-55. ... "CAS/CSE 1 stimulates E-cadhrin-dependent cell polarity in HT-29 human colon epithelial cells". Biochemical and Biophysical ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science 116 (Pt 24): 4985- ... Dobrosotskaya IY, James GL (Apr 2000). "MAGI-1 interacts with beta-catenin and is associated with cell-cell adhesion structures ...
... s are especially abundant in epithelial tissues. Combined with cell adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix, ... Selectins are cell adhesion molecules that play an important role in the initiation of inflammatory processes. The functional ... The molecules responsible for creating cell junctions include various cell adhesion molecules. There are four main types: ... Cell adhesion is a vital component of the body. Loss of this adhesion effects cell structure, cellular functioning and ...
"Ksp-cadherin is a functional cell-cell adhesion molecule related to LI-cadherin". Experimental Cell Research. 294 (2): 345-55. ... These cell-cell adhesion complexes are necessary for the creation and maintenance of epithelial cell layers and barriers. As a ... "A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 24): 4985 ... Cell-cell adhesion complexes are essential for the formation of complex animal tissues. β-catenin is part of a protein complex ...
... which is found on immune cells like B or T cells, and antigen-presenting cells, or nectin-4, a cellular adhesion molecule. Once ... Functional impairment of the infected dendritic cells by the measles virus is thought to contribute to measles-induced ... Once the measles virus gets onto the mucosa, it infects the epithelial cells in the trachea or bronchi. Measles virus uses a ... Noyce RS, Richardson CD (September 2012). "Nectin 4 is the epithelial cell receptor for measles virus". Trends in Microbiology ...
They found the hemagglutinin directly interacted with the e-cadherin in the epithelial cells to disturbed cell to cell adhesion ... Takeichi, M (1977). "Functional correlation between cell adhesive properties and some cell surface proteins". J. Cell Biol. 75 ... Outside of cadherin, Takeichi studied other molecules involved with cell adhesion and beyond. He studied alpha-catenin ... "Teratocarcinoma cell adhesion: Identification of a cell surface protein involved in calcium-dependent cell aggregation". Cell. ...
... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), and E-selectin). PARs contribute to the ... These findings suggest that TFF3 activates intestinal epithelial cells through G-protein-coupled PAR-2, and could actively ... Vu TK, Hung DT, Wheaton VI, Coughlin SR (March 1991). "Molecular cloning of a functional thrombin receptor reveals a novel ... of the intestinal epithelial cells HT-29, regulating cytokines and defensins". Bratislavske Lekarske Listy. 117 (6): 332-9. doi ...
A third function is cell-cell adhesion. Evidence for syndecan's role in cell-cell adhesion comes from the human myeloma cell ... Syndecan 3 is highly expressed in neural cells, but has low or undetectable amount in epithelial cells. In tissues, it is ... Second is matrix adhesion. Syndecans bind to structural extracellular matrix molecules such as collagens I, III, V, fibronectin ... glycosaminoglycans have different structures to accommodate the functional needs of the region. The syndecans are known to form ...
EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule, ESA, TROP1) is hemophilic Ca2+-independent cell adhesion molecule expressed on the ... cells within the tumor population exhibit functional heterogeneity and tumors are formed from cells with various proliferative ... epithelial cell adhesion molecule, also known as epithelial specific antigen, ESA). CD133 (prominin 1) is a five-transmembrane ... CD44 (PGP1) is an adhesion molecule that has pleiotropic roles in cell signaling, migration and homing. It has multiple ...
... cell-adhesion molecules in synaptic plasticity". Trends in Cell Biology. 10 (11): 473-82. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(00)01838-9. ... immature contacts to stabilize into full-fledged functional platforms for neurotransmission. Non-traditional adhesion molecules ... The PAJ functions much like the adherens junctions in epithelial tissues. The displacement of these CAMs and the formation of ... Rikitake Y, Mandai K, Takai Y (August 2012). "The role of nectins in different types of cell-cell adhesion". Journal of Cell ...
The basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits. It is often ... Some of the matrix molecules (of the basal lamina) mediate synaptic adhesion in neuromuscular synapses (citation: [edited by] ... Wheater's Functional Histology 4th edition (2000) Chan F, Inoue S (1994). "Lamina lucida of basement membrane: an artefact". ... The basal lamina is made and maintained by the cells that sit on it. It acts as a point of attachment for cells. However, it ...
"Direct binding of cell polarity protein PAR-3 to cell-cell adhesion molecule nectin at neuroepithelial cells of developing ... contains a major functional region in herpes simplex virus-1 entry into cells and interacts physically with the viral ... molecule found in a wide range of tissues where it localizes in various junctions such as the adherens junction of epithelial ... The protein can mediate Ca2+-independent cellular adhesion further characterizing it as IgSF cell adhesion molecule (IgSF CAM ...
... co-stimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86) and adhesion receptors (CD11a, CD18, CD54). Thus activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells behave like ... γδ T cells are a major T cell subset of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) present in the epithelial layer of mucosa. They ... Thus, the presence of a functional Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR appears mandatory for a response to non-peptidic antigens although the basis for ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are ...
Culture cells were grown on either side of the membrane: human alveolar epithelial cells on one side, and human pulmonary ... the interface should undergo an increased number of leukocyte adhesion molecules. In Huh's experiment, the pulmonary ... maintains the cells' functional levels. Heightening the sensitivity of the in vitro cultured cells ensures the validity of the ... These include the descending limb cells, thin ascending limb cells, thick ascending limb cells, cortical collecting duct cells ...
CD24 is associated with B-cells, epithelial cells, and dendritic cells, functioning as an adhesion molecule and shown to ... Paralogs of DHRS7B are all in the SDR superfamily and conservation of the SDR functional motifs was identified in a multiple ... Additionally, it acts as an adhesion molecule for leukocytes on peripheral lymphoid organs and inflammation sites. ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. Sowa ...
Currently, four desmoglein subfamily members have been identified and all are members of the cadherin cell adhesion molecule ... Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions between epithelial, myocardial and certain other cell types. Desmoglein-1 is a calcium- ... Chen X, Bonne S, Hatzfeld M, van Roy F, Green KJ (March 2002). "Protein binding and functional characterization of plakophilin ... is related to the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...
Furthermore, 12(S)-HETE a) increases the expression of Alpha-v beta-5 cell surface adhesion molecule and associated with this ... the binding of human vascular epithelial cells to human monocytes; d) DNA synthesis and mitogenesis in the immortalized human ... Dobrian, A. D.; Lieb, D. C.; Cole, B. K.; Taylor-Fishwick, D. A.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Nadler, J. L. (2011). "Functional and ... T lymphocye cell line), Hut78 cells (T cell lymphoma cell line), HEK 293 cells (primary embryonic kidney cell line), MCF7 cells ...
1997). "Cadherin-6, a cell adhesion molecule specifically expressed in the proximal renal tubule and renal cell carcinoma". ... 1998). "Regulated expression of cadherin-6 and cadherin-11 in the glandular epithelial and stromal cells of the human ... 1999). "Biochemical characterization and functional analysis of two type II classic cadherins, cadherin-6 and -14, and ... The encoded membrane protein is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein composed of five extracellular cadherin ...
Sandra Citi, as a protein present in chicken intestinal epithelial cells, that co-purified with non-muscle myosin II and was ... "Interaction of junctional adhesion molecule with the tight junction components ZO-1, cingulin, and occludin". The Journal of ... D'Atri F, Nadalutti F, Citi S (August 2002). "Evidence for a functional interaction between cingulin and ZO-1 in cultured cells ... maternal cingulin is recruited to apical cell-cell junctions from 2-cells stage. In 2004, a protein homologous to cingulin was ...
... a cellular adhesion molecule (CAM) found on epithelial cells. It is probably important for T cell homing to the intestinal ... "Functional specialization of gut CD103+ dendritic cells in the regulation of tissue-selective T cell homing". J. Exp. Med. 202 ... T cells (both αβ T cells and γδ T cells) and on some peripheral regulatory T cells (Tregs). It has also been reported on lamina ... 2000). "T-lymphocyte-epithelial-cell interactions: integrin alpha(E)(CD103)beta(7), LEEP-CAM and chemokines". Curr. Opin. Cell ...
... and absent from leukocytes and epithelial cells. It moderates leukocyte recruitment, is both an adhesion molecule and a primary ... "Crystal structure of the human vascular adhesion protein-1: unique structural features with functional implications". Protein ... "Cloning of vascular adhesion protein 1 reveals a novel multifunctional adhesion molecule". The Journal of Experimental Medicine ... "Vascular adhesion protein-1 mediates adhesion and transmigration of lymphocytes on human hepatic endothelial cells". Journal of ...
In a mouse specimen, when SIM2s was not expressed in mammary epithelial cells there were development defects leading to cancer- ... and loss of E-cadherin cellular adhesion molecules. These observations suggest that SIM2s is essential for proper mammary gland ... "The murine Sim-2 gene product inhibits transcription by active repression and functional interference". Molecular and Cellular ... Meng, X; Shi, J; Peng, B; Zou, X; Zhang, C (2006). "Effect of mouse Sim2 gene on the cell cycle of PC12 cell". Cell Biology ...
High levels of the adhesion molecule CD44 on leukemic cells are essential to generate leukemia.[24] Furthermore, because ... "The dual role of CD44 as a functional P-selectin ligand and fibrin receptor in colon carcinoma cell adhesion". American Journal ... Some epithelial cells also express a larger isoform (CD44E), which includes exons v8-10.[6] ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. In humans, the ...
"CD84 functions as a homophilic adhesion molecule and enhances IFN-gamma secretion: adhesion is mediated by Ig-like domain 1". ... "The transmembrane form of the CX3CL1 chemokine fractalkine is expressed predominantly by epithelial cells in vivo". The ... "Entrez Gene: CD84 CD84 molecule". Tangye SG, Nichols KE, Hare NJ, van de Weerdt BC (Sep 2003). "Functional requirements for ... "Differential expression of SAP and EAT-2-binding leukocyte cell-surface molecules CD84, CD150 (SLAM), CD229 (Ly9) and CD244 ( ...
L1 has a static function as a cell adhesion molecule which connects different cells. It is involved in the adhesion between ... cerebellar granule cell migration, neurite outgrowth on Schwann cells and interactions among epithelial cells of intestinal ... Hlavin ML, Lemmon V (1991). "Molecular structure and functional testing of human L1CAM: an interspecies comparison". Genomics. ... This protein, of 200-220 kDa, is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule with a strong implication in cell migration, adhesion, ...
... large family of cell adhesion molecules) with their cell surface receptors is sterically hindered. Expression of versican is ... Smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, epithelial cells of skin, and the cells of central and peripheral nervous system are a ... The structural and functional diversity of Versican is increased by variations in GAG sulfation patterns and the type of GAG ... Different tenascin domains interact with a wide range of cellular receptors, including integrins, cell adhesion molecules and ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... could be restored to normal epithelial morphology and increased E-cadherin levels by expression of normal levels of functional ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ...
"Substance P enhances cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on cultured rheumatoid fibroblast- ... Reid TW, Murphy CJ, Iwahashi CK, Foster BA, Mannis MJ (Aug 1993). "Stimulation of epithelial cell growth by the neuropeptide ... and functional expression of cDNA clones". Biochemistry. 30 (44): 10640-6. doi:10.1021/bi00108a006. PMID 1657150.. ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ...
It is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils, and promotes the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, helping ... epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis. • positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic ... "A physical and functional map of the human TNF alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway". Nat. Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. ... positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • endothelial cell ...
Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. In animals, proteins are ... Membrane proteins often serve as receptors or provide channels for polar or charged molecules to pass through the cell membrane ... "Briefings in Functional Genomics & Proteomics. 6 (4): 302-12. doi:10.1093/bfgp/elm035. PMID 18218650.. ... Samarin S, Nusrat A (January 2009). "Regulation of epithelial apical junctional complex by Rho family GTPases". Frontiers in ...
Damage to epithelial cells releases cytokines which attract leukocytes to assist with the inflammatory response. The balance ... Co-adhesion involves the adherence of planktonic or single culture cells to already attached organisms on a surface. The ... Neutrophils are recruited to the gingival crevice area as they are signalled to by molecules released by plaque microorganisms ... The attached gingiva dissipates functional and masticatory stresses placed on the gingival tissues during common activities ...
... cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non-immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts).[ ... "Mechanisms underlying acute mast cell-induced leukocyte rolling and adhesion in vivo". Journal of Immunology. 154 (2): 804-13. ... The ability of the immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in part, due to the presence ... Specifically, adjuvants may exert their immune-enhancing effects according to five immune-functional activities.[20] ...
... to the Pseudomonas fluorescens cell adhesion protein LapA of 520 kDa.[7] The best characterized are the RTX toxins and the ... Helicobacter pylori uses a type IV secretion system to deliver CagA into gastric epithelial cells, which is associated with ... Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or ... "Structural and functional characterization of the VirB5 protein from the type IV secretion system encoded by the conjugative ...
... α-gliadin stimulates membrane cells, enterocytes, of the intestine to allow larger molecules around the sealant between cells. ... One locus, the LPP or lipoma-preferred partner gene, is involved in the adhesion of extracellular matrix to the cell surface, ... Marsh stage 1: increased number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs), usually exceeding 20 per 100 enterocytes ... and might have a role in triggering functional gastrointestinal symptoms.[116] ...
... molecules.[5] Some cells are specially equipped to present antigen, and to prime naive T cells. Dendritic cells, B-cells, and ... Neutralization: Blocks adhesion of bacteria and viruses to mucosa. Like the T cell, B cells express a unique B cell receptor ( ... as certain blood cells specialize to insert themselves between adjacent epithelial cells). The immunodepressive action was the ... on gene rearrangement to generate diverse immune receptors with a functional dichotomy that parallels Ig and TCR molecules.[35] ...
... airway epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. It is also expressed without CysLTR1 throughout the heart, including ... "Expression of the type 2 receptor for cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT2R) by human mast cells: Functional distinction from ... Purkinje cells, adrenal gland, and brain as well as some vascular endothelial, airway epithelial, and smooth muscle cells.[10][ ... However, recent studies also working with model cells involved in allergy find that GPR17-bearing cells do not respond to these ...
Analysis of adhesion molecules, target cells, and role of IL-2 in human FOXP3+ regulatory T cell suppressor function. „J ... Epithelial and dendritic cells in the thymic medulla promote CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell development via the CD27-CD70 pathway ... Loss of functional suppression by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in patients with multiple sclerosis. „J Exp Med". 199 (7), s. ... Human regulatory T cells rapidly suppress T cell receptor-induced Ca(2+), NF-κB, and NFAT signaling in conventional T cells. „ ...
... and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). CD44 and ICAM-1 were already known as cell adhesion molecules with other ... the activation of Rho GTPases can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cancer cells. During the processes of ... "Controlled activation of morphogenesis to generate a functional human microvasculature in a synthetic matrix". Blood. 118 (3 ... such as cell aggregation, migration, proliferation and activation; cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion; endocytosis of HA, ...
The unlinked tropoelastin molecules are not normally available in the cell, since they become crosslinked into elastin fibres ... Bertram C, Hass R (Oct 2009). "Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7 ... "Cell adhesion to tropoelastin is mediated via the C-terminal GRKRK motif and integrin alphaVbeta3". The Journal of Biological ... "Functional consequences of homocysteinylation of the elastic fiber proteins fibrillin-1 and tropoelastin". The Journal of ...
"Molecular Cell Biology (4th ed.).. *^ Cooper, Geoffrey M. (2000). "Transport of Small Molecules". The Cell: A Molecular ... cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signalling and ... This is particularly evident in epithelial and endothelial cells, but also describes other polarized cells, such as neurons. ... cell envelope and cell membrane.[14][15] Some authors who did not believe that there was a functional permeable boundary at the ...
cell adhesion. • cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation. • platelet formation. • leukocyte migration. • establishment ... Silencing of Myh9 in the epithelial cells in mice was associated with the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the ... The tail portion of the molecule can interact with other NM IIA hexamers to form bipolar filaments composed of 14-16 molecules ... evidence for functional smooth muscle myosin II in the 10S self-inhibited monomeric conformation in airway smooth muscle cells" ...
The endothelial cells of intact vessels prevent blood clotting with a heparin-like molecule and thrombomodulin and prevent ... Within seconds of a blood vessel's epithelial wall being disrupted platelets begin to adhere to the sub-endothelium surface. It ... This topical agent requires the normal hemostatic pathway to be properly functional.[9] ... producing aggregation and adhesion. Platelets release cytoplasmic granules such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), serotonin and ...
Cell adhesion molecule. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. IgSF CAM:. *OFC7 ... Neurons, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts work together to create a functional nerve. Schwann cells and neurons exchange ... KRT3 (Meesmann juvenile epithelial corneal dystrophy). *KRT4 (White sponge nevus). *KRT5 (Epidermolysis bullosa simplex) ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
The intestinal walls are lined with villi, and their epithelial cells is covered with numerous microvilli to improve the ... Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be ... to the Pseudomonas fluorescens cell adhesion protein LapA of 900 kDa.[4] ... which would be destroyed if they were broken down into their functional groups. To digest vitamin B12 non-destructively, ...
Also, at an adhesion called the fibronexus, actin in the myofibroblast is linked across the cell membrane to molecules in the ... Epithelial cells climb over one another in order to migrate.[42] This growing sheet of epithelial cells is often called the ... Functional neutrophils at the wound site only have life-spans of around 2 days, so they usually undergo apoptosis once they ... Stem cells give rise to progenitor cells, which are cells that are not self-renewing, but can generate several types of cells. ...
... s are present along the nephron in the kidney, with proximal tubule epithelial cells showing the highest ... 2003). "Relationship between functional dopamine D2 and D3 receptors gene polymorphisms and neuroleptic malignant syndrome". Am ... Hummel M, Unterwald EM (2002). "D1 dopamine receptor: a putative neurochemical and behavioral link to cocaine action". J. Cell ... functional and clinical data". Psychopharmacologia. 45 (3): 243-254. doi:10.1007/bf00421135. PMID 175391.. ...
... for Chemoattractant Receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T-Helper type 2 cells). In addition to these T helper cells, DP2 ... "Possible novel receptor for PGD2 on human bronchial epithelial cells". International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 143 ... Maeda Y, Hizawa N, Takahashi D, Fukui Y, Konno S, Nishimura M (2007). "Genetic impact of functional single nucleotide ... an increase in the expression of DP2 by these cells, an enhanced rate of differentiation of precursor cells to Th2 cells in ...
Epithelial tissue is composed of closely packed cells, bound to each other by cell adhesion molecules, with little ... Liem, Karel F.; Warren Franklin Walker (2001). Functional anatomy of the vertebrates: an evolutionary perspective. Harcourt ... The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... Keratinocytes make up to 95% of the cells in the skin.[16] The epithelial cells on the external surface of the body typically ...
... interacts with nephrocystin and both proteins localize to cell-cell contacts of polarized epithelial cells". Exp. Cell Res. ( ... "Insulin receptor substrate-1 as a signaling molecule for focal adhesion kinase pp125(FAK) and pp60(src)". J. Biol. Chem. ( ... Functional implications". Eur. J. Biochem. 269 (15): 3619-31. PMID 12153558. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.03038.x. ... Frame MC, Fincham VJ, Carragher NO, Wyke JA (2002). "v-Src's hold over actin and cell adhesions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3 ( ...
B cells. Eosinophils. Langerhans cells Possible adhesion molecule. IgE transport across human intestinal epithelium. Positive- ... Dendritic cells. Epithelial cells. Endothelial cells. Hepatocytes. Transfers IgG from a mother to fetus through the placenta. ... Functional analysis of two human T-cell subpopulations: help and suppression of B-cell responses by T cells bearing receptors ... cells stimulate the NK cells to release cytotoxic molecules from their granules to kill antibody-covered target cells.[22] Fc ...
... as demonstrated by using arrays of perfusion chambers for mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblast cell adhesion studies. Cell-ECM ... Electrokinetics have been exploited in bio-MEMS for separating mixtures of molecules and cells using electrical fields. In ... lung functions have been reconstituted on lung-on-a-chip devices where a porous membrane and the seeded epithelial cell layer ... Functional protein arrays display folded and active proteins and are used for screening molecular interactions, studying ...
... expression of seven transcription factors in pluripotent Xenopus cells rendered those cells able to develop into functional ... "Dishevelled controls apical docking and planar polarization of basal bodies in ciliated epithelial cells". Nature Genetics. 40 ... Small molecule screens to develop novel therapiesEdit. Because huge amounts of material are easily obtained, all modalities of ... "Cadherin adhesion, tissue tension, and noncanonical Wnt signaling regulate fibronectin matrix organization". Developmental ...
... adhesion factors, and other molecules that can change cell fate.[79] This reprogramming of cellular phenotypes normally allows ... Cancer now originates when a rare somatic mutation recombines such fragments into a functional driver of cell proliferation.[58 ... "A gp130-Src-YAP module links inflammation to epithelial regeneration". Nature. 519 (7541): 57-62. Bibcode:2015Natur.519...57T ... Cancer stem cells may arise from transformation of adult stem cells or differentiated cells within a body. These cells persist ...
"Developmental exposure to estrogens alters epithelial cell adhesion and gap junction proteins in the adult rat prostate". ... which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells.[4][5] ... Young; Cohn, ZA; Gilula, NB (1987). "Functional assembly of gap junction conductance in lipid bilayers: demonstration that the ... "ECM-induced gap junctional communication enhances mammary epithelial cell differentiation". J. Cell Sci. 116 (Pt 17): 3531-41. ...
Cell. 2006 Aug 25;126(4):741-54. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... We established cultured epithelial cells (1(ko)/2(kd)) in which ... TJ adhesion molecules, in temporal and spatial manners. ZO-1 and ZO-2 are major PDZ-domain-containing TJ proteins and bind ... directly to claudins, yet their functional roles are poorly understood. ... A fundamental question in cell and developmental biology is how epithelial cells construct the diffusion barrier allowing them ...
In this study, the functional role of DDX3 in regulation of hepatic CSCs was investigated. Our results demonstrated that ... Knockdown of DDX3 in HCC cell line HepG2 induced stemness gene signature followed by occurrence of self-renewal, ... Studies indicate that the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is responsible for poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma ( ... on promoters of these tumor-suppressive miRNAs reflected their transcriptional repressions in DDX3-knockdown cells. Furthermore ...
Journal of Molecular Cell Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of ... 2015 ). TMIGD1 is a novel adhesion molecule that protects epithelial cells from oxidative cell injury . Am. J. Pathol. 185 , ... underscoring their ubiquitous functional importance in the biology of eukaryotic cells. Due to their intrinsically disordered ... 2015 ). TMIGD1 is a novel adhesion molecule that protects epithelial cells from oxidative cell injury . Am. J. Pathol. 185 , ...
... which is located at apical cell-cell interactions of adjacent epithelial cells. Three known inherited disorders, familial ... The transmembrane proteins of tight junctions include claudins, junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), occludin and tricellulin ... Claudins have been reviewed from structural/functional standpoints (Krause et al. 2015). All of the identified tight junction ... The ability of epithelial cells to regulate absorption and secretion of essential ions such as sodium, chloride, calcium, and ...
Our lead candidate compound also inhibits binding of C. albicans to cultured human epithelial cells, the yeast-to-hyphal ... These studies show that high-throughput functional assays targeting fungal adhesion can provide chemical probes for study of ... A) Crystal violet-stained plate from small molecule screen. WT C. albicans strain SC5314 or adhesion-defective edt1−/− cells ... A) Adhesion to A549 cells. Human A549 cells were grown to confluence on 48-well plates. SC5314-GFP, edt1−/−-GFP, or untagged ...
Here, we demonstrate that surface markers, epithelial cells adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) can ... blood/immune cells, and stem cells. In the later phase, post-translational modifications and functional significance of Ch12- ... including proteins functioning in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (cell-ECM) adhesion, cell motility, proliferation, ... Surface Marker Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule and E-cadherin Facilitate the Identification and Selection of Induced ...
... the attachment of cells to the underlying network of proteins and other molecules (cell-matrix adhesion), and the movement ( ... This protein is found in epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the surfaces and cavities of the body. In the skin, ... migration) of cells.. Most mutations in the FERMT1 gene prevent the production of any functional kindlin-1. A lack of this ... Similarly, a lack of kindlin-1 in epithelial cells of the mucosae causes damage that makes these tissues extremely fragile. It ...
... and adhesion molecules, and loss of some epithelial markers such as CK-7, CK-19, or E-cadherin in favor to functional and ... vascular cell adhesion molecule 1; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases; HSCs, hepatic stellate cells. ... 2014). Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression by biliary epithelium promotes persistence of inflammation by inhibiting ... increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) by cholangiocytes contributes to the persistence of liver ...
CEA is synthesized by epithelial and tumor cells. In this study, CEA... ... is a tumor marker belonging to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily of adhesion molecules. ... Carcinoembryonic antigen functions as an accessory adhesion molecule mediating colon epithelial cell interactions.Proc Natl ... In situ hybridization study and implication for a new in vivo functional model.Am J Pathol 1993;143: 250-257.PubMedGoogle ...
... epithelial cell adhesion molecule [EpCAM]-positive) microparticles for functional analysis and proteomics.Cases included 8 ... which are actively shed from the surface of various cells, including epithelial cells. We compared microparticles in ascites ... cell-cell, cell-matrix signaling pathways, and multi-cellular heterogeneous components of the tumor microenvironment such as ... resistance in breast cancer cells with a 3-fold higher cell kill efficiency than in cells treated with DOX alone. We then ...
... epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). VH gene transcripts were identifiable by nested reverse transcription-PCR either as ... single tumor cells were obtained by EpCAM+ cell sorting. Firstly, the functional integrity of cDNA was confirmed in each cell ... anti-CD20 and anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM; Becton Dickinson, San Diego, CA), and anti-IgG and anti-IgM ( ... tumor cells can override normal constraints. It is tempting then to speculate that breast cancer tumor cells in these cell ...
2009 The epithelial cell adhesion molecule EPCAM is required for epithelial morphogenesis and integrity during zebrafish ... Functional analyses of EPCAM in zebrafish (Danio rerio) have shown its indispensable role in epithelial morphogenesis and skin ... we recently identified accelerated evolution and signals of positive selection in the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM ... Cell. Biol. 21, 7817-7825. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.22.7817-7825.2001 (doi:10.1128/MCB.21.22.7817-7825.2001). ...
This protein is found in epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the surfaces and cavities of the body. Learn about ... The EPCAM gene provides instructions for making a protein known as epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM). ... The EPCAM gene provides instructions for making a protein known as epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM). This protein ... These mutations lead to an absence of functional EpCAM protein. The resulting loss of EpICD signaling leads to abnormal ...
The main activity of YadA from Y. enterocolitica is to bind collagen, and it also mediates adhesion to other molecules of the ... In addition, YadA is involved in serum resistance, phagocytosis resistance, binding to epithelial cells and autoagglutination. ...
PURPOSE: Colorectal carcinoma cells express the tumor-associated antigen epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM)/KSA. ... Functional HLA-DR epitopes of CEA could be defined. These major histocompatibility class II epitopes may serve as putative ... The other vaccine strategy consisted of the tumor-associated antigen epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-Cam) expressed as a ... In the ALVAC-KSA group a weak T-cell response was induced in 2 of 6 patients. In the ALVAC-KSA/GM-CSF group a marked IFN-gamma ...
On the other hand, integrin α6 is an adhesion molecule that attaches cells to extracellular matrix proteins. 55 It is expressed ... allowing basal cells to migrate towards denuded areas, and it probably is a prerequisite for the formation of new functional ... may contribute to the regulation of corneal epithelial cell functions, such as cell growth, differentiation, adhesion, and ... An increase in connexins expression in corneal epithelial cells is indicative of cell differentiation, 43,44,51 and the ...
... against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. These CUR- ... The in vitro specific cell binding, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of Apt-CUR-NPs were also studied. The Apt-CUR-NP ... a substantial improvement in cytotoxicity was achieved toward HT29 cells with Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates. The encapsulation of ... nanosized carriers will lead to improved targeted delivery of novel chemotherapeutic agents to colorectal cancer cells. ...
... cell sorting, and cell shape changes) that members of the classic cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules have been ... cell migration, cell sorting, cell shape changes, and cell aggregation. The final outcome is a functional three-dimensional ... these epithelial cells lost their organized appearance, as seen by less-apparent cell-cell borders, lower nuclear-to- ... Cell-adhesion molecules in the regulation of animal form and tissue pattern. Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 2 : 81-116. ...
These proinflammatory chemokines have been shown to be upregulated in dendritic cells and human intestinal epithelial cells ... and junctional adhesion molecules, with P , 0.1) when comparing animals in these two clusters. Intestinal barrier integrity ... "cell adhesion," "response to stimulus," "cell communication," and "regulation of MAPK cascades" (Fig. 3A; Data Set S2, sheet 7 ... while the upregulated ileal genes of the Bacteroides-dominant calves were related to cell adhesion, response to stimulus, cell ...
... blockage of fluorescent molecule penetration, and formation of cell adhesion architecture (22). Thus, polarized Caco-2 cells in ... intestinal organoids harbor all types of epithelial cells in human intestine and can simulate most morphological and functional ... human primary intestinal epithelial cells were cultured for 1 week for differentiation. The differentiated epithelial cells ... MERS-CoV infection and virus release in polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells cultured in Transwell inserts can ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... J. Chen, C. Bernreuther, M. Dihné, and M. Schachner, "Cell adhesion molecule L1-transfected embryonic stem cells with enhanced ... showed that transplantation of hiPSCs derived neural epithelial cells resulted in improved axonal regeneration and ...
Claudin-4 is a functional receptor for CPE receptor, and this characteristic has already been successfully exploited in cell ... Claudins, together with occludin and junctional adhesion molecules, are the major components of intercellular tight junctions. ... These proteins function predominately in paracellular transport and are expressed on both epithelial and endothelial cells. ... Nevertheless, it may be that in its role as a central mediator of the cell stress response, MKK4 is expressed in the ...
... which encodes an 822-amino acid protein containing a transmembrane domain and functional domains inherent to adhesion molecules ... Immunohistochemical analysis of human breast tissues showed weak or no expression of SUSD2 in normal epithelial cells, with the ... Interestingly, we found that localization of Gal-1 on the surface of cells is dependent on the presence of SUSD2. Various ... SUSD2 interacts with galectin-1 (Gal-1), a 14-kDa secreted protein that is synthesized by carcinoma cells and promotes tumor ...
This is evidenced by loss of the epithelial cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and beta-catenin and an increase in the ... SiRNA-mediated Twist knockdown restored E-cadherin expression in TIMP-1 overexpressing MCF10A cells, demonstrating a functional ... cell-cell adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling taking on the hallmarks of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). ... In addition, we have made a novel finding that TIMP-1 expression in MCF10A cells induces phenotypic changes in cell morphology ...
... endothelial and immune cells. CEACAM1 is a differentiation antigen involved in the maintenance of epithelial polarity that is ... In mice, deletion or functional inactivation of CEACAM1 impairs insulin clearance and compromises metabolic homeostasis which ... On immune cells, CEACAM1 acts as an immune checkpoint regulator, and deletion of Ceacam1 gene in mice causes exacerbation of ... is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on epithelial, ... Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 ( ...
Some of the YR-positive TRCs are co-localized with neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), suggesting that these TRCs may have ... Basal epithelial cells positive for Y2Rs respond robustly to PYY(3-36) by increasing intracellular Ca(2+) suggesting their ... possible functional interaction with salivary PYY. In taste buds of the circumvallate papillae, some taste receptor cells (TRCs ... In summary, we show that all YRs are abundantly expressed in multiple lingual cell types, including epithelial progenitors, ...
Expression of gp40, the murine homologue of human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM), by murine dendritic cells. Eur. J ... Murine endothelial leukocyte-adhesion molecule 1 is a close structural and functional homologue of the human protein. Eur. J. ... The differential expression of homing and adhesion molecules on virgin and memory T cells in the mouse. Cell. Immunol. 132: 215 ... Limiting dilution analysis of CD45Rhi and CD45Rlo T cells: further evidence that CD45Rlo cells are memory cells. Cell. Immunol. ...
... which serves both a functional biomarker and promising therapeutic target. ... Epithelial cell adhesion molecule: more than a carcinoma marker and adhesion molecule. Am J Pathol. 2007;171(2):386-95. ... RNA aptamer against a cancer stem cell marker epithelial cell adhesion molecule. Cancer Sci. 2011;102(5):991-8. CrossRef ... Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is involved in prostate cancer chemotherapy/radiotherapy response in vivo. ...
These molecules also play an important role in regulation of leukocyte development, expression of adhesion molecules, cell ... Epithelial cells (EC), eosinophils (Eosino), and CCR3-transfected cells (CCR3+) were used as positive controls, whereas ... Functional studies demonstrate that CCR3 is a functional receptor, as it transduces intracellular calcium mobilization and ... Calu-3 epithelial cells, and CCR3-transfected cells, whereas eosinophils demonstrated greater signal intensity (Fig. 1⇓B). ...
calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell-adhesion molecules Source: Ensembl ... epithelial cell morphogenesis Source: UniProtKB. *protein heterooligomerization Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Genetic ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR006187 ... Cell junction, Cell membrane, Membrane, Tight junction. ,p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s ...
  • To extend these findings, we focused on immunoglobulin variable ( V ) region gene analysis using well-defined breast cancer cell lines expressing the epithelial marker, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). (
  • Identified V H transcripts were then sought in individual tumor cells, isolated as EpCAM + single cells by flow cytometry. (
  • The EPCAM gene provides instructions for making a protein known as epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM). (
  • The EpCAM protein is found spanning the membrane that surrounds epithelial cells, where it helps cells stick to one another (cell adhesion). (
  • People with congenital tufting enteropathy have two copies of the altered EPCAM gene in each cell. (
  • These mutations lead to an absence of functional EpCAM protein. (
  • In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles) were synthesized and functionalized with ribonucleic acid (RNA) Aptamers (Apts) against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. (
  • These results show that the EpCAM Apt-functionalized CUR-NPs enhance the targeting and drug delivery of CUR to colorectal cancer cells. (
  • We have previously demonstrated that epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is associated with CaP growth and therapeutic resistance in vitro, however, the role of EpCAM in CaP in vivo is not fully elucidated. (
  • EpCAM was knocked down in PC-3 CaP cell line using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). (
  • In conclusion, our data confirms that CaP growth and chemo−/radioresistance in vivo is associated with over-expression of EpCAM, which serves both a functional biomarker and promising therapeutic target. (
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is associated with prostate cancer metastasis and chemo/radioresistance via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. (
  • In this study, we investigated the expression of GPNMB in HCC histochemically and tested the regulation effects of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) on the expression of GPNMB in HCC cells. (
  • In HCC cells, GPNMB expression was regulated by EpCAM and CSF-1 partly through their common downstream product c-myc. (
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in epithelial tissues. (
  • EpCAM forms intercellular, homophilic adhesions, modulates epithelial junctional protein complex formation, and promotes epithelial tissue homeostasis. (
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and its role in maintenance of pluripotency has been suggested previously. (
  • In epithelial cancer cells, activation of the EpCAM surface-to-nucleus signaling transduction pathway involves a number of membrane proteins. (
  • In vitro and in vivo characterization indicated that the EpCAM-reprogrammed iPSCs exhibited similar molecular and functional features to the mouse ESCs. (
  • EpCAM Aptamer-siRNA Chimera Targets and Regress Epithelial Cancer. (
  • 2000), and epithelial cell adhesion molecule epCAM has been demonstrated to upregulate FABP5 expression, presumably via induction of c-Myc (Münz et al. (
  • The cell surface molecules EpCAM, PVR and CD73 are overexpressed on CAISMOV24 cells compared to the primary malignant cells. (
  • Numerous LCSC biomarkers have been identified including CD133, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), ABCG2 and CD90, which would contribute to the isolation of LCSCs. (
  • These include CD133, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), ABCG2 and CD90. (
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is overexpressed in the majority of human epithelial carcinomas, including breast and colorectal carcinomas. (
  • At the functional level, specific ablation of p53 expression is associated with increased breast cancer invasion, and this effect is abrogated by concomitant specific ablation of EpCAM expression. (
  • Taken together, these biochemical and functional data are the first demonstration that (a) wild-type p53 protein binds to a response element within the EpCAM gene and negatively regulates EpCAM expression, and (b) transcriptional repression of EpCAM contributes to p53 control of breast cancer invasion. (
  • Phenotype-dependent effects of EpCAM expression on growth and invasion of human breast cancer cell lines. (
  • Clinicopathologic significance of EpCAM expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and its possibility as a potential target for tongue cancer gene therapy. (
  • The Notch pathway is a highly evolutionary conserved intercellular signaling system and is activated by the interaction of transmembrane ligands, the Delta (Delta-like1 [Dll-1], Dll3, and Dll4) families and Jagged (Jagged1 and Jagged2) with Notch receptors (Notch1−4), which are usually expressed on the surface of neighboring cells. (
  • The paracellular pathway involves the movement of ions through the intercellular spaces between epithelial cells. (
  • Plays a major role in tight junction-specific obliteration of the intercellular space, through calcium-independent cell-adhesion activity. (
  • JAMs are localized at intercellular contacts and participated in the assembly and maintenance of junctions, and control of cell permeability. (
  • The cells of a sponge rely on the processes of intercellular recognition and cellular adhesion to form aggregates of cells of the same species that eventually develop into an adult sponge. (
  • Damsky, Identification and purification of a cell surface glycoprotein mediating intercellular adhesion in embryonic and adult tissue. (
  • TJs function as an intercellular barrier to regulate paracellular permeability in vertebrate epithelial and endothelial cells. (
  • Local changes of free extracellular Ca 2+ in the narrow intercellular space may be of physiological importance to facilitate rapid remodeling of intercellular adhesion and communication. (
  • The important biological and medical aspects of such stable intercellular adhesions are well established ( 1 ). (
  • Elementary trans-interactions observed between strand dimers revealed Ca 2+ -dependent highly specific molecular recognition properties that provide a basis for modeling cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion. (
  • Polarized hepatocytes and epithelium from bile ducts segregate the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) adhesion receptor onto their apical, microvilli-rich membranes, which are less accessible by circulating immune cells. (
  • Planar cell polarity (PCP) and intercellular junctional complexes establish tissue structure and coordinated behaviors across epithelial sheets. (
  • TNF also induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and enhances monocyte adhesion ( 23 ). (
  • After his PhD studies at the University of Paris, Jean Paul completed his postdoctoral research with Gerald Edelman (Nobel Laureate) at the Rockefeller University, where his studies led to the discovery of N-CAM- the first intercellular adhesion molecule to be identified. (
  • Among many junctional proteins, cadherins, especially classical cadherins, are the most crucial membrane proteins for the establishment of intercellular adhesions (for reviews, see references 15 and 32 ). (
  • Epithelial cell polarity in regular ducts is preserved via intercellular multiprotein adhesion complexes, which facilitate buy 1186195-60-7 adhesion and invite conversation between neighboring cells. (
  • MINAR1 is widely expressed in various tissues including the epithelial cells of the breast and endothelial cells of blood vessels. (
  • In the initial stages of angiogenesis, Notch activation is generally suppressed to allow endothelial cells to proliferate in response to VEGF stimulation, and its expression is subsequently upregulated when endothelial cells stop proliferating and the vessels begin to stabilize (Henderson et al. (
  • Ando J, Nomura H, Kamiya A (1987) The effect of fluid shear stress on the migration and proliferation of cultured endothelial cells. (
  • Ando J, Ohtsuka A, Korenaga R, Sakuma I, Kamiya A (1993) Flow-induced calcium transients and release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor in cultured vascular endothelial cells. (
  • Barbee KA, Davies PF, Lal R (1994) Shear stress-induced reorganization of the surface topography of living endothelial cells imaged by atomic force microscopy. (
  • Brooks AR, Lelkes PI, Rubanyi GM (2002) Gene expression profiling of human aortic endothelial cells exposed to disturbed flow and steady laminar flow. (
  • Cao L, Wu A, Truskey GA (2011) Biomechanical effects of flow and coculture on human aortic and cord blood-derived endothelial cells. (
  • Chachisvilis M, Zhang YL, Frangos JA (2006) G protein-coupled receptors sense fluid shear stress in endothelial cells. (
  • This "tethering" is mediated by ligands expressed by CTCs that bind to E-selectin expressed by endothelial cells. (
  • The predominant cadherin of most epithelia is E-cadherin, whereas endothelial cells adhere to each other by vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) ( 3 ). (
  • In many instances, stromal cells, such as blood vessel and lymphatic endothelial cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, or bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells, act as modulators of cancer cell migration and invasion and as pathfinders in the extracellular matrix ( 3 ). (
  • Here, we show that a set of three transcription factors, FOXA3, HNF1A, and HNF6, can induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells to directly acquire the properties of hHepPCs. (
  • The defined transcription factors also induce hiHepPCs from endothelial cells circulating in adult human peripheral blood. (
  • In this study, we identify a specific combination of TFs that can directly induce the conversion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) into hiHepPCs, which can maintain their own cell population in long-term monolayer culture and give rise to functional hepatocytes after formation of cell aggregates. (
  • Macrovascular endothelial cells also produce TNF ( 16,17 ⇓ ), but TNF production by glomerular endothelial cells has not been reported. (
  • Macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and muscle fibers themselves can produce growth and transcription factors that influence myoblasts during muscle regeneration. (
  • The tumor microenvironment, which consists of resident fibroblasts, endothelial cells, pericytes, leukocytes and extracellular matrix, also contributes to the progression of cancer ( 3 ). (
  • It is widely known that stromal cells contain a variety of mesenchymal cells, particularly fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, pericytes and inflammatory cells associated with the immune system. (
  • N-cadherin is expressed in neuronal and fibroblastic cells, while VE-cadherin is expressed in endothelial cells. (
  • In contrast, during the repair phase, these cells may switch their phenotype to a "M2" phenotype contributing to repair of epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells and thus turn into renal fibrosis , correlating with poor outcome of LN [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • Immunohistochemistry has confirmed the presence of FABP5 in endothelial cells of the placenta, heart, small intestine, and renal medulla (Masouyé et al. (
  • Stromal components that might participate in these micro-environmental influences include fibroblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages, the extracellular matrix contributed by both epithelial and stromal cells, and in the case of breast tissue, adipocytes. (
  • ZO-1 and ZO-2 are major PDZ-domain-containing TJ proteins and bind directly to claudins, yet their functional roles are poorly understood. (
  • It was estimated that nearly 30% of proteins in eukaryotic cells lack a unique 3D structure (Gsponer and Babu, 2009), underscoring their ubiquitous functional importance in the biology of eukaryotic cells. (
  • 2017). It has been proposed that disordered sequences are essential for the function of transcriptional activators and copious other cell signaling proteins (Dyson and Wright, 2005). (
  • The transmembrane proteins of tight junctions include claudins, junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), occludin and tricellulin. (
  • have provided an overview of these proteins, highlighting their roles and regulation, as well as their functional significance in human diseases. (
  • Within this complex network are associated many signaling proteins that affect the barrier and broader cell functions. (
  • For several TJ proteins, function is yet unclear as their effects on epithelial barriers are inconsistent (claudins 4, 7, 8, 16, and occludin). (
  • Using human plasma samples, tumor tissue, cancer cell lines, and genetically engineered mouse models, the origins of these proteins are being investigated. (
  • This laboratory is also focused on the identification of proteins with expression restricted to the surface of cancer cells which can be used as novel targets for molecular imaging technologies. (
  • Kindlin-1 is involved in several important cell functions, including cell growth and division (proliferation), the attachment of cells to the underlying network of proteins and other molecules (cell-matrix adhesion), and the movement (migration) of cells. (
  • EpICD travels to the nucleus and joins with other proteins, forming a group (complex) that regulates the activity of several genes that are involved in many cell processes, including growth and division (proliferation), maturation (differentiation), and movement (migration), all of which are important processes for the proper development of cells and tissues. (
  • Recently, we identified CD63, a member of the tetraspanin family of proteins, as a cell surface binding partner for TIMP-1 which modulates the integrin-mediated survival pathway in the human breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. (
  • The asymmetric distribution of membrane proteins in different cell surface domains is a feature common to many types of polarized cells, including epithelia, neurons, and immune cells ( Yamada and Nelson, 2007 ). (
  • In epithelial cells, membrane proteins are segregated into functionally and structurally different apical and basolateral membrane domains. (
  • In fully polarized cells, the delivery of basolateral membrane proteins from the TGN and recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane may be regulated at several steps, including long-range vesicle delivery and membrane tethering and fusion. (
  • apical and basolateral membrane proteins are intermixed on the cell surface, though they are sorted from each other in the exocytic pathway. (
  • basolateral membrane proteins are restricted to cell-cell contacts, whereas apical proteins accumulate on the unbounded membrane facing the growth medium. (
  • Matrix proteins are large molecules tightly bound to form extensive networks of insoluble fibres. (
  • The adhesive proteins of the extracellular matrix bind matrix molecules to one another and to cell surfaces. (
  • These proteins are modular in that they contain several functional domains packaged together in a single molecule . (
  • Taken together, these results suggest that GPNMB, the expression of which was regulated in HCC cells by the highly coordinated function of various proteins, may be a potential target for HCC therapy. (
  • Gumbiner, A functional assay for proteins involved in establishing an epithelial occluding barrier: identification of a uvomorulin-like polypeptide. (
  • The mammalian protein ASIP/PAR-3 interacts with atypical protein kinase C isotypes (aPKC) and shows overall sequence similarity to the invertebrate proteins C. elegans PAR-3 and Drosophila Bazooka, which are crucial for the establishment of polarity in various cells. (
  • Cadherins are type I single membrane-spanning cell surface proteins that require free extracellular Ca 2+ for homophilic interaction of their N-terminal extracellular domains with cadherins of adjoining cells ( 4 ). (
  • These are fusion proteins containing a single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) to target an available tumor antigen and ULBP2 to activate host NK cells by targeting the activatory receptor NKG2D. (
  • As part of a robust innate immune system, the cells of the airway epithelium secrete fluid and proteins to create the highly proteinaceous periciliary liquid (PCL). (
  • Air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary bronchial epithelial cells secrete many proteins present in the PCL, including BPIFA1 and BPIFB1. (
  • Recombinant proteins generated in CHO cells exhibited similar binding to the endogenous proteins. (
  • We next used adhesion molecule/surface protein mutants of S. aureus from the Nebraska Transposon Mutant library in pull down assays to identify possible S. aureus proteins responsible for interactions with BPIFA1 and BPIFB1. (
  • At a functional level, reduced secretion of protective molecules such as anti-microbial proteins and anti-oxidant defences is a further manifestation of disordered epithelial activity in allergic disease. (
  • We made recombinant betaig-h3 proteins, which were highly active in mediating human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell adhesion and spreading. (
  • These results, therefore, establish the essential motifs within the 2nd and the 4th domains of betaig-h3, which interact with alpha(3)beta(1) integrin to mediate HCE cell adhesion to betaig-h3 and suggest that other proteins containing Asp-Ile in their fas-1 domains could possibly function as cell adhesion molecules. (
  • Cadherins are the most crucial membrane proteins for the formation of tight and compact cell-cell contacts. (
  • SUMMARY: Tetraspans constitute a novel class of proteins whose capacity to alter the cell biological and functional properties of their membrane protein partners is likely to have wide ranging and important physiological ramifications. (
  • Other tight junction proteins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, claudin-2, and claudin-3, were also decreased in polyamine-deficient cells. (
  • Decreased levels of tight junction proteins in DFMO-treated cells were associated with dysfunction of the epithelial barrier, which was overcome by exogenous polyamine spermidine. (
  • Bacterial cell surfaces are commonly decorated with a layer formed from multiple copies of adhesin proteins whose binding interactions initiate colonization and infection processes. (
  • UspA1 binds a range of extracellular proteins including fibronectin, and the epithelial cellular receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1). (
  • Cell-shape changes during development require a precise coupling of the cytoskeleton with proteins situated in the plasma membrane. (
  • Important elements controlling the shape of cells are the Spectrin proteins that are expressed as a subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork linking specific membrane receptors with F-actin fibers. (
  • An important structural element that links cell adhesion proteins in the cell membrane to the F-actin cytoskeleton is the sub-membranous Spectrin network. (
  • The IL-1 family consists of three homologous proteins: IL-1α and IL-1β, which are pro-inflammatory proteins, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), a molecule with antiinflammatory properties. (
  • Many of these enzymes have been shown to regulate important aspects of cell biology and in particular in neuronal cells where palmitoylation of receptors and associated proteins regulates synaptic plasticity and therefore functions such as learning and memory. (
  • It is not well understood which proteins are modified by individual PATs in cells, how they can selectively recognise substrate proteins and what effect palmitoylation has on the function of these proteins. (
  • Profiling the functional categories of co-ordinately expressed genes within this list revealed significant correlation between increased malignant potential and loss of both IGF binding proteins and cell adhesion molecules. (
  • Loss of expression of IGF binding proteins as well as specific cell adhesion molecules may be a significant mechanism of disease progression in ovarian cancer. (
  • Two membrane proteins critical for this process are platelet/endothelial cell (EC) adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM) and CD99. (
  • The disturbed expression of hemidesmosomal proteins in OLP indicates deficient attachment of the basal cell layer, which can contribute to detachment and cell death of basal keratinocytes seen in the disease. (
  • Here, we focused on epithelial expression of keratins 8, 18, and 19 because these proteins are known to modulate cell death. (
  • To check whether JAM-A, Rap1 and 1-integrin lay inside a linear pathway, we examined functional inhibitors of most three proteins individually or collectively in migration assays. (
  • Oddly enough, adhesion/polarity proteins have got recently been been shown to be targeted by oncogenes (such as for example ERBB2 [7] and MYC [8]), leading to the disruption of tissues organization often noticed during cancer advancement. (
  • CEA is synthesized by epithelial and tumor cells. (
  • These data suggest either a de novo rearrangement and modification of V H genes in epithelial tumor cells or assimilation of lymphocyte-derived chromatin. (
  • Ongoing genetic modifications are a hallmark of tumor cells influencing survival and progression with the full capacity of malignant cells to induce such changes under scrutiny. (
  • Of interest in this regard, two studies of epithelial breast cancer reported that IgG can be identified in tumor cells directly based on assays specific for the heavy chain constant region ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • In this study, we assessed the capability of three scFvs against HER2 extracellular domains (II, III, IV) in deregulation of some key signaling mediators that have important roles in growth, survival, angiogenesis, and cell migration of breast tumor cells. (
  • Expression of E-selectin ligands on circulating tumor cells: cross-regulation with cancer stem cell regulatory pathways? (
  • In hematogenous metastasis, it is widely suspected that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) express specific adhesion molecules that actively initiate contact with the vascular endothelium lining the vessel walls of the target organ. (
  • While resident in the blood vasculature, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) must survive biochemical and biophysical assaults inducing necrosis or apoptosis, plus avoid elimination by immune cells, in order to metastasize. (
  • Natural killer (NK) cells were originally identified as lymphocytes of the innate immune system that recognize and directly kill virus-infected or tumor cells ( 1, 2 ). (
  • Similar to developmental processes like gastrulation or neural crest cell migration, differentiated epithelial tumor cells lose their epithelial morphology and migrate to a distant site to form a new structure, in this case secondary tumors. (
  • Oncogene activation and tumor-suppressor gene inactivation are considered as the main causes driving the transformation of normal somatic cells into malignant tumor cells. (
  • Through different pathways, tumor cells efficiently recruit stromal cells, which in turn, provide tumor cell growth signals, intermediate metabolites, and provide a suitable environment for tumor progression as well as metastasis. (
  • In this review, we summarize the mechanisms involved in the recruitment of stromal cells by tumor cells to the primary tumor site and highlight the role of the tumor microenvironment in the regulation of tumor progression. (
  • Actually, tumor cells can efficiently recruit stromal cells ( 4 ), immune cells ( 5 ) and vascular cells ( 6 ) by secreting stimulatory growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. (
  • It is known that non-tumor cells are presumably and genetically more stable than tumor cells, thus, therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment are less likely to cause adaptive mutations and rapid metastasis. (
  • We will review how tumor cells recruit stromal cells to the primary tumor site and build the microenvironment. (
  • Accumulating evidence has confirmed that tumor cells must recruit and reprogram the surrounding normal cells to serve as contributors to tumor progression. (
  • In this review, the characteristics of three kinds of circulating tumor markers will be described in the context of cancer, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosomes, and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). (
  • In order to effectively kill the tumor cells by chemotherapy, dynamic monitoring of driver molecular alterations is necessary to detect the markers for acquired drug resistance and find the new therapeutic targets. (
  • Liquid biopsy appears to be a promising approach to overcome this problem, providing the testing of circulating tumor cells (CTC) and/or tumor-specific circulating nucleic acids. (
  • The biological behavior of the tumor is determined by specific cancer-promoting molecular and genetic alterations of tumor cells, and by the peculiarities of their interactions with the microenvironment that can result in the presence of wide spectrum of circulating tumor clones with various properties and potentialities to contribute to tumor progression and response to chemotherapy and prognostic value. (
  • Intratumor clonal heterogeneity, manifesting as a coexistence of tumor cells with different genotypes and phenotypes within the same tumor, is considered to be an essential driving force providing tumor clonal evolution, progression, and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. (
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy has a close relationship with programmed cell death, while uncontrolled autophagy itself often induces autophagic cell death in tumor cells. (
  • Although there were considerable improvements in breasts tumor treatment, targeted adjuvant therapies are limited to dealing with those individuals buy 1186195-60-7 whose tumor cells communicate high degrees of the few targetable breasts tumor molecular markers, specifically the estrogen and HER2 (human being epidermal growth element receptor 2) receptors. (
  • In this study, we report the identification and functional characterization of a previously uncharacterized protein (UPF0258/KIAA1024), major intrinsically disordered Notch2-associated receptor 1 (MINAR1). (
  • This protein is found in epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the surfaces and cavities of the body. (
  • A lack of this protein disrupts many essential cell functions. (
  • In addition, the protein in the cell membrane can be cut at a specific location, releasing a piece called the intracellular domain (EpICD), which helps relay signals from outside the cell to the nucleus of the cell. (
  • The extra methyl groups attached to the MSH2 promoter reduce the expression of the MSH2 gene, which means that less protein is produced in epithelial cells. (
  • loss of this protein prevents proper DNA repair, and errors accumulate as the cells continue to divide. (
  • In addition, the upregulated ileal genes of the Lactobacillus -dominant calves were related to leukocyte and lymphocyte chemotaxis, the cytokine/chemokine-mediated signaling pathway, and inflammatory responses, while the upregulated ileal genes of the Bacteroides -dominant calves were related to cell adhesion, response to stimulus, cell communication and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. (
  • The functional profiles of the luminal microbiomes also revealed two distinct clusters consisting of functions related to either high protein metabolism or sulfur metabolism. (
  • We identified three targets, claudin-4, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4), and 14-3-3σ (stratifin), that were selectively expressed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric epithelial dysplasia but not in normal stomach. (
  • The homology of claudin-4 to Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) receptor suggests that this protein may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention and, indeed, preliminary studies in cell lines and xenografts have shown some promise in this regard ( 16 , 17 ). (
  • From this library we identified SUSD2 ( Sushi Domain Containing 2 ), which encodes an 822-amino acid protein containing a transmembrane domain and functional domains inherent to adhesion molecules. (
  • SUSD2 interacts with galectin-1 (Gal-1), a 14-kDa secreted protein that is synthesized by carcinoma cells and promotes tumor immune evasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. (
  • Among other examples, Shigenobu Yonemura's laboratory (now reorganized into the RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies) found in 2010 that a molecule that binds to the sticky protein cadherin changes shape when pulled in a certain direction by adjacent cells 2 . (
  • Mechanisms involved in maintaining plasma membrane domains in fully polarized epithelial cells are known, but when and how directed protein sorting and trafficking occur to initiate cell surface polarity are not. (
  • Functional disruption of individual components of a putative lateral targeting patch (e.g., microtubules, the exocyst, and soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) did not inhibit cell-cell adhesion or colocalization of the other components with E-cadherin, but each blocked AQP3 delivery to forming cell-cell contacts. (
  • Recent studies provide evidence that disruption of TJ by the parasitic protein EhCPADH112 is a prerequisite for E. histolytica invasion that is accompanied by epithelial barrier dysfunction. (
  • Protein expression analysis showed that the mutated gene product was distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm, whereas the normal gene product accumulated at the cell-to-cell borders. (
  • These molecules, called matrix receptors , bind selectively to specific matrix components and interact, directly or indirectly, with actin protein fibres that form the cytoskeleton inside the cell. (
  • Downregulation of activated Akt (p-Akt), increase of p27 protein levels, and downregulation of HER1, HER2, HER3 and epidermal growth factor (EGF), CXCR3, CXCL10, and MMP2 were observed following treatment of breast cancer cells (SKBR3 cell line) with the scFvs and their combination. (
  • T cell responses against various antigens, including melanoma differentiation antigens, carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, her-2/neu, Wilms' tumor protein, proteinase 3, NY-ESO-1, and surviving, have been reported in a substantial number of patients. (
  • In nonmuscle cells, phosphorylation of the regulatory chain of the motor protein myosin II (MLC2) by ROCK is a key regulator of actomyosin assembly ( Conti and Adelstein, 2008 ). (
  • In the present study, we show that ASIP/PAR-3 staining distributes to the subapical domain of epithelial cell-cell junctions, including epithelial cells with less-developed tight junctions, in clear contrast with ZO-1, another tight-junction-associated protein, the staining of which is stronger in cells with well-developed tight junctions. (
  • We have previously identified a novel protein with three PDZ domains, a typical PKC isotype- s pecific i nteracting p rotein (ASIP), which colocalizes with aPKC at the cell-cell junctions of confluent fibroblastic and epithelial cells. (
  • Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-A is an integral membrane protein at tight junctions of epithelial cells which associates with the cell polarity protein PAR-3. (
  • Construction of the expression plasmid, cell transfection, and production of the fusion protein was done essentially as described ( 16 ). (
  • The secreted VE-cadherin-Fc chimera were purified from the culture supernatants of stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by affinity chromatography using protein A agarose. (
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an integral non-shed type 2 membrane protein that is highly and specifically expressed on prostate epithelial cells and strongly upregulated in prostate cancer. (
  • Pull down assays interacting cell secretions with S. aureus were used to visualise protein-bacterial interactions. (
  • Gene reporter assays, RT-PCR and invasion assays were performed to assess the role of PKC in the regulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and the invasion of H pylori -infected epithelial cells. (
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes regulate a number of cellular functions including processes related to a polarised epithelial layer formation, and exert a crucial role in carcinogenesis. (
  • In mesangial cells, TNF stimulates proliferation ( 18 ) and increases production of monocyte-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) ( 19 ), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) ( 20 ), reactive oxygen metabolites ( 21 ), and tissue factor expression ( 22 ). (
  • Cadherin-1 also known as CAM 120/80 or epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) or uvomorulin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDH1 gene . (
  • The encoded protein is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein composed of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region, and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail . (
  • The ectodomain of this protein mediates bacterial adhesion to mammalian cells, and the cytoplasmic domain is required for internalization. (
  • The mitochondrial, or intrinsic, apoptosis pathway is regulated mainly by members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) protein family. (
  • Fasciclin I is an insect neural cell adhesion molecule involved in axonal guidance that is attached to the membrane by a GPI-anchored protein. (
  • Midline Fasciclin: a Drosophila Fasciclin-I-related membrane protein localized to the CNS midline cells and trachea. (
  • Alternative splicing is the basis for the structural and functional diversity of the CD44 protein. (
  • Clone REA370 recognizes the mouse CD166 antigen, a Single-pass type I membrane protein also known as Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM). (
  • B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 regulates human embryonic stem cell adhesion, stemness, and survival via control of epithelial cell adhesion molecule. (
  • Occludin is an integral membrane protein that forms the sealing element of tight junctions and is critical for epithelial barrier function. (
  • The level of newly synthesized occludin protein was decreased by ∼70% following polyamine depletion, whereas its protein half-life was reduced from ∼120 min in control cells to ∼75 min in polyamine-deficient cells. (
  • These findings indicate that polyamines are necessary for the synthesis and stability of occludin protein and that polyamine depletion disrupts the epithelial barrier function, at least partially, by decreasing occludin. (
  • The protein levels of interleukin (IL)-8 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were measured in neutrophils cell culture supernatants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • This study therefore provides a rare direct demonstration of protein conformational change at the cell surface. (
  • At cell-cell contact zones, the basolateral (αβ) 2 -Spectrin is recruited to Neuroglian, a Drosophila homolog of the L1-cell adhesion molecule, via the adaptor protein Ankyrin. (
  • It affects a plethora of cellular processes including protein trafficking, stability and signalling and is therefore important for all cell types, and organisms from yeast to humans. (
  • We show that during TEM, endothelial cell (EC) CD99 activates protein kinase A (PKA) via a signaling complex formed with the lysine-rich juxtamembrane cytoplasmic tail of CD99, the A-kinase anchoring protein ezrin, and soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). (
  • In contrast, disturbance of autophagy-lysosome flux leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and an unfolded protein response (UPR), which finally leads to increased apoptotic cell death in the tumor tissue. (
  • In contrast, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is composed of two distinct and successive steps: marking the substrate protein with the covalent attachment of numerous ubiquitin molecules and the subsequent degradation of the tagged substrate in the 26S proteasome. (
  • Introduction The adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) regulates epithelial cell morphology and migration, and its own over-expression has been associated with increased threat of metastasis in breasts cancer patients. (
  • Together, these research provide strong proof that adhesion protein may become crucial regulators of breasts cancers initiation and development. (
  • Similarly, a lack of kindlin-1 in epithelial cells of the mucosae causes damage that makes these tissues extremely fragile. (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of human breast tissues showed weak or no expression of SUSD2 in normal epithelial cells, with the endothelial lining of vessels staining positive for SUSD2. (
  • Advances in stem cell technology have now given them the tools to study these processes in human cells and to engineer tissues and organs that promise to usher in a new era of regenerative medicine. (
  • He found that the cell-surface adhesion molecule cadherin, in the presence of calcium, facilitates the selective binding of similar cells to form and maintain tissues and organs-much like a gluing agent. (
  • These molecules thus help to maintain the integrity of tissues. (
  • Biological markers (biomarkers) were initially described by Hulka as "cellular, biochemical or molecular alterations that are measurable in biological media such as human tissues, cells or fluids" [ 1 ]. (
  • Some multicellular animals or tissues can be dissociated into suspensions of single cells that show the same cellular recognition and adhesion as do aggregates of single-cell organisms. (
  • Cells from tissues of vertebrate animals can, like sponge cells, be dissociated and allowed to reaggregate. (
  • For example, when vertebrate embryonic cells from two different tissues are dissociated and then rotated together in culture, the cells form a multicellular aggregate within which they sort according to the type of tissue , a sorting that occurs regardless of whether the cells are from the same or different species. (
  • In addition, other cell types such as smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, articular chondrocytes, and bone cells are subjected to interstitial fluid flow, which is the movement of fluid through the extracellular matrix of tissues elicited by differences in hydrostatic pressure and deformation of tissues. (
  • These morphological and functional responses of cells play important roles not only in the maintenance of physiological functions of tissues but also in the development and progression of disease. (
  • All four mAbs recognized the same polypeptides in A6 cells, adult epithelial tissues, and embryos. (
  • These induced hepatocyte-like cells (iHepCs) have the morphological and functional properties of hepatocytes and reconstitute hepatic tissues after transplantation into injured mouse livers. (
  • [ citation needed ] In adult tissues, E-cadherin is expressed in epithelial tissues, where it is constantly regenerated with a 5-hour half-life on the cell surface. (
  • This in turn may allow cancer cells to cross the basement membrane and invade surrounding tissues. (
  • Mast cells contribute to tissue repair in fibrous tissues by stimulating proliferation of fibroblasts through the release of tryptase which activates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2). (
  • that is to say trophoblast cells, which collectively form extra-embryonic tissues, secrete it onto the surface of the endometrium. (
  • Trophoblast cells form the outer lining of the blastocyst in preimplantation development, eventually forming more differentiated extra-embryonic tissues including the placenta. (
  • CD44 is expressed by hematopoietic, non-hematopoietic cells, epithelial tissues, and to filopodia in cultured keratinocytes. (
  • In multicellular organisms, individual cells are often connected to each other via cell-cell adhesions to form three-dimensionally-structured tissues or organs. (
  • A central role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses is played by dendritic cells (DCs), a trace leukocyte population with antigen-presenting cell (APC) function that patrols the peripheral tissues for the presence of unwanted antigenic material of infectious (and possibly tumoral) source. (
  • Trophoblasts have also been analyzed for their lectin/antibody binding as a complement to the analysis of the uterine cells and tissues. (
  • Though there is currently rather limited data available about the precise sequences of glycans linked to uterine glycoconjugates, the advent of ultrasensitive mass spectrometric (MS) methods combined with a greater appreciation of the role of glycosylation in reproduction should provide strong incentives in the future for the glycomic analysis of cells and tissues within this organ [ 7 - 10 ]. (
  • The aim of this Request for Applications (RFA) is to foster application of recent advances in molecular and cellular biology, using appropriate model systems, to study the effects of tumor cell-stroma interactions relevant to tumor development and progression in human breast or prostatic tissues. (
  • Lack of epithelial polarity and consequent disruptions in tissues structures, a hallmark of de-differentiation, are early top features of breasts cancer and various other malignancies [2]. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. (
  • With further aggregation, the cells produce another cell-surface glycoprotein with which they stick to one another over their entire surfaces. (
  • Damjanov, Developmentally regulated expression of the cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein cell-CAM 120/80 in peri-implantation mouse embryos and extraembryonic membranes. (
  • The antibody BU63 reacts with CD86 (B7-2), a 70 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein of immunoglobulin supergene family, expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages or activated B lymphocytes. (
  • The type II membrane glycoprotein PSMA is presented at the cell surface but not released into the circulation ( 13 ). (
  • CD44 cell surface antigen is a 100 kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed on human leucocytes, white matter of the brain and by some epithelial cells of the intestine and breast. (
  • Hamster anti Mouse CD29 antibody, clone HM beta 1-1 recognizes the murine integrin beta 1 subunit (CD29), a ~110 kDa cell surface glycoprotein that is widely expressed by a variety of cells including all leucocytes. (
  • In previous studies, miRNAs have been linked to regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). (
  • Nevertheless, a recent report identifying IgG in breast cancer cells was unexpected, revealing differentiation features normally associated with B lymphocytes. (
  • Finally, PRGF upregulated the expression of several genes associated with communication and cell differentiation, in comparison to AS or PRP. (
  • These data suggest that R-cadherin is functionally involved in the differentiation of both mesenchymal and epithelial components during metanephric kidney development. (
  • Signals from the metanephric mesenchyme lead to branching morphogenesis of the ureteric epithelium, whereas signals emanating from the ureteric epithelium induce the aggregation of mesenchymal cells and their subsequent differentiation into an epithelium which forms the functional unit within the kidney, the nephron. (
  • CEACAM1 is a differentiation antigen involved in the maintenance of epithelial polarity that is induced during hepatocyte differentiation and liver regeneration. (
  • The review will cover molecules included in the cluster of differentiation (CD) from CD1 to CD166 and lymphocyte Ag (Ly) series from Ly-1 to Ly-81 as well as some new Ags without current CD or Ly assignments. (
  • During their development and differentiation into myelin-forming cells, oligodendrocytes (OL) in the CNS and Schwann cells (SC) in the PNS undergo striking morphological changes that involve the active remodeling of their cytoskeleton. (
  • Collectively, these contrasting effects of small GTPases function in myelinating glial cells suggest that the mechanisms controlling actin dynamics in SC and OL during differentiation and myelination are regulated differently. (
  • Adhesive contacts between neighboring cells play a crucial role in various aspects of tissue organization, differentiation, and function. (
  • Because hPSCs are expandable in culture, abundant hepatocyte-like cells can be theoretically obtained by inducing the differentiation of propagated hPSCs. (
  • Moreover, hPSC-derived cells can potentially develop into tumors if their differentiation is not properly regulated. (
  • To analyze the molecular mechanisms of BMP2 on ameloblast differentiation (amelogenesis), we performed microarray analyses using rat dental epithelial cell line, HAT-7. (
  • Furthermore, we examined the expression of several differentiation markers in dental epithelial four cell-lineages including inner enamel epithelium (ameloblasts), stratum intermedium, stratum reticulum, and outer enamel epithelium. (
  • The development of multicellular animals is tightly linked to the evolution of a dynamic cell capable of forming and stabilizing manifold types of differentiation. (
  • In the immune system beta 1 integrins play an important role in cell adhesion, migration, activation and differentiation. (
  • Macrophage differentiation refers to the process that cells migrate to the vessel wall from peripheral blood and then into the organizations, in which adhesion molecules, chemokines and cytokines will affect the migration of monocytes and late maturation [ 5 ], and polarization of macrophages refers to the phenotypical/functional switch due to macrophages completely differentiated in a particular tissue responding to the external stimuli . (
  • One challenge in their usage for such therapies is understanding the mechanisms that allow the maintenance of pluripotency and controlling the specific differentiation into required functional target cells. (
  • Thus, differentiation of ESCs recapitulates the earliest stages of human development, and understanding the gene regulatory networks in these cells will enhance our knowledge of the regulation of the earliest stages of development. (
  • The proliferation and viability of HCE cells were measured by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. (
  • However, AS and PRGF induced robust proliferation of HCE cells. (
  • The possibility of stimulating cell proliferation by different factors present in plasma also has been investigated. (
  • Mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are thought to be an increase in cell proliferation (hyperplasia) and/or an increase in the size of individual cells (hypertrophy) ( 7 ). (
  • Studies of tyrosine phosphorylation in the human duodenum have indicated that proliferating cells in the middle portion of the duodenal crypt were devoid of this feature, suggesting that tyrosine kinase activation is not a dominant factor in crypt cell proliferation, and that consequently tyrosine phosphatase activity may be a more critical factor in crypt cell development. (
  • These observations suggest the possibility that tyrosine phosphatase LAR may be of importance in the regulation of crypt cell proliferation. (
  • 9. Use of (a) compound(s) as defined in claim 1 for the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition for the prevention or treatment of a disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of cells. (
  • 13. Use of (a) compound(s) identified by the method of claim 12 interfering with the biological activity of L1 and/or ADAM10 for the preparation of a pharmaceutical composition for the prevention or treatment of a disease characterized by abnormal cell proliferation. (
  • It is characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the glomerulus, the proliferation of glomerular cells, and accumulation of cells and fibrin in Bowman space to form the appearance of crescents surrounding the glomerular tuft. (
  • Trypsin and SLIGKV increased L6 cells proliferation by 76% and 26% above control, respectively. (
  • Inhibition of COX-2 activity by NS-398 abolished the stimulation of cell proliferation induced by tryptase and trypsin. (
  • Through reciprocal communication, cancer cells and the microenvironment act in collusion leading to high proliferation and metastatic capability. (
  • Tumorigenesis is a complicated and multistep process, in which successive mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes virtually result in enhanced proliferation and resistance to cell death. (
  • The reciprocal communication between cancer cells and the microenvironment eventually leads to enhanced proliferation and metastatic capability, and finally death. (
  • In chronic progressive kidney diseases, mast cell proliferation in tubulointerstitial injury is prominent regardless of the initiating disease and correlates with progressive loss of function and poor outcome. (
  • Autophagy is constitutively activated in cancer cells due to the deregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, which enables them to adapt to hypo-nutrient microenvironment and exhibit the robust proliferation at the pre-metastatic niche. (
  • However, autophagy is a "double-edged sword" for cancer cells as it can either promote or suppress the survival and proliferation in the tumor microenvironment. (
  • Our lead candidate compound also inhibits binding of C. albicans to cultured human epithelial cells, the yeast-to-hyphal morphological transition, induction of the hyphal-specific HWP1 promoter, biofilm formation on silicone elastomers, and pathogenesis in a nematode infection model as well as alters fungal morphology in a mouse mucosal infection assay. (
  • The distinct expression of R-cadherin in the induced aggregating metanephric mesenchyme suggests that it may regulate the mesenchymal-epithelial transition during kidney development. (
  • In 1955, Morson ( 2 - 4 ) first described the possible transition from intestinal metaplasia to gastric epithelial dysplasia to the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, and Correa ( 5 ) later developed the model of histologic progression in gastric adenocarcinoma. (
  • In addition, we have made a novel finding that TIMP-1 expression in MCF10A cells induces phenotypic changes in cell morphology, cell-cell adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling taking on the hallmarks of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). (
  • However, it is currently unknown whether expression of functional E-selectin ligands on CTCs is related to cancer stem cell regulatory or maintenance pathways, particularly epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and the reverse, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. (
  • Such temporary and reversible phenomenon is known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that is currently a major focus in metastasis research ( 12 - 14 ). (
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) contribute to the progression of the fibrotic process. (
  • Myofibroblasts may not only come from resident or circulating fibroblasts but also be brought by epithelial cells transdifferentiated through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [ 2 ]. (
  • E-cadherin level changes in EMT ( epithelial-mesenchymal transition ) and MET ( mesenchymal-epithelial transition ). (
  • Cadherin-based cell-cell contacts are not static but are often dynamically modulated during various physiological and pathological processes including mitosis, oncogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition during embryonic development. (
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule regulates tumor initiation and tumorigenesis via activating reprogramming factors and epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene expression in colon cancer. (
  • In taste buds of the circumvallate papillae, some taste receptor cells (TRCs) express YRs localized primarily at the apical domain, indicative of their potential role in taste perception. (
  • The proteoglycan binds to specific cell-surface receptor sites that are unique to a single species of sponge. (
  • (17) further defined T cells based on the expression of the lymph node-homing chemokine receptor CCR7 as CD45RA+CCR7+ naive T cells, CD45RA−CCR7+ central memory T cells, CD45RA−CCR7− effector memory T cells, and CD45RA+CCR7− differentiated cytolytic effector T cells. (
  • CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) are ligands of T cell critical costimulatory molecule CD28 and of an inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 (CD152). (
  • In addition, hypoxic conditions, frequently existing in a tumor microenvironment, induce cancer cell expression of c-Met, the bona fide receptor of HGF, and CXCR4, the signaling receptor of the chemokine CXCL12 (SDF1), and further stimulate cancer cell migration and dissemination ( 35 , 36 ). (
  • We examined the spatial targeting of early and downstream signaling mediated by the IgE receptor (FcεRI) in RBL mast cells utilizing surface-patterned 2,4 dinitrophenyl (DNP) ligands. (
  • We propose that adhesion receptor polarization is a parenchymal immune checkpoint that allows functional epithelium to hamper leukocyte binding. (
  • En este trabajo hemos demostrado que el grado de polarización apicobasal de células epiteliales hepáticas regula su capacidad para interaccionar con los linfocitos T. Esto ocurre porque las células polarizadas y sanas segregan en su dominio apical, menos accesible a las células del sistema inmunitario, su principal receptor de adhesión linfocitaria, ICAM-1, previniendo la unión de células inmunitarias. (
  • We confirmed the expression of PAR-2 receptor in vivo in skeletal muscle cells and in satellite cells and in vitro in L6 cells, where PAR-2 was found to be functional. (
  • In addition, we demonstrated the functional receptor for betaig-h3 is alpha(3)beta(1) integrin. (
  • CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA) and is involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. (
  • B cell receptor ligation induces display of V-region peptides on MHC class II molecules to T cells. (
  • The resulting loss of EpICD signaling leads to abnormal development of intestinal epithelial cells, causing congenital tufting enteropathy. (
  • This study profiled the taxonomic and functional composition of the small intestinal luminal microbiome of neonatal calves using whole-genome sequencing of the metagenome, aiming to understand the dynamics of microbial establishment during early life. (
  • These distinct taxonomic and functional clusters may provide a framework to further analyze interactions between the intestinal microbiome and the immune function and health of neonatal calves. (
  • The use of a metagenome sequencing-based approach in the present study revealed high individual animal variation in taxonomic and functional abundance of intestinal microbiome and potential impacts of early microbiome on mucosal immune responses during the preweaning period. (
  • Intestinal metaplasia and gastric epithelial dysplasia are precursor lesions to gastric adenocarcinoma, but are not readily detectable clinically, radiographically, or endoscopically. (
  • Infection is initiated by interaction of the pathogen with intestinal epithelial cells. (
  • Boller, Cell-adhesion molecule uvomorulin is localized in the intermediate junctions of adult intestinal epithelial cells. (
  • Detection of a Tyrosine Phosphatase LAR on Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Intraepithelial Lymphocytes in the Human Duodenum. (
  • Murphy A.M., Sheils O.M., McDonald G.S., Kelleher D.P. `Detection of a Tyrosine Phosphatase LAR on Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Intraepithelial Lymphocytes in the Human Duodenum? (
  • Polyamines are implicated in multiple signaling pathways driving different biological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). (
  • The present study determined whether polyamines are involved in expression of occludin and play a role in intestinal epithelial barrier function. (
  • Integrity of normal function of the intestinal epithelial barrier depends on specialized structures involved in cell-cell contacts known as tight junctions and adherens junctions. (
  • The gatekeeper of the paracellular pathway is the tight junction, which is located at apical cell-cell interactions of adjacent epithelial cells. (
  • We show that the basolateral membrane aquaporin (AQP)-3, but not the equivalent apical membrane AQP5, is delivered in post-Golgi structures directly to forming cell-cell contacts where it co-accumulates precisely with E-cadherin. (
  • The significance of the aPKC-binding sequence in tight junction formation is also supported by the finding that the conserved PKC-phosphorylation site within this sequence, ASIP-Ser827, is phosphorylated at the most apical tip of cell-cell contacts during the initial phase of tight junction formation in MDCK cells. (
  • Polarized hepatic cells prevent ICAM-1 exposure to lymphocytes by redirecting basolateral ICAM-1 to apical domains. (
  • Breakdown in physical barrier occurs when cell adhesion mechanisms are disrupted especially apical tight junctions. (
  • The tight junction located at the apical region of epithelial lateral membrane provides the barrier that is selectively permeable to certain hydrophilic molecules, ions, and nutrients, whereas the adherens junction mediates strong cell-to-cell adhesions between adjacent epithelial cells and regulates the tight junction assembly and function ( 9 , 32 , 38 , 50 ). (
  • The tight junction seals epithelial cells together in a way that prevents even small molecules from leaking between cells and also functionally separates the plasma membrane into an apical and a basolateral domain ( 9 , 38 , 41 ). (
  • The mammalian uterus is highly enriched in glycoconjugates that are associated with the apical surfaces of epithelial cells and the secretions released by both epithelial and stromal cells. (
  • We tested whether establishment of the basolateral membrane domain and E-cadherin-mediated epithelial cell-cell adhesion are mechanistically linked. (
  • Lucifer yellow penetrates into the cells when an electric pulse, applied to the conductive surface on which they are growing, causes pores to form through the cell membrane. (
  • Exosomes are extracellular membrane vesicles involved in cell-cell communication by shuttling various molecules including miRNAs from donor to recipient cells [ 10 ]. (
  • Molecules intimately associated with the cell membrane link cells to the extracellular matrix. (
  • This association of actin fibres with matrix components via receptors on the cell membrane can influence the organization of membrane molecules as well as matrix components and can modify the shape and function of the cytoskeleton. (
  • The outer cell layer of ectoderm was stained intensely, and staining was localized to the basolateral plasma membrane of these cells. (
  • Here, we present in vitro and in vivo data by using an immunoligand targeting the tumor-associated prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is predominantly overexpressed on prostate cancer cells and thus represents an excellent tumor target ( 12 ). (
  • Blocking dynamic MTs perturbed the ability of cells to concentrate and accumulate E-cadherin at cell-cell contacts, as assessed both by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, but did not affect either transport of E-cadherin to the plasma membrane or the amount of E-cadherin expressed at the cell surface. (
  • Classical cadherin adhesion molecules function as membrane-spanning macromolecular complexes. (
  • E-cadherin can sequester β-catenin on the cell membrane by the cytoplasmic tail of E-cadherin. (
  • The main activity of YadA from Y. enterocolitica is to bind collagen, and it also mediates adhesion to other molecules of the extracellular matrix. (
  • Cell adhesion to other cells and the extracellular matrix is important in the generation of epithelial cell surface polarity. (
  • The cellular aggregates then produce an extracellular matrix, which holds the cells together in a specific structural form. (
  • The ability of the cells to distinguish cells of their own species from those of others is mediated by proteoglycan molecules in the extracellular matrix. (
  • These migrating cells could originate from deep smooth muscle bundles or from bone marrow cells, in a fashion similar to the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular diseases ( 10 ). (
  • This chapter summarizes cellular responses induced by such stimuli, mainly focusing on the effect of shear stress on vascular cells, which have been extensively investigated in vitro over the last three decades. (
  • Ainslie KM, Garanich JS, Dull RO, Tarbell JM (2005) Vascular smooth muscle cell glycocalyx influences shear stress-mediated contractile response. (
  • Alshihabi SN, Chang YS, Frangos JA, Tarbell JM (1996) Shear stress-induced release of PGE2 and PGI2 by vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Single molecule atomic force microscopy was used to characterize structure, binding strength (unbinding force), and binding kinetics of a classical cadherin, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, secreted by transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells as cis-dimerized full-length external domain fused to Fc-portion of human IgG. (
  • In cellular monolayers that form permeability barriers, such as the simple epithelial lining of the intestine or the vascular endothelium covering the inner surface of blood vessels, adhesion between cells is mainly accomplished by Ca 2+ -dependent adhesion molecules named cadherins ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Mast cells are present in low numbers in all vascular organs, including the kidney. (
  • The ligands for these heterodimers include collagen, fibronectin, laminin and vascular adhesion molecule-1. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen functions as an accessory adhesion molecule mediating colon epithelial cell interactions. (
  • A common theme during the formation of many organs is the requirement for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. (
  • p>Used to describe "traditional" genetic interactions such as suppressors and synthetic lethals as well as other techniques such as functional complementation, rescue experiments, or inferences about a gene drawn from the phenotype of a mutation in a different gene. (
  • The net inflammatory injury represents the interactions between recruited bone marrow (BM)-derived inflammatory cells and resident cells within the kidney. (
  • [ citation needed ] Cell-cell interactions mediated by E-cadherin are crucial to blastula formation in many animals. (
  • During the past decades of cancer research, our focus on cancer research has shifted from the malignant cancer cell itself to the tumor microenvironment and the complex interactions. (
  • Yet, considering the complex interactions (stromal cells can both promote and inhibit tumor cell growth), therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment for cancer therapy should be highly selective. (
  • It is also a universal functional marker of murine and human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and osteoblasts within the hematopoietic niche and it is involved in modulating HSC-niche interactions and HSC fate. (
  • Tooth development is regulated by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and their reciprocal molecular signaling. (
  • A functional correlate of these interactions has recently been demonstrated in the neuromuscular junction. (
  • Epithelial-stromal interactions may also be influenced by other hormones and growth factors. (
  • More importantly, there is good evidence to indicate that aberrations in epithelial-stromal interactions occur during the course of neoplastic progression. (
  • 2002). Initiation and maturation of angiogenesis is governed by a myriad of cell surface receptors such as VEGF receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2), Tie and Notch receptors. (
  • In particular, the monolayer of basal progenitor cells expresses both Y1 and Y2 receptors. (
  • Furthermore, there is evidence to indicate that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) express a wide variety of receptors involved in the immune response. (
  • Parameters to be analyzed include transepithelial electrical resistance, interaction of EhCPADH112 with epithelial surface receptors, changes in expression and localization of epithelial junctional markers and localization of parasite molecules within epithelial cells. (
  • Cancer that might develop as host natural killer (NK) cells fail to detect ligands for their activating NK receptors. (
  • One pathway of NK cell activation involves the engagement of activating cytotoxicity receptors through inducible ligands on target cells. (
  • Among others are the downregulation of MHC-I molecules, the downregulation of activating NK receptors, and the shedding of NKG2D ligands into the blood impairing NK cell function ( 9, 10 ). (
  • Macrophages can undergo phenotypical/functional switch and play different functions depending on multiple signal pathways, including STAT transcription factors, epigenetic aspects, NF-κB pathways, IRF transcription factors and some interleukins, chemokines and its receptors. (
  • 20 , 21 Alert signals such as pathogen-derived products are sensed by DCs through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed at the cell surface and thereby trigger phenotypic and functional changes in DCs that lead to their migration to the afferent lymphoid organs. (
  • The B cell receptors (BCRs) for antigen express variable (V) regions that are enormously diverse, thus serving as markers on individual B cells. (
  • Studies indicate that the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is responsible for poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. (
  • Over the past few decades, accumulating evidence supports that a single cell derived from different cancers gives rise to hierarchic organization within a tumor, which has emerged as cancer stem cell (CSC) model 1 . (
  • Recent studies show that certain microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit promising therapeutic potential by suppressing both cancer cells and CSCs 4 . (
  • Furthermore, while MINAR1 is highly expressed in the normal human breast, its expression is significantly downregulated in advanced human breast cancer and its re-expression in breast cancer cells inhibited tumor growth. (
  • Our study demonstrates that MINAR1 is an IDP that negatively regulates angiogenesis and growth of breast cancer cells. (
  • Charalabopoulos K, Papalimneou V, Charalabopoulos A. Adhesion molecules in lung cancer. (
  • Serum carcinoembryonic antigen level in surgically resected clinical stage I patients with non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • In breast cancer cells, however, it was not clear whether any rearranged immunoglobulin variable ( V ) region genes were being expressed ( 2 ). (
  • To address this, we examined several well-defined and commonly used breast cancer cell lines for V H gene expression coupled with an analysis of additional immunoglobulin heavy chain ( IgH ) locus events. (
  • A previously described ( 3 ) panel of six well-characterized breast cancer cell lines (BT474, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, SKBR3, T47D, and ZR75-1) were cultured in DMEM (Invitrogen, Paisley, United Kingdom) supplemented with 10% FCS (Autogen Bioclear, Wiltshire, United Kingdom). (
  • Kindler syndrome increases the risk of developing a form of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma . (
  • These errors can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and increase the risk of cancer. (
  • Further development of CUR-encapsulated, nanosized carriers will lead to improved targeted delivery of novel chemotherapeutic agents to colorectal cancer cells. (
  • Various phenotype assays indicate that SUSD2 increases the invasion of breast cancer cells and contributes to a potential immune evasion mechanism through induction of apoptosis of Jurkat T cells. (
  • Taken together, we hypothesize that TIMP-1 binding to CD63 activates intracellular signal transduction pathways and leads to inhibition of apoptosis and induction of EMT in breast epithelial cells, facilitating breast cancer progression. (
  • With the availability of sensitive methods, naturally occurring T cells directed against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) can be frequently detected in cancer patients. (
  • In this review, we summarize the current data on T cell responses to TAAs in various malignancies, including melanoma, colorectal cancer, leukemia, and breast cancer. (
  • Moreover, common cell lines are often defective in crucial signalling pathways relevant to infection and cancer. (
  • Distant metastasis is the culmination of an elaborate cascade of events in which cancer cells break away from the primary tumor, intravasate through blood vessel walls into the circulatory system, travel throughout the body, and finally extravasate through the vessels of a distant organ to establish a secondary colony. (
  • Despite major efforts in metastasis research, we still lack detailed insights into how cancer cells actually migrate out of primary tumors and invade into neighboring tissue, how they enter (intravasate) into the blood or the lymphatic circulation, how they survive "homelessness" and immune surveillance in the bloodstream, and how they target certain organs to leave (extravasate) the blood circulation and to initiate metastatic outgrowth in specific target organs. (
  • Obviously, the migratory and invasive capabilities of a cancer cell present critical parameters in the metastatic cascade. (
  • Plenty of molecular pathways define distinct types of migration and invasion in a cancer cell-autonomous manner, including single-cell amoeboid and mesenchymal migration and collective cell migration ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • In this review, we present various concepts on the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of cancer cell migration and invasion during tumor progression and metastasis. (
  • However, cancer cells can also migrate and invade in the absence of EMT and may use a broad repertoire of cell migration and invasion ( 18 , 19 ). (
  • Conclusion The targeting of certain PKC isozymes might represent a suitable strategy to interfere with the MMP-1-dependent remodelling of infected tissue and to overcome the invasive behaviour of gastric cancer cells. (
  • Transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal states play important roles in embryonic development and cancer metastasis. (
  • Together with other mechanisms, such as constitutive RTK activation, E-cadherin loss can lead cancer cells to the mesenchymal state and undergo metastasis. (
  • The mesenchymal state cancer cells migrate to new sites and may undergo METs in certain favorable microenvironment. (
  • For example, the cancer cells can recognize differentiated epithelial cell features in the new sites and upregulate E-cadherin expression. (
  • Those cancer cells can form cell-cell adhesions again and return to an epithelial state. (
  • In 2006, Jean Paul moved to Singapore from his position as Head of Translational Research at the Medical Division of the Comprehensive Cancer Center of Institut Curie in Paris, and before that, Head of the Cell Biology Department at the Institut Curie until 2003. (
  • Cancer cells are the driving force of tumor development and progression. (
  • Yet, cancer cells are unable to accomplish this alone. (
  • Studies have provided some evidence that human tumors are more than a mass of accumulating malignant cancer cells. (
  • In this study, the new epithelial ovarian cancer cell line CAISMOV24 was described and compared with its original low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. (
  • The in vitro culture was established with cells isolated from ascites of a 60-year-old female patient with recurrent ovarian cancer. (
  • However, the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory suggests that liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) may be responsible for the biological characteristics of HCC. (
  • Currently, the theory of a 'cancer stem cell' may partially explain the process of HCC formation. (
  • According to the theory, there is a rare population of stem-like cells in tumor tissue, called liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs), which are responsible for the self-renewal, malignant transformation, metastasis and chemoresistance of HCC. (
  • Currently, all of the cancer cells in a tumor are thought to be responsible for tumor growth. (
  • However, recently emerging evidence suggests that there is a rare population of stem-like cells in tumors that determine cancer characteristics. (
  • Reya et al ( 9 ) proposed a theory of cancer stem cells (CSCs). (
  • Several markers of cancer stem cells have been suggested in various types of cancers in which those markers may be associated with the response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and disease free survival. (
  • Autophagy plays a crucial role in both normal tissue homeostasis and tumor development and is necessary for cancer cells to adapt efficiently to an unfavorable tumor microenvironment characterized by hypo-nutrient conditions. (
  • Outcomes JAM-A knockdown in MCF7 breasts cancer cells decreased adhesion to, and migration through, the 1-integrin substrate fibronectin. (
  • Finally, so that they can elucidate the binding companions putatively linking JAM-A to Rap1 activation, we've demonstrated the forming of a complicated between JAM-A, AF-6 as well as the Rap1 activator PDZ-GEF2 in MCF7 cells and in major cultures from breasts cancer individuals. (
  • To exclude coexisting lymphocytes, each cell line was shown to be EBV negative, with CD19/CD20 and cytoplasmic/surface immunoglobulin also absent by flow cytometry. (
  • On immune cells, CEACAM1 acts as an immune checkpoint regulator, and deletion of Ceacam1 gene in mice causes exacerbation of inflammation and hyperactivation of myeloid cells and lymphocytes. (
  • Some investigators have performed in vitro restimulation of lymphocytes to increase the frequency of antigen-specific T cells. (
  • Individual cell populations were immunostained with anti-LAR antibodies using phycoerythrin-conjugated anti-CD3 to discriminate between epithelial cells (CD3-) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (CD3+). (
  • Here, we show that apicobasal architecture regulates the adhesion between hepatic epithelial cells and lymphocytes. (
  • 1 There is a broad range of inflammatory cells like macrophages, neutrophils, T and B lymphocytes, eosinophils, and epithelial cells involved in the inflammatory process of COPD. (
  • All experiments performed on red cell lysed murine peripheral blood gated on lymphocytes in the presence of murine SeroBlock ( BUF041A ). (
  • PURPOSE: Colorectal carcinoma cells express the tumor-associated antigen epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM)/KSA. (
  • In the case of slime mold amoebas , starvation causes the secretion of a compound , cyclic adenosine monophosphate ( cyclic AMP , or CAMP), that induces the cells to stick together end to end. (
  • While the extracellular domain of cadherin induces cell-cell adhesion in the presence of Ca 2+ , an interaction between the cytoplasmic domain of cadherin and the underlying actin cytoskeleton is also required for the construction of tight and compact cell-cell adhesions (for a review, see reference 32 ). (
  • Thus, components of the lateral targeting patch localize independently of each other to cell-cell contacts but collectively function as a holocomplex to specify basolateral vesicle delivery to nascent cell-cell contacts and immediately initiate cell surface polarity. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that downregulation of JAM-A impairs the ability of MDCK II cells to form cysts in a threedimensional matrix indicating the requirement of JAM-A for the development of apico-basal polarity. (
  • Together our findings suggest an important role for JAM-A in the development of apicobasal polarity in epithelial cells and identify regions in JAM-A which are critical for this role. (
  • Loss of apicobasal polarity is a hallmark of epithelial pathologies. (
  • Importantly, we and others found that TIMP-1 is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis in a variety of cell types through either a MMP-dependent or -independent mechanism. (
  • Methods Gastric glands were isolated from healthy human stomach tissue and grown in Matrigel containing media supplemented with various growth factors, developmental regulators and apoptosis inhibitors to generate long-lasting normal epithelial cell cultures. (
  • Cumulating evidence indicating the importance of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in different aspects of the immune response, including antigen processing, apoptosis, cell cycle, costimulation, adhesion, and chemotaxis, has fostered the evaluation of proteasome inhibitors as immunosuppressive agents. (
  • p53 is a tumor suppressor gene with well-characterized roles in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and maintenance of genome stability. (
  • Importantly, in three of three selected cell lines, V H genes were identifiable in a significant fraction (∼32%) of single cells. (
  • They have identified many of the molecules and genes involved in differentiating cells into distinct types, from neurons to cardiac muscle cells. (
  • Seventy-three genes were up-regulated and 28 genes were down-regulated by BMP2 treatment for 24 hours in HAT-7 cells. (
  • Functional classification revealed that 18% of up-regulated genes were ECM/adhesion molecules present in the enamel organ. (
  • Conversion of partially reprogrammed cells to fully pluripotent stem cells is associated with further activation of stem cell maintenance- and gamete generation-related genes. (
  • In this review, we consider the mRNAs and novel genes with unique expression and imprinting patterns that were discovered using systems biology approaches with primate pluripotent stem and germ cells. (
  • The possibility that a tryptase/PAR-2 signaling pathway exists in skeletal muscle cell has never been investigated. (
  • This is evidenced by loss of the epithelial cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and beta-catenin and an increase in the mesenchymal markers vimentin, N-cadherin, and fibronectin. (
  • One of the hallmarks of EMT and the concomitant induction of cell migration and invasion is the loss of the epithelial cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin, the major component of epithelial adherens junctions. (
  • In mammals, ASIP/PAR-3 colocalizes with aPKC and concentrates at the tight junctions of epithelial cells, but the biological meaning of ASIP/PAR-3 in tight junctions remains to be clarified. (
  • The expression of the Ca2+-dependent epithelial cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin (also known as uvomorulin and L-CAM) in the early stages of embryonic development of Xenopus laevis was examined. (
  • Gallin, Characterization of L-CAM, a major cell adhesion molecule from embryonic liver cells. (
  • Preimplantation factor, sometimes called PreImplantation Factor or simply PIF, is a peptide secreted by trophoblast cells prior to placenta formation in early embryonic development. (
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule regulation is associated with the maintenance of the undifferentiated phenotype of human embryonic stem cells. (
  • Reptin regulates pluripotency of embryonic stem cells and somatic cell reprogramming through Oct4-dependent mechanism. (
  • For clinical applications, pluripotent cells, including both embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, have been proposed for cell replacement therapy for a number of human diseases and disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, spinal cord injury and diabetes. (
  • The in vitro specific cell binding, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of Apt-CUR-NPs were also studied. (
  • Morphological analysis of nephrogenesis in R-cadherin −/− mice in vivo and in vitro revealed defects in the development of both ureteric bud-derived cells and metanephric mesenchyme-derived cells. (
  • Second, during in vitro studies of mesenchymal-epithelial conversion, significantly fewer epithelial structures developed from R-cadherin −/− kidneys than from wild-type kidneys. (
  • Previous in vitro and mouse studies demonstrated that TIMP-1 reduces tumor cell invasion through MMP inhibition. (
  • Aedes Malpighian tubule segments with and without stellate cells were perfused in vitro for measurements of the transepithelial voltage ( V t ), resistance ( R t ) and Cl - diffusion potentials ( DP Cl ). (
  • Albuquerque ML, Waters CM, Savla U, Schnaper HW, Flozak AS (2000) Shear stress enhances human endothelial cell wound closure in vitro. (
  • A distinction between direct ex vivo T cell responses and in vitro -generated T cell responses is provided because in vitro stimulation results in quantitative and functional changes of T cell responses. (
  • In vitro studies with this bacterial pathogen largely rely on the use of transformed cell lines as infection model. (
  • Transfer of sheared spheroids into 2D culture led to the formation of dense planar cultures of polarised epithelial cells serving as a suitable in vitro model of H. pylori infection. (
  • Illuminating the molecular basis of H. pylori -induced carcinogenesis has been hampered by the absence of suitable in vitro infection models, because available cell lines are derived from neoplastic tissue, which has already undergone transformation. (
  • The high avidity format is also superior in in vitro NK-mediated tumor cell targeting as shown in cytotoxicity assays. (
  • The efficacy of the immunoligand concept to overcome immune escape mechanisms has previously been shown by targeting CD138 on multiple myeloma cells, which resulted in a potent antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo ( 11 ). (
  • In fact, bereavement of E-cadherin function is sufficient to induce tumor cell migration and invasion and tumor progression in vitro and in vivo ( 22 - 25 ). (
  • Intrinsic renal cells, including mesangial cells ( 9-11 ⇓ ⇓ ) and glomerular ( 12,13 ⇓ ) and tubular epithelial cells ( 14,15 ⇓ ), also have the capacity to produce TNF in vitro . (
  • CK1 colocalizes with E-cadherin and phosphorylates the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin in vitro and in a cell culture system. (
  • This study evaluated the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of PUFAs on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. (
  • Accordingly, the mutant was significantly better at forming abiotic biofilms and binding epithelial cells in vitro but was avirulent in a sepsis model. (
  • The spontaneous immortalization of primary malignant cells is frequently assigned to their genetic instability during in vitro culturing. (
  • Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of EC sAC or PKA, like CD99 blockade, arrests neutrophils and monocytes partway through EC junctions, in vitro and in vivo, without affecting leukocyte adhesion or the expression of relevant cellular adhesion molecules. (
  • We established cultured epithelial cells (1(ko)/2(kd)) in which the expression of ZO-1/ZO-2 was suppressed by homologous recombination and RNA interference, respectively. (
  • SiRNA-mediated Twist knockdown restored E-cadherin expression in TIMP-1 overexpressing MCF10A cells, demonstrating a functional significance of Twist in TIMP-1 mediated EMT. (
  • Choi YS and Gumbiner B (1989), Expression of cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. (
  • Expression of cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin in Xenopus embryos begins at gastrulation and predominates in the ectoderm . (
  • Hatta, Expression of N-cadherin adhesion molecules associated with early morphogenetic events in chick development. (
  • Concomitant with its loss, expression of the mesenchymal cell-cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin is increased, a process also known as the cadherin switch ( 20 , 21 ). (
  • We now identify a pool of MTs that extend radially into cell-cell contacts and are inhibited by manoeuvres that block the dynamic activity of MT plus-ends (e.g. in the presence of low concentrations of nocodazole and following expression of a CLIP-170 mutant). (
  • Liberated β-catenin molecules may migrate into the nucleus and trigger the expression of EMT-inducing transcription factors. (
  • We used the oral keratinocyte cell line, OKF 6/TERT1 in the presence and absence of the viral mimics poly(I:C) and unmethylated CpG DNA, to define the expression of type I IFN and ISGs. (
  • Human embryos begin to express PIF at the 2-cell stage, with expression increasing by the morula stage and continuing to do so throughout the first trimester. (
  • Upregulated expression of PIF increases the presence of integrins on the endometrium wall, promoting the embryo's adhesion to the uterine wall. (
  • Further, bone marrow myeloid cells and memory T cells express CD44 at high levels, and peripheral B and T cells can upregulate the expression of CD44 in response to certain stimulatory events. (
  • 6 , 7 Complement also activates mast cells, and complement-dependant microbial killing is at least partially dependent on mast cell function for full expression. (
  • β H -Spectrin expression is found only in epithelial cells, whereas α- andβ -Spectrin are ubiquitously expressed during development. (
  • Based on the expression of CD207, CD11b, and CD103, we identified five distinct skin DC subsets and evaluated whether some functional specialization exists among them. (
  • Improved knowledge of gene expression changes and functional pathways associated with these clinical phenotypes may lead to new treatment targets, markers for early detection and a better understanding of disease progression. (
  • Nerve growth factor ( NGF ) positively regulates FABP5 expression in PC12 cells (pheochromocytoma of rat adrenal medulla) through a MEK-dependent pathway (Liu et al. (
  • The CAISMOV24 line was assessed for cell growth, production of soluble biomarkers, expression of surface molecules and screened for typical mutations found in serous ovarian carcinoma. (
  • Sun et al ( 22 ) analyzed different expression patterns of stem-cell markers in HBV-associated cirrhotic livers and in HCC and demonstrated that the stem-like cells possessed tumorigenic capacity and that these cells might be LCSCs. (
  • In OLP, most hemidesmosomal molecules examined showed disturbed expression consisting of discontinuous increases, apicolateral location, and/or intracellular accumulation. (
  • It is not known if naive B cells spontaneously display pId:MHCII in vivo or if BCR ligation is required for expression, thereby enabling collaboration between Id+ B cells and Id-specific T cells. (
  • This model for specific cell-cell recognition relies on the strict regulation of carbohydrate expression on both sperm and eggs. (
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha negatively regulates the expression of the carcinoma-associated antigen epithelial cell adhesion molecule. (
  • Knockdown of DDX3 in HCC cell line HepG2 induced stemness gene signature followed by occurrence of self-renewal, chemoreisistance, EMT, migration as well as CSC expansion and most importantly, DDX3 knockdown promotes tumorigenesis. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a tumor marker belonging to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily of adhesion molecules. (
  • V H gene transcripts were identifiable by nested reverse transcription-PCR either as single or dual V, diversity ( D ), and joining ( J ) rearrangements in four of six lines, most being potentially functional. (
  • Most mutations in the FERMT1 gene prevent the production of any functional kindlin-1. (
  • which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. (
  • If the mouse molecule was encoded by a gene that is assigned a Ly number, that gene name is withdrawn and reassigned a Cd number, unless another gene name was agreed on by the human and mouse nomenclature groups. (
  • As one example, the Ly-5 molecule of the mouse, encoded by Ly5 , was assigned CD45 in the human nomenclature for Ags and the gene name CD45 . (
  • Plasmid vectors harboring normal and mutated TACSTD2 were transfected to the immortalized human corneal epithelial cells to identify the subcellular localization of the normal and mutated TACSTD2 gene products. (
  • These findings indicate that a different Ca2+-dependent cell adhesion molecule, perhaps another member of the cadherin gene family, is responsible for the Ca2+-dependent adhesion between cleavage stage Xenopus blastomeres. (
  • In many cases, its functional loss is caused by germline and somatic gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations, transcriptional repression, and DNA hypermethylation of the E-cadherin ( cdh1 ) gene ( 22 , 26 , 27 ). (
  • Identification of motifs for cell adhesion within the repeated domains of transforming growth factor-beta-induced gene, betaig-h3. (
  • CD166 is a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily which is expressed by activated leukocytes and thymic epithelial cells and is a ligand for the lymphocyte antigen CD6. (
  • After confirming that BMP2 could activate the canonical BMP-Smads signaling in HAT-7 cells, we analyzed the effects of BMP2 on 14,815 gene expressions and profiled them. (
  • While gene regulatory networks that enhance our knowledge of pluripotency will help our understanding of stem cell biology, there are additional implications. (
  • Recently, it has been proposed that migration of the airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) 3 toward the epithelium might also contribute to this phenomenon ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • The molecular details of actin cytoskeleton remodeling and changes in cell-substrate adhesion during cell migration and invasion have been recently summarized in several excellent reviews ( 5 - 11 ). (
  • His influential works include pioneering studies in cell adhesion and migration in early embryogenesis and in elucidating the roles of growth factors and adhesion signaling molecules in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions (EMT). (
  • Rap1 activity was low in response to JAM-A knockdown or inhibition, and pharmacological inhibition of Rap1 decreased MCF7 cell migration. (
  • Conclusions Our results provide compelling proof a novel part for JAM-A in traveling breasts tumor cell migration via activation of Rap1 GTPase and 1-integrin. (
  • This process is guided by mechanical forces that stretch and compress cells into the right size and shape to produce functional tissue. (
  • TJ ensure sealing of the epithelial layer to separate host tissue from gut lumen. (
  • Recent advances have enabled the direct induction of human tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells from differentiated somatic cells. (
  • [10] [11] E-cadherin downregulation decreases the strength of cellular adhesion within a tissue, resulting in an increase in cellular motility. (
  • Following muscle damage, there is an orchestrated recruitment of inflammatory cells, which produce pro- and/or anti-inflammatory signals leading initially to the removal of the damaged tissue and subsequently to the resolution of inflammation and tissue repair [ 1 - 5 ]. (
  • In turn, these recruited cells release growth-promoting signals and intermediate metabolites as well as remodel tissue structure to build the microenvironment. (
  • A tumor is a highly complex tissue composed of neoplastic and stromal cells. (
  • 4 Mast cells are tissue-specific multifunctional cells, with diverse phenotypes in different anatomic sites in various species, collectively referred to as "mast cell heterogeneity. (
  • Liver progenitor cells, a type of bipotential cell in human liver tissue, give rise to both hepatocytes and the biliary tree. (
  • The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) is widely recognized for the treatment of several diseases, including acute graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD), hematological malignancies, cardiovascular, bone, and cartilage diseases. (
  • Different types of cells such as pluripotent stem cells derived neural cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, neural stem cells, glial cells are being tested in various spinal cord injury models. (
  • Bone Marrow Derived Stromal Cells (clone BMS2). (
  • The MA1-70080 immunogen is bone marrow derived stromal cells (clone BMS2). (
  • In this study, the functional role of DDX3 in regulation of hepatic CSCs was investigated. (
  • In this paper, we report a novel functional role of casein kinase 1 (CK1) in the regulation of cell-cell contacts. (
  • Leukocyte infiltration and crosstalk with dysfunctional epithelial barriers are crucial for the inflammatory response. (
  • The fact that kidney development involves several morphogenetic processes (e.g., cell aggregation, cell movement, mesenchymal-epithelial conversion, cell sorting, and cell shape changes) that members of the classic cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules have been implicated in validates studies of cadherin function during kidney organogenesis. (
  • Treatment with rTIMP-1 also led to a loss of E-cadherin in MCF10A cells. (
  • E-Cadherin was identified in the Xenopus A6 epithelial cell line by antibody cross-reactivity and several biochemical characteristics. (
  • In physiological buffer, the external domain of VE-cadherin dimers is a ≈20-nm-long rod-shaped molecule that collapses and dissociates into monomers (V-shaped structures) in the absence of Ca 2+ . (
  • X-ray crystallographic studies of subdomain 1 of N-cadherin suggest that adhesion dimers might associate laterally into zipper-like supramolecular clusters providing cumulative adhesive strength ( 5 ). (
  • Adhesion dimers and zipper-like associations were not observed in crystals of E-cadherin subdomains 1-2 ( 6 , 9 ). (
  • Loss of E-cadherin function occurs during malignant progression in almost all epithelial cancers, serving as a clinical indicator for poor prognosis and metastasis. (
  • This indicated that dynamic MTs allow cells to concentrate E-cadherin at cell-cell contacts by regulating the regional distribution of E-cadherin once it reaches the cell surface. (
  • We propose that this population of MTs represents a novel form of cadherin-MT cooperation, where cadherin adhesions recruit dynamic MTs that, in turn, support the local concentration of cadherin molecules by regulating myosin II activity at cell-cell contacts. (
  • E-cadherin ( epithelial ) is the most well-studied member of the cadherin family. (
  • In epithelial cells, E-cadherin-containing cell-to-cell junctions are often adjacent to actin-containing filaments of the cytoskeleton . (
  • E-cadherin is first expressed in the 2-cell stage of mammalian development, and becomes phosphorylated by the 8-cell stage, where it causes compaction. (
  • E-cadherin is a crucial type of cell-cell adhesion to hold the epithelial cells tight together. (
  • Cadherin-based cell-cell adhesions are dynamically established and/or disrupted during various physiological and pathological processes. (
  • Firstly, we observed that IC261, a specific inhibitor of CK1, stabilizes cadherin-based cell-cell contacts, whereas the overexpression of CK1 disrupts them. (
  • Constitutively phosphorylated E-cadherin (S846D) is unable to localize at cell-cell contacts and has decreased adhesive activity. (
  • These data indicate that CK1 is a novel negative regulator of cadherin-based cell-cell contacts. (
  • For example, E-cadherin, the prototype and the best-characterized classical cadherin, is expressed primarily in epithelial cells. (
  • Surface marker epithelial cell adhesion molecule and E-cadherin facilitate the identification and selection of induced pluripotent stem cells. (
  • Filastatin is a nontoxic inhibitor of adhesion to human cells, and it affects multiple Candida species. (
  • Human A549 cells were grown to confluence on 48-well plates. (
  • Wecompared the effects of three blood derivatives, autologous serum (AS), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and serum derived from plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), on a human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell line to evaluate their potential as an effective treatment for corneal epithelial disorders. (
  • When a mouse Ly Ag is identified as a human CD homologue, the Ly number for the molecule is withdrawn and reassigned the appropriate CD number. (
  • A long-lived primary cell system would be preferable in order to better approximate the human in vivo situation. (
  • So far, it has not been possible to culture normal human gastric primary epithelial cells long enough to permit experimental investigations into many of the processes that underlie gastric pathology. (
  • However, it is not known whether human hepatic progenitor cells (hHepPCs) can be generated from other cell types by direct lineage reprogramming with defined transcription factors. (
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that hepatocyte-like cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be used as an alternative to hepatocytes 1 . (
  • Thus, to facilitate the medical use of reprogrammed hepatocytes, human induced hepatic progenitor cells (hiHepPCs) that can potentially propagate in long-term culture and continuously produce hepatocytes as a descendant may be more valuable than growth-arrested hiHepCs. (
  • A crucial event in human implantation is when trophoblast cells expressing preimplantation factor invade the uterine wall and found the placenta, an organ that connects maternal blood supply, and along with it, nutrients, to the growing fetus. (
  • Rodents genetically deficient in mast cells have been extensively studied to determine whether these cells play a role in models of human disease, and, as it turns out, mast cells have functional roles in vivo in chronic diseases associated with inflammation and autoimmunity. (
  • Both mouse 9 , 10 and human mast cells 11 express TLR. (
  • These projects cover developmental biology, cell biology, physiology and pharmacology, neuroscience, models of human disease, human stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. (
  • Here, we show that bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor with anticancer activity, impairs several immune properties of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). (
  • Junctional adhesion molecule 2 (Jam2) is a member of the JAM superfamily. (
  • Dendritic cells, which recognise and present allergens to naive T cells in local lymphoid collections extend processes through the epithelium, so that they can interact with allergens on the airway surface. (
  • In contrast, other TAAs, including most antigens of the MAGE family, do not usually elicit spontaneous T cell responses. (
  • Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) is a severe and rapidly progressive form of renal inflammation that results from Th1-directed cell-mediated immune/inflammatory responses to antigens located in glomeruli. (
  • Together, our present data suggest that ASIP/PAR-3 regulates epithelial tight junction formation positively through interaction with aPKC. (
  • Exosomal miRNAs delivered to target cells can significantly affect biological pathways within target/recipient cells resulting in altered cellular function and the development of a pathological state [ 11 ]. (
  • Tetraspan complexes with integrin molecules, for example, modulate cell adhesion and mobility. (
  • By high-throughput phenotypic screening of small molecules, we identified compounds that inhibit adhesion of C. albicans to polystyrene. (
  • WT C. albicans strain SC5314 or adhesion-defective edt1 −/− cells were plated in the presence of 1% DMSO vehicle or small molecules at 50 μM followed by extensive washing to remove unbound cells. (
  • Hypermethylation occurs when too many small molecules called methyl groups are attached to the promoter region. (
  • Several different treatment strategies such as drug intervention (steroidal/nonsteroidal), growth factors, cellular metabolites (cAMP/GTPases), small molecules, extracellular matrices, and cellular therapy involving pluripotent stem cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)/neural progenitor cells (NPCs/NSCs) are being tested for successful therapeutic intervention [ 9 ]. (
  • Chemical screening identifies filastatin, a small molecule inhibitor of Candida albicans adhesion, morphogenesis, and pathogenesis. (
  • Formation of tight junction (TJ) strands, which are crucial for this barrier, involves the polymerization of claudins, TJ adhesion molecules, in temporal and spatial manners. (
  • Differential cellular adhesion mediated by cell adhesion molecules is crucial for many of these processes ( 8 ). (
  • Understanding the mechanisms and behavior of natural TAA-specific T cells could provide crucial information for rational development of more efficient T cell-directed immunotherapy. (
  • Their crucial role in tumor immune surveillance was shown in various experimental studies, using NK cell-deficient mice or antibodies eliminating NK cells ( 3-6 ). (
  • Carbohydrate sequences expressed on the outer surfaces of cells participate in binding to other cell types and crucial signaling events during both physiological and pathological states [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • This technique has proved particularly enlightening for the investigation of cell membranes and their specializations and has contributed considerably to the understanding of cellular form to related cell function. (
  • These mAbs inhibited the formation of cell contacts between A6 cells and stained the basolateral plasma membranes of A6 cells, hepatocytes, and alveolar epithelial cells. (
  • In this model, adhesive bonds between cadherins of interacting cell membranes are predicted to result from binding between subdomains 1 of oppositely oriented cis-dimers to form trans-interacting antiparallel tetramers that are termed adhesion dimers. (
  • Plectin stained most epithelial cell membranes and remained unphosphorylated at S4642. (
  • The results further support previous observations that principal cells signal the effects of leucokinin to increase the Cl - conductance of the paracellular pathway through septate (or tight) junctions. (
  • Cells growing on the nonconductive glass surface immediately adjacent to the electroporated region do not take up Lucifer yellow by electroporation but do acquire the fluorescent dye as it is passed to them via gap junctions that link them to the electroporated cells. (
  • In addition, it can be used for the introduction of peptides or other non-permeant molecules, and the transfer of small electroporated peptides via gap junctions to inhibit the signal in the adjacent, non-electroporated cells is a powerful demonstration of signal inhibition. (
  • Mutants of JAM-A which were designed to mislocalize strongly impaired the development of cysts and the formation of functional tight junctions. (
  • These induced hHepPCs (hiHepPCs) propagate in long-term monolayer culture and differentiate into functional hepatocytes and cholangiocytes by forming cell aggregates and cystic epithelial spheroids, respectively, under three-dimensional culture conditions. (
  • Hepatocytes are a valuable cell source for investigating and treating liver diseases. (
  • The oval cells, located in the canal of Hering, have the ability to differentiate into both hepatocytes and biliary epithelia and are now generally acknowledged to be liver stem/progenitor cells ( 23 ). (
  • A fundamental question in cell and developmental biology is how epithelial cells construct the diffusion barrier allowing them to separate different body compartments. (
  • There is now strong evidence that in many allergic diseases (asthma, food allergy, rhinosinusitis and atopic dermatitis) there is a breakdown in epithelial integrity both as a physical and functional barrier. (
  • In allergic diseases this epithelial barrier is affected and challenged in two different ways. (
  • epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal mucosa form an important barrier to a wide array of noxious substances in the lumen. (
  • Molecules on the surface of hemopoietic cells play important roles in the development and function of these cells and have permitted us to understand the immune system in increasingly great depth. (
  • Epithelial cells play essential roles in separating biological compartments to regulate homeostasis and maintain physiological functions in separate biological environments. (
  • Advances in understanding mast cell biology reveal their diverse functional capacity well beyond already established roles in host defense against parasites and allergic disease. (
  • Keratins form intermediate filaments of the cytoskeleton in keratinocytes and have roles in cell structure, signaling, intracellular transport, and cell death. (
  • The functional roles of the glycans linked to uterine and trophoblast glycoconjugates remain enigmatic. (
  • Regardless of their ultimate fate, the clinical interpretation of CTCs arising from solid tumors has been the subject of much debate, with definitive answers yet to emerge as to if, when, and for which cancers these cells offer significant diagnostic, prognostic, or therapeutic value. (
  • The serous histotype is responsible for almost 70% of epithelial ovarian cancers, which are additionally differentiated into low (type I) and high grades (type II). (
  • We have found that inhibition of myosin II, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, has remarkably opposite effects on myelin formation by Schwann cells (SC) and oligodendrocytes (OL). (
  • The extent to which the responses of intrinsic renal cells may amplify or inhibit inflammatory injury is poorly understood. (
  • These studies show that high-throughput functional assays targeting fungal adhesion can provide chemical probes for study of multiple aspects of fungal pathogenesis. (
  • The extracellular domains of cadherins form Ca 2+ -dependent homophilic adhesions between neighboring cells. (
  • A portion of the CAM that extends from the surface of a cell adheres to identical molecules on the surface of adjacent cells. (
  • Host defence and inflammatory response are based on a complex cytokine network that leads to the activation and expansion of cells involved in the immune response 21 . (
  • Both conditions show an increased tumor growth with formation of metastasis and conversely a reductive tumor effect in mice equipped with immune competent NK cells. (
  • Many hypotheses leading to an immune escape of neoplastic cells have been proposed. (
  • This first demonstration of a functional cure in this patient was confirmed in 2013 in a follow-up study showing no signs of recrudescent HIV replication and waning of HIV-specific immune responses five years after interruption of ART [7] . (
  • Epithelial barriers, be it skin, respiratory or gastrointestinal, play an integral role in the immune response, be it protective or dysfunctional. (
  • It appears that we are just starting to 'scratch the surface' in understanding how epithelial barriers behave in normal and abnormal immune responses. (
  • Mast cells can initiate, amplify, and direct innate and adaptive immune responses. (
  • 2 After recent discoveries demonstrated an expanded role for mast cells in both systemic and local host immune responses, Galli 3 suggested the name "master" cell would be more appropriate. (
  • In animal models of bacterial infection, including bacterial peritonitis, mast cells are required for optimal innate immune responses conferring survival benefit. (
  • Neutrophils, together with other innate immune cells, are involved in inflammation, interact with pathogens and/or damage associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and/or DAMPs). (
  • The functional consequences of which remain unresolved but support the notion that BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 play a role in protecting airway epithelial cells from infection. (
  • They noticed that only a fifth of these cells grew into neuronal precursor cells, while the rest became either supporting cells or died. (
  • The key steps between inflammation and muscle healing include the resolution of inflammation and activation of myoblasts, which are present as quiescent muscle precursor cells in the form of satellite cells and stem cells in adult myofibers. (
  • The ability of epithelial cells to regulate absorption and secretion of essential ions such as sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium is critical for the maintenance of electrolyte balance ( Van Itallie and Anderson, 2006 ). (
  • Constitutive AID activation in malignant epithelial cells further raises a potential for inducing aberrant mutational activity. (
  • Background Epithelial ovarian tumours exhibit a range of malignant potential, presenting distinct clinical phenotypes. (
  • Additionally, comparative genomic hybridization was employed to compare genomic alterations between the CAISMOV24 cell line and its primary malignant cells. (
  • Although the cell line had developed alongside the accumulation of genomic alterations (28 CNV in primary cells and 37 CNV in CAISMOV24), most of them were related to CNVs already present in primary malignant cells. (
  • Additionally, CAISMOV24 cell line was characterized as a low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, which still resembles its primary malignant cells. (
  • Its lethality is a consequence of the lack of symptoms or biomarkers enabling the early diagnosis of disease, and the propensity of malignant cells to seed the peritoneal cavity. (
  • However, cell lines are known for their susceptibility to genetic and metabolic alterations, which can alter their characteristics in relation to the primary malignant cells. (
  • Little is known of the contribution of this mosaic of cells to the malignant process at the cellular or molecular level. (