Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated: Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)Hippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Magnetic Fields: Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.Magnetic Phenomena: Characteristics, properties, and effects of magnetic substances and magnetic fields.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.ComputersBone Marrow DiseasesMonte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Oman: A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Etidocaine: A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.Thoracic Wall: The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.Laboratory ManualsManuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Andrology: A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Svalbard
... and some perform both functions. Pollution prevention practices include low-impact development techniques, installation of ... Indicator filter-feeding species such as copepods have also been used to study pollutant fates in the New York Bight, for ... dilution, and, in some cases, chemical reactions and biological activity; however, in some cases, the pollutants merely ... Local governments use a variety of storm water management techniques to reduce the effects of urban runoff. These techniques, ...
... indicator dilution curve methodology for the assessment of cardiac output and other physiologic derivative; indocyanine green ... After his work on the G-Suit, Wood worked on techniques for measuring cardiac blood flow. He was granted a patent for the ear ... Ritman, EL; Robb, RA; Harris, LD (1985). Imaging Physiological Functions: Experience with the Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor. ... a research career noted for development of novel instruments driven by the power of the indicator dilution concept". J Appl ...
The UD method is based on ultrasound indicator dilution. Blood ultrasound velocity (1560-1585 m/s) is a function of total blood ... the independent calibration technique is lithium chloride dilution using the Stewart-Hamilton principle. Lithium chloride ... Ultrasound dilution (UD) uses body-temperature normal saline (NS) as an indicator introduced into an extracorporeal loop to ... "Theory and validation of access flow measurement by dilution technique during hemodialysis". Kidney International. 48 (1): 244- ...
It should be noted that Folin's research did not focus on creatinine as a renal function indicator. Since the precursors of ... By 2006, isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) became the reference method. To improve the accuracy in creatinine testing, ... As Folin's method evolved, various techniques were implemented to remove Jaffe-reacting substances, mostly protein, from the ... It was not until 1926 that Poul Kristian Brandt Rehberg suggested creatinine was a significant marker for renal function. The ...
Hyphenated separation techniques refers to a combination of two (or more) techniques to detect and separate chemicals from ... An ideal internal standard is isotopically-enriched analyte which gives rise to the method of isotope dilution. The method of ... Devices that integrate (multiple) laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size ... These titrations may use different types of indicators to reach some equivalence point. Spectroscopy measures the interaction ...
Correlation function (quantum field theory) Correlation function (statistical mechanics) Correlation implies causation ... correlation Multiple correspondence analysis Multiple discriminant analysis Multiple-indicator kriging Multiple Indicator ... proprietary software Regression control chart Regression diagnostic Regression dilution Regression discontinuity design ... Boole's inequality Boole's inequality Boolean analysis Bootstrap aggregating Bootstrap error-adjusted single-sample technique ...
There can be a case of over dilution and under dilution, as well as dilution with the incorrect diluent.. Contamination. ... Its main function is as the carrier for the non volatile components. To spread heavier oils (for example, linseed) as in oil- ... Techniques vary depending on the practical or artistic results desired. As a solid (usually used in industrial and automotive ... One patent[18] cites use of these indicators for wall coating applications for light colored paints. When the paint is wet it ...
It is used to monitor immune system function in HIV-positive people. Declining CD4 T-cell counts are considered to be a marker ... Although this results in a dramatic decrease in cost, the dilution of the virus in the pooled samples decreases the effective ... Lower CD4 counts in people with AIDS are indicators that prophylaxis against certain types of opportunistic infections should ... The HIV proteins used in western blotting can be produced by recombinant DNA in a technique called recombinant immunoblot assay ...
Many imaging techniques can be used to analyze samples of all sizes, from the single molecule to the cellular level in biology ... It has been shown that even small changes in chemical composition and distribution may be an early indicator of disease. ... the actual spectral range over which a particular Raman measurement is made is a function of the laser excitation frequency. ... the spectral signatures of trace components are simply overwhelmed by dilution. In imaging however, each pixel has a ...
Dilution of indoor pollutants with outdoor air is effective to the extent that outdoor air is free of harmful pollutants. Ozone ... One technique to reduce energy consumption while maintaining adequate air quality, is demand controlled ventilation. Instead of ... Carbon dioxide at levels that are unusually high indoors may cause occupants to grow drowsy, to get headaches, or to function ... Indoor CO2 levels are an indicator of the adequacy of outdoor air ventilation relative to indoor occupant density and metabolic ...
With moment functions mt one can apply standard GMM technique to estimate the unknown parameter θ. In this approach two (or ... If x ∗ {\displaystyle x^{*}} is an indicator of a certain event or condition (such as person is male/female, some medical ... an effect which statisticians call attenuation or regression dilution. Thus the 'naїve' least squares estimator is inconsistent ... Here function g can be either parametric or non-parametric. When function g is parametric it will be written as g(x*, β). For a ...
... and covalently bonded wave function - a function describing the electron's position in a three-dimensional space work - the ... indicator - a special compound added to solution that changes color depending on the acidity of the solution; different ... a spectroscopic technique to measure composition of a material yield - the amount of product produced during a chemical ... an electrically conductive solid that is between a conductor and an insulator serial dilution - single bond - sharing of one ...
Other complementary lung functions tests include plethysmography and nitrogen washout. Parameters[edit]. The most common ... Irwin, Richard (2008). Procedures, techniques, and minimally invasive monitoring in intensive care medicine. Philadelphia: ... Functional residual capacity (FRC) cannot be measured via spirometry, but it can be measured with a plethysmograph or dilution ... and FEV1/VC as indicators of obstructive disease.[16][17] ... "Chapter 14.1 Pulmonary Function Testing". ACP Medicine. Decker ...
... techniques without providing evidence that the techniques are significant and efficacious. Even worse, faculty members rarely ... Structure and function are reciprocally interrelated. Rational treatment is based on an understanding of these principles: body ... Unlike MD colleges, where it is widely known that academic faculty members-fearing dilution of quality as well as the prospect ... The survey follows many indicators that osteopathic physicians have become more like M.D. physicians in every respect -few ...
A bioindicator is any species (an "indicator species") or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal the ... Techniques used for MPOG include DNA analysis, simple bug counts after culturing a soil sample in a hydrocarbon based medium or ... lowest dilution factor at which no-significant toxic affect can be measured). Macroinvertebrates are useful and convenient ... A biological indicator is also the name given to a process for assessing the sterility of an environment through the use of ...
Without a properly functioning amygdala, olfactory memories would not be able to form which could put an animal at risk of ... Olfactory memory deficits can be significant indicators of brain damage and pathology.[27] There is evidence to suggest that ... The Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test consists of several pens that hold different scents and different dilutions, and this test ... Techniques used to study implicit olfactory memory are considered to be applicable to both humans and animals.[8] In tests of ...
As such, BMI is a useful indicator of overall fitness for a large group of people, but a poor tool for determining the health ... Skinfold-based body fat estimation is sensitive to the type of caliper used, and technique. This method also only measures one ... Essential body fat is necessary to maintain life and reproductive functions. The percentage of essential body fat for women is ... using the dilution principle with isotopically labeled water) and body volume (either by water displacement or air ...
"Chapter 14.1 Pulmonary Function Testing". ACP Medicine. Decker Intellectual Properties. Retrieved 29 April 2011.. ... Irwin, Richard (2008). Procedures, techniques, and minimally invasive monitoring in intensive care medicine. Philadelphia: ... Functional residual capacity (FRC) cannot be measured via spirometry, but it can be measured with a plethysmograph or dilution ... and FEV1/VC as indicators of obstructive disease.[16][17] ... Other types of lung function tests are available for infants ...
However, other parameters such as the kinetics of the reaction, the sample matrix itself, heats of dilution and losses of heat ... A thermometric titration is one of a number of instrumental titration techniques where endpoints can be located accurately and ... Determination of the acidity of oils using paraformaldehyde as a thermometric end-point indicator. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 13 (5) ... equilibrium constant at temperature T ln is the natural logarithm function In order for a reaction to be amenable to ...
But significant decline of the GFR from a previous test result can be an early indicator of kidney disease requiring medical ... which in this case is isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In late 2009 not all labs in the U.S. had changed over to the ... There are several different techniques used to calculate or estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR or eGFR). The above ... A decreased renal function can be caused by many types of kidney disease. Upon presentation of decreased renal function, it is ...
Tracer dilution method[edit]. The radiotracer dilution method is used to calibrate open channel flow measurements. A solution ... Techniques appropriate for a fixed cross-section of flow in a pipe are not useful in open channels. Measuring flow in waterways ... For example, an orifice plate produces a pressure drop that is a function of the square of the volume rate of flow through the ... The result of a flowmeter calibration will result in two related statistics: a performance indicator metric and a flow rate ...
They firstly need to be re-centralized around the population mean (G), and secondly they need to be re-arranged as functions of ... ISBN 0 19 850440 3. Cochran, William G. (1977). Sampling techniques (Third ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. This is outlined ... successive dilution for each generation between the zygote and the "focus" level of parentage. These same rules apply also to ... Also another correlation is an inbreeding indicator-rA = 2 ft / ( 1 + f(t-1) ), also known as the coefficient of relationship ...
This technique applies market-supported yields (or discount rates) to projected future cash flows (such as annual income ... At present, the Act remains in force and the NZIV is legally a distinct body with statutory functions, powers and duties. PINZ ... From the analysis of the group of adjusted sales prices of the comparable sales, the appraiser selects an indicator of value ... The primary motive for this rule is to prevent trademark dilution. The National Association of Appraisers (NAA) was formed with ...
This technique has some similarity to epidural anaesthesia, and lay people often confuse the two techniques. Important ... A high insertion level may result in sparing of nerve function in the lower spinal nerves. For example, a thoracic epidural may ... Technique[edit]. Procedures involving injection of any substance into the epidural space require the operator to be technically ... Epidural techniques frequently involve injection of drugs through a catheter placed into the epidural space. The injection can ...
For aqueous solutions the pH scale is the most convenient acidity function.[38] Other acidity functions have been proposed for ... The design of a universal indicator requires a mixture of indicators whose adjacent pKa values differ by about two, so that ... This permits a technique called isoelectric focusing,[68] which is used for separation of proteins by 2-D gel polyacrylamide ... Law of dilution. *pCO2. *pH. *Predominance diagram: relates to equilibria involving polyoxyanions. pKa values are needed to ...
... analysis is a method of determining the quantity of chemical substances. In its most simple conception, the method of isotope dilution comprises the addition of known amounts of isotopically-enriched substance to the analyzed sample. Mixing of the isotopic standard with the sample effectively "dilutes" the isotopic enrichment of the standard and this forms the basis for the isotope dilution method. Isotope dilution is classified as a method of internal standardisation, because the standard (isotopically-enriched form of analyte) is added directly to the sample. In addition, unlike traditional analytical methods which rely on signal intensity, isotope dilution employs signal ratios. Owing to both of these advantages, the method of isotope dilution is regarded among chemistry measurement methods of the highest metrological standing. Analytical application of the radiotracer method is forerunner of isotope ...
... (BIA) is a commonly used method for estimating body composition, and in particular body fat. Since the advent of the first commercially available devices in the mid-1980s the method has become popular owing to its ease of use, portability of the equipment. It is familiar in the consumer market as a simple instrument for estimating body fat. BIA actually determines the electrical impedance, or opposition to the flow of an electric current through body tissues which can then be used to estimate total body water (TBW), which can be used to estimate fat-free body mass and, by difference with body weight, body fat. Many of the early research studies showed that BIA was quite variable and it was not regarded by many as providing an accurate measure of body composition. In recent years technological improvements have made BIA a more reliable and therefore more acceptable way of measuring body composition. Nevertheless, it is not a "gold standard" or reference method. ...
... analysis is a method of determining the quantity of chemical substances. In its most simple conception, the method of isotope dilution comprises the addition of known amounts of isotopically-enriched substance to the analyzed sample. Mixing of the isotopic standard with the sample effectively "dilutes" the isotopic enrichment of the standard and this forms the basis for the isotope dilution method. Isotope dilution is classified as a method of internal standardisation, because the standard (isotopically-enriched form of analyte) is added directly to the sample. In addition, unlike traditional analytical methods which rely on signal intensity, isotope dilution employs signal ratios. Owing to both of these advantages, the method of isotope dilution is regarded among chemistry measurement methods of the highest metrological standing. Analytical application of the radiotracer method is forerunner of isotope ...
... s are dogs belonging to two breeds of the spaniel dog type: the American Cocker Spaniel and the English Cocker Spaniel, both of which are commonly called simply Cocker Spaniel in their countries of origin. In the early 20th century, Cocker Spaniels also included small hunting Spaniels. Cocker Spaniels were originally bred as hunting dogs in the United Kingdom, with the term cocker deriving from their use to hunt the Eurasian woodcock. When the breed was brought to the United States, it was bred to a different standard, which enabled it to specialize in hunting the American woodcock. Further physical changes were bred into the cocker in the United States during the early part of the 20th century. Spaniels were first mentioned in the 14th century by Gaston III of Foix-Béarn in his work the Livre de Chasse. The "cocking" or "cocker spaniel" was a type of field or land spaniel in the 19th century. Prior to 1901, Cocker Spaniels were only separated from Field Spaniels and Springer ...
The English Springer Spaniel is a medium-sized compact dog. Its coat is moderately long with feathering on the legs and tail. It is a well proportioned, balanced dog with a gentle expression and a friendly wagging tail. This breed represents perhaps the greatest divergence between working and show lines of any breed of dog. A field-bred dog and a show-bred dog appear to be different breeds, but are registered together. In fact, the gene pools are almost completely segregated and have been for at least 70 years.[3] A field-bred dog would not be competitive in a modern dog show, while a show dog would not have the speed or stamina to succeed in a field trial.[4] The English Springer Spaniel field-bred dogs tend to have shorter, coarser coats than show-bred dogs. The ears are less pendulous. Field-bred dogs are wiry and have more of a feral look than those bred for showing. The tail of the field-bred dog may be docked a few inches in comparison to the show dog. Field-bred dogs are selected for ...
In the eighteenth century in Britain, only two types of terriers were recognized, long- and short-legged.[4] Today, terriers are often informally categorized by size or by function. Hunting-types are still used to find, track, or trail quarry, especially underground, and sometimes to bolt the quarry. Modern examples include the Jack Russell Terrier, Rat Terrier and the Patterdale Terrier. There are also the short-legged terriers such as the Cairn Terrier, Scottish Terrier, and West Highland White Terrier which were also used to kill small vermin. The original hunting terriers include the fell terrier-breeds developed in northern England to assist in the killing of foxes-and the hunt terrier-breeds developed in southern England to locate, kill or bolt foxes during a traditional mounted fox hunt. The various combinations of bulldog and terrier that were used for bull-baiting and dog-fighting in the late nineteenth century, were later refined into separate breeds that combined both terrier and ...
The Golden Retriever is a large-sized breed of dog bred as gun dogs to retrieve shot waterfowl such as ducks and upland game birds during hunting and shooting parties, and were named 'retriever' because of their ability to retrieve shot game undamaged. Golden Retrievers have an instinctive love of water, and are easy to train to basic or advanced obedience standards. They are a long-coated breed, with a dense inner coat that provides them with adequate warmth in the outdoors, and an outer coat that lies flat against their bodies and repels water. Golden Retrievers are well suited to residency in suburban or country environments. Although they need substantial outdoor exercise, they should be housed in a fenced area because of their instinctual tendency to roam. They shed copiously, particularly at the change of seasons, and require fairly regular grooming. The breed is a prominent participant in conformation shows for purebred dogs. The Golden Retriever is popular as a disability assistance dog ...
The Irish Wolfhound (Irish: Cú Faoil, Irish pronunciation: [ˈkuː ˈfˠiːlʲ]) is a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), specifically a very large sighthound from Ireland. The name originates from its purpose-wolf hunting with dogs-rather than from its appearance. Originally developed from war hounds to one used for hunting and guarding, Irish Wolfhounds can be an imposing sight due to their formidable size. The breed is very old; there are suggestions it may have been brought to Ireland as early as 7000 BC. These dogs are mentioned, as cú (variously translated as hound, Irish hound, war dog, wolf dog, etc.) in Irish laws and in Irish literature which dates from the 5th century or, in the case of the Sagas, from the old Irish period - AD 600-900. The word "Cu" often became an added respected prefix on the names of warriors as well as kings denoting that they were worthy of the respect and loyalty of a Cu. Ancient woodcuts[citation needed] and writings have placed them in existence ...
The dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) is a part of the major hisocompatability complex (MHC) in dogs, encoding genes in the MHC. The DLA and MHC system are interchangeable terms in canines. The MHC plays a critical role in the immune response system and consists of three regions: class I, class II and class III. DLA genes belong to the first two classes, which are involved in the regulation of antigens in the immune system. The class II genes are highly polymorphic, with many different alleles/haplotypes that have been linked to diseases, allergies, and autoimmune conditions such as diabetes, polyarthritus, and hypothyroidism in canines. There are likely hundreds of immunologically relevant genes making up the DLA region in the canine genome; as of the present date the complete characteristics of the gene is unknown. MHC genes represent candidates for disease susceptibility in canines; some alleles promote protection against immune-mediated diseases and some increase susceptibility. For example, ...
The misconception that the Miniature Pinscher is a "miniature Doberman" occurred because the Doberman Pinscher (a breed developed by Karl Friedrich Louis Dobermann around 1890) was introduced to the U.S. before the Miniature Pinscher. In 1919, the Miniature Pinscher was introduced to the AKC show ring. At the time, not knowing that it was referred to officially in Germany as the Zwergpinscher (little biter), the AKC referred to the breed as simply "Pinscher" and listed it in the miscellaneous category. When the Miniature Pinscher Club of America (MPCA) was created in 1929 (the year of the breed's official introduction into the AKC), they petitioned for Miniature Pinschers to be placed in the Toy group. The AKC's description, that the dog "must appear as a Doberman in miniature," led to the misconception common today that this breed is a "Miniature Doberman Pinscher." The original name for this breed in the U.S. was "Pinscher (Toy)" until 1972 when the name was officially changed to Miniature ...
The history of the Pointer, like many breeds, is a reasonably debatable topic.[5] Records of Pointers in England trace as far back as 1650.[5] According to one source, the Pointer came to be in the 16th and 17th centuries, when pointing breeds, including the Old Spanish and Portuguese pointer, were brought from the European mainland to England.[6] Through both history and anatomical evaluation, at least four breeds appear to have been instrumental in Pointer crosses: Greyhounds, Foxhounds, Bloodhounds, and Bull Terriers.[5] Each of these were established breeds with unique qualities the Pointer could use to do its job.[5] Pointers were brought to the United States, where the breed flourished in the abundant open hunting land. At that time (late 1800s), the Setter was considered to be the bird-hunting dog and pointers were not even permitted to compete in field trials with setters. Around 1910, however, the Pointer began to beat the Setter at its own game. The Pointer has dominated the pointing ...
They can easily learn to 'Respect and Protect' their owners and are therefore considered by many to be excellent guard dogs. Given that they are properly socialized from a young age, they are generally sociable toward familiar humans and can also be sociable with other dogs. However, Dobermanns do rank among the more-likely breeds to show aggressive behaviour toward strangers and other dogs, though they are not among the most likely to do so. They are highly unlikely to show aggressive behaviour toward their owners. There is some evidence that Doberman Pinschers in North America have a calmer and more even temperament than their European counterparts because of the breeding strategies employed by American breeders.[19] Because of these differences in breeding strategies, different lines of Doberman Pinschers have developed different traits. Although many contemporary Doberman Pinschers in North America are gentle and friendly to strangers, however, some lines are bred more true to the original ...
The Basset Hound is a short-legged breed of dog of the hound family. The Basset is a scent hound that was originally bred for the purpose of hunting hare. Their sense of smell and ability to ground-scent is second only to that of the Bloodhound. Basset Hounds are one of 6 recognised basset-type breeds in France. The name Basset is derived from the French word bas, meaning "low", with the attenuating suffix -et, together meaning "rather low". Basset Hounds are usually bicolours or tricolours of standard hound colouration. Bassets are large, short, solid and long, with curved sabre tails held high over their long backs. An adult dog weighs between 20 and 35 kilograms (44 and 77 lb). This breed, relative to size, is heavier-boned than any other. This breed, like its ancestor the Bloodhound, has a hanging skin structure, which causes the face to occasionally look sad; this, for many people, adds to the breed's charm. The dewlap, seen as the loose, elastic skin around the neck, and the trailing ears ...
Cardiac function after intermittent antegrade warm blood cardioplegia: contribution of the double-indicator dilution technique ... Cardiac function after intermittent antegrade warm blood cardioplegia: contribution of the double-indicator dilution technique ... Home» Cardiac function after intermittent antegrade warm blood cardioplegia: contribution of the double-indicator dilution ... End-diastolic volume measurement with the double-indicator technique allows differentiation between systolic and diastolic ...
Heart Function Tests / methods*. Humans. Indicator Dilution Techniques. Models, Theoretical. Oxygen Consumption / physiology*. ... In this review on cardiac output methods used in pharmacology, the Fick principle, indicator dilution techniques, arterial ... Previous Document: Manometric evaluation of oral function with a hand-held balloon probe.. Next Document: Functional biomarkers ...
1998) Probing the structure and function of the liver with the multiple indicator dilution technique. in Whole Organ Approach ... 1992) The function of Gp170, the multidrug-resistance gene product, in the brush border of rat intestinal mucosa. ... and muscularis-with each contributing to one of three functions of the small intestine, absorption, secretion, and motility ( ...
... or sequential recording of cardiac output parameters is limited to pulse contour analysis and indicator-dilution techniques [2 ... has proven a useful tool to identify reversible causes of shock and to monitor left and right ventricular function [20]. ... A ratio , 0.6 is used as indicator of right ventricular dysfunction. The collapsibility of the superior vena cava (SVC) is ... Additional hemodynamic monitoring modalities are restricted to techniques routinely used at the study center (central venous ...
Intravascular indicators are stimulated, and emissions patterns detected for computation of cardiac output, cardiac index, ... blood volume and other indicators of cardiovascular health. ... The theory of indicator dilution technique predicts that the ... A system for evaluating the cardiovascular system parameters using indicator dilution and non-invasive or minimally invasive ... In one embodiment, a non-invasive dye indicator dilution method may be used to evaluate cardiovascular function function. Many ...
Techniques such as the indicator dilution method (12) and PET have provided important insights into the regulation of cerebral ... Both rely on glucose for the maintenance of normal function, but the rates at which they metabolize glucose have been found to ... To address this question, we used the novel technique of high-field 1H-MRS and, for the first time, directly and noninvasively ... Using this technique, we demonstrated that the infusion of insulin during constant hyperglycemia was without effect on brain ...
... changes can be detected after in vivo chemotherapy treatment using our fluorescent multiple indicator dilution technique, and ... There was a significant decline in cardiac function with a deleterious effect of chemotherapy on fractional shortening (p , ... Indicator dilution estimation of capillary endothelial transport. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 48:321-334, 1986.PubMedCentralPubMed ... On the theory of the indicator-dilution method for measurement of blood flow and volume. J. Appl. Physiol. 6(12):731-744, 1954. ...
These techniques are based on the indicator-dilution methods originally introduced a century ago by Stewart (138) and further ... For these purposes, it may not be necessary for an fMRI technique to provide quantitative index of function, but the technique ... Zeirler KL. Theoretical basis of indicator-dilution methods for measuring flow and volume. Circ Res 10: 393-407, 1962. ... Renal Excretory Function by Dynamic Contrast Enhancement Techniques. Like inulin and iodinated contrast agents, Gd chelates are ...
... techniques for measuring cardiac output and will study in detail one class of techniques known as indicator dilution techniques ... Cardiovascular System A. Function B. Structures C. Distribution of Cardiac Output D. Regulation III. Technique of Dye Dilution ... MATLAB Function and Example E. Example IX. Thermal Dilution and Swan-Ganz Catheter Study Problems and Solutions ... we will introduce details of the technique of dye-dilution for measuring cardiac output. We will then study the basic ...
Respiratory and cardiopulmonary function was measured using indicator-dilution technique with CVP and invasive BP monitoring 18 ... Cardiac parameters post diazepam in normal patients (Pts with abnormal lung function had similar or less marked findings). ... Haloperidol produces trivial effects on haemodynamic function. Review is essentially expert opinion rather than systematic ... patients has moderate to severe obstructive lung disease received mean 34mg diazepam 18 patients with normal lung function ...
Probing the structure and function of the liver with the multiple indicator dilution technique, in Whole Organ Approach to ... In vivo techniques exist for the study of intestinal drug absorption. The Doluisio method entails use of an in situ rat gut ... Magee DF and Dalley AF II (1986) Digestion and The Structure and Function of The Gut (Karger Continuing Education Series, vol. ... Hsing S, Gatmaitan Z, and Arias IM (1992) The function of Gp170, the multidrug-resistance gene product, in the brush border of ...
The functional residual capacity was measured using a nitrogen dilution technique. Results: High EA abolished activity in the ... The functional residual capacity was measured using a nitrogen dilution technique. Results: High EA abolished activity in the ... The functional residual capacity was measured using a nitrogen dilution technique. Results: High EA abolished activity in the ... The functional residual capacity was measured using a nitrogen dilution technique. Results: High EA abolished activity in the ...
Model-free deconvolution techniques for estimating vascular transport functions. Int J Biomed Comput 1983;14:411-429. ... On the theory of the indicator-dilution method for measurement of blood flow and volume. J Appl Physiol 1954;6:731-744. ... Bassingthwaighte JB, Chinard FP, Crone C, Lassen NA, Perl W. Definitions and terminology for indicator dilution methods. In: ... Pitfalls in digital computation of the impulse response of vascular beds from indicator dilution curves. Circ Res 1973;32:516- ...
Sampling - preservation techniques, online sampling, and record keeping. Laboratory Instruments - practical use ranges, ... Chemical Use - reagents, standards, indicators, purpose and use, chemical quality and properties, avoidance of contamination, ... Weights and Concentrations - care and analytical balances, mathematical conversions among concentration units, dilutions and ... including function, concentration and instructions for preparation, procedural steps, calculations and notes on possible ...
Indicator Dilution Techniques Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 Skin Cell Adhesion Molecules ... directed to autologous tumor was documented in peripheral blood by a high-efficiency limiting dilution analysis technique ... directed to autologous tumor was documented in peripheral blood by a high-efficiency limiting dilution analysis technique ... directed to autologous tumor was documented in peripheral blood by a high-efficiency limiting dilution analysis technique ...
... as the indicator strain, using the double-layer technique as described in Materials and Methods. The test strains included R6 ( ... Four loss-of-function 2306 mutants were generated by insertion duplication mutagenesis in the following single genes: (i) the ... To screen for bacteriocin activity, 50-μl aliquots of an appropriate dilution in saline of an early-exponential-phase S. ... The TIGR4 strain showed no activity against any of the indicator strains other than M. luteus and L. lactis. This suggests that ...
... and its low-molecular-weight metabolites in perfused rat livers were studied using the multiple-indicator dilution technique, a ... Equation 1in which f̂y (s) denotes the inverse Laplace transform of the transit-time density function of a solute in the liver ... 1999) The multiple indicator-dilution method for the study of enzyme heterogeneity in liver: theoretical basis. Drug Metab ... Under the assumption that diffusion in hepatocytes is a rate-limiting function and only the unbound drug is diffusing, Eq. 3 ...
Indicator-Dilution Studies: Indocyanine Green permits recording of the indicator-dilution curves for both diagnostic and ... Sterile techniques should be used in handling the dye solution as well as in the performance of the dilution curves. ... Hepatic Function Studies: Due to its absorption spectrum, changing concentrations of Indocyanine Green in the blood can be ... To quantitate the dilution curves, standard dilutions of Indocyanine Green in whole blood are made as follows: It is strongly ...
Major metabolic indicators. Anthropometric data were measured for all individuals. Blood pressure was measured using a ... The reproducibility of the technique has been previously reported (20). The CV of the baseline measurement was 14.1% and during ... The assay is linear on dilution with undisturbed recovery of the analyte. EDTA, heparin, and citrate plasma samples are stable ... Behrendt D, Ganz P: Endothelial function: from vascular biology to clinical applications. Am J Cardiol 90:40L-48L, 2002. ...
... which would require an indicatordilution technique, our findings imply a net uptake of receptor bound endothelin in the heart ... Thus, ET-1 plasma concentration seems to be a more sensitive indicator of deteriorated myocardial function than baseline ... 1996) Endogenous endothelin-1 participates in the maintainance of cardiac function in rats with congestive heart failure. ... Cardiac output was determined by thermodilution technique in triplicate and cardiac index was calculated in regard to body ...
The automatic analysis approach proposed is based on the indicator-dilution theory introduced in 1954. First, a robust method ... Dynamic programming technique was applied to the transformed 2-D image for delineating the "optimal" contour of the breast. The ... The E* values are then computed as a function of local ventricular wall strain. We found that E* in the IDCM group (40.66 - ... The presence of Microcalcifications (MC) is an important indicator for developing breast cancer. Additional indicators for ...
... was measured twice daily by a technique using simultaneous dye and thermal indicator dilution measurements (COLD Z-021, Pulsion ... We suppose that the incidence of milder courses with transient impairment of lung function is much higher, as has been shown by ... They found no relation between L-selectin expression and postoperative lung function. Galinanes et al. [23] found no effect of ... However, the effect of CPB on leukocyte function is probably more important than the count alone. To assess CPB-dependent ...
50] Meier P., Zierler K.L. On the Theory of the Indicator-Dilution Method for Measurement of Blood Flow and Volume. Journal of ... PD can reconstruct reliable and physiological residue functions. The residue functions obtained using PD present very small and ... 95] Zierler K.L. Theoretical Basis of Indicator-Dilution Methods for Measuring Flow and Volume. Circulation Research 10: 393- ... is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize the anatomical structures and the functions of the body. Thanks ...
Measurement of regional extravascular lung water using the double indicator-dilution isotope technique. ... Precisely how Spo11 and its accessory proteins function or are regulated is generic cialis unclear. Finite element model ... Double opposing rectangular advancement technique elongates a tension line as much as Z-plasty in the rat inguinal skin. ...
The pressure monitor may estimate a velocity-time function as a function of the measured pressures and identified times, and ... The pressure monitor may control a delivery of therapy by an implantable medical device as a function of the stroke volume or ... The pressure monitor may also calculate an estimated velocity-time integral directly as a function of the measured pressures ... as a function of a pressure in the heart. A pressure monitor may measure pressure values, and identify the times at which ...
  • The constantly growing number of available genome sequences enables searches of genes and gene clusters involved in the production of bacteriocins, facilitating genetic analysis of their regulation and function. (asm.org)
  • Occipital eye field area is concerned with integration and regulation of sexual functions in adult. (euskalmusika.com)
  • Techniques addressed include dynamic susceptibility contrast (which most simply and accurately estimates CBV), arterial spin labeling (a powerful method to measure CBF), and contrast-enhanced methods to derive permeability parameters such as the transport constant K trans . (ajnr.org)
  • Knap (2000) showed that the Gompertz function can be used to estimate these parameters. (wcgalp.org)
  • Therefore, the objectives of this study were to obtain indicator cuts for protein deposition and lipid deposition rate and to obtain parameters for maximum protein and lipid deposition estimated by using nonlinear Gompertz function, which can be used for selection to optimise feed intake curve based on a biological model. (wcgalp.org)
  • Furthermore, the parameters of PICOO obtained at 2-4 s could better reflect cardiac function of patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a previous study, we have investigated the acute effects of the IV loading of Mg on the pulmonary function parameters of stable COPD patients (17). (scielo.br)
  • Invasive methods to measure intracerebral glucose concentrations, such as the use of an implanted equilibrium dialysis probe, have been reported in abstract form ( 11 ), but such a technique is not acceptable in the study of normal human physiology. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A method and apparatus for determining right heart ejection fraction by injecting a cold indicator into the right ventricle or locations in the heart upstream thereof during an injection period and allowing the indicator to be diluted with blood and flow to the pulmonary artery whereby the temperature. (google.com)
  • 2. An apparatus as defined in claim 1 wherein said measuring means includes a temperature sensor carried by a catheter having a known approximate percent response to temperature change as a function of time, and said ejection fraction determining means is further responsive to the known approximate percent response of the temperature sensor as carried by the catheter for determining ejection fraction. (google.com)
  • 5. A system according to claim 4, wherein said processor means generates said control signals to impart a selected one of impulse, step and ramp functions to predetermined ones of said desired temperature and said desired flow rate to enhance measurement of said cardiac output. (patentgenius.com)
  • In this work, we examined the relationship between the hepatic pharmacokinetics of unchanged palmitate and its low-molecular-weight metabolites in perfused rat liver using the multiple indicator dilution (MID) technique and a selective assay for unchanged [ 3 H]palmitate and its low-molecular-weight metabolites. (physiology.org)
  • New products and gender-adjusted logistic regression analyses, such as radiography, mascara, diabetes (OR 2.71), sonography, and the function of alternatives such as to potentially causative agents and the aspirin-intolerant asthmatic includes the capacity to be screened for the development of everolimus were correlated with GHD short stature, isoniazid-induced liver injury was more common in the diagnostic formulation. (secureserver.net)
  • There are slight variations in the liver function profile in 21% to 60% of cases of patients with typhoid fever (1). (scielo.org.co)
  • Precisely how Spo11 and its accessory proteins function or are regulated is generic cialis unclear. (carrysmall.fun)
  • The primary function of fibrinogen is to work with thrombocytes in the formation of a blood clot-a process also aided by one of the most abundant of the lesser proteins, and this shows that ratings have a highly significant inverse impact on the spread. (reliablebinaryoption.com)
  • Antepartum surveillance with biochemical means, such as estriol determinations, or biophysical techniques such as antepartum fetal heart rate testing and ultrasound, allows maintenance of the fetus in utero safely in the majority of cases. (healio.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to compare two different percutaneous image-guided techniques: transhepatic ultrasound guided portal vein access and transsplenic fluoroscopy guided splenic vein access for ease of access, safety, and evaluation of temporal kinetics of insulin and zinc release into the venous effluent from the pancreas. (hindawi.com)
  • The amount of the onset or other extracorporeal dialytic therapies including continuous renal replacement therapies (eg, anticholinergics, or modified acid fast staining, midazolam, a tracking system for the use of slow acetylators in improving suboptimal prescribing and arterial diazepam uk cheap kamagra pressure, and hepatic function. (secureserver.net)
  • Clinically, facial appearance is an important indicator in diagnosing Down syndrome and it paves the way for computer-aided diagnosis based on facial image analysis. (spie.org)
  • By 60 second binary option indicators that the process is exactly in state i, the expected first hitting time does not increase according to Lemma 3. (4gamers-market.ru)
  • Another worker 4 used serial binary dilutions of amyl acetate and nitrobenzene to determine the olfactory acuity of 40 patients with multiple sclerosis. (bmj.com)
  • Applications and techniques in areas such as molecular biology, drug discovery, microbiology, immunology and other research disciplines utilizing high throughput screening procedures have have heightened the demand for highly accurate and precise multichannel pipettes. (labmanager.com)
  • This degree provides a broad survey of the various biological disciplines but with a focus on modern molecular techniques. (kent.ac.uk)
  • However, both microbiological and molecular techniques have defined CF lower airway infections as polymicrobial ( 9 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Among them all, we focus on a recently proposed method, the Nonlinear Stochastic Regularization (NSR), that accounts for both the smoothness and the non-negativity constraint of the residue function. (unipd.it)
  • The pressure monitor may control a delivery of therapy by an implantable medical device as a function of the stroke volume or cardiac output. (google.com)
  • 7. The device of claim 1 , wherein the processor identifies a pressure value at a time of valve opening and a peak pressure value as a function of the pressure signal, and wherein the processor calculates the change in the pressure as a difference between the peak pressure value and the pressure value at the time of valve opening. (google.com)
  • 9. The device of claim 8 , wherein the processor generates a differential signal that is representative of the first derivative of the pressure signal as a function of the pressure signal, and wherein the point of maximum positive slope of the pressure signal is a point of the pressure signal corresponding to a point of the differential signal where a maximum value of the differential signal occurs. (google.com)
  • 11. The device of claim 1 , wherein the processor estimates velocity data as a function of the change in pressure, and determines the rate as a function of the velocity data. (google.com)
  • 12. The device of claim 11 , wherein the processor integrates the velocity data and determines the rate as a function of a result of the integration. (google.com)
  • 13. The device of claim 11 , wherein the processor calculates a peak velocity as a function of the pressure signal, and estimates velocity data as a function of the peak velocity. (google.com)
  • The SIA technique is an evolution of the FIA technique, in which selected portions of liquids can be retained and mixed by employing a bidirectional pumping device [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Device using indicator dilution technique to measure blood flow from heart. (medwow.com)
  • Given the mandatory incision for extraction, and peercocet potential advantages of hand- assisted technique, hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is appealing.1993. (design-citi.ru)
  • Reassembly of multiple genomes has provided insight into energy and nutrient cycling within the community, genome structure, gene function, population genetics and microheterogeneity, and lateral gene transfer among members of an uncultured community. (asm.org)
  • Leveraging modern DNA assembly techniques for rapid, markerless genome modification Tikh, Ilya B.;Samuelson, James C. 2016-12-27 00:00:00 The ability to alter the genomic material of a prokaryotic cell is necessary for experiments designed to define the biology of the organism. (deepdyve.com)
  • The FIA assay resembles the radio-immunoassay (RIA) in technique and sensitivity without the potential health hazards associated with the handling of isotopes in the laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic kidney disease and declining renal function cause end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which is an important health concern for individuals with hypertension and diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, linkage studies have also been conducted to map loci that influence variation in renal function, using data from various ethnic groups and several measures of GFR such as serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, creatinine clearance, and formulae estimating GFR (Cockcroft-Gault [GFR-CG] and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [GFR-MDRD] study equations) ( 12 - 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 16 16 MATERIAL AND METHODS Helium gas dilution technique Tests performed during assisted control ventilation before, after surgery and in spontaneous breathing At least 3 acceptable maneuvers for each test. (docplayer.net)
  • These findings suggest that the new sinogram binning and kinetic modeling methods produce reliable cardiac function measures suitable for longitudinal monitoring of cardiovascular function. (springeropen.com)
  • Different methods can be used for measuring protein and lipid deposition rate on live animals (e.g. deuterium dilution technique, magnetic resonance tomography (MRT)) or on slaughter animals in a serial slaughter trial with the entire body chemically analysed. (wcgalp.org)