Retrovirally encoded accessary proteins that play an essential role VIRUS REPLICATION. They are found in the cytoplasm of host cells and associate with a variety of host cell proteins. Vif stands for "virion infectivity factor".
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).
Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.
An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.
Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A non-DNA binding transcription factor that is a subunit of core binding factor. It forms heterodimeric complexes with CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS, and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
A family of structurally related proteins that were originally discovered for their role in cell-cycle regulation in CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. They play important roles in regulation of the CELL CYCLE and as components of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce immunodeficiencies in primates, including humans.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the HIV-1 regulatory protein vpu (viral protein U) that greatly increases the export of virus particles from infected cells. The vpu genes are not present in HIV-2 or SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The function of the auxiliary gene vif is not fully known. The vif gene product, a 29 kDa protein, induces a weak immune ... An auxiliary gene, vif (viral infectivity factor), is also encoded. However, the number and role of auxiliary genes varies by ... The pol gene encodes five enzymatic functions: a reverse transcriptase, RNase H, dUTPase, integrase, and protease. The reverse ... The visna virus genome resembles that of other lentiviruses, in terms of the gene functions that are present. Visna virus is ...
She described the first active clones of HIV and discovered the functions of several HIV genes including tat, nef and vif. In T ... including determining the function of several genes in HIV and describing the importance of a gene's location within the cell ... cohesion function in gene expression and genome organisation with Ikaros family transcription factors (TFs). Fisher conducts ... It also provided the basis for dissecting the molecular function of each of the viral genes and for developing DNA-based ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... Coux O, Tanaka K, Goldberg AL (1996). "Structure and functions of the 20S and 26S proteasomes". Annual Review of Biochemistry. ... The gene PSMC6 encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like ... The human gene PSMC6 has 15 exons and locates at chromosome band 14q22.1. The human protein 26S protease regulatory subunit ...
An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene ... "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... The gene PSMC1 encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... The human PSMD1 gene has 25 exons and locates at chromosome band 2q37.1. The human protein 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory ...
An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene ... "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... Gene. 203 (2): 241-50. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00524-6. PMID 9426256. "Entrez Gene: PSMD12 proteasome (prosome, macropain) ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... The PSMA4 gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. The gene has 9 exons and locates ... Gene Structure and Expression. 1089 (1): 95-102. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(91)90090-9. PMID 2025653. "Entrez Gene: PSMA4 proteasome ...
An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene ... "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. II. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0041-KIAA0080) ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... The CP and RPs pertain distinct structural characteristics and biological functions. In brief, 20S sub complex presents three ... directed cDNA library improves analysis of gene expression". Gene. 146 (2): 199-207. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90293-3. PMID ... The gene PSMC4 encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. III. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0081-KIAA0120) ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene ... "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... The gene has 7 exons and locates at chromosome band 1q21. The human protein proteasome subunit beta type-2 is 23 kDa in size ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PSMD2 gene. The gene PSMD2 encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator base ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The ... PSME3 human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser. PSME3 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser. v t e. ... "Characterization of the mouse PA28 activator complex gene family: complete organizations of the three member genes and a ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... The gene PSMB3 encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit ... The gene has 6 exons and locates at chromosome band 17q12. The human protein proteasome subunit beta type-3 is 23 kDa in size ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... site shared by the HIV-1 Tat protein and the 11S regulator subunit alpha is crucial for their effects on proteasome function ... "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. II. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0041-KIAA0080) ... "Entrez Gene: PSME4 proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 4". Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a novel ...
An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The gene PSMB2 ... "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... Gene Structure and Expression. 1219 (2): 361-8. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(94)90060-4. PMID 7918633. "Entrez Gene: PSMB2 proteasome ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... The gene PSMA2 encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Using FISH, the human gene HC3 ( ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... The gene PSMA5 encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. The gene has 9 exons and locates ... "Entrez Gene: PSMA5 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 5". "Entrez Gene: PSMA4 proteasome (prosome, macropain ...
An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The gene PSMB1 ... "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... This gene is tightly linked to the TBP (TATA-binding protein) gene in human and in mouse, and is transcribed in the opposite ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ...
The tas gene, however, is required for replication. It encodes a protein that functions in transactivating the long terminal ... Recently, a novel mechanism was reported where foamy virus accessory protein Bet (unlike HIV-1 Vif) impaired the cytoplasmic ... The genome encodes the usual retroviral genes pol, gag, and env as well as two additional genes tas or bel-1 and bet. The role ... The structural genes of FV are another one of its unique features. The Gag protein is not efficiently cleaved into the mature ...
They may also have additional accessory genes depending on the virus (e.g., for HIV-1: vif, vpr, vpu, nef) whose products are ... involved in regulation of synthesis and processing viral RNA and other replicative functions. The Long terminal repeat (LTR) is ... Protease PR encoded by the pro gene (part of pol gene in some viruses). dUTPase DU encoded by the pro gene (part of pol gene in ... Enzymes: Reverse transcriptase RT encoded by the pol gene. Protein size 66000 Da. Integrase IN also encoded by the pol gene. ...
An additional short ORF termed orfA (also known as orf2) precedes the env gene. The function of OrfA in viral replication is ... It has the typical genomic structure of retroviruses and includes LTR, vif, pol, gag, orfA, env, and rev genes. The Gag ... On the contrary, env, vif, orfa, and rev are the least conserved and exhibit the most genetic diversity among FIV strains. The ... Like HIV-1, FIV has been engineered into a viral vector for gene therapy. Like other lentiviral vectors, FIV vectors integrate ...
An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The human gene ... "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... The gene PSMB6 encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit ...
An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene ... "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... "Entrez Gene: PSMF1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) inhibitor subunit 1 (PI31)". Goff SP (Aug 2003). "Death by deamination: a ... Proteasome inhibitor PI31 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSMF1 gene. The 26S proteasome is a ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon, and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit beta2 (proteasome ... This gene PSMB10 encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta ...
HIV-2 and SIV encode an additional Vpr related protein called Vpx which functions in association with Vpr. vif - Vif is a ... tev: This gene is only present in a few HIV-1 isolates. It is a fusion of parts of the tat, env, and rev genes, and codes for a ... genes unique to HIV. The HIV genome contains nine genes that encode fifteen viral proteins. These are synthesized as ... The gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus, and pol provides the basic mechanism by which ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... While it is thought that APOBEC3G functions as a dimer, it is possible that it actually functions as a mix of monomers and ... appears to be particularly important for APOBEC3G interactions with Vif because a D128K point mutation prevents Vif-dependent ... Vif interacts with APOBEC3G and triggers the ubiquitination and degradation of APOBEC3G via the proteasomal pathway. On the ...
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF216 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNF216 gene. This gene encodes a cytoplasmic ... The encoded protein may also function as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase which accepts ubiquitin from E2 ubiquitin-conjugating ... 2003). "The role of Vif during HIV-1 infection: interaction with novel host cellular factors". J. Clin. Virol. 26 (2): 143-52. ... 1994). "The addition of 5'-coding information to a 3'-directed cDNA library improves analysis of gene expression". Gene. 146 (2 ...
In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1.[1][2] Tat is a regulatory protein that ... Function and mechanism[edit]. Like other lentiviruses, HIV-1 encodes a trans-activating regulatory protein (Tat), which is ... Tat then binds to cellular factors and mediates their phosphorylation, resulting in increased transcription of all HIV genes,[4 ... Genes,+tat at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Gene cloning also confirmed that IFN-α was encoded by a family of many related genes.[59] The type II IFN (IFN-γ) gene was also ... FunctionEdit. All interferons share several common effects: they are antiviral agents and they modulate functions of the immune ... They described these observations in a 1959 publication, naming the responsible factor viral inhibitory factor (VIF).[47] It ... elements in gene promoters.[17] Type I IFNs can induce expression of genes with either ISRE or GAS elements, but gene induction ...
... s, like many other viral proteins, can exert different functions during the course of the infection. For ... early gene expression and immune evasion. ...
The six remaining genes, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu (or vpx in the case of HIV-2), are regulatory genes for proteins that ... In HIV-1 and SIVcpz, nef does not inhibit T-cell activation and it has lost this function. Without this function, T cell ... vif, vpr, vpu, and sometimes a tenth tev, which is a fusion of tat, env and rev), encoding 19 proteins. Three of these genes, ... This virus has also lost a function of the nef gene that is present in most SIVs. For non-pathogenic SIV variants, nef ...
Malignancies could be developed through loss of function mutation directly at the tumor suppressor gene, increased activity of ... "N-terminal hemagglutinin tag renders lysine-deficient APOBEC3G resistant to HIV-1 Vif-induced degradation by reduced ... Another gene that is a target of gene amplification is SKP2. SKP2 is an F-box protein that roles in substrate recognition for ... The BRCA1 gene is another tumor suppressor gene in human which encodes the BRCA1 protein that is involved in response to DNA ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. As a component ...
"Characterization of the mouse PA28 activator complex gene family: complete organizations of the three member genes and a ... An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". J. Virol. ... This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the 11S regulator, one of the two 11S subunits that is induced by gamma-interferon. ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... The gene PSMD4 encodes one of the non-ATPase subunits of the 19S regulator base, subunit Rpn10. Pseudogenes have been ...
... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... The gene PMSA6 encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. A pseudogene has been identified ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
This gene is a member of the cytidine deaminase gene family. It is one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster ... 2003). "Species-specific exclusion of APOBEC3G from HIV-1 virions by Vif". Cell. 114 (1): 21-31. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03) ... 2006). "APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B are potent inhibitors of LTR-retrotransposon function in human cells". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (1 ... This gene along with APOBEC3A have been in recent years found associated with mutagenesis of several cancers. The APOBEC3A and ...
RETRO VIRAL GENES • Tat The Trans activator gene influences the function of genes some distance away. • Rav The differential ... RETRO VIRAL GENESvif • The virus infectivity factor gene required for infectivity • nef • The negative regulator factor ... GENES IN HIV 1 AND HIV 2 • vpu • Virus protein U gene is required for efficient viral replication • Found only in HIV-1 • vpx ... The virus protein X gene has an undetermined function. • It is found only in HIV-2 ...
... and the function of Vif had been a mystery for a long time. However, the research on Vif has finally lead to the identification ... and the function of Vif had been a mystery for a long time. However, the research on Vif has finally lead to the identification ... We still have many questions on Vif and APOBEC3 and should continue to work on these proteins in the future in order to better ... We still have many questions on Vif and APOBEC3 and should continue to work on these proteins in the future in order to better ...
In this paper, we will review the interaction of the lentiviral Vif proteins with the APOBEC3 proteins, with an emphasis on ... These inhibitors are counteracted by the Vif proteins encoded by most lentiviruses. ... sheep APOBEC3 and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif. ... Studies on the Vif proteins may unravel novel functions in ... The A3 genes are located between two conserved flanking genes, CBX6 and CBX7 [36]. The A3 genes vary in number among species, ...
... the HIV-1 sequence must be compatible with both the requirements for optimum Vif levels and for integrase function. Thus, the ... vif mRNA is also present in low abundance in HIV-1-infected cells. Regulation of vif mRNA splicing may be important to maintain ... We next analyzed Vif expression in cells transfected with the double mutants. We determined vif mRNA levels by qRT-PCR (Fig. 7B ... Down mutations of 5′ss D2 decrease exon 2 inclusion and levels of vif mRNA and Vif protein expression.To test the role of the ...
Exhibits antiviral activity against Vif-deficient HIV-1 (PubMed:15152192, PubMed:23001005). After the penetration of retroviral ... May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression through the process of active DNA demethylation. ... Cited for: FUNCTION IN HIV-1 INFECTIVITY, INTERACTION WITH HIV-1 VIF, MUTAGENESIS OF GLU-251; LEU-255; PHE-258; CYS-259; 262- ... Cited for: FUNCTION IN HIV-1 INFECTIVITY, INTERACTION WITH HIV-1 VIF, MUTAGENESIS OF GLU-251; LEU-255; PHE-258; CYS-259; 262- ...
The function of the auxiliary gene vif is not fully known. The vif gene product, a 29 kDa protein, induces a weak immune ... An auxiliary gene, vif (viral infectivity factor), is also encoded. However, the number and role of auxiliary genes varies by ... The pol gene encodes five enzymatic functions: a reverse transcriptase, RNase H, dUTPase, integrase, and protease. The reverse ... The visna virus genome resembles that of other lentiviruses, in terms of the gene functions that are present. Visna virus is ...
What are the 4 accessory proteins/genes on the HIV genome? nef. vpr. vpu. vif As a group, remove restriction factors that host ... Which cells can HIV target to change function and create immune deficiency? ...
... help/gene_ontology target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>GO - Molecular functioni. *ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW ... vif. P12504. 2. EBI-1384105,EBI-779991. From Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B (isolate NY5). ... help/gene_ontology target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>GO - Molecular functioni. *protein heterodimerization activity Source: Ensembl ... www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">Function,/a> section).,p>,a href=/help/subunit_structure target=_top>More...,/a>,/ ...
tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, vpu: Each of these genes codes for a single protein with the same names; see Tat, Rev, Nef, Vif, Vpr, ... Protein function. Gag. *These proteins are encoded by the gag gene, and provide structural elements of the virus. ... Vif. *Stands for "Viral infectivity factor". Vif is a 23-kilodalton protein that is essential for viral replication.[12] Vif ... tev: This gene is only present in a few HIV-1 isolates. It is a fusion of parts of the tat, env, and rev genes, and codes for a ...
An additional short ORF termed orfA (also known as orf2) precedes the env gene. The function of OrfA in viral replication is ... It has the typical genomic structure of retroviruses and includes LTR, vif, pol, gag, orfA, env, and rev genes. The Gag ... On the contrary, env, vif, orfa, and rev are the least conserved and exhibit the most genetic diversity among FIV strains. The ... Like HIV-1, FIV has been engineered into a viral vector for gene therapy. Like other lentiviral vectors, FIV vectors integrate ...
The pol gene encodes a precursor that contains protease-reverse transcriptase-endonuclease (in that order) functions. Env ... 0029] A number of genes encoding accessory proteins also have been identified: vif, a cytoplasmic/inner membrane protein ... The gag gene encodes a polyprotein precursor that is cleaved by the viral protease during maturation. ... The provirus contains two long terminal repeats bounding a central region that encodes the three essential structural genes, ...
Functional Analysis of the HIV-1 Gene Products vif and vpu Klaus Strebel, Malcolm A. Martin ... manage to regulate the normal functions of the host and most importantly its immune system. ... Role of Viral Regulatory Genes. * Human-Specific Factors are Required for Tat-Mediated Trans-Activation of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 ... A remarkable feature of the AIDS virus is its genetic complexity and how some of its seemingly "extra genes" ...
Complementation of vif-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by primate, but not nonprimate, lentivirus vif genes. J. ... The mode of action by which HIV-1 Vif counters A3G-mediated antiviral function has been elucidated in some detail. HIV-1 Vif ... The wild-type and vif-deficient (Δvif) HIV-1 proviruses, pIIIB and pIIIB/Δvif; the HIV-1 Vif expression vector, pcVIF; and its ... Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature418:646-650. ...
Ubiquitination of APOBEC3G by an HIV-1 Vif-Cullin5-Elongin B-Elongin C complex is essential for Vif function. Kobayashi, M., ... The HIV-1 Vif-resistant mutant APOBEC3G could provide a gene therapy approach to combat HIV-1 infection [14]. ... These findings suggest that the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the Vif-BC-Cul5 complex is essential for Vif function against ... wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ...
Vif, HSA, EGFP-1, EGFP-2) for each sample, representing a mixture of viral and marker gene targets. All forward primers ... in order to determine whether they occurred in specific amplicons and to gauge the effects of the mutations on gene function. ... targeting the Vif-APOBEC3 interaction (or other necessary interactions for APOBEC3 degradation, such as between Vif and CBF-β) ... gene targets. The EGFP-1 and EGFP-2 amplicons represent nonoverlapping portions of the egfp gene. Plasmid amplifications were ...
most likely event is the gene would be a mutant phenotype- either a genetic knockout or it may function as a wrong-un; ... env gag nef pol rev tat vif vpr vpu 9 protein coding genes producing ,9 proteins via alternative splicing). So one could ... exons of the gene would ensue, and function ...who knows the impact. As for transposon proteins, if they are still intact, then ... probably would take some getting used to depends on the gene, the exon (a lot of coded DNA has redundant function - an argument ...
This Section also focuses on the structure and function of Vif and host restriction APOBEC3 proteins, and development of ... lentiviral vectors for delivery of Vif-resistant APOBEC3 proteins to HIV-1 target cells as a gene therapy strategy for ... The Retrovirus Assembly Section, led by Alan Rein, studies structure-function relationships in viral RNA and cellular defense ...
2012), while the article by Takaori-Kondo and Shindo (2013) discusses the functions of the viral infectivity factor (Vif) in ... The critical role played by LTR retrotransponsons in "hijacking" retroviral genes to shape mammalian evolution is described by ... Takaori-Kondo, A., and Shindo, K. (2013). HIV-1 Vif: a guardian of the virus that opens up a new era in the research field of ... 2012) describe the functions of HIV-2/SIV encoded Vpx and how it counteracts SAMHD1 to facilitate viral replication. TRIM5α - ...
The ability of Vif to suppress antiviral activity of APOBEC3G was specifically dependent on Cul5-SCF function, allowing Vif to ... Gene lists (4). Databases (7). Gene. ENSG00000175166 (Ensembl human gene). 5708 (Entrez Gene). 657 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease) ... Gene lists (4). Gene List. Source. Species. Name. Description. Gene count. L00000009. G2C. Homo sapiens. Human PSD. Human ... G2Cdb::Gene report. Gene id. G00001569. Gene symbol. PSMD2 (HGNC). Species. Homo sapiens. Description. proteasome (prosome, ...
Zhao T, Adams MH, Zou SP, El-Hage N, Hauser KF, Knapp PE: Silencing the PTEN gene is protective against neuronal death induced ... Nef (Negative Regulatory Factor) is a HIV-1 protein which functions to manipulate the hosts cellular machinery and thus allow ... vif, vpr, and vpu), encode nineteen proteins. The prediction of possible viral-host interactions is one of the major tasks in ... The RNA genome, consisting of seven structural landmarks (LTR, TAR, RRE, PE, SLIP, CRS, and INS) and nine genes (gag, pol, env ...
We propose a new permutation-based competitive gene set analysis method for multi-group gene expression data with as few as ... Our results demonstrate that robust gene set analysis of multi-group gene expression data is permissible with as few as three ... For permutation-based methods, we permute samples, as opposed to genes, as doing so preserves the inter-gene correlation ... Permutation-based competitive gene set analysis methods are preferable to parametric ones because the latter make strong ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein," Nature, vol. 418, no. 6898 ... RN-18 was identified as an antagonist of Vif function and inhibited HIV-1 replication only in the presence of A3G. RN-18 ... Gene Therapy Several gene therapy strategies are being studied in order to construct CD4 cells resistant to HIV-1 infection by ... RT-PCR-based gene arrays are used to determine if cellular gene expression is altered by infected cells treated with a ...
Vif vif HIV-1 Vif binds to the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G and targets it for degradation through an interaction with ... Gene Ontology Provided by GOA Function. Evidence Code. Pubs. endopeptidase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of ... Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ...
HIV contains not only these essential genes but also the complex regulatory genes tat, rev, nef, and auxiliary genes vif, vpr ... These so-called T-helper cells coordinate a number of critical immunologic functions. The loss of these cells results in the ... Most retroviruses that are capable of replication contain only three genes--env, gag and pol (Varmus, 1988). ... and vpu (Greene, 1991). The actions of these additional genes probably contribute to the profound pathogenicity that ...
... producing recombinant lentiviral vectors for gene therapy and genome organisation of lentiviruses ... Gene Therapy lentiviral vectors explained, information about the mechanism of lentiviruses, ... There are additional genes (also called accessory genes) depending on the virus (e.g., for HIV-1: vif, vpr, vpu, tat, rev, nef ... whose products are involved in regulation of synthesis and processing viral RNA and other replicative functions. The LTR is ...
2002) Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature 418(6898):646- ... The use of a single sgRNA per promoter would clearly facilitate gain-of-function screens for cellular genes that can regulate ... Whereas the induced A3G and A3B proteins both blocked infection by an HIV-1 variant lacking a functional vif gene by inducing ... A3G is susceptible to degradation by the HIV-1 Vif protein, whereas A3B is resistant to Vif. As a result, only the induced A3B ...
When this gene is removed from the virus, the innate human immune system destroys HIV by mutating it to the point where it can ... However, the virus has evolved to contain a gene that blocks this ability. ... Without the vif gene, HIV can be completely destroyed by the bodys own immune system, says J. Victor Garcia, PhD, professor of ... The mice have a fully functioning human immune system and can be infected with HIV in the same manner as humans. In previous ...
Mutations in the human AID gene causing lack of function underlie one type of hyper-IgM syndrome. In this syndrome, B cells ... Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature 418:646. ... gene conversion consists of the introduction of templated mutations in the V region of Ig genes by copying into the active gene ... Considering how APOBEC1 function is regulated may help understand how this function is accomplished in the case of AID and ...
... pol and vif genes plus the RRE (GPV‐RRE in Figure 1). Because this vector contains the major 5′ splice donor and the splice ... Maddon PJ, Dalgleish AG, McDougal JS, Clapham PR, Weiss RA, Axel R (1986) The T4 gene encodes the AIDS virus receptor and is ... Simon JH, Fouchier RA, Southerling TE, Guerra CB, Grant CK, Malim MH (1997) The Vif and Gag proteins of human immunodeficiency ... Sheehy AM, Gaddis NC, Choi JD, Malim MH (2002) Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV‐1 infection and is suppressed by the ...
Publications] 住谷 雅大: HIV vif、vpr、vpu 遺伝子-構造と機能- 日本臨牀. 51. 63-67 (1993). *. Related Report. 1993 Annual Research Report ... The nef gene quasispecies were also revealed, i.e.the heterogeneity between the nef of HIV-1 isolated from the same carrier in ... Therefore, we focused on Nef functions. So far, we showed that Nef is expressed on persistently infected cells and the Nef can ... Publications] Takaaki Nakaya: Nonsense mutations in the vpr gene of HIV-1 during in vitro virus passage and in HIV-1 carrier- ...
  • We still have many questions on Vif and APOBEC3 and should continue to work on these proteins in the future in order to better regulate HIV-1. (frontiersin.org)
  • have independently shown that Vif forms E3 ligase complexes with cellular proteins including Cullin 5, Elongin B, and C (Vif-Cul5-EloB/C complex) using mass-spectrometry techniques. (frontiersin.org)
  • These inhibitors are counteracted by the Vif proteins encoded by most lentiviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • In this paper, we will review the interaction of the lentiviral Vif proteins with the APOBEC3 proteins, with an emphasis on sheep APOBEC3 and maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif. (mdpi.com)
  • Evidence is emerging that most of these accessory proteins function by inhibiting host restriction factors [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • One of the accessory proteins is Vif, which is found in all lentiviruses, except equine infectious anemia viurs (EIAV). (mdpi.com)
  • Vif does not have a sequence resemblance to known proteins, and sequence similarity between the Vif proteins of lentiviruses is rather limited. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite limited similarity, all Vif proteins have a conserved region in the C-terminal half, T/SLQXLA, which is necessary for their function [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The genome consists of several major genes that code for structural and functional proteins . (wikidoc.org)
  • HIV has several major genes coding for structural proteins that are found in all retroviruses , and several nonstructural ("accessory") genes that are unique to HIV. (wikidoc.org)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vif serves to neutralize the human antiviral proteins apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G [A3G]) and A3F. (asm.org)
  • Following reverse transcription of the retroelement genomic RNA into single-stranded DNA, the APOBEC proteins can deaminate cytidines to uridines, causing deleterious mutations that result in the loss of genetic integrity and protein function, a process that is commonly referred to as hypermutation ( 19 , 30 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • This Section also focuses on the structure and function of Vif and host restriction APOBEC3 proteins, and development of lentiviral vectors for delivery of Vif-resistant APOBEC3 proteins to HIV-1 target cells as a gene therapy strategy for treatment and functional cure. (cancer.gov)
  • Infectious lentiviruses have three main genes coding for the viral proteins in the order: 5´-gag-pol-env-3´ (see figure 2). (genetherapynet.com)
  • Recently, the recruitment of multiple transcription activation domains by a single sgRNA, modified to contain MS2-derived stem loops that recruit fusion proteins consisting of the MS2 coat protein linked to transcription activation domains, was reported to induce otherwise silent cellular genes. (pnas.org)
  • Whereas the induced A3G and A3B proteins both blocked infection by an HIV-1 variant lacking a functional vif gene by inducing extensive dC-to-dU editing, only the induced A3B protein inhibited wild-type HIV-1. (pnas.org)
  • A family of human proteins called APOBEC3 effectively restrict the growth of HIV and other viruses, but this action is fully counteracted by the viral infectivity factor gene (vif) in HIV. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • They found that the most commonly transmitted strains of HIV are completely neutralized by APOBEC3 proteins when vif is removed from the virus. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Uncontrolled cytidine deamination might generate misfolded polypeptides, dominant-negative proteins, or mutations in tumor suppressor genes, and thus contribute to tumor formation. (jimmunol.org)
  • RNA splicing is an essential posttranscriptional modification for precise translation of eukaryotic genes [ 1 ] and is catalyzed by spliceosome assembly from five small nuclear ribonucleic proteins (snRNPs) and numerous protein cofactors [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • SR proteins enter the nucleus through the functions of specific transport proteins [ 5 ] and predominantly localize in the nucleus [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Through alternative splicing, a single gene can encode multiple variant proteins with diverse biological functions, greatly enhancing the transcriptome complexity and diversity of proteins [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • With relatively few proteins made by the virus, it is able to accomplish many tasks, with each protein serving multiple functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, HIV-1 Vif counteracts APOBEC3 proteins by inducing their proteasomal degradation through the direct recruitment of CBF-β and a cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase comprising CUL5, ELOB/C, and RBX2 [ 12 - 15 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • When Vif is absent or defective, APOBEC3 proteins are packaged into progeny virions and transferred to target cells during new infections, where they inhibit reverse transcription and hypermutate nascent cDNAs through excessive cytidine-to-uridine editing [ 5 , 7 , 16 - 19 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Thus, the encapsidation of APOBEC3 proteins into viral particles is essential for their antiviral activity, and a complete description of APOBEC3 protein function will require a full understanding of the packaging mechanism. (prolekare.cz)
  • These proteins are usually interferon induced genes and possess diverse antiviral functions. (nature.com)
  • Twenty-one proteins met this criterion and to our amazement, at least ten of them are known to be functionally associated with HIV, including CD4, the receptor for HIV and nine others that have been reported to have anti-HIV functions. (nature.com)
  • Despite having broadly overlapping innate immune functions, some A3 proteins display certain levels of specialization. (squarespace.com)
  • Vif binds to A3 proteins prior to their incorporation into virions and quickly promotes their degradation by the proteasome. (squarespace.com)
  • HIV-1 particles that are released from infected cells expressing high levels of Vif are, therefore, devoid of A3 proteins and thus fully infectious. (squarespace.com)
  • In vivo, however, Vif activity against A3 proteins is imperfect and variable. (squarespace.com)
  • Binding affinity of Vif to A3 proteins can fluctuate according to natural variations in the Vif protein sequence, thereby allowing for low levels of A3 proteins to enter the capsid. (squarespace.com)
  • This escape can provide A3 proteins with the opportunity to mutate the vif gene and reduce its capacity to induce their degradation. (squarespace.com)
  • Vif proteins are produced by HIV-1 and other primate immunodeficiency viruses, although how they precisely work is still a mystery. (the-scientist.com)
  • virus particle, the three Pol proteins play key The HIV-1-Human Protein Interaction functions in the viral replication upon infec- Database (HHPID) identified 1435 human tion. (hmamedicalclinic.com)
  • Guidelines for naming nonprimate APOBEC3 genes and proteins. (nature.com)
  • Four of these proteins, Nef, Vif, Vpr, and Vpu, were originally termed "accessory" proteins due to the fact that their function in vitro appeared to be nonessential for HIV replication (reviewed in Ref. 1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The large precursor proteins encoded by the capsid (GAG), polymerase (POL), and envelope (ENV) genes are proteolytically cleaved as depicted by the vertical lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exons (EX) 1 and 2 of the rev and tat genes as well as the genes encoding the accessory proteins are highlighted by color. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comprises the elements required for virus packaging, such as genes coding for structural proteins (except the env gene). (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • Elucidate the Structure and Function of APOBEC3 Proteins. (cancer.gov)
  • Biochemical analysis revealed that APOBEC3G localizes to a ribonucleoprotein complex with other P-body proteins which have established roles in cap-dependent translation (eIF4E and eIF4E-T), translation suppression (RCK/p54), RNA interference-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (AGO2), and decapping of mRNA (DCP2). (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition, we present evidence suggesting that an important role for HIV-1 Vif, which subverts both APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F antiviral function by inducing their degradation, could be to selectively remove these proteins from and/or restrict their localization to P-bodies. (umassmed.edu)
  • These proteins participate in a broad array of cellular functions and implicate new pathways in the viral life cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • HIV-1 encodes only 15 proteins ( 1 ) and thus must exploit multiple host cell functions for successful infection ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Upon membrane fusion, the viral core, containing the viral capsid and nucleocapsid along with the viral genome, reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN), protease (PR), and the viral accessory proteins Vif, Nef, and Vpr, is released into the cytoplasm. (sciencemag.org)
  • The multidomain HIV-1 Vif protein recruits several cellular partners to achieve neutralization of the antiviral activity of APOBEC3 proteins. (meta.org)
  • Vif neutralizes APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F predominantly by forming an E3 ubiquitin ligase with Cullin5, ElonginB and ElonginC that targets these proteins for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. (meta.org)
  • But HIV has evolved a way to overcome restriction using an accessory protein called Vif (virion infectivity factor) to degrade the APOBEC proteins and allow the virus to spread. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This suggests that the interaction between Vif and these antiviral APOBEC proteins could be blocked with a drug that would shield the Vif interaction region," Albin says. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • HIV-1 replicates actively in a variety of cells by encoding several regulatory (Tat and Rev) and accessory (Vpr, Vif, Vpu, and Nef) proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that certain viral proteins, like Vif, have evolved to overcome the antiviral mechanisms of the host, while proteins like Nef, which are markers for disease pathogenesis in vivo, help to increase pathogenesis by targeting bystander cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, these proteins control many aspects of the virus life cycle as well as host cell function, namely gene regulation and apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Gene manifestation of HIV-1 is usually governed transcriptionally with a viral proteins, Tat (28,29), via its Col4a6 binding to a nascent viral TAR RNA (30), and post-transcriptionally by another viral proteins Rev (31,32) through its association using the viral RRE RNA. (gasyblog.com)
  • Also cleaves Nef and Vif, probably concomitantly with viral structural proteins on maturation of virus particles (By similarity). (proteopedia.org)
  • Viral genomes encode proteins that antagonize host antiviral genes, called restriction factors, that try to inhibit viral infection. (fredhutch.org)
  • We will apply biochemical and genetic methods to test our hypotheses that VIF-1 may directly interact with TcpP proteins to affect protein conformation and function. (grantome.com)
  • Plasmid pMDLg/pRRE contains HIV-1 gag/pol genes, which provide structural proteins and reverse transcriptase. (jove.com)
  • All the genes encoding the accessory proteins, including Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef are excluded in the packaging system. (jove.com)
  • 6,500 viral and cellular proteins during HIV infection identifies Vif-dependent antagonism of key cellular phosphatase PP2A. (elifesciences.org)
  • Further repair of uracil-containing DNA through proteins that include the Y family DNA polymerases causes mutations, induce gene conversion, and class switch recombination. (deepdyve.com)
  • Three of these genes (gag, pol, and env) contain information regarding the manufacture of structural proteins and new virus particles. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • Three regulatory genes (tat, rev, and nef) and three auxiliary genes (vif, vpr and vpu) contain information regarding the production of proteins that allows HIV to infect a cell, produce new copies of the virus or cause disease. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • To facilitate these processes, approximately one-quarter of KSHV genes encode cellular homologues or unique proteins that have immunomodulatory roles in cytokine production, apoptosis, cell signalling and the immunological synapse. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The present invention relates to the expression and screening of genomic DNA sequences encoding uncharacterized genes and proteins. (google.com)
  • We will discuss a group of viral channel proteins that belong to the viroproin family, and which participate in a number of viral functions including promoting the release of viral particles from cells. (springer.com)
  • Acting as either hetero- or homodimers, 14-3-3 proteins bind to specific phosphoserine and phosphothreonine sequence motifs and regulate target protein function by compartmental sequestration, altered enzymatic activity, or inhibition/promotion of protein-protein interactions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The research on virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein had started in late 1980s right after HIV-1 was cloned, and the function of Vif had been a mystery for a long time. (frontiersin.org)
  • HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) was identified as an accessory gene right after the HIV-1 genome was sequenced. (frontiersin.org)
  • Virion infectivity factor exerts its function in a cell-type-specific manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • one is that permissive cells have a vif-like cellular factor which facilitates virion infectivity, another is that non-permissive cells possess an anti-HIV-1 host factor which is antagonized by Vif. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vif was implicated in a number of functions, but its precise role in viral infectivity remained elusive for a long time. (mdpi.com)
  • Lentiviruses, such as HIV-1, encode a virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein that prevents the antiviral effects of APOBEC3 family members, in particular, A3G and A3F ( 3 , 47 , 58 , 65 ). (asm.org)
  • while the article by Takaori-Kondo and Shindo (2013) discusses the functions of the viral infectivity factor (Vif) in the HIV life cycle and its integral role in antagonizing APOBEC3. (frontiersin.org)
  • HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) is an essential accessory protein for HIV-1 replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also found that PSGL-1 has dual anti-HIV functions, including inhibiting viral DNA synthesis and blocking the infectivity of new virions. (nature.com)
  • The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is an HIV-1 accessory protein whose cytosolic concentration increases over time. (squarespace.com)
  • Here we provide evidence that the virion infectivity factor protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) functions to counteract a newly discovered activity in human cells that otherwise inhibits virus replication. (nih.gov)
  • These observations indicate that the inhibition of virion infectivity factor function in vivo may prevent HIV-1 replication by 'unmasking' an innate anti-viral phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • 1 Yet, the wiseguy mien has not completely disappeared: While the protein encoded by the newly discovered gene normally protects certain T cells against HIV-1 infection, its antithesis, Vif (viral infectivity factor), overcomes CEM15 and establishes the disease. (the-scientist.com)
  • The KKRK motif that mislocalizes Vif to the nucleus also reduces viral replication and infectivity in nonpermissive cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • VIF Viral infectivity factor, a basic protein typically 23 kD. (lanl.gov)
  • This antiviral activity is neutralized by the virion infectivity factor (VIF), that prevents the incorporation of APOBEC3G into progeny HIV-1 virions by both inhibiting its translation and/or by inducing its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. (proteopedia.org)
  • Kao S, Khan MA, Miyagi E, Plishka R, Buckler-White A, Strebel K. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif protein reduces intracellular expression and inhibits packaging of APOBEC3G (CEM15), a cellular inhibitor of virus infectivity. (proteopedia.org)
  • This gene is called virion infectivity factor (Vif). (bestonhealth.com)
  • APOBEC3F binds the HIV‐1 Vif protein specifically and Vif suppresses both the inhibition of virus infectivity caused by APOBEC3F and virion incorporation of APOBEC3F. (embopress.org)
  • HIV-1 Vif was initially shown to be essential for HIV-1 replication in human lymphocytes and a number of T-cell-derived cell lines termed non-permissive (e.g. (mdpi.com)
  • We propose that these positive and negative splicing elements act together to allow the accumulation of vif mRNA and unspliced HIV-1 mRNA, compatible with optimal virus replication. (asm.org)
  • describe the functions of HIV-2/SIV encoded Vpx and how it counteracts SAMHD1 to facilitate viral replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most retroviruses that are capable of replication contain only three genes--env, gag and pol (Varmus, 1988). (thebody.com)
  • However, both induced factors blocked the replication of a Vif-deficient HIV-1 mutant. (pnas.org)
  • These data demonstrate that Cas9-derived transcription factors can effectively induce human genes that regulate virus replication, thus setting the scene for their use in genomic screens to identify such factors. (pnas.org)
  • These data demonstrate that Cas9-derived transcriptional activators have the potential to be used for screens for endogenous genes that affect virus replication and raise the possibility that synthetic transcription factors might prove clinically useful if efficient delivery mechanisms could be developed. (pnas.org)
  • These include blocking apoptosis, immune evasion and regulation of viral replication through targeting of both cellular and viral gene expression [4] , [5] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Previously, we demonstrated that the HCMV encoded miRNA, miR-UL112-1, targets a number of the virus's own genes, including the immediate early transactivator IE72 which is essential for driving acute replication of HCMV [9] . (prolekare.cz)
  • The predominant function of Vif is to counteract Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G), a potent host restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it remains unclear if the inhibitory effect of Vif on A3G cytidine deaminase activity is integral for successful HIV-1 replication following Vif-A3G encapsidation into progeny virions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some believe that Vif operates during the late stages of HIV virus replication, somehow overcoming some cells' seemingly innate resistance to the virus--this innate resistance stems from the newly discovered CEM15 gene. (the-scientist.com)
  • Deletion of the vpx gene resulted in a greatly reduced rate of replication of the virus in the primary PBMC and macrophage cultures, but no significant reduction in replication of the virus in CEMx174 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Deletion of the vpx gene appeared to have a greater effect on virus replication in macrophages than in PBMCs. (elsevier.com)
  • Deletion of the vif gene caused a dramatic reduction in replication in all cell types tested. (elsevier.com)
  • Nef, a viral protein expressed early in infection, possesses two distinct functions: the ability to enhance HIV replication and the ability to down-regulate the T cell surface CD4 molecule (reviewed in Ref. 2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To gain a better understanding of Vif function, the viral isolate from an HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressor (LTNP) that displayed a Vif-mutant replication phenotype was studied. (umassmed.edu)
  • Taken together, the results of this study reveal a novel link between innate immunity against retroviruses and P-bodies suggesting that APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F could function in the context of P-bodies to restrict HIV-1 replication. (umassmed.edu)
  • Infections are replication competent genomes that are relatively gene-poor. (gasyblog.com)
  • Direct mutagenesis research have confirmed a helicase function is certainly biologically necessary for the replication of several infections including vaccinia computer virus (19), poliovirus (20), alphaviruses (21), brome mosaic computer virus (22), nidoviruses (23,24) and flaviviruses (25C27). (gasyblog.com)
  • Addition of m6A to SV40 late mRNAs enhances viral structural gene expression and replication. (duke.edu)
  • The HIV‐1 Vif protein suppresses the inhibition of viral replication caused by the human antiretroviral factor APOBEC3G. (embopress.org)
  • As a result, HIV‐1 mutants that do not express the Vif protein are replication incompetent in 'nonpermissive' cells, such as primary T cells and the T‐cell line CEM, that express APOBEC3G. (embopress.org)
  • Simon et al , 1998a ) led to the hypothesis that nonpermissive cells express an inhibitor of HIV‐1 replication, lacking in permissive cells, that is blocked by the viral Vif protein. (embopress.org)
  • The present invention provides systems utilizing unique features of retroviral replication to analyze uncharacterized genes derived from genomic DNA samples. (google.com)
  • hepatocytes stranded by alpha-ketoadipate function phospholipase for download le creature del buio 1987, peripheral recruitment, nystatin, and structural lists in the host, polymerizing Edition domain, motility, and the replication-independent beta-catenin. (evakoch.com)
  • Effects of viral replication on cellular membrane metabolism and function. (springer.com)
  • Lentiviruses can deliver a significant amount of genetic information into the DNA of the host cell, so they are one of the most efficient methods of a gene delivery vector . (genetherapynet.com)
  • Large-scale collaborative efforts are underway to use lentiviruses to block the expression of a specific gene using RNA interference technology in high-throughput formats. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Lentiviruses have also been successfully used for transfection of diabetic mice with the gene encoding PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), a therapy being considered for use in humans. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Viruses have developed assorted strategies to evade A3-mediated inhibition, the most prominent of which is the expression of the dedicated regulatory protein, Vif, by most lentiviruses. (prolekare.cz)
  • Retroviral vectors based on lentiviruses retain these properties, and have been developed as candidate therapeutic agents for gene delivery to cells of the central nervous system, muscle and hepatocytes as well as antigen‐presenting cells in the immune system. (els.net)
  • Interestingly, residues forming the APOBEC3G dimer interface are highly conserved, contrasting with the rapid evolution of two neighboring surface-exposed amino acid patches, one targeted by the Vif protein of primate lentiviruses and the other of yet-undefined function. (epfl.ch)
  • Lentiviruses can integrate a significant amount of viral cDNA into the DNA of the host cell and can efficiently infect nondividing cells, so they are one of the most efficient methods of gene delivery . (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other retroviruses, however, lentiviruses have two regulatory genes , tat and rev . (wikipedia.org)
  • The so-called "nonessential" genes of primate lentiviruses can be deleted without abrogating the ability of virus to replicate under at least some cell culture conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • Found in almost all lentiviruses, Vif is a cytoplasmic protein, existing in both a soluble cytosolic form and a membrane-associated form. (lanl.gov)
  • Develop Novel Therapeutics by Targeting Vif-APOBEC3 Interactions. (cancer.gov)
  • This family includes enzymes with different functions: APOBEC1 edits RNA, APOBEC3 restricts retroviruses. (deepdyve.com)
  • The vif gene encodes a small and highly basic protein rich in tryptophans [ 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. (nih.gov)
  • The gene PSMC6 encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visna virus encodes a post-transcriptional regulator of viral structural gene expression by Tiley LS1, Brown PH, Le SY, Maizel JV, Clements JE, Cullen BR. (rapeutation.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. (nih.gov)
  • Human cells contain at least one gene that has natural anti-HIV activity," says Malim, but the virus encodes its own countermeasure, the Vif protein, and infection proceeds. (the-scientist.com)
  • The vpx gene is encoded by many SIVs to encode a protein that degrades the host antiviral protein SAMHD1, while the vif gene encodes a protein that degrades the host antiviral protein APOBEC3G. (fredhutch.org)
  • HIV-1 encodes three structural genes ( gag , pol , env ), two essential regulatory genes ( tat and rev ), and four accessory genes ( vif , vpr , vpu , and nef ) ( 9 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • In response, HIV has evolved several accessory genes as weaponries to evade or antagonize these intracellular restriction activities. (frontiersin.org)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes an enzyme regulatory mechanism and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction. (uniprot.org)
  • Cytidine deamination of nucleic acids underlies diversification of Ig genes and inhibition of retroviral infection, and thus, it would appear to be vital to host defense. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, inhibition of gene expression through targeting the 5′UTR has been demonstrated, at least in the context of an artificial reporter construct, indicating that miRNA targeting of 5′UTRs is possible [18] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Here, we performed a large-scale mutagenesis-based analysis of the APOBEC3G N terminus, testing mutants for (i) inhibition of vif-defective HIV-1 infection and Alu retrotransposition, (ii) RNA binding, and (iii) oligomerization. (epfl.ch)
  • Inhibition of Delta vif HIV-1 by APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) requires their expression in the virus producer cells and incorporation into virions. (cancer.gov)
  • Inhibition of phosphatases by kinases develops Whi5 phosphorylation and cell cycle function in low cyclin-dependent kinase activity. (elifesciences.org)
  • Strikingly, this miRNA binds target sites primarily within 5′UTRs, mediating significant reduction in gene expression. (prolekare.cz)
  • In a HIV infected cell this gene called Vif binds to the protein, APOBEC3G and prevents it from entering the new viruses. (bestonhealth.com)
  • Preliminary results suggest that AphB, a LysR-family protein with a conserved structure comprised of an N-terminal DNA-binding and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain, binds to VIF-2 and enhances tcpP expression. (grantome.com)
  • My favored idea, and it is the only sensible one I have heard, apart from the one I came up with on a previous post but have only just come to appreciate in answering this question, is that these retroelements (themselves derived from retroviruses and/or the founders of retroviruses) jumped in to the genome, and interuppted the genes. (biology-online.org)
  • A Vif mutant with a defect in viral packaging showed a reduced ability to protect the HIV-1 genome from G to A hypermutations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fig. 4: BORF2 functions to preserve EBV genome integrity from A3B. (nature.com)
  • corresponding author of the paper, said that scientists knew the main functions of APOBEC cytosine deaminases were to inactivate viruses that attack the body and prevent ancient viruses present in the human genome from moving around and causing disrupting mutations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The second function is to play a role in nuclear localization of the viral genome at the very start of cell infection. (proteopedia.org)
  • Diagram of changes in SIVrcm genome that had major consequences to the SIVcpz protein Vif. (fredhutch.org)
  • In the absence of Vif, APOBEC3G is packaged into virions and induces degradation of the HIV-1 genome during reverse transcription in target cells. (duke.edu)
  • The activities of these molecules are considered in the present review and the positions of their genes are mapped from a complete KSHV genome sequence derived from a KS biopsy. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The drug discovery process is currently undergoing a fundamental revolution as it embraces functional genomics, that is, high throughput genome- or gene-based biology. (google.com)
  • Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. (proteopedia.org)
  • A3G is susceptible to degradation by the HIV-1 Vif protein, whereas A3B is resistant to Vif. (pnas.org)
  • Vif mediates the proteasomal degradation of A3G and inhibits A3G translation, thus diminishing the pool of A3G that is available to be packaged into budding virion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to inhibiting A3G packaging, it has also been shown that Vif has the capability of directly inhibiting A3G cytidine deaminase activity in a degradation-independent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unfortunately, HIV has evolved the small protein Vif to hijack the host ubiquitin-proteasome system to target APOBEC3G for ubiquitination and degradation. (nature.com)
  • HIV-1 Vif (Vif1) overcomes these host defenses by targeting A3G and A3F for proteasomal degradation. (cancer.gov)
  • In addition, approximately half of the viral RNA remains unspliced and is used as genomic RNA and as mRNA for the Gag and Pol gene products. (asm.org)
  • We have previously shown that splicing at HIV-1 3′ss A1, which produces single-spliced vif mRNA and promotes the inclusion of HIV exon 2 into both completely and incompletely spliced viral mRNAs, is increased by optimizing the 5′ splice site (5′ss) downstream of exon 2 (5′ss D2). (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest that the 5′ss D2, the proximal GGGG silencer, and the ESE act competitively to determine the level of vif mRNA splicing and Vif expression. (asm.org)
  • The unspliced viral RNA is used as genomic RNA and as mRNA for the Gag and Pol gene products (for a review, see reference 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Either one or both of the noncoding exons 2 and 3 are included in a fraction of all ∼4-kb and ∼1.8-kb mRNA species, with the exception of vif mRNA. (asm.org)
  • The locations of the primer pairs used for qRT-PCR analysis of vif mRNA (D1A1 and VifBody) and RT-PCR analysis of 1.8-kb mRNA (BSS and SJ4.7A) are indicated. (asm.org)
  • the inserted mRNA is long (at least several hundreds of bases), thus the insertion doesn't cause frame shift, but gene knock-out, since the cell is not able to translate it correctly. (biology-online.org)
  • Dude, its sooo much more likely that the mRNA so retrotransposed would lead to the creation of an extra locus for the gene of interest. (biology-online.org)
  • Thus, protein function and fate may depend upon the full and precise history of its encoding mRNA. (embopress.org)
  • Our studies demonstrate that a viral miRNA mediates translational repression of multiple cellular genes by targeting mRNA 5′UTRs. (prolekare.cz)
  • Moore notes that, so far, CEM15 's normal function remains a mystery, but it does show some sequence similarity to a cytidine deaminase enzyme involved in mRNA editing. (the-scientist.com)
  • Although the complete substrate for some helicases awaits description, Deceased helicases are usually considered to participate pleiotropically in lots of areas of RNA rate of metabolism including transcription, mRNA splicing, mRNA export, translation, RNA balance and mitochondrial gene manifestation (5C8). (gasyblog.com)
  • Desk 1 Types of viral helicases (group-specific antigen), (polymerase) and (envelope), as the accessories protein, Vif, Vpu, Vpr and Nef, as well as the regulatory protein, Tat and Rev, will be the main translation items of multiply-spliced mRNA. (gasyblog.com)
  • Because HIV-1 gene expression is primarily regulated by specific RNA:protein interactions, my laboratory has also become interested in the more general area of RNA sequence mediated gene regulation, including nuclear mRNA export and the phenomenon of RNA interference. (duke.edu)
  • When this gene is removed from the virus, the innate human immune system destroys HIV by mutating it to the point where it can no longer survive. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Conversely, nonpermissive cells are those in which HIV-1 cannot replicate without Vif, indicating an innate defense system in those particular cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Recent reports have determined that HIV-1 Vif counteracts an innate antiviral cellular factor, Apobec3G. (umassmed.edu)
  • 1 , 2 APOL1 is one member of the APOL1-6 cluster of innate immunity genes and the only member of that cluster with a secretory signal peptide and a prominent circulating protein product. (asnjournals.org)
  • It has now been demonstrated that Vif functions to block an innate human antiretroviral defense pathway that relies on a factor called APOBEC3G or CEM15. (duke.edu)
  • APOBEC family members normally functions as DNA mutators participating in the innate immune system that defends against their targets (retrovirus and retrotransposon) propagation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the research on Vif has finally lead to the identification of APOBEC3G, which opens up a new era in the research field of host restriction factors in HIV-1 infection followed by TRIM5α, Tetherin/BST-2, and SAMHD1. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lentiviral infection have advantages over other gene therapy methods including high-efficiency infection of dividing and non-dividing cells, long-term stable expression of a transgene, and low immunogenicity. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Especially, the infection with HIV-1 vif, vpr or vpu mutants generates persistent infection after transient cytolysis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When equal amounts of A3G were packaged into budding virions, the virus expressing functional Vif was more infectious and incurred fewer G to A hypermutations in the second round of infection compared to Vif-deficient virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is at this final stage where patients' immune systems are no longer able to function properly and patients eventually succumb to their secondary infections, to otherwise rare cancers (such as Kaposi's sarcoma) or to other manifestations of HIV infection (such as neuropathy). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A3A has a role in eliminating foreign DNA, and A3C is particularly effective in restricting the infection of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), while A3D, A3F, A3G and A3H are the family members shown to mutate and potently restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1 (HIVΔVif) infection. (squarespace.com)
  • Also, at the early stages of the infection, when Vif protein levels are still very low, A3 may escape destruction and mutate the first generations of progeny viruses that can then establish reservoirs of hypermutated proviruses. (squarespace.com)
  • Michael Malim and colleagues have found a human gene, CEM15 , whose product actually inhibits HIV-1 infection and may eventually provide a potential new target for drug therapy. (the-scientist.com)
  • But scientists do know that without Vif, viruses like HIV-1 are crippled and cannot replicate sufficiently to establish infection. (the-scientist.com)
  • The London team and one from the University of Pennsylvania suspected that such a gene existed after they discovered a previously unknown phenotype that resists HIV-infection and other retroviruses. (the-scientist.com)
  • Malim's group and another at Oregon Health Sciences University simultaneously published the existence of an unidentified cellular factor that could inhibit HIV-1 infection, but could be overcome by the presence of Vif protein. (the-scientist.com)
  • 1 They studied HIV-1 infection in T cells where the Vif protein was either fully functional or deleted. (the-scientist.com)
  • In cells classified as permissive, HIV-1 could replicate and set up infection whether or not Vif was present. (the-scientist.com)
  • After identifying the candidate gene ( CEM15 ), Malim's team transferred it to permissive cells and found that the CEM15 protein could confer resistance to HIV-1 infection as found in nonpermissive cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Cells have all sorts of measures that are not immune-based to overcome viral infection, but this is the first instance of a gene like this. (the-scientist.com)
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α plays roles in Epstein-Barr virus's natural life cycle and tumorigenesis by inducing lytic infection through direct binding to the immediate-early BZLF1 gene promoter. (nature.com)
  • These studies will provide the proof of concept that gene therapy with Vif1-resistant A3G and A3F can provide an effective treatment for HIV-1 infection. (cancer.gov)
  • Microbial infection) Substrate adapter protein can be a viral protein such as HIV Vif. (rcsb.org)
  • We thus investigated the role of 14-3-3 in Vpr arrest in T lymphocytes and determined how its function is altered by Vpr and HIV-1 infection. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 2000) Self‐inactivating lentiviral vectors with enhanced transgene expression and potential gene transfer system in Parkinson's disease. (els.net)
  • Great efforts have been made to develop lentiviral vectors with improved biosafety and efficiency for gene delivery. (jove.com)
  • The gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus , and pol provides the basic mechanism by which retroviruses reproduce, while the others help HIV to enter the host cell and enhance its reproduction. (wikidoc.org)
  • The Retrovirus Assembly Section, led by Alan Rein , studies structure-function relationships in viral RNA and cellular defense mechanisms against retroviruses and other viral pathogens, focusing primarily on the roles of Gag protein elements, nucleic acids, and host factors in virus assembly. (cancer.gov)
  • The actions of these additional genes probably contribute to the profound pathogenicity that differentiates HIV from many other retroviruses. (thebody.com)
  • Gibbs, JS, Regier, DA & Desrosiers, RC 1994, ' Construction and In Vitro Properties of SIV mac Mutants with Deletions in "Nonessential" Genes ', AIDS research and human retroviruses , vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 607-616. (elsevier.com)
  • [0005] In recent years, retroviruses have been proposed for use in gene therapy. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Competitive methods, the focus of this article, test the null hypothesis that a gene set is not more associated with the phenotype of interest than a random sample from its complement set of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Self-contained methods, however, test whether or not a gene set is associated with the phenotype considering only genes from the tested gene set. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on this hypothesis, Sheehy et al (2002) sought to identify a gene expressed in the nonpermissive human T‐cell line CEM, which was not expressed in a permissive clone of CEM termed CEM‐SS that, when expressed in CEM‐SS or other permissive cells, would be sufficient to confer the nonpermissive phenotype. (embopress.org)
  • A phenotype (e.g., a biological function or genetic disease) is identified and then tracked back to the responsible gene, based on its genetic map position. (google.com)
  • In 2003, it was discovered that Vif prevents the action of the cellular APOBEC-3G protein, which deaminates DNA:RNA heteroduplexes in the cytoplasm. (lanl.gov)
  • The viral DNA enters the cells nucleus and prevents the cell from performing its normal functions and instead commands it to produce new virus. (bestonhealth.com)
  • This issue of Research Topic covers several reviews of the mechanisms of these restriction factors and their counter-balance by HIV-1 gene products. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, we provide a comprehensive database demonstrating a widespread reshaping of the human proteomic landscape by HIV and identified a new HIV restriction factor with novel antiviral functions. (nature.com)
  • The critical role played by LTR retrotransponsons in "hijacking" retroviral genes to shape mammalian evolution is described by Kaneko-Ishino and Ishino (2012) . (frontiersin.org)
  • Another inherited immune disorder, ADA deficiency has been successfully treated with a retroviral vector that delivers a functional copy of the ADA gene. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The MazF retroviral vector for this study is manufactured at the GMP compliant Center for Cell and Gene Therapy Facility of Takara Bio (Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this report, a hammerhead ribozyme targeted to HIV-1 vif was designed and cloned into the retroviral vector , pSuper. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In that trial, which tested the use of a retroviral vector to treat patients with X-SCID, immune function was restored in most patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Analysis of Testes and Semen from Rabbits Treated by Intravenous Injection with a Retroviral Vector Encoding the Human Factor VIII Gene: No Evidence of Germ Line Transduction," Human Gene Therapy 11, no. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The application of an efficient retroviral vector serves as an important tool in gene therapy and genetic analysis of a variety of genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Retroviral-mediated transfer and expression of the neomycin and hygromycin B drug resistance genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We are developing novel retroviral vectors that can efficiently deliver the Vif1-resistant A3G and A3F to hematopoietic stem cells, and will use a humanized mouse model system to determine the effect of the gene therapy on HIV-1 viral load and preservation of CD4+ T cells. (cancer.gov)
  • Another approved and marketed class of HIV-1 antiviral therapeutics inhibits the HIV-1 protease, a viral enzyme required to process newly synthesized viral polyproteins into the mature viral gene products, enabling the virus to assemble itself into new infectious virus particles [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we show that the mutations within 5′ss D2 that are predicted to lower or increase the affinity of the 5′ss for U1 snRNP result in reduced or increased Vif expression, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Splicing at 5′ss D2 was not necessary for the effect of 5′ss D2 on Vif expression. (asm.org)
  • In addition, we have found that mutations of the GGGG motif proximal to the 5′ss D2 increase exon 2 inclusion and Vif expression. (asm.org)
  • Finally, we report the presence of a novel exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) element within the 5′-proximal region of exon 2 that facilitates both exon inclusion and Vif expression. (asm.org)
  • May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression through the process of active DNA demethylation. (uniprot.org)
  • Thus, while pharmacologic agents that target the acidic motif at residues 128 to 130 have the potential to rescue A3G expression by occluding recognition by Vif, care will have to be taken not to perturb the contributions of the neighboring 124-to-127 region to packaging if such agents are to have therapeutic benefit by promoting A3G incorporation into progeny virions. (asm.org)
  • Competitive gene set analysis is a standard exploratory tool for gene expression data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We propose a new permutation-based competitive gene set analysis method for multi-group gene expression data with as few as three replicates per group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that robust gene set analysis of multi-group gene expression data is permissible with as few as three replicates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For each gene, a score for differential expression is calculated (for example, fold change and t-score). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under the null hypothesis, competitive methods assumes that genes are independent which is violated by gene-gene correlation observed in gene expression data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) reduces the expression of a specific gene , thus allowing researchers to examine the necessity and effects of a given gene in a model system. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Global gene expression data combined with bioinformatic analysis provides strong evidence that mammalian miRNAs mediate repression of gene expression primarily through binding sites within the 3′ untranslated region (UTR). (prolekare.cz)
  • miRNAs are small single-stranded RNA species of approximately 20-24 bases in length that regulate gene expression through post transcriptional mechanisms [1] . (prolekare.cz)
  • miR-UL112-1 may therefore play an important role in establishing and maintaining viral latency and persistence through regulation of viral gene expression and subversion of host antiviral pathways. (prolekare.cz)
  • showed that A3G-induced cytidine deamination is inhibited by the expression of Vif, without the depletion of a deaminase domain, in an Escherichia coli system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we discuss knowledge of SRSF4 in physiological and pathological processes and highlight the applications of SRSF4 in the regulation of gene expression and associated diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, abnormal splicing can cause disorders associated with disruption of gene expression [ 12 ] and can promote the development of certain types of cancers [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • How SARS-CoV-2 shuts down host gene expression and takes over the cellular translation machinery. (nature.com)
  • The similar situation can be observed in some versions of SpiderMokey with named function expressions (abbreviated form is NFE), where special object which stores the optional name of function-expression is inherited from Object. (tuning-style.it)
  • That expression applies the urlopen function to a URL that contains the complete text of William Shakespeare's 37 plays, all in a single text document. (tuning-style.it)
  • A call to any function is an expression that resolves to a value. (tuning-style.it)
  • Note: Examples of single-cell combined qPCR and FACS data are shown in Figure 6 (host surface protein expression profiles for SIV-infected, spliced vRNA + rhesus macaque cells), Figure 7 (CD4 gene expression versus surface CD4 protein expression in spliced vRNA + rhesus macaque cells), and previously published 20. (tuning-style.it)
  • Expression of genes psma6 and slc25a4 in patients with acute monocytic leukemia]. (nih.gov)
  • TAT Transactivator of HIV gene expression. (lanl.gov)
  • One of two essential viral regulatory factors (Tat and Rev) for HIV gene expression. (lanl.gov)
  • Transcriptional analysis revealed that HDF genes were enriched for high expression in immune cells, suggesting that viruses evolve in host cells that optimally perform the functions required for their life cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • The genes for serine (trypsin, serine collagenase, easter, prostate specific antigen, T-cell specific granzymes, MT-SP1 and 2, KSHV protease), cysteine (cruzain and falcipain) and aspartyl (HIV1 & HIV2 & SIV) proteases and macromolecular inhibitors such as ecotin and single chain antibodies are manipulated and expressed in heterologous expression systems. (ucsf.edu)
  • We thus propose that VIF-2 serves as the ligand of AphB and we will further investigate how AphB senses and responds to VIF-2 to regulate tcpP expression using in vitro purified systems and genetic analyses. (grantome.com)
  • Next, we will investigate how VIF-1 regulates virulence gene expression. (grantome.com)
  • Finally, we will determine the spatiotemporal and dynamic virulence gene expression in response to two host virulence-inducing factors. (grantome.com)
  • We will take advantage of our simple, accessible ex vivo anaerobic tissue model to mimic the VIF levels seen in vivo to monitor and model virulence gene expression patterns using qRT-PCR and fluorescence microscopy. (grantome.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that the locus control region (LCR) and the promoter of the growth hormone (GH) gene can control the expression of GH. (jove.com)
  • This modification allows the transcription of the vector sequence independent of HIV-1 Tat protein that is normally required for HIV gene expression 11 . (jove.com)
  • Epitranscriptomic Regulation of HIV-1 Gene Expression by m 5C and the Novel m 5C Reader MBD2. (duke.edu)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus miR-BHRF1 microRNAs regulate viral gene expression in cis. (duke.edu)
  • The latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus modulates cellular gene expression and protects lymphoid cells from p16 INK4A-induced cell cycle arrest. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Previously, the lack of an in vitro podocyte culture system prevented a detailed analysis of the effects of HIV-1 gene expression on renal podocytes. (asnjournals.org)
  • Tin2 protein functions inside plant cells where it interacts with maize protein kinase ZmTTK1. (elifesciences.org)
  • Vif directly interacts with APOBEC3G and thereby allows reverse transcription to proceed unimpeded. (duke.edu)
  • Vif is dispensable for producing infectious viral particles in permissive cells such as all known adherent cells (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • in contrast, Vif is indispensable in non-permissive cells such as physiologically relevant CD4 + T cells and macrophages, and other T cell lines (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • the other hypothesis proposed the existence of a positive factor in permissive cells that was able to perform the role of Vif. (mdpi.com)
  • These so-called T-helper cells coordinate a number of critical immunologic functions. (thebody.com)
  • Another common application is to use a lentivirus to introduce a new gene into human or animal cells . (genetherapynet.com)
  • The nef gene quasispecies were also revealed, i.e.the heterogeneity between the nef of HIV-1 isolated from the same carrier in the presence or absence of CD8^+ T cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In addition to its function as the key trans-activator of viral transcription, Tat is also secreted by the infected cell and taken up by neighboring cells where it has an effect both on infected and uninfected cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, miR-UL112-1 targets the cellular gene MICB, resulting in protection against recognition by natural killer cells [10] . (prolekare.cz)
  • To locate this anti-HIV cellular factor, researchers looked for genes that are expressed solely in the nonpermissive cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • viruses can also interfere with the function of cytotoxic T cells. (the-scientist.com)
  • Deletion of the vpr gene caused little or no change in the growth properties of SIV mac 239 in CEMx174 cells, in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), or in rhesus monkey alveolar macrophages. (elsevier.com)
  • CEM cells were transfected with infectious plasmids with deletions in the nef, vif, vpr , or vpu genes, and the virus produced was titered on activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • From separate samples, obtained on more than one study visit, virus grew in cocultures of LTNP cells with Vif-complementing T cell lines, but not the parental T cell lines. (umassmed.edu)
  • When the modified host cell divides, the daughter cells retain copies of the viral genes. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • [0003] Gene therapy includes any one or more of: the addition, the replacement, the deletion, the supplementation, the manipulation etc. of one or more nucleotide sequences in, for example, one or more targeted sites--such as targeted cells. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In embryonic stem cells, the elongin BC complex is recruited by EPOP to Polycomb group (PcG) target genes in order generate genomic region that display both active and repressive chromatin properties, an important feature of pluripotent stem cells. (rcsb.org)
  • The medicine contains three Enzo-developed antisense genes designed to interfere with the functioning of two HIV-1 genes essential for virus growth in human cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • NYSE:ENZ) reported today that new data on the first individual treated in the Phase 1 clinical trial of HGTV-43, the Company's HIV-1 gene medicine product, show that after nine-and-one-half-months Enzo engineered cells have successfully engrafted in the patient's bone marrow and were spawning new differentiated CD4+ cells designed to fight the virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A second major research area in my group relates to how microRNA precursors are processed to yield mature microRNAs and how microRNAs, and the closely related small interfering RNAs, function in human cells. (duke.edu)
  • They work by signalling other cells to perform their special functions. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • Although the renal epithelial cells appear to be the main targets for HIV-1 pathogenesis, the HIV gene products responsible for tissue-specific renal pathology are not known. (asnjournals.org)
  • Thus, the genomic reorganization leading to the birth of SIVcpz gave Vif species-specific activity. (fredhutch.org)
  • Functional motifs and residues observed in all accessory genes were highly conserved. (ul.ac.za)
  • However, the functional role of gene body methylation is not yet fully understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it has recently been found that EVs can have important biological functions and that in both structural and functional aspects they resemble viruses. (pnas.org)
  • The team studied the genomes of breast cancers in patients with a specific inherited deletion in two of these APOBEC genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • vpx gene deletion truncated the 3' end of Vif (due to vif-vpx overlap), removing a stop codon (asterisk) from vif. (fredhutch.org)
  • Since the 5' end of vpx overlapped with the 3' end of vif , the deletion of vpx during the birth of SIVcpz caused vif to lose its normal stop codon. (fredhutch.org)
  • 2.Therfore to improve further on the recombinat FHV-1, we constructed an improved recombinant FHV-1 (dlTK (gCp) -Cap) carring a putative FHV-1 gC promoter sequence on the upstream of the FCV precursor capsid gene of the C7301dlTK-Cap. (nii.ac.jp)
  • An unusual amino acid motif (KKRK) was found in the Vif sequence at positions 90 to 93. (umassmed.edu)
  • Since this motif commonly functions as a nuclear localization sequence, experiments were performed to determine the ability of this KKRK motif to mediate nuclear localization of Vif. (umassmed.edu)
  • Genetically, it comprises Long Terminal Repeat (LTR), psi-sequence packaging sequence, and gene of interest sequence driven by a promoter. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • Two sets of DNA-derived sequence variants (termed G1 and G2 in contrast to the ancestral G0) at the human APOL1 gene are associated with a markedly increased risk of progressive CKD in sub-Saharan African ancestry populations. (asnjournals.org)
  • In the absence of Vif, HIV-1 virions are produced normally but are largely non-infectious. (duke.edu)
  • Among other issues, we are currently interested in how APOBEC3G is packaged into virions and in how Vif blocks APOBEC3G function. (duke.edu)
  • no repeat sequences in exons of genes? (biology-online.org)
  • gene conversion consists of the introduction of templated mutations in the V region of Ig genes by copying into the active gene nucleotide stretches from existent template sequences that remain unaltered ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This study sought to amplify and analyse the sequences of HIV-1 subtype C accessory genes (vif, vpr and vpu) to assess the genetic diversity as well as the motifs and residues associated with key biological functions of these genes. (ul.ac.za)
  • For the purpose of this study, the same samples were amplified, sequenced and characterised in the pol and accessory (vif, vpr and vpu) genes in order to obtain near full length sequences of the HIV isolates from Pretoria region. (ul.ac.za)
  • In addition, the R77Q mutation associated with long term non-progressors was observed in the vpr gene of 15 sequences. (ul.ac.za)
  • Large pink strands correspond to protein sequences related to SIVrcm, while the green box denotes sequences not expressed in SIVrcm but were part of an Vif ORF in SIVcpz. (fredhutch.org)
  • The HIV-1 proviral construct, pNL4-3 was rendered noninfectious by replacing the HIV-1 gag / pol sequences with an EGFP reporter gene (pNL4-3: ΔG/P-EGFP). (asnjournals.org)
  • My research focuses on structure-function analysis of proteases and their inhibitors. (ucsf.edu)
  • The research efforts of the lab focus primarily on the structure-function analysis of proteases and their inhibitors using a combination of genetic, biochemical and biophysical methods. (ucsf.edu)
  • The overall negative charge of this 3-amino-acid motif appears critical for recognition by Vif, as single lysine substitutions are particularly deleterious and a double alanine substitution at positions 128 and 130 is far more inhibitory than single-residue mutations at either position. (asm.org)
  • Mutations in the human AID gene causing lack of function underlie one type of hyper-IgM syndrome. (jimmunol.org)
  • For instance, HIV-1 that expresses a Vif protein containing the K22H mutation fails to completely neutralize A3G and demonstrates abnormally high levels of A3-induced resistance mutations G16E and M36I in the viral protease. (squarespace.com)
  • As soon as HIV starts to copy its genes into DNA the antiviral protein attacks the virus, causing substantial mutations in the viral genetic material. (bestonhealth.com)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. (uniprot.org)
  • To facilitate such endeavors, we have employed molecular genetics to define features of A3G that are required for its interaction with Vif. (asm.org)
  • Researchers hope that the newly discovered interaction between Vif and CEM15 will help them find ways to inhibit Vif, a quest they have been on for awhile. (the-scientist.com)
  • Our data highlight the importance of Vif in HIV-1 pathogenesis and also provide a unique tool to investigate the interaction of Vif and Apobec3G. (umassmed.edu)
  • We are also analyzing HIV-2 Vif (Vif2) interactions with A3G and A3F and find that these structural determinants are different from the Vif1-A3G and Vif1-A3F interaction determinants. (cancer.gov)
  • In 2002, a landmark paper from Michael Malim's group identified an antiviral protein APOBEC3G (then called CEM15), whose function is neutralized by HIV protein Vif. (nature.com)
  • But how the CEM15 gene product works is unknown, he says. (the-scientist.com)
  • Sheehy et al (2002) were able to identify a single human gene product, termed CEM15 or APOBEC3G(h3G), that fully satisfied these criteria. (embopress.org)
  • In particular, DNA methylation of transcription units ('gene bodies') is highly conserved across diverse taxa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These small, acidic polypeptides of 28-32 kD are highly conserved, expressed in all eukaryotic organisms, and consist of seven different isoforms encoded by distinct genes in mammals with a variety of biological functions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • There are additional genes (also called accessory genes) depending on the virus (e.g., for HIV-1: vif, vpr, vpu, tat, rev, nef) whose products are involved in regulation of synthesis and processing viral RNA and other replicative functions. (genetherapynet.com)
  • More particularly, the present invention relates to vectors, stable cell lines and methods useful in gene therapy. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Therefore, lenti- and retro-viral vectors with these elements might be useful to monitor the activation of the GH gene and the development of newborn somatotrophs. (jove.com)
  • These viral vectors are shown to be useful tools to monitor the activation of the GH gene and the development of somatotrophs. (jove.com)
  • HIV contains not only these essential genes but also the complex regulatory genes tat, rev, nef, and auxiliary genes vif, vpr and vpu (Greene, 1991). (thebody.com)
  • UAP56, Brr2, Prp16, Prp22 and Prp43 play functions in RNA-splicing (4,9), while Dbp5 (10,11) and DDX3 (12) chaperone RNAs from your nucleus in to JNJ-7706621 the cytoplasm. (gasyblog.com)
  • Because the disease induced by the parental SIV mac 239 clone in rhesus monkeys has been well characterized and is remarkably similar to AIDS in humans, this collection of mutants will be useful for relating in vitro properties and gene function with in vivo pathogenic potential. (elsevier.com)
  • These data indicate that Nef induces multiple proliferative effects in podocytes in culture and that nef may therefore be an important gene in the pathogenesis of HIVAN in vivo . (asnjournals.org)
  • The results show that this strain of HIV does continue to replicate, even without vif, but at a much slower rate and without harming the human immune system. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The viral DNA is so badly mutated that it cannot function as before (i.e. cannot replicate). (bestonhealth.com)
  • In this paper, I shall review the functions and regulation of activation-induced cytidine deaminase and apolipoprotein B-editing cytidine deaminase, subunit 3G, and speculate about the basis for site specificity vis-à-vis generalized mutagenesis. (jimmunol.org)
  • The recent discovery of a new class of regulatory genes known as microRNAs (miRNAs) has resulted in a paradigm shift in gene regulation research. (prolekare.cz)
  • vif , vpr , vpu , nef ) whose products are involved in regulation of synthesis and processing viral RNA and other replicative functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • signaling of down-regulation to the phosphate is sugar of accumulation synaptic cycle genes( ITAMs) in the similar kinases of Ig-alpha and Ig-beta by Src group vitro genes, allowing LYN, FYN, and BLK( Nel et al. (evakoch.com)
  • Proposed functions for Vpr include the targeting the nuclear import of preintegration complexes, cell growth arrest, transactivation of cellular genes, and induction of cellular differentiation. (lanl.gov)
  • Lastly, we found that PSGL-1 is specifically induced by IFN-gamma and mediates the anti-HIV function of IFN-gamma. (nature.com)
  • summarize our current understanding of the anti-retroelement and antiretroviral activities and functions of human APOBEC3s. (frontiersin.org)
  • thus, it relies on human cellular functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human gene PSMC6 has 15 exons and locates at chromosome band 14q22.1. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a model of mouse hemophillia is corrected by expressing wild-type platlet-factor VIII, the gene that is mutated in human hemophillia. (genetherapynet.com)
  • These treatments, like most current gene therapy experiments, show promise but are yet to be established as safe and effective in controlled human studies. (genetherapynet.com)
  • The mice have a fully functioning human immune system and can be infected with HIV in the same manner as humans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Human Gene Therapy 11: 179-190. (els.net)
  • Isolation and characterization of alpha-type HC3 and beta-type HC5 subunit genes of human proteasomes. (nih.gov)
  • Any of the genes present in the human immunodeficiency virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • found that Vif from SIVcpz could efficiently degrade human APOBEC3G and that the passage of SIV through chimpanzees was crucial to allow SIV transmission to humans. (fredhutch.org)
  • a The spatial location of genes encoding 11 members of APOBEC family in human. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, these data argue that HIV‐1 Vif has evolved to suppress at least two distinct but related human antiretroviral DNA‐editing enzymes. (embopress.org)
  • In this context, it is interesting to note that h3G is actually encoded by one of seven related human genes, termed APOBEC3A-3G, that which are tandemly arrayed along one arm of chromosome 22 ( Jarmuz et al , 2002 ). (embopress.org)
  • The CP and RPs pertain distinct structural characteristics and biological functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APOBEC family members are involved in diverse biological functions. (proteopedia.org)
  • Proteases are directly or indirectly involved in virtually every biological function or dysfunction. (ucsf.edu)
  • We show that gene body methylation is significantly negatively associated with transcriptional noise when examined in the context of other biological factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lentivirus is primarily a research tool used to introduce a gene product into in vitro systems or animal models. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Here, the HIV-1 gene responsible for proliferative changes is identified by using cultured podocytes in vitro . (asnjournals.org)
  • Our major focus at present is a third HIV-1 regulatory protein termed Vif. (duke.edu)