Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Crutches: Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)Walkers: Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Dancing: Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Photogrammetry: Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Early Ambulation: Procedure to accelerate the ability of a patient to walk or move about by reducing the time to AMBULATION. It is characterized by a shorter period of hospitalization or recumbency than is normally practiced.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Tibial FracturesBiomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.ShoesIlizarov Technique: A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Hallux Valgus: Lateral displacement of the great toe (HALLUX), producing deformity of the first METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT with callous, bursa, or bunion formation over the bony prominence.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Cementation: The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mice, Inbred C57BLBone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Ideal Body Weight: Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Mice, Inbred BALB CRats, Inbred F344Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.TriglyceridesPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The rider achieves a full-body weight-bearing low-impact high-cardiovascular workout while moving outdoors. With a branded ... ElliptiGO University of Alabama at Birmingham, StreetStrider Born at UAB, 17 March 2009 Wallack, Roy M., Going Beyond the Basic ... The StreetStrider can be used for physical fitness, weight loss, physical therapy, human-powered transport, and outdoor ...
By one year of age, the juveniles are 70% of their full adult body weight. Infant mortality is high in this species. Upon ... Infants are born with little hair and initially cling to their mother's belly. As they mature, they begin to ride on her back. ... The golden-crowned sifaka is one of the smallest sifaka species with a weight of 3.4 to 3.6 kg (7.5 to 7.9 lb), a head-body ... In July 1988, a golden-crowned sifaka was born in captivity at the DLC. However, the captive population was small and not ...
Gestation periods are about 120 days, and young are born precocial. Newborns grow quickly, and reach full adult body weight ... and males will reach sexual maturity within the first two years of being born. Mothers will communicate with their offspring ...
Individuals may be able to breed by the time they reach a body weight of 48 grams (1.7 oz), considerably less than the full ... The young reach independence at a relatively early age, and those born in spring are generally reproductively active before the ... The fur is dull greyish-brown over most of the body, with paler greyish or yellowish underparts. As its name suggests. it has ... The tail is about three-quarters the length of the body, and is covered with sparse fur. It can most readily be distinguished ...
Originated in the Netherlands, Dyneema has an extremely high strength-to-weight ratio (a 1-mm-diameter rope of Dyneema can bear ... 11.7 g (180 gr) .40 S&W Full Metal Jacketed (FMJ) bullets at a velocity of 352 m/s ± 9.1 m/s (1155 ft/s ± 30 ft/s); and ... "Body Armor News- BodyArmorNews.com. Retrieved 12 June 2015.. *^ "Overview Of The NIJ Body Armor Standard". Retrieved 12 June ... Body Armor USA. *. James, Nathan (January 28, 2016). "Body Armor for Law Enforcement Officers: In Brief" (PDF). Congressional ...
Weight 2 lb. No.1a MTB 0.6875-inch bore and 0.625-inch stroke but all aluminium body with brass cylinder liners. Slide valve ... This model seems to have been superseded by the type R 2-stroke engine, which was introduced in 1934 with a full width crank. ... Bore and stroke 0.625 inches. BB 5-inch-tall enclosed vertical steam engine with single-sided ball bearing crankshaft and ... Bore 0.75 inches, stroke 0.625 inches. Twin Launch Twin-cylinder vertical launch engine, bore 1 inch, stroke 0.875 inches. The ...
Originated in the Netherlands, Dyneema has an extremely high strength-to-weight ratio (a 1-mm-diameter rope of Dyneema can bear ... The full suits of armor, or breast plates actually stopped bullets fired from a modest distance. The front breast plates were, ... Museum Syndicate: Armor Body Armor News Website Hardshell Website Body Armor USA James, Nathan (January 28, 2016). "Body Armor ... Body armor or body armour, or personal armor/armour is protective clothing, designed to absorb and/or deflect slashing, ...
Full weight-bearing: The leg can now carry 100% of the body weight, which permits normal walking. Pierson, F. Principles and ... In this grade, 0% of the body weight may be rested on the leg. Touch-down weight-bearing or Toe-touch weight-bearing: The foot ... of body weight. Non-weight-bearing (NWB): The leg must not touch the floor and is not permitted to support any weight at all. ... it is described as a percentage of the body weight, because each leg of a healthy person carries the full body weight when ...
She is currently writing a fictional account of weight loss reality television and speaks at conferences on the topics of body ... Kai Hibbard was born in 1978, the middle daughter of three girls in a military family. She was born in Kodiak, Alaska to Audrey ... In 2006 she was awarded a full scholarship to University of Maine Law School. She is married, has a boyfriend and a young ... She is currently finishing a fictional novel about weight loss reality television. In November 2015, continuing with body ...
... they would find that the full weight of the person was being borne by the pool and, ultimately, the scale underneath the pool. ... For instance, buoyancy's diminishing effect upon one's body weight (a relatively low-density object) is ​1⁄860 that of gravity ... the missing weight is instead being borne by the ground, which leaves less force (weight) being applied to any scale ... a balloon has mass but may appear to have no weight or even negative weight, due to buoyancy in air. However the weight of the ...
The One-Legged Squat is performed with one leg held out straight in front of the body while the other leg bears the full weight ... The entire weight of the individual is balanced on the arms. The body is then lowered to the ground. Muscle Groups Full Body ... As bodyweight exercises use the individual's own weight to provide the resistance for the movement, the weight being lifted is ... Bodyweight exercises can be increased in intensity by including additional weights (such as wearing a weighted vest or holding ...
Infants born to young mothers who are not fully developed are found to have low birth weights. The level of maternal nutrition ... Maternal body size is strongly associated with the size of newborn children. Short stature of the mother and poor maternal ... This affects the children's ability to achieve their full potential. In 2011 UNICEF reported that thirty percent of households ... extremely low weight for age), and wasting (extremely low weight for height). These measures of malnutrition are interrelated, ...
... (born 13 June 1989) is an Australian model. Robyn was born in Girraween, New South Wales, to Chris and Janne ... Lawley appeared in the debut campaign for Sculptresse, a line by full-figure bra, lingerie and swimwear brand Panache. She also ... Lawley has written two articles on body image for The Daily Beast. Her first article, in September 2012 addressed the media's ... response to Lady Gaga's weight gain. The second article, in October 2013, addressed the thigh gap trend. In 2014, Lawley wrote ...
... he was the first to enunciate the law of acceleration of a body and to distinguish between mass and weight.[citation needed] He ... He was born in Genoa. He was governor of Savona in 1647-1649 and captain of the Republic of Genoa's archers. For some 25 years ... He also conducted an experiment to show the heat generated on a pot full of water, which he had boil after rotating it at high ...
26.0 Weight, dry (lb): 291 Max speed (mph): 42 The body consists of a new "Round nose" top deck (or hull) and the same standard ... Common name: 701 or round nose (RN) Displacement: 701cc, Inline 2-Cylinder, 2-Stroke (61X cylinder, 62T cases) Bore x stroke: ... 7.7 Range at full throttle: 0.6 hrs Spark plug: B8HS / BR8HS (NGK 6715) Ignition Timing: 15° BTDC - 21° BTDC, variable over the ... 26.0 Weight, dry (lb): 287 Max speed (mph): 38.2 The body remains the same as the previous generation with a "Square nose" top ...
During filming of Everest: Beyond the Limit, Drake-Brockman lost 18% of his body weight, a record among the crew members. Drake ... James Ralph Drake-Brockman was born in Borneo in 1955. He studied at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School. A keen musician, he ... In 1989 he joined the band as a full-time member as keyboard player. He played on the 1990 album Reverberation. From 2004 ... The inquest into his death was opened and adjourned on 10 September; the full inquest has been delayed until police enquiries ...
Maternal factors include maternal weight, body mass index, nutritional state, emotional stress, toxin exposure (including ... It may be 48 to 53 cm (19 to 21 inches) in length, when born. Control of movement is limited at birth, and purposeful voluntary ... "full-term" defined by Memidex/WordNet. Stanley, Fiona et al. "Cerebral Palsies: Epidemiology and Causal Pathways", page 48 ( ... SGA can result in low birth weight, although premature birth can also result in low birth weight. Low birth weight increases ...
The largest living forms are the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), with a body weight of up to 680 kg (1,500 lb), and the similarly ... Phoberomys pattersoni, known from a nearly full skeleton, probably reached 700 kg (1,500 lb). Fragmentary remains suggest that ... Polar bears, among the largest bears (consistent with Bergmann's rule), are vulnerable to global warming. The critically ... The average weight is 1,192 kg (2,628 lb) for an adult male and 828 kg (1,825 lb) for an adult female with maximum weights of ...
These shots are what gave her a feminine body, her breasts grew and she started to lose weight. Realizing her feminine identity ... It wasn't until a full year after her graduation that she felt like she could pass as a woman in broad daylight in public. Some ... Not so long after, she signed a contract with Avon and Clairol's 'Born Beautiful' hair color No. 512. It is often times said ... In a cover story for New York Magazine she said " it just seemed like I was living in the wrong body. I always felt female." ...
During winter, black bears consume 25-40% of their body weight. The footpads peel off while they sleep, making room for new ... feeding becomes virtually the full-time task of black bears. Hard masts become the most important part of the black bear's diet ... The ancestors of American black bears and Asiatic black bears diverged from sun bears 4.58 mya. The American black bear then ... large males exceed the size of other bear species except the brown bear and polar bears. The biggest wild American black bear ...
... to save material and weight. Less noise by reduction of body borne noise: Compared to the unstructured material, vault ... Full preservation of the surface quality: Vault structuring does not only sustain the material properties by gentle deformation ... Increased rigidity results in lower weight: Vault structures provide a multidimensional rigidity to the material against ...
Full weight-bearing: The leg can now carry 100% of the body weight, which permits normal walking.[1] ... it is described as a percentage of the body weight, because each leg of a healthy person carries the full body weight when ... Weight-bearing as tolerated: Usually assigned to people that can support from 50 to 100% of the body weight on the affected leg ... Touch-down weight-bearing or Toe-touch weight-bearing: The foot or toes may touch the floor (such as to maintain balance), but ...
... with the same design in full body generally the 3xp was the model for every day use,plus 10kg of weight,the range in gravel use ... Displacement: 195cc Bore and stroke: 66X57mm Transmission: 6 speed Starting: Primary Kick Ignition: C.D.I. Brakes: front and ... The WR200 has a larger cylinder bore size of 66.8mm diameter giving a displacement of 199cm with a standard compression of 6.3: ... Dry Weight: 108 kg (238 lbs) Fuel capacity: 10 L ( 2.2 imperial gallons; 2.75 US gallons) Oil Tank Capacity: 1.2 L (1.1 ...
Current treatment options for older children over age 8 include prolonged periods without weight bearing, osteotomy (femoral, ... and the hip distraction method using an external fixator which relieves the hip from carrying the body's weight. This allows ... Swimming is highly recommended, as it allows exercise of the hip muscles with full range of motion while reducing the stress to ... These exercises focus on improving and maintaining a full range of motion of the femur within the hip socket. Performing these ...
After the Athens Olympics, Gardner gained 210 pounds, culminating in a total body weight of 474 pounds. In January 2011, he was ... Gardner was born in Afton, Wyoming. He is the son of Reed and Virginia Gardner and the last of nine children. His second great ... This was also the first Olympic gold medal won by an American Greco-Roman wrestler in a full international field. Gardner won a ... Rulon E. Gardner (born August 16, 1971) is a retired American Greco-Roman wrestler. He competed at the 2000 and 2004 Olympics ...
There are a number of methods to estimate weight in children for circumstances (such as emergencies) when actual weight cannot be measured. Most involve a parent or health care provider guessing the child's weight through weight-estimation formulas. These formulas base their findings on the child's age and tape-based systems of weight estimation. Of the many formulas that have been used for estimating body weight, some include the APLS formula, the Leffler formula, and Theron formula.[1] There are also several types of tape-based systems for estimating children's weight, with the most well-known being the Broselow tape.[2] The Broselow tape is based on length with weight read from the appropriate color area. Newer systems, ...
Intentional weight loss is the loss of total body mass as a result of efforts to improve fitness and health, or to change appearance through slimming. Weight loss in individuals who are overweight or obese can reduce health risks,[1] increase fitness,[2] and may delay the onset of diabetes.[1] It could reduce pain and increase movement in people with osteoarthritis of the knee.[2] Weight loss can lead to a reduction in hypertension (high blood pressure), however whether this reduces hypertension-related harm is unclear.[1][not in citation given]. Weight loss occurs when the body is expending more energy in work and metabolism than it is absorbing from food or other nutrients. It will then use stored reserves from fat or muscle, gradually leading to weight loss. For athletes ...
... , in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue. Weight loss can either occur unintentionally due to malnourishment or an underlying disease or arise from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state. "Unexplained" weight loss that is not caused by reduction in calorific intake or exercise is called cachexia and may be a symptom of a serious medical condition. Intentional weight loss is commonly referred to as slimming. Intentional weight loss is the loss of total body mass as a result of efforts to improve fitness and health, or to change appearance ...
In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies. Because muscular tissue takes up less space in our body than fat tissue, our body composition, as well as our weight, determines leanness. Two people of the same sex and body weight may look completely different because they have a different body composition. The most accurate estimation of body composition is derived from body density by means of the equation of fractional densities which states that the overall density of a mixture containing more than one substance (each with a different density) can be calculated if the proportion and density of each component substance is known. For determination of body composition the body is often assumed to be composed of four ...
... is a UK weight loss business which has developed and commercialised the concept of personal contracts for weight loss. The company has attracted attention from UK and international media for its 'Pounds for Pounds' weight loss programme and for operating the first trial by the UK's National Health Service (NHS) of a weight loss incentive programme. The diet rewards sector addresses the specific problem of overweight and obesity. As with many commercial diet plans, there is no good evidence it is helpful or cost-effective. Weight Wins' was first devised in 2007 following a UK-wide consumer survey. The initial scheme was developed and trialled as the 'Pounds for Pounds' programme over a three-month period from September to December 2007, with a maximum weight loss target ...
The percentage of total body mass that is lean is usually not quoted - it would typically be 60-90%. Instead, the body fat percentage, which is the complement, is computed, and is typically 10-40%. The lean body mass (LBM) has been described as an index superior to total body weight for prescribing proper levels of medications and for assessing metabolic disorders, as body fat is less relevant for metabolism. LBW is used by anesthesiologists to dose certain medications. For example, due to the concern of postoperative opioid-induced ventilatory depression in the obese patient, opioids are best based on lean body weight. The induction dose of propofol should also be based on LBW [1] ...
... can include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery. The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle. Success rates of long-term weight loss maintenance with lifestyle changes are low, ranging from 2 to 20%. Dietary and lifestyle changes are effective in limiting excessive weight gain in pregnancy and improve outcomes for both the mother and the child. The National Institutes of Health recommend a weight loss goal of 5% to 10% of the person's current weight over six months. One medication, orlistat, is current widely available and approved for long term ...
In each weight division, lifters compete in both the snatch and clean and jerk. Prizes are usually given for the heaviest weights lifted in each and in the overall-the maximum lifts of both combined. The order of the competition is up to the lifters-the competitor who chooses to attempt the lowest weight goes first. If they are unsuccessful at that weight, they have the option of reattempting at that weight or trying a heavier weight after any other competitors have made attempts at the previous weight or any other intermediate weights. The barbell is loaded incrementally and progresses to a heavier weight throughout the course of competition. Weights are set in 1 kilogram ...
Some bodyweight exercises have been shown to benefit not just the young, but the elderly as well.[5] Older people undertaking bodyweight exercises benefit through increased muscle mass, increased mobility, increased bone density, decreased depression and improved sleep habits.[6][7] It is also believed that bodyweight training may assist in decreasing or even preventing cognitive decline as people age.[4] In addition, the increased risk of falls seen in elderly people can be mitigated by bodyweight training. Exercises focusing on the legs and abdomen such as squats, lunges and step ups are recommended to increase leg and core strength and, in doing so, reduce fall risk.[8] These bodyweight exercises provide multi-directional movement that mimics daily ...
The Shake Weight is a modified dumbbell that oscillates, purportedly increasing the effects of exercise. As a result of the perceived sexually suggestive nature of the product, infomercial clips of the exercise device have gone viral. Johann Verheem is the inventor of Shake Weight and CEO of FitnessIQ. By August 2010, a reported two million Shake Weight units had been sold for a total of $40 million in sales. The Shake Weight has a female and male version, though it was initially released as a product "designed specifically for women". The female version weighs 2.5 lb. Per official company press releases, "Based on a groundbreaking workout technology called Dynamic Inertia, which engages the muscles in the arms, shoulders and chest in an entirely new fashion, the Shake Weight increases upper body muscle activity by more than ...
Their limbs are adapted for hanging and grasping, not for supporting their weight. Muscles make up only 25 to 30 percent of their total body weight. Most other mammals have a muscle mass that makes up 40 to 45 percent of the total body weight.[25] Their specialised hands and feet have long, curved claws to allow them to hang upside down from branches without effort,[26] and are used to drag themselves along the ground, since they cannot walk. On three-toed sloths, the arms are 50 percent longer than the legs.[18]. Sloths move only when necessary and even then very slowly. They usually move at an average speed of 4 metres (13 ft) per minute, but can move at a marginally higher speed of 4.5 metres (15 ft), if they are in immediate danger from a predator. While they sometimes sit on top of branches, they usually eat, sleep, and even give birth hanging from branches. They ...
The standard atomic weight is thus a more special value of the relative atomic mass. It is defined as the "recommended values" of relative atomic masses of sources in the local environment of the Earth's crust and atmosphere as determined by the IUPAC Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances (CIAAW).[2] In general, values from different sources are subject to natural variation due to a different radioactive history of sources. Thus, standard atomic weights are an expectation range of atomic weights from a range of samples or sources. By limiting the sources to terrestrial origin only, the CIAAW-determined values have less variance, and are a more precise value for relative atomic masses (atomic weights) actually found and used in worldly materials. The CIAAW-published values are used and sometimes lawfully ...
In each weight division, lifters compete in both the snatch and clean and jerk. Prizes are usually given for the heaviest weights lifted in each and in the overall-the maximum lifts of both combined. The order of the competition is up to the lifters-the competitor who chooses to attempt the lowest weight goes first. If they are unsuccessful at that weight, they have the option of reattempting at that weight or trying a heavier weight after any other competitors have made attempts at the previous weight or any other intermediate weights. The barbell is loaded incrementally and progresses to a heavier weight throughout the course of competition. Weights are set in 1 kilogram ...
Body Weight. Signs and Symptoms. Neurocognitive Disorders. Mental Disorders. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases ... In a national Norwegian cohort of children born before 28 weeks gestation or with a birth weight less than 1000 g born in 1999 ... All extremely preterm infants (gestational age , 28 weeks or birth weight , 1000 g born in Norway in 1999 and 2000 and still ... All the children (n=52) and matched Controls born at term have measurements of height, weight and blood pressures, pulminary ...
MedlinePlus related topics: Body Weight Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Osteochondritis Dissecans ... No Intervention: Non-Weight Bearing x 6 weeks Experimental: Immediate Weight-Bearing as Tolerated Other: Weight-Bearing as ... that their will be no difference in functional outcomes between weight bearing as tolerated as compared to non-weight bearing ... Study of the Effect of Weight Bearing Status on Patient Outcomes After Surgery for Osteochondral Defects of the Ankle. The ...
L.I. is the guarantor of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the ... Body Composition and Circulating High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and IGF-I in Infants Born Small for Gestational Age. Breast ... Body Composition and Circulating High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and IGF-I in Infants Born Small for Gestational Age ... Body Composition and Circulating High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and IGF-I in Infants Born Small for Gestational Age ...
Three hundred milligrams of the CARI III/kg/day p.o. regimen reduced tumor weight, comparable to the doxorubicin (Dox)-treated ... Figure 5. Effect of CARI III on body weight. The body weight of the mice was measured during treatment. The mean body weights ... Figure 5. Effect of CARI III on body weight. The body weight of the mice was measured during treatment. The mean body weights ... The body weight of the following days is expressed as the ratio of the body weight to the initial body weight. Data were ...
... photobleaching and slow clearance from the body. To overcome these limitations, there is a need for the development of new ... b Average body weights of the tumor-bearing mice. c Representative photographs of the tumor-bearing mice. The error bars ... were solved with the SHELXT55 small molecule structure solution program and refined with the SHELXL program package56 by full- ... The tumor volume and body weight were measured and recorded every 2 days. Tumor volume was calculated by the following formula: ...
Healthy participants of non-child bearing potential. *Body weight between 50 to 100 kilogram (kg) ... Body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 29.9 kilogram per meter square (kg/m^2) ...
Tumor volume was measured every 2 days (a). Body weight were measured every 2 days (b). c The hematoxylin-eosin staining ... a, b Mice bearing MM1.S MM tumors were treated with either YL064 (30 mg/kg; IP) or vehicle daily for 9 days. ... Full size image. YL064 suppresses the growth of human MM in vivo. The in vivo efficacy of YL064 in a xenograft MM mouse model ... 7a). However, YL064 has no significant effect on the body weight of treated mice (Fig. 7b). Immunohistological analysis ...
That includes walking, jogging, tennis, and other activities where you move the full weight of your body. Using small weights ... Build Strong Bones With Weight. Weight-bearing exercise can help you build bone and maintain it. ... Swimming and bicycling can be great exercise, but they are not weight-bearing and therefore not as effective in providing bone- ... Some foods can sap your bodys calcium. Minimize salty foods such as canned soups and processed meats. Most Americans get much ...
A person with this type of break often is unable to put weight on the injured leg, according to UK Healthcare. Typically, a ... The leg is unable to bear weight. If the broken bone moves out of alignment, the leg often appears misshapen. Circulation ... However, it can take three months or more to regain full use... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Breaks & Sprains ... The fibula is significantly smaller, supporting only about 17 percent of body weight. Although its comparatively small size ...
Table 5. Effects of glycyrrhizin analogs against the survival of EAC-bearing mice.. Groups. Animal number (n). Body weight (g) ... where Wcontrol and Wtreated were the average tumor weights of the control and treated mice, respectively. EAC tumor-bearing ... The results revealed that glycyrrhizin analogs significantly decreased the tumor weights of S180 and HepG2 tumor-bearing mice. ... Figure 3. Solid tumors from S180 (above) and HepG2 (below) tumor-bearing mice. A: 18α-GAMG; B: 18β-GAMG; C: 18α-GA; D: 18β-GA; ...
The opposite leg immediately must bear the bodys full weight. Most reflexes, such as this one, are mediated by the spinal cord ... The opposite leg immediately must bear the bodys full weight. Most reflexes, such as this one, are mediated by the spinal cord ... The Oxford Companion to the Body © The Oxford Companion to the Body 2001, originally published by Oxford University Press 2001. ... Normal new-born babies, in whom the higher central control of posture has yet to develop, show the primitive withdrawal ...
Body weight (a), foetal number (b), and foetal/placental weight ratio (c, eutrophic groups; d, groups fed a leucine-rich diet) ... 1c and d). Foetal weight and placental weight were positively correlated in all groups except the tumour-bearing group (W). ... Tumour growth deleteriously affects dam body weight and foetal parameters. Tumour growth produced harmful effects on body ... tumour-bearing rats, the consequences of tumour evolution were demonstrated. These included decreased body weight and ...
Full weight-bearing: The leg can now carry 100% of the body weight, which permits normal walking.[1] ... it is described as a percentage of the body weight, because each leg of a healthy person carries the full body weight when ... Weight-bearing as tolerated: Usually assigned to people that can support from 50 to 100% of the body weight on the affected leg ... Touch-down weight-bearing or Toe-touch weight-bearing: The foot or toes may touch the floor (such as to maintain balance), but ...
Body mass index (BMI) within 17.5 to 30.5 kg/m2; and a total body weight ,50 kg (110 lb) ... Subjects enrolling as Japanese must have four biologically Japanese grandparents born in Japan. ...
If the arms bear the full weight of the body, the position can be extremely painful. But MPs later told CIA investigators that ... Charles Graner poses over the body of detainee Manadel al-Jamadi in Abu Ghraib prison. ABC News/Charles Fredrick/Reuters/Corbis ... During this new round of questioning by CIA agents, Jamadi slumped forward, with his weight on his shackled wrists. MPs, while ...
... body weight supported condition requires less oxygen consumption than full weight bearing. Treadmill training with BWS can be ... Oxygen consumption during treadmill walking with and without body weight support in patients with hemiparesis after stroke and ... Objective: To compare oxygen consumption during walking with body weight support (BWS) with oxygen consumption during ...
Moreover, we presented evidence that the recruitment of MDSCs into liver in tumor bearing mice was mediated by CXC chemokine ... Moreover, we presented evidence that the recruitment of MDSCs into liver in tumor bearing mice was mediated by CXC chemokine ... In this study, we found that remote tumor bearing mice performed dramatically attenuated pathogenesis of Concanavalin A (Con A ... We also found remarkably increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in tumor bearing mice, and depletion/transfer ...
Edward Jackowski says that jumping rope can be your key to unlock weight loss. ... It is one of the best exercises to combat osteoporosis, because it is a full-body, weight-bearing exercise. ... It is one of the best fat-burning aerobic activities and weight-loss tools available. Its safe and effective for every body ... Jumping rope burns fat throughout your entire body and works both the upper and lower body simultaneously. As a result, youll ...
... see bear,‎ down.; To approach from windward.; To intensify a persons attempts.; To approach in a determined manner.; To exert ... bear down definition: Used other than as an idiom: ... use full strength. *use a force with a heavy body weight. *pay ... How would you define bear down?. All the definitions on AZdictionary were written by people just like you. Nows your chance to ...
Researchers are also looking for ways to simulate gravity during exercise - to give the body a full weight-bearing workout. ... The human body undergoes many changes during spaceflight - from shifts in the heart and blood vessels to the bacteria in the ... This simulates the effect of gravity on body fluids.. They found that people who spent just a short time in one of these ... Collagen is an essential building block for the entire body, from skin to gut, and more. Heres five changes you may see or ...
By one year of age, the juveniles are 70% of their full adult body weight.[14] Infant mortality is high in this species.[22] ... Infants are born with little hair and initially cling to their mothers belly. As they mature, they begin to ride on her back. ... The golden-crowned sifaka is one of the smallest sifaka species with a weight of 3.4 to 3.6 kg (7.5 to 7.9 lb), a head-body ... a golden-crowned sifaka was born in captivity at the DLC.[5] However, the captive population was small and not viable for long- ...
Weight-bearing exercise is the kind you perform on your feet, with your bones and muscles supporting your full body weight. ... 2. Perform weight-bearing cardio exercise.. Performing daily cardio exercise is not only great for cardio respiratory fitness ... Examples of weight-bearing exercise include: walking, running, stair-climbing and the elliptical machine. ... Did you know that half of your bodys store of magnesium is found in bone? Magnesium is one more mineral that help your body to ...
Polar bear Polar bear mothers double their body weight to prepare for pregnancy. (Photo: Tom linster/Shutterstock) ... staying underground with her cubs for a full two months after theyre born. Then she must navigate the ever-melting sea ice in ... To prepare for pregnancy, the female polar bear must double her body weight (gaining upwards of 400 pounds!) and after that, ... Polar bear mothers endure extremes to protect and raise their cubs. (Photo: ourdoorsman/Shutterstock) ...
Body weight support training may be utilized to improve gait in the elderly and... ... Lovely RG, Gregor RJ, Roy RR, Edgerton VR: Effects of training on the recovery of full-weight-bearing stepping in the adult ... Our findings at 0% BWS (full weight-bearing) confirm these results.. Foot function is very important during gait. Our results ... The subject then resumed treadmill walking with 0% BWS (full weight bearing) at the previously selected speed. For the next ...
... adds on weight stack, custom colors, and many more. Picking out a home gym can become a frustrating event, but at FitnessZone ... Body-Solid G3S Selectorized Home Gym. Advanced engineering has resulted in exceptional range of motion and full adjustability ... Leg developer station features the SmoothGlide Bearing SystemTM with biomechanically accurate pivot point. ... Adjustable hold down pads stabilize your body for lifts beyond your body weight. Unique versatility allows you to increase the ...
  • In this report, we studied the liver immune response of tumor-bearing (TB) mice using concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis model. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our previous study demonstrated that the translational regulator, cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 4 (CPEB4), is a survival factor exclusively for neonate-born but not SVZ/adult-derived GCs, so CPEB4-knockout (KO) mice provide unique leverage to study early postnatal-born GC-regulated olfactory functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • MC4-R knock-out mice or mice administered the MC3-R/MC4-R antagonist, agouti-related peptide, resist tumor-induced loss of lean body mass, and maintain normal circadian activity patterns during tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Toward this end, female BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously in the hind footpad or forearm with a series of six different molecular weight hyaluronan (HA) near-infrared dye (HA-IR820) conjugates ( ca. 5-200 nm). (mdpi.com)
  • Mice were imaged using whole body fluorescent imaging over two weeks. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast to prior reports, mice bearing limb tumors exhibited three-fold longer retention of 74-kDa HA-IR820 in the popliteal node compared to mice without tumors. (mdpi.com)
  • MCF-7 tumors were established and mice were fed with basal diet or 10% flaxseed, and two groups that were fed basal diet received daily injections with enterodiol or enterolactone (15 mg/kg body weight). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The antitumor efficacy of FM was investigated both in immune compromised and immune competent mice bearing subcutaneous HCC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In HCC-bearing mice, FM at a non-toxic dose failed to reduce tumor growth in immune compromised mice, whereas it significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged life span in immune competent mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The body weight and tumor size of nude mice bearing HCC were measured daily for the 4-week duration of the experiment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All the children (n=52) and matched Controls born at term have measurements of height, weight and blood pressures, pulminary function tests, MRI and functional MRI of the brain, Assessment of bone mineralization and distribution of fat and muscle (DXA). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Measurements can be taken of the fetus' head and abdomen and compared with a growth chart to estimate fetal weight. (chop.edu)
  • Definition Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) Used in meta-analysis for continuous numerical measurements Each study in a meta-analysis is weighted based on variance III. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Therefore the objective of the present study was to describe the influence of body dimensions (body length (BL), thoracic circumference (TC), withers height (WH)), BWT, age, gender, breed ( purebred Arabians, part-bred Arabians, Anglo-Arabians, and Others ) and the initiation of endurance training on echocardiographic measurements in competition-fit endurance horses aged 4 to 6 years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biomechanically accurate pivot point ensures ergonomically correct body positioning for natural and complete hamstring and leg biceps development. (fitnesszone.com)
  • Leg developer station features the SmoothGlide Bearing SystemTM with biomechanically accurate pivot point. (fitnesszone.com)
  • Background: In a national Norwegian cohort of children born before 28 weeks gestation or with a birth weight less than 1000 g born in 1999 and 2000, 372 survived. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This was accomplished by evaluating the expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and degradation and assessing anti-oxidant enzyme activity in placental tissues collected from pregnant, tumour-bearing rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Decreased placental protein synthesis and increased protein degradation were observed in both the tumour-bearing and the ascitic fluid-injected groups that were fed a normoprotein diet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When administered to rodents at supraphysiological doses, ghrelin activates hypothalamic neuropeptide Y/agouti gene-related protein neurons and increases food intake and body weight. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The review of trials found that adding protein to breast milk increases short-term weight gain and body growth. (cochrane.org)
  • Unlike some forms of weight training, which target certain muscle groups, swimming can challenge your entire body no matter what stroke you are swimming. (floridapoolpro.com)
  • However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In conclusion, consumption of a leucine-rich diet improved placental metabolism and cell signalling in tumour-bearing rats, and these changes reduced the deleterious effects caused by tumour growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rats bearing this mutant form of GHSR were more sensitive to injected ghrelin and gained more body weight as fat without eating more food than their normal counterparts. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1985). This stability results in part from the shape and movement of the top of the pelvis (the ilium) as it rotates forward toward the sacrum (the base of the spine) during weight- bearing movement to help "lock" or "close" the joint space-like one piece of a jigsaw puzzle fitting neatly together with another (see Figure 1). (ideafit.com)
  • In this biomechanics model, the weight and the position of the load relative to the center of the price are just two of the factors that are important in determining the load on a spine. (thefullwiki.org)
  • By rolling partway to the side (the side opposite the pain, if one side of your back hurts worse) and placing a thick, long body pillow behind your spine, you can relieve the pressure and support your lower back at the same time. (sharecare.com)
  • In European history , well-known armor types include the mail hauberk of the early medieval age, and the full steel plate harness worn by later Medieval and Renaissance knights , and a few key components (breast and back plates) by heavy cavalry in several European countries until the first year of World War I (1914-15). (wikipedia.org)
  • mean age 54.46 years) were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After surgery of the hip, or of the bones of the leg, ankle, or foot, it is of the utmost importance for recovery to get the right amount of weight-bearing when moving around with crutches or frames. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body-Solid is recognized worldwide as a leader in home gyms and commercial strength training equipment. (biggerfasterstronger.com)
  • Indeed, workouts using dynamic, high-intensity, full-body movements are great for strength and health-provided the body functions properly and exercisers use correct technique. (ideafit.com)
  • That's why BuzzFeed Life asked NYC-based personal trainer Albert Matheny, C.S.C.S., founder of Soho Strength Lab, to design nine high-intensity bodyweight-only workouts that you can do anywhere. (lose-weight-exercise.com)
  • Whether it's physique/bodybuilding or just body composition changes, powerlifting/strength sports or just general health, most beginners will train similarly. (bodyrecomposition.com)
  • In a similar vein, increasing strength to some degree is also a common goal of going into the weight room. (bodyrecomposition.com)
  • Body armor/armour , personal armor/armour , suits of armour or coats of armour all refer to protective clothing, designed to absorb and/or deflect slashing, bludgeoning and penetrating attacks by weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance full plate armor first appeared in Medieval Europe when water-powered trip hammers made the formation of plates faster and cheaper. (wikipedia.org)
  • I don't want to ride street wearing full-on dirt armor. (advrider.com)
  • These changes increase overall metabolic consumption in the host, especially in the skeletal muscle, and decrease lean body mass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When administered either peripherally or centrally to rodents, ghrelin rapidly increases food intake and body weight ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ) in addition to stimulating gastric motility and acid secretion ( 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • found that cells with a truncated form of GHSR had larger responses to ghrelin than cells with the full-length GHSR. (sciencemag.org)
  • When the fetus does not receive enough oxygen or nutrients during pregnancy, overall body and organ growth is limited, and tissue and organ cells may not grow as large or as numerous. (chop.edu)
  • Perinatal factors, growth parameters, growth velocities(ΔLengthZ and ΔWeightZ: Z-score changes of length and weight) during birth and term-corrected age were documented. (springer.com)
  • Catch-up growth of length and weight was ubiquitous(30.7, 46.2%, respectively). (springer.com)
  • When adjusted for associated co-variables, weight catch-up growth existed in subgroups of 36 weeks PMA at birth, male, twin and SGA, while AGA almost reached this standard with mean adjusted ΔWeightZ as 0.66. (springer.com)
  • Different associated factors for length and weight growth signified the necessity of constructing more detailed growth standards by specific stratification for associated factors. (springer.com)
  • However, heart dimensions are also related to body weight (BWT), body size, growth and (in some species) breed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In terms of size, general morphology, and vocalizations, the golden-crowned sifaka is more comparable to the western forest sifakas (known as the P. verreauxi group) in that it is smaller in length and weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Advanced engineering has resulted in exceptional range of motion and full adjustability for any size user. (fitnesszone.com)
  • Body shape dissatisfaction was defined as the difference between the figures chosen for the current and ideal body size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Females generally reach full size at 5 years of age while males will not reach their full potential until 8 years of age. (mdwfp.com)
  • A mother's weight gain can also indicate a baby's size. (chop.edu)
  • Age: 16 weight: 155 height: 5.6" what should be my pant size? (healthtap.com)
  • Lost 35 lbs and did not lose a full pant size. (healthtap.com)
  • Loosing 35 lbs and not loosing a full pant size does not make any sence you should consult your doctor and get a thorough physical exam with weight height / bmi , blood tests etc, and discuss your weight loss of 35 lbs and no loss in the waist line, and what exercses you should be doing. (healthtap.com)
  • A person with this type of break often is unable to put weight on the injured leg, according to UK Healthcare. (reference.com)
  • It's safe and effective for every body type. (cbn.com)
  • Regardless of fracture type, non-weight bearing status should be maintained until relatively pain-free activity in the hip region. (wku.edu)
  • This region bears the entire weight of the upper body and is twisted and bent more than other parts. (innertraditions.com)
  • Both the load and the weight of the upper torso create significant stress on the body structures at the low back, especially at the disc between the fifth lumbar and the first sacral vertebrae (known as the L5/S1 lumbosacral disc). (thefullwiki.org)
  • SHR said Stewart suffered a burst fracture of his L1 vertebra, the first vertebra in the lumbar region which bears the weight of the upper body. (motorsport.com)
  • What's contributing to my paranoia is a successful turn in losing weight (a LOT of weight) that has exposed my upper body to a degree previously unseen. (advrider.com)
  • I intend to start doing more weightlifting to pad and strengthen my upper body, but in the meantime, any gear recommendations? (advrider.com)
  • Hence, in the early postnatal OB, whose function cannot be replaced by adult-born GCs, construct critical circuits for odor discrimination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Newborns grow quickly, and reach full adult body weight after about 10-13 weeks, and will usually leave the parental harem after about 16 weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Average body weights of black bears are 150-400+ lbs for adult males and 100-250 lbs for adult females, much larger individuals have been documented in Mississippi as well as throughout the southeast. (mdwfp.com)