Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.Kerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.HydrocarbonsOxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Deuterium Exchange Measurement: A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Cystathionine gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.Hydrogenase: An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.PeroxidasesModels, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.FiresElectrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.PropaneLactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Amitrole: A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.SmokeCystathionine beta-Synthase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Household Articles: Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Lactose Intolerance: The condition resulting from the absence or deficiency of LACTASE in the MUCOSA cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, and the inability to break down LACTOSE in milk for ABSORPTION. Bacterial fermentation of the unabsorbed lactose leads to symptoms that range from a mild indigestion (DYSPEPSIA) to severe DIARRHEA. Lactose intolerance may be an inborn error or acquired.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Tooth Bleaching: The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems: A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Hydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Lactoperoxidase: An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Crystallography: The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Acetylene
Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology *^ Electrolysis For Synthetic Fuel Production Archived 2015-05-30 at the Wayback Machine ... 2012 Air Fuel Synthesis -Air Fuel Synthesis Ltd (UK).[89][90][91][92][93] Air Fuel Synthesis Ltd have become insolvent.[94] ... "The AFS Process - turning air into a sustainable fuel". Air Fuel Synthesis - Technical Review. Air Fuel Synthesis Limited. ... Syntrolysis, Synthetic Fuels from Carbon Dioxide, Electricity and Steam *^ "Synthetic Fuel (syntrolysis)". Thoughtware.TV. ...
Hydrogen storage and fuel[edit]. With a hydrogen content in proportion to its mass three times that of NaH, LiH has the highest ... The corresponding lithium-6 deuteride, 6LiH, or 6LiD, is the primary fusion fuel in thermonuclear weapons. In hydrogen warheads ... LiH is produced by treating lithium metal with hydrogen gas: 2 Li + H2 → 2 LiH. This reaction is especially rapid at ... LiH reacts violently with water to give hydrogen gas and LiOH, which is caustic. Consequently, LiH dust can explode in humid ...
The combustion of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer (e.g. two moles of hydrogen and one mole of oxygen) in a steel ... of some common fuels[4]. Fuel. HHV MJ/kg. HHV BTU/lb. HHV kJ/mol. LHV MJ/kg. ... 120 MJ/kg). For hydrocarbons the difference depends on the hydrogen content of the fuel. For gasoline and diesel the higher ... MF (moisture-free) or dry indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured after the fuel has been dried of all inherent ...
A fuel cell UPS has been developed in recent years using hydrogen and a fuel cell as a power source, potentially providing long ... "Hydrogen Fuel Cell UPS".. *^ "UPS On-Line Uninterruptible Power Supply Backup Power Source". Archived from the original on ...
Although this article has focused on enriched uranium for the fuel and hydrogen for the propellant, this may not be the optimal ... Nuclear fuel[edit]. The fissile fuel is usually highly enriched uranium pellets or a uranium containing gas (U-235 or U-233). ... The hydrogen propellant cools the reactor and its various structural parts. Hydrogen is first pumped through the nozzle, then ... Another important aspect to GCRs is the impact of the rocket acceleration on the containment of the fuel in the fuel bubble. A ...
Burning of hydrogen-rich fuel produces water; this results in smoke containing droplets of water vapor. In absence of other ... Sulfur oxides, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride in contact with moisture form sulfuric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric ... Metal oxides can be present when metal-containing fuels are burned, e.g. solid rocket fuels containing aluminium. Depleted ... hydrogen sulfide.[4] Carbon and hydrogen are almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water.[5] Fires burning with lack ...
... produce synthetic natural gas or hydrogen and carbon monoxide can be used as a chemical feedstock for the production of fuels ( ... 2), hydrogen (H. 2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH. 4). In addition, there are small quantities of various contaminants ... x), and hydrogen sulfide (H. 2S).[7] As the coal face burns and the immediate area is depleted, the oxidants injected are ... Production of hydrogen.. In addition, carbon dioxide produced as a by-product of underground coal gasification may be re- ...
"Diesel fuel reformer for automotive fuel cell applications" (PDF). International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 34 (8): 3367. doi: ... 2003). Fuels and lubricants handbook: technology, properties, performance, and testing. ASTM International. p. 73. ISBN 0-8031- ... Cool flames may contribute to engine knock - the undesirable, erratic, and noisy combustion of low-octane fuels in internal ... However, the concomitant increase in pressure and temperature may produce a cool flame in the last unburned fuel-air mixture ( ...
Hydrogen catalysts[edit]. Hydrogen is the simplest solar fuel to synthesize, since it involves only the transference of two ... Photobiological production of fuels[edit]. Some photoautotrophic microorganisms can, under certain conditions, produce hydrogen ... Two methods are generally recognized for the construction of solar fuel cells for hydrogen production:[9] ... The simplest photocatalytic hydrogen production unit consists of a hydrogen-evolving catalyst linked to a photosensitizer.[74] ...
... a hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. More efficient than a gas-electric hybrid vehicle, the FCX Clarity combines hydrogen and ... Honda views hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as the long term replacement of piston cars, not battery cars.[97] ... Flexible-fuel. Honda's Brazilian subsidiary launched flexible-fuel versions for the Honda Civic and Honda Fit in late 2006. As ... plug-in electric cars and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Since 2008, Honda has sold about 16,000 natural-gas vehicles, ...
CLOU operation with solid fuels shows high performance Chemical Looping can also be used to produce hydrogen in Chemical- ... First operation of chemical-looping combustion with gaseous fuels was demonstrated in 2003, and later with solid fuels in 2006 ... Fuel. 85: 1631-1641. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2006.02.004. Fan, L.-S. (2010) Chemical Looping Systems for Fossil Energy Conversions, ... and re-oxidized before being reintroduced back to the fuel reactor completing the loop. Isolation of the fuel from air ...
"Pininfarina Sintesi". Hydrogen Fuel Cars Now. Retrieved 2012-03-19. Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (2008-03-03). "Update: Pininfarina ... The Fuel Cell technology was developed in partnership with Nuvera, which developed the Quadrivium Fuel Cell system, the various ... The centre tunnel integrates a bio-fuel tank and a reformer capable of producing hydrogen. In terms of performance, the Sintesi ... Liquid Packaging refers to the concept of putting fuel cells and motors in each wheel. The result is the increase of space for ...
... for Environmental Chemistry and Reclamation The National Center for Hydrogen Technology does research in hydrogen and fuel cell ... hydrogen and fuel cells; advanced air emission control technologies, emphasizing SOx, NOx, air toxics, fine particulate, CO2, ... In 2006, hydrogen-related contracts at the NCHT totaled more than $20 million. Groundbreaking on the 15,000-square-foot (1,400 ... Centers for Renewable Energy and Biomass Utilization Water Management Center National Alternative Fuels Center Center for Oil ...
"Hydrogen Fuel Cars 1807 - 1986". Hydrogen Fuel Cars Now. 2005-2011. Eckermann, Erik (2001). World history of the automobile. ... The compressed hydrogen gas fuel was stored in a balloon connected by a pipe to the cylinder. Oxygen was supplied from the air ... Andrews, John (2007). "Hydrogen Cars and Land Speed Record". H2-Hydro-Gen. Retrieved 2011-05-27. "L'inventeur du moteur à ... The engine was powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases ignited to create an explosion within the cylinder and drive ...
Undercooling of the fuel channels led to a partial meltdown. This caused a hydrogen-oxygen explosion inside the calandria. ... This was a natural-uranium fuelled, heavy-water moderated and cooled research reactor (converted to high-enriched-uranium fuel ... from uranium fuelled). Higher energy yields using thorium as the fuel (1 ton of thorium produces the same amount of energy as ... A damaged uranium fuel rod caught fire and was torn in two as it was being removed from the core, due to inadequate cooling. ...
"EVWORLD FEATURE: Fuel Cell Disruptor - Part 2:BROOKS FUEL CELL , CARB , ARB , HYDROGEN , ZEBRA , EV , ELECTRIC". Evworld.com. ... The battery has a hydrogen-absorbing alloy for the negative electrode instead of cadmium. ... A flow battery can be considered to be a type of rechargeable fuel cell. ...
Hydrogen fuel promises to provide an alternative fuel product for local motorized vehicle drivers once it has been accepted in ... hydrogen fuel is considered to be just as safe as unleaded petroleum gasoline when it comes to unwanted explosions. Fuel with ... Worldwide protests against the development of new oil fields are also bringing up the price of fossil fuels. Alternative fuels ... making it critical for research agencies to find a commonly affordable non-oil based fuel. Even if ethanol fuel was ...
"ENFICA-FC - ENvironmentally Friendly Inter City Aircraft powered by Fuel Cells". polito.it. Retrieved 8 December 2015. eUP ... David Robertson (2008-04-03). "Boeing tests first hydrogen powered plane". London: The Times. Niles, Russ (April 2008). "Boeing ... Flies Fuel Cell Aircraft". Retrieved 2008-05-13. Grady, Mary (October 2010). "Electric 172 May Fly Early Next Year". AvWeb. ...
Hydrogen and methane can also be used as downstream fuels, feed into the natural gas grid, or used to make or synthetic fuel. ... Pagliaro, Mario; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G (15 June 2012). Solar Hydrogen: Fuel of the Future. Cambridge, United Kingdom: ... The X in the terminology can refer to one of the following: power-to-ammonia, power-to-chemicals, power-to-fuel, power-to-gas, ... These fuels can be stored and used to produce electricity again, hours to months later. Reconversion technologies include gas ...
A Fuel cell reacts to two fluids such as hydrogen and oxygen to create electricity. Unlike a battery, the fluids are not stored ... "fuel cost - flight international - fuel price - 1973 - 2937 - Flight Archive". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 8 December 2015. ... project uses a Diamond HK-36 Super Dimona motor glider as a research test bed for a hydrogen fuel cell powered light airplane. ... powered by a liquid hydrogen fuel cell Scuderi Group (Nov 17, 2006). "Scuderi Group Secures Patent Protection for World's First ...
While most scramjet designs to date have used hydrogen fuel, HyTech runs on conventional kerosene-type hydrocarbon fuels, which ... Hydrogen is used as the fuel. The vehicle will utilize the "Waverider" concept. HOTOL Jet engine Single-stage-to-orbit Skylon ( ... The aircraft was to be a hydrogen fuelled air-breathing space plane, with a low speed accelerator system to bring the aircraft ... A full-scale engine is now being built, which will use its own fuel for cooling. Using fuel for engine cooling is nothing new, ...
"Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership , Biofuels, Electric Cars & Hydrogen Fuel Cells". www.lowcvp.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-03. "SMMT ...
Hydrogen is used as the fuel. The vehicle will utilize the "Waverider" concept. A friction wave in the inferior part of the ...
Fuel cell golf carts[edit]. In 1965, Allis-Chalmers built hydrogen fueled fuel cell golf carts.[47] ... "Allis-Chalmers Farm Tractor Was First Fuel Cell Vehicle - Hydrogen Cars Now". Retrieved 10 June 2018.. ... This was the first fuel-cell-powered vehicle. Potassium hydroxide served as the electrolyte.[44] The original AC fuel cell ... In 1959, a team led by Harry Ihrig built a 15 kW fuel cell tractor for Allis-Chalmers which was demonstrated across the US at ...
"Hydrogen". Sandia. Retrieved 2012-04-17.. *^ Puma, Steve (2010-02-08). "Hydrogen is Not The Miracle Fuel of the Future". ... HydrogenEdit. Main article: Hydrogen fuel. Over $1 billion of federal money has been spent on the research and development of ... The thorium fuel cycle claims several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle, including greater abundance, superior ... and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) as the most efficient. Wind was followed by concentrated solar power (CSP), geothermal ...
Flex-fuel vehicles are assisting in this transition because they allow drivers to choose different fuels based on price and ... Hydrogen injection could boost biofuel production. *↑ Why Australia needs wind power *↑ newscientist.com June 2005 Wind ... Determination of Qin from the Fuel Heating Value [online]. [Cit. 2008-02-17]. Dostupné online. ... Ford, Daimler Chrysler a GM patria medzi automobilky, ktoré predávajú autá, nákladné autá a minivany typu „Flexi-fuel". Tieto ...
Spent fuel corrosion[edit]. Noble metal nanoparticles and hydrogen[edit]. According to the work of the corrosion ... Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor ( ... Nature of spent fuel[edit]. Nanomaterial properties[edit]. Spent enriched uranium,low enriched uranium nuclear fuel is an ... The fuel pools vary in size from a capacity of 216 to 8,083 fuel assemblies. Most pools were originally designed to store ...
Hydrogen fuel enhancement is the process of using a mixture of hydrogen and conventional hydrocarbon fuel in an internal ... storing hydrogen on the vehicle as a second fuel, or reforming conventional fuel into hydrogen with a catalyst. There has been ... In tests done in their laboratory in 2004 they found no improvement in engine efficiency or fuel economy. Hydrogen fuel ... "Performance characteristics of a Hydrogen Fueled SI Engine using Timed Manifold Injection". Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (vol 16, pp ...
This weeks patents include a safe way to pump hydrogen fuel for cars, the full-size piano in your cellphone, and a laser-based ... Hydrogen fuel balls. Hydrogen is often promoted as an ideal clean fuel for cars. But the explosive stuff is also darned ... In addition, the hydrogen should be so tightly locked inside the spheres that there would be no risk of explosion or fire if a ... The spheres could then be used to safely store and transport the hydrogen, which could be sucked back out using heat or vacuum ...
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. In series:IEA Technology Roadmapsview more titles ...
In Gear Hydrogen for fuel-cell vehicles made from wind energy in Japanese test By Stephen Edelstein GreenCarReports ... Science Notebook Hydrogen fuel breakthrough could pave the way for clean cars By Joseph Dussault Staff Writer ... The research stems from efforts to find ways to cram more hydrogen into tighter spaces so that fuel cells can be small and ... But if a way can be found, it likely would lead to buckyball-hydrogen crystals or a fine powder of hydrogen-packing buckyballs ...
NRELs hydrogen and fuel cell research and development (R&D) focuses on developing, integrating, and demonstrating hydrogen ... NRELs hydrogen and fuel cell research bridges technologies via work with NRELs Transportation, Bioenergy, Chemistry and ... Also learn about hydrogen and fuel cell basics and compare vehicle technologies. ... From the EERE Blog: Colorado Joins the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Race ...
Splitting water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity from energy sources such as wind turbines is one ... Among the many daunting challenges to replacing fossil fuels with hydrogen is how to make hydrogen cheaply in ways that dont ... Cheap Hydrogen Fuel. GE says its new machine could make the hydrogen economy affordable, by slashing the cost of water- ... Among the many daunting challenges to replacing fossil fuels with hydrogen is how to make hydrogen cheaply in ways that dont ...
Home » Hydrogen Fuel Basics. Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed in a fuel cell, produces only water. Hydrogen can be ... Many hydrocarbon fuels can be reformed to produce hydrogen, including natural gas, diesel, renewable liquid fuels, gasified ... which functions much like a fuel cell in reverse-instead of using the energy of a hydrogen molecule, like a fuel cell does, an ... Today, hydrogen fuel can be produced through several methods. The most common methods today are natural gas reforming (a ...
... with cars transitioning from gasoline-powered engines to hydrogen-powered fuel cells. Where does hydrogen fit now in the mix ... Not long ago we were reading a lot about hydrogens role in a clean energy future, ... with cars transitioning from gasoline-powered engines to hydrogen-powered fuel cells. Where does hydrogen fit now in the mix ... another big issue for hydrogen-powered fuel cells is their energy inefficiency. Creating hydrogen gas by splitting water ...
An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen fuel as a solution to the global warming problem. Ian Borg Bellanti ... Hydrogen Fuel: What it Will Cost, Where it Will Come From - Autoline on the Road CAR MBS 2014 - Duration: 4:08. Autoline ... Alternative Fuel for Cars : What Is the Problem With Hydrogen Cars? - Duration: 1:40. ehowgreen 2,158 views ... HHO - hydrogen fuel installed in my car - Philippines - Duration: 6:16. Jayrene Cruto 330,231 views ...
... in Montreal have created a device that uses sunlight to efficiently split water into hydrogen that may be used in fuel cells. ... The new machine, which mimics the process of photosynthesis, is capable of producing hydrogen fuel at twice the efficiency of ... Producing only water as an emission, hydrogen is the cleanest burning fuel. However, its production has historically not been ... the artificial photosynthesis device uses splits water to store solar energy as hydrogen fuel. Despite this fundamental ...
But for a fourth option, some car companies are banking on hydrogen as the fuel of the future. VOAs Kevin Enochs reports. ... But for a fourth option, some car companies are banking on hydrogen as the fuel of the future. VOAs Kevin Enochs reports. ...
A hydrogen fuel cell converts hydrogen and oxygen into water and electrical energy. ... Apple said that hydrogen fuel cells could be smaller and lighter than batteries currently being used by devices, as well as ... According to new patent filings, Apple is researching hydrogen fuel cell technology that could be used on smartphones and other ... Apple filed another patent in October that showed detailed ways of squeezing more power from lighter hydrogen fuel cells. ...
Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association -- The Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA) is the trade association for ... and is dedicated to the commercialization of fuel cells and hydrogen energy technologies. Fuel cells and hydrogen energy ... Air Products received $209,000 in the award to work on hydrogen fuel technology to deploy the next pilot phase of hydrogen ... Genkey consists of GenDrive fuel cell units, GenFuel hydrogen fuel and infrastructure, and GenCare maintenance service. The ...
The technology used for storing hydrogen onboard vehicles directly affects the design and selection of the delivery system and ... One of the greatest challenges to commercial dispensing of hydrogen is in the accurate metering of the hydrogen delivered. ... The technology used for storing hydrogen onboard vehicles directly affects the design and selection of the delivery system and ... is therefore funding research to characterize the performance and material properties of currently available hydrogen fueling ...
The lack of fueling stations is a major obstacle to the rollout of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. A mature fleet will require ... Scott Tucker fills up a hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle at a Shell fueling station in Torrance, Calif.on July 8, 2011. Photograph by ... General Motors says that as soon as 2016 it may release its own hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle, but its watching for the launch of ... Yet there are also two big pluses: Hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles can be refueled in as few as three minutes, then travel for 250 ...
... we mentioned Chinas rush towards fuel cell technology. Although most of this work was intended to break into Chinas booming ... new bicycle powered by hydrogen fuel cells.. The bike features a pair of hydrogen fuel "bottles" that can propel it up to 100km ... Chinese Company Plans Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bike. Last year, we mentioned Chinas rush towards fuel cell technology. Although most ... Because hydrogen fueling stations are sparse, Pearl is planning to distribute hydrogen for the bikes through a distributor. ...
... hydrogen highway on Monday with more than a dozen hydrogen-powered cars rallying along a scenic route between its capital city ... We have to look for additional sources of fuel for the future and we believe hydrogen is a good option, especially as it has ... cater for cars with fuel-cells that generate electricity from a chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen or burn hydrogen ... Norway opened a 560 kilometer (350 mile) hydrogen highway on Monday with more than a dozen hydrogen-powered cars rallying along ...
Theyve built a solar cell that uses a grid of gallium phosphide nanowires to make hydrogen gas from water. The approach gets a ... You ideally want to produce clean hydrogen fuel using clean sources, and Dutch researchers have taken a big step toward making ... You ideally want to produce clean hydrogen fuel using clean sources, and Dutch researchers have taken a big step toward making ... If scientists improve their methods, though, you could be driving hydrogen cars whose fuel is eco-friendly at every step, not ...
Hydrogen fuel cells produce less sound and heat than a conventional internal combustion engine. Nadeau said hydrogen fuel could ... The Army received the keys Thursday to a Chevrolet Equinox fuel cell vehicle, beginning a year of tests to see how the hydrogen ... are collaborating to help the military learn more about the uses of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, a potential aid for soldiers ... Many obstacles exist for a hydrogen future, including a system of fueling stations, but nearly every automaker is developing ...
... fuel our cars and reduce our contribution to global warming? PM crunches the numbers on the real hydrogen economy. ... CLEAN FUEL: This fueling station in Burlington, Vt., uses electricity to convert water into hydrogen for powering fuel cell ... Where Will the Hydrogen Come From?. President Bushs Hydrogen Fuel Initiative calls for replacing fossil fuels used in ... HYDROGEN IS THE universes simplest atom: a single electron orbiting a single proton. In a fuel cell, incoming hydrogen gas is ...
Hydrogen Fuel Cells. A fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, heat, and water. Fuel cells are often ... NASA uses hydrogen fuel to launch the space shuttles. Credit: NASA. Hydrogen is the simplest element. An atom of hydrogen ... or even gasoline can be reformed to produce the hydrogen required for fuel cells. Some fuel cells even can be fueled directly ... Additional Resources on Hydrogen Energy. *Find out about NRELs research in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. ...
GM put a stripped-down example of a hydrogen fuel cell car on display. If the finished version looks nearly as cool as this, ... CES: GM Shows Off Hydrogen Fuel Cell Prototype Car. Smack dab at the front of the North Hall at the Las Vegas Convention Center ... GM put a stripped-down example of a hydrogen fuel cell car on display. If the finished version looks nearly as cool as this, ...
Hydrogen fuel cells use hydrogen and oxygen as oxidants. Learn more about hydrogen fuel cells at HowStuffWorks. ... a fuel cell needs to be refilled. The fuel for a hydrogen fuel cell is, as the name suggests, hydrogen. As you might recall ... Hydrogen is forced into the fuel cell at the anode in the form of H2 molecules, each of which contains two hydrogen atoms. A ... The type of fuel cell used in cars is the polymer exchange membrane (or PEM) fuel cell. PEM fuel cells have the advantage of ...
... so they reduce noise pollution as well as air pollution and the waste heat from a fuel cell can be used to provide hot water or ... Fuel cell recharge time is short. Recharging a fuel cell only requires squirting in more fuel or putting in a new fuel ... Fuel cells do get hot though, so the water comes out of the fuel cells as water vapor, or steam. Fuel use of Class 8 trucks, at ... Fuels such as turpentine, alcohol, aniline, and ammonia use nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and liquid oxygen as oxidizers. ...
  • A theoretical model for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a bi-layer electrolyte is developed and analytical solutions of various important relationships, such as I-V relationship, distribution of oxygen partial pressure in the bi-layer electrolyte, leakage current density etc. are obtained. (elsevier.com)
  • After uranium fuel has been used in a reactor for a while, it is no longer as efficient in splitting its atoms and producing heat to make electricity. (wikibooks.org)
  • A second hazard of spent fuel, in addition to high radiation levels, is the extremely remote possibility of an accidental "criticality," or self-sustained fissioning and splitting of the atoms of uranium and plutonium. (wikibooks.org)
  • The agency regulates the possession, transportation, storage and disposal of spent fuel produced by the nuclear reactors. (wikibooks.org)
  • NREL offers industry, academia, and government agencies opportunities to work with us and leverage our research expertise to advance the science behind emerging hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and to validate new technologies and systems in real-world operation. (nrel.gov)
  • Hydrogen fuel enhancement is the process of using a mixture of hydrogen and conventional hydrocarbon fuel in an internal combustion engine, typically in a car or truck, in an attempt to improve fuel economy, power output, emissions, or a combination thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these sources also suggest that modifications to the engine's air-fuel ratio, ignition timing, emissions control systems, electronic control systems and possibly other design elements, might be required in order to obtain any significant results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the inherent complexity of these subsystems, a necessity of modern engine design and emissions standards, such claims made by proponents of hydrogen fuel enhancement are difficult to substantiate and always disputed. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used in a fuel cell, it is highly efficient and leaves no carbon emissions behind. (toyota.com)
  • As an eco-fuel, hydrogen has numerous advantages, including clean emissions. (fastcompany.com)
  • A University of Colorado Boulder team has developed a radically new technique that uses the power of sunlight to efficiently split water into its components of hydrogen and oxygen, paving the way for the broad use of hydrogen as a clean, green fuel. (tgdaily.com)
  • The team showed that the addition of steam to the system - which could be produced by boiling water in the reactor with the concentrated sunlight beamed to the tower - would cause oxygen from the water molecules to adhere to the surface of the metal oxide, freeing up hydrogen molecules for collection as hydrogen gas. (tgdaily.com)
  • A working system to produce a significant amount of hydrogen gas would require a number of the tall towers to gather concentrated sunlight from several acres of mirrors surrounding each tower. (tgdaily.com)
  • According to a report published today in the journal Nature, scientists have succeeded in manufacturing hydrogen from a glucose solution derived from biomass. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Scientists have just found a way to make metallic solid hydrogen in the lab, by compressing it at ultrahigh pressure between two diamond anvils. (livescience.com)
  • Scientists, inventors and entrepreneurs will be able to vie for a grand prize of $10 million (euro7.8 million), and smaller prizes reaching millions of dollars, under legislation passedf by the House of Representatives to encourage research into hydrogen as an alternative fuel. (enn.com)
  • The scientists used the new information to deduce how the sulfur molecule of cysteine 546 and the acid group in glutamic acid 34 form hydrogen bonds to regulate the hydrogen transport. (eurekalert.org)
  • In research aimed at reducing American dependence on petroleum-based fuels, a group of Agricultural Research Service ( ARS ) scientists has found a way to replace the petroleum used in today's hydrogen fuel cell membranes with naturally occurring products. (usda.gov)
  • What they discovered is a new method of hydrogen STORAGE in a chemical component, reducing volume and weight. (inhabitat.com)
  • The installation consists of five fuel cell power plants and an organic rankine cycle turbine on 1.5 acres of land. (constantcontact.com)
  • The Army received the keys Thursday to a Chevrolet Equinox fuel cell vehicle, beginning a year of tests to see how the hydrogen power might support the armed services. (redorbit.com)
  • The capability of this fuel cell to power the platform is a very exciting thing. (redorbit.com)
  • Nadeau said hydrogen fuel could also serve as a platform to power weapons. (redorbit.com)
  • Beyond use as a rocket propellant, hydrogen may be derived from local water or soil to supply fuel for transportation, electrical power and crewmember breathable oxygen. (nasa.gov)
  • To achieve improved performance, NASA is building on decades of success with Gemini, Apollo and Shuttle → alkaline fuel cell power system development and operations. (nasa.gov)
  • When the Hindenburg exploded, the world witnessed the power of hydrogen. (howstuffworks.com)
  • And others are figuring out the best way to use this produced hydrogen to power your car. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Amazon and Plug Power plan on a relatively modest start for the new venture, with a total of $70 million in buys this year for fuel cell equipment at selected fulfillment centers. (triplepundit.com)
  • On November 30, ITM Power announced it would supply a 0.5 megawatt (MW) electrolyzer system, as part of the HyDeploy Consortium, to demonstrate the use of blended hydrogen in the United Kingdom (UK) gas grid. (constantcontact.com)
  • The three year, £7 million ($8.8 million) project, funded by Ofgem, the UK's gas regulatory body, and the National Grid, a gas distribution company, will provide a system for hydrogen gas injection into the natural gas grid, enabling the power-to-gas market in the UK. (constantcontact.com)
  • Hydrogen is still costly to obtain, not least due to the high power consumption involved. (news-medical.net)
  • You can make a hydrogen fuel cell in your kitchen in about 10 minutes, and demonstrate how hydrogen and oxygen can combine to produce clean electrical power. (scitoys.com)
  • But unlike a pure electric vehicle, whose only power source - a battery - can take hours to charge, the H2EV can be refilled with hydrogen in a matter of minutes. (coventry.ac.uk)
  • When power turns on, hydrogen gas bubbles out of the negative end - called the cathode - and breathable oxygen emerges at the positive end - the anode. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Chemists like Tom Autrey from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, US, are addressing the problem by designing materials to store hydrogen safely, such that it can be released at will to power a fuel cell. (rsc.org)
  • Experiments had established that buckyballs could hold tiny amounts of hydrogen. (csmonitor.com)
  • Large amounts of hydrogen are produced commercially by steam reforming of natural gas or by gasification of various carbonaceous fuels. (aiche.org)
  • When burned, these carbon-based fuels release millions of tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, where the gas traps heat and is believed to contribute to global warming. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Just last August, a group of Delft University students drove their Forze VIII hydrogen fuel cell Le Mans-style prototype to second place in the Supercar Challenge in Assen, The Netherlands. (yahoo.com)