A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The condition resulting from the absence or deficiency of LACTASE in the MUCOSA cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, and the inability to break down LACTOSE in milk for ABSORPTION. Bacterial fermentation of the unabsorbed lactose leads to symptoms that range from a mild indigestion (DYSPEPSIA) to severe DIARRHEA. Lactose intolerance may be an inborn error or acquired.
A measure of a patient's ability to break down lactose.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Investigative and diagnostic methods and procedures based on the photoacoustic effect, which is the generation of SOUND WAVES from the absorption of ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
The study of crime and criminals with special reference to the personality factors and social conditions leading toward, or away from crime.
Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
LACTAMS forming compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-3 dozen atoms.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.
... fructose (fruit sugar), sucrose (cane or beet sugar), ribose, amylose, lactose (milk sugar) etc. Carbohydrates perform numerous ... uronic acids and deoxy-sugars such as fucose) and there are many chemicals that do conform to this formula but are not ... Sugars appear in human diet mainly as table sugar (sucrose, extracted from sugarcane or sugar beets), lactose (abundant in milk ... Fructose, or fruit sugar, is found in many plants and humans, it is metabolized in the liver, absorbed directly into the ...
... as in the monosaccharides fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (starch sugar) and the disaccharides sucrose (cane or beet sugar) ... uronic acids and deoxy-sugars such as fucose) and there are many chemicals that do conform to this formula but are not ... Sugars appear in human diet mainly as table sugar (sucrose, extracted from sugarcane or sugar beets), lactose (abundant in milk ... Fructose, or fruit sugar, is found in many plants and in humans, it is metabolized in the liver, absorbed directly into the ...
The family also includes ketosamine-3-kinases (KT3K). Ketosamines derive from a non-enzymatic reaction between a sugar and a ... Second, the Escherichia coli members are found in close proximity on the genome to fructose-6-phosphate kinase (PfkB). Last, ... initiate a process leading to the deglycation of fructoselysine and of glycated proteins and in the phosphorylation of 1-deoxy- ... 1-morpholinofructose, fructoselysine, fructoseglycine, fructose and glycated lysozyme. ...
Fructose. *Psicose. *Sorbose. *Tagatose. *Deoxy sugars *Fucose. *Fuculose. *Rhamnose. Heptoses. *Ketoheptoses *Mannoheptulose ...
An oligosaccharide (/ˌɑlɪgoʊˈsækəˌɹaɪd/[1]; from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide ... Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), which are found in many vegetables, are short chains of fructose molecules. They differ from ... it is believed that N-linked glycosylation helps determine the folding of polypeptides due to the hydrophilic nature of sugars ... polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten[2][3][4][5]) of monosaccharides (simple sugars). Oligosaccharides can ...
Sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, or saccharose) Glucose. Fructose. α(1→2)β ... A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose[1]) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are ... whereas the disaccharide sucrose in sugar cane and sugar beet, is a condensation product of glucose and fructose. Maltose, ... Breaking apart a double sugar into its two simple sugars is accomplished by hydrolysis with the help of a type of enzyme called ...
Fructose. *Psicose. *Sorbose. *Tagatose. *Deoxy sugars *Fucose. *Fuculose. *Rhamnose. Heptoses. *Ketoheptoses *Mannoheptulose ...
... a polymer of the natural plant sugar, fructose. Inulin is typically extracted by manufacturers from enriched plant sources such ... Viscous fibers thicken the contents of the intestinal tract and may attenuate the absorption of sugar, reduce sugar response ... Regulates blood sugar, which may reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[1][76] ... production with Xanthomonas-bacteria from sugar substrates Resistant starch. Can be starch protected by seed or shell (type RS1 ...
The repeating unit (except for keratan) consists of an amino sugar (N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine) along with a ... Next, C-5 uronyl epimerase coverts d-GlcA to l-IdoA followed by 2-O sulfation of the uronic acid sugar by 2-O sulfotransferase ... Finally, sulfation of the polymer occurs at the 6-position of both sugar residues. The enzyme KS-Gal6ST (CHST1) transfers ... uronic sugar (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose.[3] Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water. They ...
It is often derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane, and by the fermentation of glycerin. ... and it is an intermediate product of fructose metabolism. ... Fructose. *Psicose. *Sorbose. *Tagatose. *Deoxy sugars *Fucose ... AGEs are behind the damage to the skin that occurs with high blood sugar in diabetes where similar glycation occurs. Some of ...
sugars Free. fructose Free. glucose Sucrose Fructose/. (Fructose+Glucose). ratio Sucrose. as a % of. total sugars ... See also: Sugar refinery, Non-centrifugal cane sugar, and White sugar. Refined sugar is made from raw sugar that has undergone ... "Sugar Nutrition UK. Retrieved 2012-03-23.. *^ a b c d e f g "The journey of sugar". British Sugar. Archived from the original ... Table sugar, granulated sugar, or regular sugar, refers to sucrose, a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose. ...
High-fructose corn syrup. *High-maltose corn syrup. *Honey. *Inverted sugar syrup ... ˌmɒnə-/, from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the simplest form of sugar and the most ... Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose), and galactose. Monosaccharides are the building ... Monosaccharides are the simplest units of carbohydrates and the simplest form of sugar. ...
... is an aldohexose sugar. It is a monosaccharide that is very rare in nature, but has been found in archaea, bacteria and ... Swain, M., Brisson, J. R., Sprott, G. D., Cooper, F. P. and Patel, G. B. (1997). "Identification of β-L-gulose as the sugar ...
Soluble fiber also attenuates the absorption of sugar, reduces sugar response after eating, normalizes blood lipid levels and, ... Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehyde.[4] Polysaccharides, meanwhile, have a general formula of ... Arabinoxylans are found in both the primary and secondary cell walls of plants and are the copolymers of two sugars: arabinose ... Some of these microorganisms have receptors to simple sugars from the decomposition of chitin. If chitin is detected, they then ...
The process by which sugars attach to hemoglobin is called glycation. HbA1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl ... However, glucose is less likely to do so than galactose and fructose (13% that of fructose and 21% that of galactose), which ... The formation of the sugar-hemoglobin linkage indicates the presence of excessive sugar in the bloodstream, often indicative of ... that is chemically linked to a sugar. Most monosaccharides, including glucose, galactose and fructose, spontaneously (i.e. non- ...
As with other sugars, sucrose is digested into its components via the enzyme sucrase to glucose (blood sugar) and fructose. The ... Coarse-grain, such as sanding sugar (also called "pearl sugar", "decorating sugar", nibbed sugar or sugar nibs) is a coarse ... from either sugar cane or sugar beet. Sugar mills are located where sugar cane is grown to crush the cane and produce raw sugar ... Powdered, 10X sugar, confectioner's sugar (0.060 mm), or icing sugar (0.024 mm), produced by grinding sugar to a fine powder. ...
D-Fructose is responsible for the sweet taste of many fruits, and is a building block of sucrose, the common sugar. The term " ... Some examples of biological interest are L-Fucose (6-deoxy-L-galactose) L-Rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose) D-Quinovose (6-deoxy-D- ... D-Psicose D-Fructose D-Sorbose D-Tagatose L-Psicose L-Fructose L-Sorbose L-Tagatose In theory, the ketohexoses include also the ... If the sugar is a 2-ketohexose, it can only involve the hydroxyl in carbon 5, and will create a hemiketal with a five-member ...
Deoxy sugar (Deoxyribose). அறுகரிச்சர்க்கரை. Ketohexose (Psicose, Fructose, Sorbose, Tagatose) Aldohexose (Allose, Altrose, ...
Deoxy sugar (Deoxyribose). Hexoses. Ketohexose (Psicose, Fructose, Sorbose, Tagatose) Aldohexose (Allose, Altrose, Glucose, ...
"Environmental and Intestinal Phylum Firmicutes Bacteria Metabolize the Plant Sugar Sulfoquinovose via a 6-Deoxy-6-sulfofructose ... yielding fructose-6-phosphate (F6P). In all three pathways, energy is formed in later stages through the 'pay-off' phase of ... Sulfoglycolysis is a catabolic process in primary metabolism in which sulfoquinovose (6-deoxy-6-sulfonato-glucose) is ... yielding fructose-6-phosphate; sulfolactaldehyde may be reduced to (S)-2,3-dihydroxypropane-1-sulfonate (catalyzed by ...
... s are compounds that result from glycation reactions between a sugar (such as fructose or glucose) and a primary ... Fructosamine can also refer to the specific compound 1-amino-1-deoxy-D-fructose (isoglucosamine), first synthesized by Nobel ... On average, each change of 3.3 mmol (60 mg/dl) in average blood sugar levels will give rise to changes of 2% HbA1c and 75 µmol ... Most commonly, blood sugars are measured by either blood glucose monitoring which measures the current blood glucose level, or ...
NagA participates in amino-sugar metabolism, specifically in the biosynthesis of amino-sugar-nucleotides. NagA is a homodimeric ... The produced fructose-6-phosphate then enters the glycolysis pathway. Glycolysis catalyzes the production of pyruvate, leading ... and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate amidohydrolase. "nagA - N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase - Escherichia ... Instead of entering the PG recycling pathway, GlcN-6-P can be converted into fructose-6-phosphate by NagB. This reaction is ...
3-deoxy-manno-octulosonate-8-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.46: fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 2-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.47: ( ... sugar-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.24: sucrose-phosphatase EC 3.1.3.25: inositol-phosphate phosphatase EC 3.1.3.26: 4-phytase EC 3.1. ... 3-deoxy-2-octulosonidase EC 3.2.1.125: raucaffricine b-glucosidase EC 3.2.1.126: coniferin b-glucosidase EC 3.2.1.127: 1,6- ... UDP-sugar diphosphatase EC 3.6.1.46: Transferred entry: heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase. Now EC 3.6.5.1, heterotrimeric G- ...
sugar, saccharose, β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside ... Main article: High-fructose corn syrup. ಫ್ರಕ್ಟೋಸ್‌‌ ಕಾಕಂಬಿಗಳಿಂದ ಅಥವಾ ಕಾರ್ಯರೂಪದ ಘಟಕಾಂಶಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಉನ್ನತ-ಗಾಢತೆಯ ಸಿಹಿಕಾರಿಗಳ ... "Sugar Daddie$". Mother Jones. 1997-05-01. Retrieved 2010-05-05.. *↑ ನ್ಯೂಯಾರ್ಕ್‌ ಟೈಮ್ಸ್‌‌ , ನವೆಂಬರ್‌‌ 11, 2003, ಅಮೆರಿಕಾ'ಸ್‌ ... "Sugar Daddie$". Mother Jones. 1997-05-01. Retrieved 2010-05-05.. *↑ FLO (ಫೇರ್‌‌ಟ್ರೇಡ್‌ ಲೇಬಲಿಂಗ್‌ ಆರ್ಗನೈಸೇಷನ್ಸ್‌‌ ...
In the pathway the enzyme is in an intermediate step that converts GDP-Mannose to GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose which is then ... This enzyme participates in fructose and mannose metabolism. It employs one cofactor, NAD+. The enzyme GDP-Mannose 4, 6- ... and catalyzes the first step in the process that gives us GDP-Fucose which is essential for the transfer of Fucose sugars. Its ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is GDP-mannose 4,6-hydro-lyase (GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose-forming). Other names ...
... is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates. It is a C-2 epimer of glucose. Mannose is important in ... Mannose-6-phosphate is converted to fructose-6-phosphate, by the enzyme phosphomannose isomerase, and then enters the ... 6-deoxy-L-mannose Freeze, H. H.; Sharma, V. (2010). "Metabolic manipulation of glycosylation disorders in humans and animal ... Mannose XYZ permease is a member of the family, with this distinct method being used by bacteria for sugar uptake particularly ...
This fra locus has five genes: fraR (a regulator), fraB a fructose-asparagine deglycase, fraD a sugar kinase, fraA a fructose- ... "N-(1-Deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-asparagine" (PDF). Material Data Sheet. Retrieved 27 June 2014. Sabag-Daigle A, Wu J, Borton MA, ... Fructose-asparagine is a aminodeoxysugar. It takes the form of a pale yellow solid. It decomposes above 120 °C. Fructose- ... However, this is not due to fructose-asparagine being an essential nutrient, but rather because fructose-asparagine is toxic to ...
Oregon State University: Sugar, accessed 28 June 2018. "High Fructose Corn Syrup: Questions and Answers". US Food and Drug ... Glucose uptake in cells of organisms is measured with 2-deoxy-D-glucose or fluorodeoxyglucose. (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose is used ... Some commercial glucose occurs as a component of invert sugar, a roughly 1:1 mixture of glucose and fructose that is produced ... The glucose in the blood is called blood sugar. Blood sugar levels are regulated by glucose-binding nerve cells in the ...
... lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase EC 2.4.99.14: (KDO)2-lipid IVA (2-8) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid ... protein-Npi-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase EC 2.7.1.70: identical to EC 2.7.1.37. EC 2.7.1.71: shikimate kinase EC ... diphosphate-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase EC 2.7.1.91: sphinganine kinase EC 2.7.1.92: 5-dehydro-2- ... deoxy)adenylate kinase EC 2.7.4.12: T2-induced deoxynucleotide kinase EC 2.7.4.13: (deoxy)nucleoside-phosphate kinase EC 2.7. ...
Sucrose is simply hydrolyzed into an invert sugar syrup, which contains about 50% fructose. In both cases, the syrups are ... Mannitol is classified as a sugar alcohol; that is, it can be derived from a sugar (mannose) by reduction. Other sugar alcohols ... convert either three fructose molecules or two fructose and one glucose molecule into two mannitol molecules, and one molecule ... Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sweetener and medication.[1][2] As a sweetener it is used in diabetic food as it ...
In Indonesia, a beverage called wedang jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Indonesians also use ground ginger root, called ... 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ... Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly). *Thio-BCTC. *WS-3 ... Candied ginger or crystallized ginger, known in the U.K. as "stem ginger", is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a ...
15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ... Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly). *Thio-BCTC. *WS-3 ...
Combinations of English mustard with honey or Demerara sugar are used in British cuisine to coat grilled lamb cutlets or pork ... 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ... Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly). *Thio-BCTC. *WS-3 ... Sweet mustard is from Bavaria, made from kibbled mustard seed sweetened with sugar, apple sauce, or honey. It is typically ...
Fructose 6-P,2-kinase:fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase *PFKFB1, PFKFB2, PFKFB3, PFKFB4 ... The hydrolysis of glucose 6-phosphate begins with a nucleophilic attack on the sugar-bound phosphate by His176 resulting in the ... either deoxy- or ribo- *Nuclease S1 *Mung bean nuclease. *Serratia marcescens nuclease ...
Ethanol is obtained by fermentation using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast ... For instance, such a process might proceed by the conversion of sucrose by the enzyme invertase into glucose and fructose, then ... However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups (particularly sugars, such as glucose and sucrose) have names ... More complex alcohols however are pervasive, as manifested in sugars, some amino acids, and fatty acids. ...
The recipe may include ginger oil and brown sugar cooked with a base of noodles and vegetables, then adding rice vinegar and ... 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ... Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly). *Thio-BCTC. *WS-3 ...
Fraser-Reid, Bert (2012). From Sugar to Splenda: A Personal and Scientific Journey of a Carbohydrate Chemist and Expert Witness ... 1,6-Dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-β-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside ... acesulfame potassium or high-fructose corn syrup. Sucralose is used in products such as candy, breakfast bars, coffee pods, and ... Sucralose is an artificial sweetener and sugar substitute. The majority of ingested sucralose is not broken down by the body, ...
... kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars ... 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2. *α-Sanshool (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers) ... Sweet tastants (e.g., glucose, fructose, sucrose; indirectly). *Thio-BCTC. *WS-3 ...
... is a sugar substitute, a type of sugar alcohol used primarily for its sugar-like physical properties. It has little to ... D-fructose). The isomaltulose is then hydrogenated, using a Raney nickel catalyst. The final product - isomalt - is an ... Its energy value is 2 kcal/g, half that of sugars.[2] However, like most sugar alcohols, it carries a risk of gastric distress ... The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets. Oxford University Press. 2015-04-01. ISBN 9780199313624. .. ...
To cut DNA, all restriction enzymes make two incisions, once through each sugar-phosphate backbone (i.e. each strand) of the ... Fructose 6-P,2-kinase:fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase. *PTEN. *Phytase *Beta-propeller phytase ...
Once inside, the major route of breakdown is glycolysis, where sugars such as glucose and fructose are converted into pyruvate ... Lichtenthaler HK (June 1999). "The 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose-5-Phosphate Pathway of Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Plants". Annual Review ... which reduces the coenzyme NADPH and produces pentose sugars such as ribose, the sugar component of nucleic acids. Fats are ... Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate attached to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar group which is attached to a nitrogenous ...
As for the major sugars, mannose, 2-deoxy-d-erythro-pentopyranose, sorbopyranose, d-fructose, glucopyranose, α-d- ... 7). At the ripening stage, sugar accumulation can be observed by the degradation of starch into sucrose [43, 44]. The increase ... reported that fructose concentration increased during banana fruit ripening [17] while the profile of soluble metabolites ... 7). It is noted that mannose and 2-deoxy-d-erythro-pentopyranose exhibited an opposite accumulation pattern compared with other ...
Sugar Alcohols.- b. Sugar Acids.- c. Deoxy Sugars.- d. Amino Sugars.- e. Sugar Phosphates.- f. Condensed Sugar Products.- 1.7 ... and Fructose.- 2.3 Cyclic Structures for the Carbohydrates.- 2.4 Naming the Anomeric Forms of Carbohydrates.- 2.5 Determination ... 5.1 The Sweet Taste of Sugars and the Development of the Sweet-Taste Hypothesis.- 5.2 Naturally Occurring Sweet Glycosides.- ... of the Size of Carbohydrate Rings.- 2.6 Conformational Structures of Cyclic Sugars.- 2.7 The Literature of Carbohydrate ...
... fructose (fruit sugar), sucrose (cane or beet sugar), ribose, amylose, lactose (milk sugar) etc. Carbohydrates perform numerous ... uronic acids and deoxy-sugars such as fucose) and there are many chemicals that do conform to this formula but are not ... Sugars appear in human diet mainly as table sugar (sucrose, extracted from sugarcane or sugar beets), lactose (abundant in milk ... Fructose, or fruit sugar, is found in many plants and humans, it is metabolized in the liver, absorbed directly into the ...
1958) Phosphorolytic cleavage of fructose-6-phosphate by fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase from Acetobacter xylinum. J Biol ... 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phospho-gluconate; Lald, lactaldehyde; lpd, lipoamide dehydrogenase; MG, methylglyoxal; mgsA, methylglyoxal ... fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase; fum, fumarase; G6P, glucose 6-phosphate; GalP, galactose:H+ transporter; glpX, type II fructose 1, ... 1983) Fructose bisphosphatase from Escherichia coli. Purification and characterization. Arch Biochem Biophys 225:944-949. ...
... fructose, sorbose and/or tagatose. Examples of monosaccharides also include those monosaccharide deoxy sugars, such as, for ... deoxyacylamino sugars such as, for example, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmannosamine, and N-acetylgalactosamine; and aldonic, ... example, fucose, rhamnose, and digitoxose; deoxyamino sugars such as, for example, glucosamine, mannosamine, galactosamine; ...
Sucrose (cane sugar, beet sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and/or maltose (malt sugar) are preferably used. According to the ... The 6-deoxysugars, L-fucose and L-rhamnose, are also widely used hexoses and are also suitable as starting materials. The ... The most important aldohexoses include D-glucose, D-mannose and D-galactose while the ketohexoses include D-fructose and ... C07H-SUGARS; DERIVATIVES THEREOF; NUCLEOSIDES; NUCLEOTIDES; NUCLEIC ACIDS * C07H13/00-Compounds containing saccharide radicals ...
Other sugar derivatives of biomedical importance       L-ascorbic acid Phytic acid Deoxy sugar Amino sugar Amino sugar ... 2- D-Fructose (honey sugar = levulose as D-fructose is levorotatory). • It is found in fruit juices (fruit sugar ) • Obtained ... Interconversion of sugars  Glucose, Fructose and Mannose differ from each other only arrond C1- C3.So they are ... Mullikins figures sugar  Glucose Fructose Sucrose Maltose  Lactose    Time(minutes) 4-5 2 30-45 after hydrolysis Osazone ...
... oligomeric or polymeric sugar derivative, such as glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, ribose, hemicelluloses, celluloses, ... such as deoxysugars and their oligomers/polymers, are also included within the term "carbohydrate" as used herein, provided ... Examples of sugar alcohols include sorbitol, ribitol, mannitol and xylitol. An example of a hemicellulose is a wood-derived, ... For example, fructose is water-soluble, certain hemicelluloses are water-dispersible, and cellulose is water-absorbing. More ...
Sugars. Free. Fructose. Free. Glucose. Sucrose. Fructose/. Glucose. Ratio. Sucrose. as a % of. Total Sugars. ... Commercially, fructose is derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, and maize. Crystalline fructose is the monosaccharide, dried, ... Fructose has higher water solubility than other sugars, as well as other sugar alcohols. Fructose is, therefore, difficult to ... Sucrose-containing sugars include common table white granulated sugar and powdered sugar, as well as brown sugar.[30] ...
Fructose Psicose Sorbose Tagatose. Deoxy sugars. Fucose Fuculose Rhamnose. Heptoses. Ketoheptoses. Mannoheptulose Sedoheptulose ... Soluble fiber also attenuates the absorption of sugar, reduces sugar response after eating, normalizes blood lipid levels and, ... Some of these microorganisms have receptors to simple sugars from the decomposition of chitin. If chitin is detected, they then ... Polysaccharides with unprotected vicinal diols or amino sugars (i.e. some OH groups replaced with amine) give a positive ...
In this report, sugar uptake by the cultures is characterized. Uptake of 14C-labeled fructose and l-glucose was linear with ... Fructose and glucose uptake was not pH-sensitive below pH 7.0, whereas uptake of radioactivity from sucrose and 1′-deoxy-1′- ... Both saturable and linear components of uptake were observed for fructose, glucose, sucrose, 1′-deoxy-1′-fluorosucrose, and ... Kinetics of 1′-deoxy-1′-fluorosucrose uptake indicated that 14C from sucrose can be taken up by a saturable carrier of intact ...
... a sugar such as D-arabinose, L-arabinose, D-xylose, 2-deoxy-β-D-ribose, D-lyxose, L-lyxose, D-ribose, D-arabitol, ribitol, D- ... 2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-fucose, L-fucose, D-fructose, D-mannose, L-rhamnose, D-inositol, myo-inositol, D-glucitol, D-mannitol, ... or polyethylene glycol or a sugar such as glucose, mannose, fructose, ribose, xylose, arabinose, lactose, galactose, maltose, ...
... deoxy sugars (e.g., 2-deoxy-D-ribose, 6-deoxy-L-galactose, and 6-deoxy-L-mannose); amino sugars (e.g., D-glucosamine, D- ... fructose, sugars obtained by starch decomposition, maltose, xylitose, and reduced alcohols of sugars obtained by starch ... and sugars such as fructose, mannose, erythritol, trehalose, and xylitol can be appropriately blended. ... a sugar, an amino acid, an organic amine, a polymer emulsion, a pH adjuster, a skin nutrient, a vitamin, an antioxidant, an ...
It is a disaccharide (double-sugar) formed from one molecule each of the simple sugars (monosaccharides) fructose and galactose ... Lactulose /ˈlæktjʉloʊz/ is a synthetic, non-digestible sugar used in the treatment of chronic constipation[1] and hepatic ... Ingestion of lactulose does not cause a weight gain because it is a nondigestible, low calorie sugar that contains only about ... Although lactulose has less potential to cause dental caries than sucrose, there is a minimal potential because it is a sugar. ...
... as in the monosaccharides fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (starch sugar) and the disaccharides sucrose (cane or beet sugar) ... uronic acids and deoxy-sugars such as fucose) and there are many chemicals that do conform to this formula but are not ... Sugars appear in human diet mainly as table sugar (sucrose, extracted from sugarcane or sugar beets), lactose (abundant in milk ... Fructose, or fruit sugar, is found in many plants and in humans, it is metabolized in the liver, absorbed directly into the ...
1-Deoxy-D-xylulose was also synthesized by using HA as the donor and either 2-benzyloxyethanal or 2-hydroxyethanal as acceptors ... D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase in organic synthesis: cascade chemical-enzymatic preparation of sugar-related polyhydroxylated ... To illustrate this, 1-deoxy-D-ido-hept-2-ulose was obtained stereoselectively by the addition of HA to D-(-)-threose, catalyzed ... 1-deoxy-D-erythro-2-pentulose, was observed due to enolization/epimerization during the isolation steps. It was also observed ...
... the effects of pyruvate and six sugars or sugar derivatives (D-mannose, D-Galactose, D-Glucose, L-glucose, D-fructose, and 2- ... deoxy-D-glucose). Date: May 1986 Creator: Chang, Po-hsün Item Type: Refine your search to only Thesis or Dissertation ...
... with single sugar molecules such as fructose, or two bonded sugar molecules such as sucrose with a fructose and a glucose ... uronic acids and deoxy-sugars such as fucose), and there are many chemicals that do conform to this formula but are not ... For example, blood sugar is the monosaccharide glucose, table sugar is the disaccharide sucrose, and milk sugar is the ... are commonly referred to as sugars.[1] The word saccharide comes from the Greek word σάκχαρον (sákcharon), meaning "sugar". ...
Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide;" the real impregnation is healthy form of Deoxy-Riboflavin in ... In animals most of the energy for sperm motility is derived from the metabolism of fructose carried in the seminal fluid." If ... Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. ...
xylulose from xylose and fructose from glucose. The filtrates also contained several unknown sugar compounds, which were ... 2-oxoglutaric and 3-deoxy-hexonic acids from glucose and 3-deoxy-pentonic and xylonic acids from xylose. Under alkaline ... The main degradation products detected were xylose and xylobiose, but isomerization products of sugars (xylulose, fructose) ... The filtrates of the heat-treated gels were analyzed for the low molar mass sugars, carboxylic acids and furans. Sugars were ...
Kazuyuki, M., Kyoko, I.: l-(Nα-L-Arginino)-1-deoxy-β-D-fructose and 1-(Nα-L-arginino)1-deoxy-β-D-glucose. Nippon Kagaku Zasshi ... Merrer, Y.L., Gauzy, L., Gravier-Pelletier, C., Depezay, J.C.: Synthesis of C2-symmetric guanidino-sugars as potent inhibitors ... spacer between the glycosyl residue and the guanidine moiety was accomplished by the reaction of fully acetylated sugar unit ...
... sugars that are produced by microbes are made from glucose-6-phosphate or fructose-6-phosphate. Deoxysugars are made by ... The sugar catalyzes the amino group transfer of an UDP-linked sugar to produce UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose. The amination ... Fructose (sweetens fruit)- Fructose is a polyhydroxyketone.. *Galactose (sugar in milk)-Galactose is the C4 epimer of glucose. ... For carbohydrate derivatives, amino sugar is of amine group in place of hydroxyl group; deoxy sugar is of hydroxyl group ...
It is also used in the manufacturing of non-ionic detergents which are used in the petroleum, sugar-refining, and papermaking ... Dihydroxyacetone phosphate, one of the two products of breakdown (glycolysis) of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, is a precursor to ... Three-carbon deoxysugars are also precursor to the 1,2-diol.[5] ... is an approved food additive for dog and sugar glider food ... Monopropylene Glycol (Monopropilen Glikol, MPG) occurs naturally, probably as the result of anaerobic catabolism of sugars in ...
Sucrose is common table sugar. It is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose ... conform to this formula (e.g., uronic acids and deoxy-sugars such as fucose), 5.1 Storage polysaccharides; 5.2 Structural ... For example; milk sugar (lactose) is made from glucose and galactose whereas the sugar from sugar cane and sugar beets (sucrose ... is made from glucose and fructose.. Melezitose contains two molecules of glucose and one of fructose, and is. Taste also ...
... including 4-chloro-4-deoxy-galactose, 1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-fructose and 1,6-dichlorofructose, none of which has ever ... Nutritive sweeteners include sugar sweeteners (e.g., refined sugars, high fructose corn syrup, crystalline fructose, glucose ... And diabetics and hypoglycemics should be aware that sugar alcohols do raise blood sugar levels, although not as much as sugar ... Sugar-Free Blues: Everything You Wanted to Know About Artificial Sweeteners. Sugar-Free Blues: Everything You Wanted to Know ...
D-fructose reductase and its application in sugar analysis and rare sugar synthesis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72 (2006) 1248- ... and 6-deoxy-D-glucosone. It does not reduce common aldoses and ketoses, or non-sugar aldehydes and ketones [1].. Links to other ... Reaction: 1,5-anhydro-D-mannitol + NADP+ = 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose + NADPH + H+. For diagram click here.. Other name(s): 1,5- ... 1. Kühn, A., Yu, S. and Giffhorn, F. Catabolism of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose in Sinorhizobium morelense S-30.7.5: discovery, ...
Furthermore, NaDCC treatment affected significantly the accumulation of ripening-related primary metabolites such as sugars and ... As for the major sugars, mannose, 2-deoxy-d-erythro-pentopyranose, sorbopyranose, d-fructose, glucopyranose, α-d- ... 7). At the ripening stage, sugar accumulation can be observed by the degradation of starch into sucrose [43, 44]. The increase ... reported that fructose concentration increased during banana fruit ripening [17] while the profile of soluble metabolites ...
... encoding a feedback inhibition resistant version of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase and transketolase, ... These biotechnological processes are usually based on the use of simple sugars like glucose as a raw material. However, ... In this study, E. coli strains with active (W3110) and inactive phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) (VH33 ... causing an 8-fold increase in the yield of this aromatic acid from the sugars in a simulated hydrolysate. In this study the ...
... deoxy sugars), an amino group (amino sugars), a thiol group (thio sugars), an acylamino group, a sulfate group, a phosphate ... fructose, dextrates, lactose, sucrose, starches (i.e., amylase and amylopectin), sodium starch glycolate, cellulose and ... The term sugar also includes derivatives of these compounds (i.e., sugars that have been chemically modified by acylation, ... In certain embodiments, at least one excipient provided in the formulation is a sugar. The term "sugar" as used herein refers ...
AMYLOPECTIN amylose HOMOPOLYSACCHARIDES TREHALOSE maltose lactose invert sugar sucrose DISACCHARIDES DEOXY SUGARS AMINO SUGARS ... FORMATION FEHLINGS TEST BARFOEDS TEST BENEDICTS TEST ENEDIOL FORMATION MUTAROTATION ANOMERISM EPIMERISM glucose fructose ...
  • While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose, which was originally taken from glucose (gluekos), and is used for almost all sugars e.g. fructose (fruit sugar), sucrose (cane or beet sugar), ribose, amylose, lactose (milk sugar) etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugars appear in human diet mainly as table sugar (sucrose, extracted from sugarcane or sugar beets), lactose (abundant in milk), glucose and fructose, both of which occur naturally in honey, many fruits, and some vegetables. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose , or fruit sugar , is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose . (orange.com)
  • Sucrose is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose. (orange.com)
  • Uptake of 14 C-labeled fructose and l -glucose was linear with time, while the rate of uptake of radioactivity from sucrose increased over a 120 min period. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Both saturable and linear components of uptake were observed for fructose, glucose, sucrose, 1′-deoxy-1′-fluorosucrose, and maltose. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Rates of incorporation of radioactivity from fructose and glucose exceeded that of sucrose at all concentrations tested. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Kinetics of 1′-deoxy-1′-fluorosucrose uptake indicated that 14 C from sucrose can be taken up by a saturable carrier of intact sucrose as well as by invertase hydrolysis and subsequent uptake of hexoses. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Fructose and glucose uptake was not pH-sensitive below pH 7.0, whereas uptake of radioactivity from sucrose and 1′-deoxy-1′-fluorosucrose declined as the pH was increased above 5.0. (plantphysiol.org)
  • [4] While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose , as in the monosaccharides fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (starch sugar) and the disaccharides sucrose ( cane or beet sugar) and lactose (milk sugar). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, blood sugar is the monosaccharide glucose , table sugar is the disaccharide sucrose , and milk sugar is the disaccharide lactose (see illustration). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Sucrose is a disaccharide, containing both fructose and glucose. (649mset.org)
  • During the hydrolysis of sucrose, sucrose forms a 1:1 mixture of glucose and fructose. (649mset.org)
  • The hydrolysis of sucrose is sometimes referred to as an invert sugar because the angle of the polarized light changes from a positive value to a negative value with the optical isomers present in the sucrose sugars (fructose and glucose). (649mset.org)
  • sucrose, lactose, and maltose are double sugar molecules. (649mset.org)
  • Disaccharides These sugars are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides in the digestive tract by specific enzymes and each of these specific sugars-sucrose, maltose and lactose-have a. (649mset.org)
  • Aspartame is 180 times sweeter than sucrose (common table sugar). (westonaprice.org)
  • It is much sweeter than sucrose (cane sugar). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It has the same empirical formula (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) as sucrose (cane sugar) and maltose but differs from both in structure (see isomer). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms of sugar signaling in plants, the effect of derivatives of the transport sugar sucrose (Suc), the Suc isomers palatinose and turanose, and the Suc analog fluoro-Suc were tested. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In the early nineteenth century, individual sugars were often named after their source, e.g. grape sugar (Traubenzucker) for glucose, cane sugar (Rohrzucker) for saccharose (the name sucrose was coined much later). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • This enzyme participates in starch and sucrose metabolism and nucleotide sugars metabolism. (americanchemicalsuppliers.com)
  • Highly reproducible and simple protocol for cotton somatic embryogenesis is described here by using different concentrations of maltose, glucose, sucrose and fructose. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because most people enjoy the sweetness of sugars and the mouthfeel of cooked starches, they become familiar by association with table sugar (sucrose), invert sugars (hydrolyzed sucrose), corn syrup sugars (Dglucose and maltose), milk sugar (lactose), and the more starchy foods. (lanxicy.com)
  • The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide . (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • In the body, sucrose hydrolyses into fructose and glucose. (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • Table sugar or sucrose is a disaccharide made up of two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, bonded together via a glycoside linkage. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • 0.01 mM, but in those consuming fructose or sucrose, serum fructose concentrations reached 0.10-0.30 mM ( 19 ). (physiology.org)
  • In healthy humans consuming high-fructose or -sucrose diets, serum fructose can reach 0.2-0.5 mM ( 92 ), but this concentration is still very low compared with normal blood glucose levels (5.5 mM). (physiology.org)
  • Today we must ask ourselves, is sugar (sucrose) truly the evil one? (kraftfamilychiropractic.com)
  • After experimenting with hundreds of chlorinated sugars, three chlorine ions were exchanged for three hydroxyl groups on a sugar molecule creating '1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4- deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside' to be renamed sucralose crafting a name that sounds natural like sucrose (commonly known as sugar). (kraftfamilychiropractic.com)
  • Sucrose is most abundant in plants and known as cane sugar or table sugar or invert sugar as equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose is obtained by hydrolysis of sucrose. (aglasem.com)
  • Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest (lower molecular weight) carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7. CLASSIFICATION: 1- Monosaccharides (simple sugars): They can not be hydrolyzed into simpler units. (slideshare.net)
  • High-fructose corn syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose as monosaccharides. (orange.com)
  • Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehyde. (theinfolist.com)
  • It is a disaccharide (double-sugar) formed from one molecule each of the simple sugars (monosaccharides) fructose and galactose. (meddic.jp)
  • However, some biological substances commonly called "monosaccharides" do not conform to this formula (e.g., uronic acids and deoxy-sugars such as fucose ), and there are many chemicals that do conform to this formula but are not considered to be monosaccharides (e.g., formaldehyde CH 2 O and inositol (CH 2 O) 6 ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Monosaccharides, which are simple sugars that serve as fuel molecules as well as fundamental constituents of living organisms, are the simplest carbohydrates, and are required as energy sources. (wikibooks.org)
  • Monosaccharides are the simple sugars, e.g., fructose fructose , levulose , or fruit sugar, simple sugar found in honey and in the fruit and other parts of plants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Monosaccharides, the simplest carbohydrate units, are commonly known as æsimple sugars. (alfa.com)
  • Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose and galactose . (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • Monosaccharides (Greek, meaning "single sugar") are simple sugars and are frequently named using the suffix -ose. (dcccd.edu)
  • Because the position of individual atoms within a sugar molecule varies, many monosaccharides are isomers of one another. (dcccd.edu)
  • Although modified sugars do not meet the formal definition for carbohydrates, they are formed through small modifications to common monosaccharides. (dcccd.edu)
  • The monosaccharides and oligosaccharides having sweet taste are collectively known as sugars. (aglasem.com)
  • Ribose and deoxyribose are classified as monosaccharides, aldoses, pentoses , and are reducing sugars. (elmhurst.edu)
  • maltose maltose or malt sugar, crystalline disaccharide (see carbohydrate). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Starch degradation could follow either the phosphorolytic pathway, yielding trioseP, or the amylolytic pathway, leading to free sugars, glucose (Glc), and maltose. (plantcell.org)
  • High-affinity transporter for glucose and fructose Does not transport galactose, 2-deoxy-d-glucose and xylose. (abcam.com)
  • Carbonhydrate esters, which are often also referred in short as "sugar esters", are esters of mono- or oligosaccharides and-in the broader sense-of sugar alcohols with organic or inorganic acids. (google.com)
  • The disaccharides are sometimes grouped with the simpler polysaccharides (usually those made up of three or four simple sugar units) to form a class of carbohydrates called the oligosaccharides. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chains of more than one sugar are called oligosaccharides. (alfa.com)
  • [10] Glycosylation sites in O-linked oligosaccharides are determined by the secondary and tertiary structures of the polypeptide, which dictate where glycosyltransferases will add sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides . (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), which are found in many vegetables, consist of short chains of fructose molecules. (omicsgroup.org)
  • In honey, this mixture of glucose and fructose is the primary ingredient. (649mset.org)
  • 7. The unit dosage form of claim 1 or 2 wherein the carbohydrate comprises a monosaccharide, a disaccharide, a sugar alcohol, a cellulose, a modified cellulose, or a mixture thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Disaccharides include lactose lactose or milk sugar, white crystalline disaccharide (see carbohydrate). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To gain insight into disaccharide-specific signal transduction pathways, derivates of the transport sugar Suc were used in the present study. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Consuming table sugar is the same as eating a disaccharide, but before the body can use it, it must be broken down by enzymes to simple sugars that then are metabolized separately. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • However, not all carbohydrates conform to this precise stoichiometric definition (e.g., uronic acids, deoxy-sugars such as fucose), nor are all chemicals that do conform to this definition automatically classified as carbohydrates (e.g. formaldehyde and acetic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • In food science and in many informal contexts, the term "carbohydrate" often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch (such as cereals, bread and pasta) or simple carbohydrates, such as sugar (found in candy, jams, and desserts). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the strict sense, "sugar" is applied for sweet, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, carbohydrates often display chemical groups such as: N-acetyl (e.g. chitin), sulphate (e.g. glycosaminoglycans), carboxylic acid (e.g. sialic acid) and deoxy modifications (e.g. fucose and sialic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates, or saccharides (saccharo is Greek for ―sugar) are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or substances that yield such compounds on hydrolysis. (slideshare.net)
  • Carbohydrates include not only sugar, but also the starches that we find in foods, such as bread, pasta, and rice. (slideshare.net)
  • Starch and sugars are the most important carbohydrates in human diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although optical rotation has been one of the most frequently determined characteristics of carbohydrates since its recognition in the late 19th century, the rotational behaviour of freshly prepared solutions of many sugars differs from that of solutions that have been allowed to stand. (britannica.com)
  • The layman s conception of carbohydrates generally involves only the sugars and starches of foods those that generate calories and fat. (lanxicy.com)
  • Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • Sugars are carbohydrates that often are joined with proteins to form glycoproteins or other complex compounds. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Based upon reducing and non-reducing properties, carbohydrates are classified as reducing and non-reducing sugars. (aglasem.com)
  • On the basis of their, taste, carbohydrates are classified as sugars and non-sugars. (aglasem.com)
  • Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. (techdirt.com)
  • The sucralose molecule looks like the sugar molecule, superficially. (649mset.org)
  • In principle, a sugar signal could be generated by extracellular recognition via a soluble or membrane-bound receptor molecule or by intracellular sensing at different stages of sugar metabolism. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A novel transaldolase enzyme cleaves the SF to 3-sulfolactaldehyde (SLA), while the non-sulfonated C3-(glycerone)-moiety is transferred to an acceptor molecule, glyceraldehyde phosphate (GAP), yielding fructose-6-phosphate (F6P). (univie.ac.at)
  • i.e., both have a d -configuration at the centre of asymmetry most remote from the aldehyde end (in glucose) or keto end (in fructose) of the molecule, but fructose is levorotatory and glucose is dextrorotatory-hence the latter has been given the alternative name dextrose. (britannica.com)
  • When more than one asymmetrical centre is present in a molecule, as is the case with sugars having four or more carbon atoms, a series of d l pairs exists, and they are functionally, physically, and chemically distinct. (britannica.com)
  • This -C-O-C- group is formed when the two sugars come together and eliminate a molecule of water. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • GOS is naturally found in soybeans and can be synthesized from lactose (milk sugar). (omicsgroup.org)
  • The chemical process for the rapid commercial conversion of glucose to fructose was developed in 1957 ( 99 ), and this technological advance led to the gradual increase in the manufacture and consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) ( 11 ). (physiology.org)
  • Let's take a closer look at the top three artificial alternatives and high fructose corn syrup. (kraftfamilychiropractic.com)
  • D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase in organic synthesis: cascade chemical-enzymatic preparation of sugar-related polyhydroxylated compounds. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Novel aldol addition reactions of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and hydroxyacetone (HA) to a variety of aldehydes catalyzed by D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase (FSA) are presented. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These include phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase (EC 4.1.1.32 ), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.12 ), aldolase (EC 7.1.2.7 ), fructose-1,6-phosphate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11 ), and phosphoglucoisomerase (EC 5.3.1.9 ), as well as phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1 ) and UDPG pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.9 ) ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • The whole synthetic strategy is based on an aldol addition reaction catalysed by fructose-6-phosphate aldolase (FSA) as a key step of a three or four enzymes-catalysed cascade reaction. (csic.es)
  • The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Very early, consensus was reached that sugars should be named with the ending '-ose', and by combination with the French word 'cellule' for cell the term cellulose was coined, long before the structure was known. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Keto sugars: ketoses: Contain ketone group e.g. fructose, ribulose and dihydroxy acetone. (slideshare.net)
  • It does not reduce common aldoses and ketoses, or non-sugar aldehydes and ketones [1]. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • He endorsed Armstrong's proposal to classify sugars into aldoses and ketoses, and proposed the name fructose for laevulose, because he found that the sign of optical rotation was not a suitable criterion for grouping sugars into families. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • This phenomenon, known as mutarotation, is demonstrable even with apparently identical sugars and is caused by a type of stereoisomerism involving formation of an asymmetrical centre at the first carbon atom (aldehyde carbon) in aldoses and the second one (keto carbon) in ketoses. (britannica.com)
  • 9. 2- According to the characteristic carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone group): - Aldo sugars: aldoses: Contain aldehyde group e.g. glucose, ribose, erythrose and glyceraldehydes. (slideshare.net)
  • Deoxyribose, more, precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H---3-H. Its name indicates that it is a deoxy sugar, meaning that it is derived from the sugar ribose by loss of an oxygen atom. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • A double-stranded nucleic acid containing the sugar 2-deoxy-D-ribose. (visionlearning.com)
  • A single-stranded nucleic acid containing the sugar ribose. (visionlearning.com)
  • Which structure is shown in the graphic - ribose, deoxyribose or fructose? (elmhurst.edu)
  • Sugar Phosphates. (buecher.de)
  • Examples include glycosylamines, sugar phosphates, and sugar acetates. (alfa.com)
  • Why is the hexose precursor of the two triose phosphates fructose 1,6- bis phosphate, and not simply glucose 1,6- bis phosphate? (stackexchange.com)
  • Our findings show that CtAPI is specific to the interconversion of arabinose-5-phosphate and ribulose-5-phosphate while having no activity with the other sugars and sugar phosphates tested. (asm.org)
  • The main degradation products detected were xylose and xylobiose, but isomerization products of sugars (xylulose, fructose) were also found in the filtrates. (springer.com)
  • The generated strains were evaluated in cultures with glucose, xylose or arabinose, as well as a simulated lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing a mixture of these three sugars plus acetate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mannitol is a sugar alcohol form of mannose. (asm.org)
  • At this time researchers looked at the ability of mannose, the pure version of the complex sugar in MOS, to inhibit salmonella infections. (netlibrary.net)
  • Rhamnose occurs in nature in its L-form as L-rhamnose (6-deoxy-L- mannose ). (chemeurope.com)
  • Recently, we reported that the replication of herpes virus (KSHV) known to cause the most prevalent cancer in AIDS patients, can be inhibited by treatment with the dual glucose and mannose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). (lampidisfoundation.org)
  • Some of these terms, specially "carbohydrate" and "sugar", are also used with other meanings. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also includes dietary fiber which is a carbohydrate but which does not contribute much in the way of food energy (kilocalories), even though it is often included in the calculation of total food energy just as though it were a sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrate esters have pronounced surface-active properties so that, today, they are regarded as an independent class of compounds (so-called sugar surfactants). (google.com)
  • The term ―carbohydrate comes from the observation that when you heat sugars, you get carbon and water (hence, hydrate of carbon). (slideshare.net)
  • Carbohydrate derivatives are sugar molecules that have been modified with substituents other than hydroxyl groups. (alfa.com)
  • It also includes " dietary fiber " which is a carbohydrate but which does not contribute much in the way of food energy (calories), even though it is often included in the calculation of total food energy just as though it were a sugar. (ipfs.io)
  • The inferred regulatory network in B. thetaiotaomicron contains 308 genes encoding polysaccharide and sugar catabolic enzymes, carbohydrate-binding and transport systems, and TFs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ring forms of sugars are the structures that react to form carbohydrate dimers and polymers. (dcccd.edu)
  • For variations of the ketogenic meals, families can incorporate combinations of protein-rich foods such as bacon and eggs or small amounts of low-carbohydrate food items such as avocado, nuts, sugar-free gelatin, and cheese. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • [11] The UK's Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition in 2015 disputed the claims of fructose causing metabolic disorders, stating that "there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that fructose intake, at levels consumed in the normal UK diet, leads to adverse health outcomes independent of any effects related to its presence as a component of total and free sugars. (orange.com)
  • Towards the end of the nineteenth century it was realized that the free sugars (not only the glycosides) existed as cyclic hemiacetals or hemiketals. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas (EMP) pathway, commonly known as glycolysis, represents the fundamental biochemical infrastructure for sugar catabolism in almost all organisms, as it provides key components for biosynthesis, energy metabolism, and global regulation. (pnas.org)
  • In animals most of the energy for sperm motility is derived from the metabolism of fructose carried in the seminal fluid. (techdirt.com)
  • 2-Deoxy- d -glucose (2-DG) has been found to be uniquely suited to exploit this universal trait as it has been demonstrated to be a powerful agent for blocking and probing increased sugar metabolism in cancer cells [ 2-5 ] (Fig. 1 ). (lampidisfoundation.org)
  • It is essential in N-acetylneuraminate degradation, which is itself part of Amino-sugar metabolism. (e80boot.org)
  • The myriad effects of fructose are possible only if fructose reaches physiologically significant concentrations in the plasma and extracellular fluids and if subsequently transported into cells of various organ systems, thereby potentially altering normal metabolism in those organs. (physiology.org)
  • Dr. Lampidis is a pioneer in the exploration of glucose metabolism in cancer cells and the discovery of how to exploit this process by using simple sugars such as 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). (lampidisfoundation.org)
  • [15] Yeast enzymes convert sugar (glucose, or fructose) to ethanol and carbon dioxide . (orange.com)
  • Thus, subsequent modifications of the octose unit necessary to generate lincosamide may be catalyzed by enzymes that recognize an NDP-activated sugar substrate.38,43 Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that LmbN (isomerase),37 LmbP (kinase), LmbK (phosphatase), and LmbO (nucleotidyltransferase),38 catalyze a series of transformations by which 10 is activated to yield the GDP-octose 14. (henawistore.com)
  • The reconstructed regulatory network allowed us to suggest and refine specific functional assignments for sugar catabolic enzymes and transporters, providing a substantial improvement to the existing metabolic models for B. thetaiotaomicron . (biomedcentral.com)
  • L-APIs, such as KdsD from E. coli , are the first enzymes in the pathway responsible for the biosynthesis of 3-deoxy- d -manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), an essential component of both the LPS of Gram-negative bacteria and the rhamnogalacturonan-II of certain plants ( 1 - 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Polysaccharides which are insoluble in water and not sweet in taste, are non-sugars. (aglasem.com)
  • Excessive consumption of fructose (especially from sugar-sweetened beverages) may contribute to insulin resistance , obesity , elevated LDL cholesterol and triglycerides , leading to metabolic syndrome . (orange.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that there seems to be a direct relationship between increases in consumption of fructose and increases in incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 12 , 69 , 114 , 120 ). (physiology.org)
  • About 240,000 tonnes of crystalline fructose are produced annually. (orange.com)
  • Crystalline fructose adopts a cyclic six-membered structure owing to the stability of its hemiketal and internal hydrogen-bonding. (orange.com)
  • Melezitose contains two molecules of glucose and one of fructose, and is. (649mset.org)
  • The inability of N. winogradskyi to grow on C 6 molecules is consistent with the genome sequence, which lacks genes for complete Embden-Meyerhof and Entner-Doudoroff pathways, and active uptake of sugars. (asm.org)
  • Deoxyribose, a key sugar component of all DNA molecules, is a "deoxy sugar. (dcccd.edu)
  • However, even prior to this, Reeves had begun his systematic work on the shapes of sugar molecules in solution ( 78 , 79 ), and it was further concern with the latter that led Lemieux to undertake an examination of sugar acetates by 1 H n. m. r. (pmr) spectroscopy in 1957 ( 53 ). (springer.com)
  • for example, deoxyribose , a sugar component of DNA , [1] has the empirical formula C 5 H 10 O 4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Six alginate lyases were demonstrated to synergistically deconstruct alginate into unsaturated monosaccharide, followed by one uronic acid reductase and two 2-keto-3-deoxy- d -gluconate (KDG) kinases to produce pyruvate. (asm.org)
  • When the carbonyl group is located anywhere other than the end of the carbon chain, the monosaccharide is a ketose ("ketone sugar") such as fructose. (dcccd.edu)
  • Synthesis of analogs of the unusual N -glycosidic linkage (GlcβArg) with an acetamido or triazole spacer between the glycosyl residue and the guanidine moiety was accomplished by the reaction of fully acetylated sugar unit containing a free amino group with bis-Boc-thiourea. (springer.com)
  • 1. Kühn, A., Yu, S. and Giffhorn, F. Catabolism of 1,5-anhydro- D -fructose in Sinorhizobium morelense S- 30.7.5: discovery, characterization, and overexpression of a new 1,5-anhydro- D -fructose reductase and its application in sugar analysis and rare sugar synthesis. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • 2. Dambe, T.R., Kühn, A.M., Brossette, T., Giffhorn, F. and Scheidig, A.J. Crystal structure of NADP(H)-dependent 1,5-anhydro- D -fructose reductase from Sinorhizobium morelense at 2.2 Å resolution: construction of a NADH-accepting mutant and its application in rare sugar synthesis. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • 1957). "The synthesis of Certain 5-Deoxy-D-ribofuranosylpurines," J. Am. Chem. (patentgenius.com)
  • One-pot multienzymatic reactions have been performed for the synthesis of 1-deoxy-D-fructose 6-phosphate, 1,2-dideoxy-D-arabino-hept-3-ulose 7-phosphate, D-fructose 6-phosphate and D-arabinose 5-phosphate. (csic.es)
  • [7] [13] It is also called fruit sugar and levulose. (orange.com)
  • The name glucose comes from the Greek word glykys (γλυκύς), meaning 'sweet', plus the suffix '-ose' which denotes a sugar 4 chiral centers give 24 = the 16 stereoisomer s of hexose sugars. (slideshare.net)
  • Most pentose and hexose sugars, therefore, do not exist as linear, or open-chain, structures in solution but form cyclic , or ring, structures in hemiacetal or hemiketal forms, respectively. (britannica.com)
  • In this report, sugar uptake by the cultures is characterized. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Further study of fructose uptake at a concentration at which the saturable component predominated revealed sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors, respiratory uncouplers, the nonpermeant sulfhydryl reagent p -chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, and nigericin. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Fructose uptake was not completely inhibited by glucose and vice versa, suggesting the presence of specific carriers. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 우선 감염되지 않은 세포와 recombinant AcMPV-GTL 감염시킨 T. ni 세포의 2dGlc uptake를 300 mM D-fructose가 있을 때와 없을 때, 그리고 20 μM cytochalasin B가 있을 때와 없을 때의 상황에서 살펴보았다. (kpubs.org)
  • 감염되지 않은 세포에서의 육탄당 uptake는 D-fructose에 의해 강력하게 억제 되었으나 cytochalasin B에 의해서는 단지 미미한 억제 효과만을 보여주었다. (kpubs.org)
  • GLUT5 expression levels and fructose uptake rates are also significantly affected by diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and inflammation and seem to be induced during carcinogenesis, particularly in the mammary glands. (physiology.org)
  • All forms of fructose, including fruits and juices, are commonly added to foods and drinks for palatability and taste enhancement, and for browning of some foods, such as baked goods. (orange.com)
  • The most commonly known ones are perhaps glucose and fructose. (wikibooks.org)
  • It is known commonly as cane sugar, beet sugar, or maple sugar, depending upon its natural source. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of the most commonly used sweeteners is fructose. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most sugar derivatives occur naturally and have important biological functions. (alfa.com)
  • 1958). "5-Deoxy-5-fluoro-D-ribofuranosyl Derivatives of Certain Purines, Pyrimidines and 5,6-Dimethylbenzimidazole," J. Am. Chem. (patentgenius.com)
  • The majority of biological sugars and their derivatives contain higher abundances of the " d " mirror-image forms relative to the " l " forms. (pnas.org)
  • To date, there have been no systematic studies of d/l ( i.e., enantiomer) ratios of meteoritic sugar derivatives. (pnas.org)
  • Such data indicate that early meteoritic compounds may have influenced the enantiomer profile of subsequent biological sugars and their derivatives. (pnas.org)
  • The organic phase of carbonaceous meteorites comprises an insoluble "macromolecular" material ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ), a complex mixture of largely uncharacterized solvent-extractable compounds ( 4 ), as well as discrete (identified) soluble organic compounds such as amino acids ( 3 , 5 ) nucleobases ( 6 , 7 ), and sugar derivatives ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the majority of extant biological sugars and derivatives ("polyols"), the d enantiomers are significantly more abundant than the l enantiomers (we will note exceptions in Results and Natural Occurrence of Relevant Sugar Derivatives and Enantiomers ). (pnas.org)
  • The applicable subheading for Galactitol will be 2905.49.4000 , Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS), which provides for Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives: Other polyhydric alcohols: Other: Other: Polyhydric alcohols derived from sugars: Other. (faqs.org)
  • Thus n. m. r. spectroscopy as practiced in organic chemistry today, owes its origins and much of its early development ( 54 ) to the availability of a wealth of well characterized sugar derivatives. (springer.com)
  • Sugar Alcohols. (buecher.de)
  • Both sugar alcohols and non-nutritive sweeteners can replace sugar sweeteners and are therefore termed macronutrient substitutes, sugar substitutes, sugar replacers, or alternative sweeteners. (westonaprice.org)
  • Engineering aspects of the production of sugar alcohols with the osmophilic yeast Moniliella tomentosa var pollinis . (uni-hamburg.de)
  • In multiple carbonaceous meteorites, we show that both rare and common sugar monoacids (aldonic acids) contain significant excesses of the d enantiomer, whereas other (comparable) sugar acids and sugar alcohols are racemic. (pnas.org)
  • 2.6 Conformational Structures of Cyclic Sugars. (buecher.de)
  • The examples presented in this work show the valuable synthetic potential of FSA for the construction of chiral complex polyhydroxylated sugar-type structures. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Scientists believe that these microbial sugars have unique functions in chemistry and thus, studies have been done looking at their three-dimensional structures. (wikibooks.org)
  • The action of glycol-cleavage reagents on the isopropylidene acetals of the deoxyfluoro sugars was consistent with the assigned structures. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The structures were established by 13-C n.m.r. studies of the free deoxyfluoro sugars 6 and 16 and of the isopropylidene acetal 13, and by 1-H n.m.r. studies on the acetylated isopropylidene acetals 5 diacetate, 13 diacetate, and 14 diacetate. (worldwidescience.org)
  • N -acetyl (e.g. chitin), sulphate (e.g. glycosaminoglycans), carboxylic acid (e.g. sialic acid) and deoxy modifications (e.g. fucose and sialic acid). (ipfs.io)
  • deoxy sugar is of hydroxyl group replaced by hydrogen, and acidic sugar is of carboxylic acid group. (wikibooks.org)
  • To improve pHCA production, a mutant with inactive pheA gene was generated, causing an 8-fold increase in the yield of this aromatic acid from the sugars in a simulated hydrolysate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sugar-amino acid. (abcam.com)
  • Sugar-amino acid with potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (abcam.com)
  • Demonstration of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities from sugar-amino acid maillard reaction products. (abcam.com)
  • 11. The composition of claim 9, wherein said amino-containing compound is selected from the group consisting of 6-aminohexanoic acid, methylamine, poly-L-lysine, alpha-t-BOC-lysine, albumin, collagen, DNA, and glucose residue-bearing compounds where said glucose residues are replaced by the residues of another reducing sugars. (google.com)
  • According to recent studies, sugars that are produced by microbes are made from glucose-6-phosphate or fructose-6-phosphate. (wikibooks.org)
  • After the fructose 1,6- bis phosphate has lost the phosphate at the C1 position it can isomerize to glucose 6-phosphate (with the C1 position free to form an aldehyde) in a similar manner to the triose phosphate isomerization. (stackexchange.com)
  • Commercially, fructose is derived from sugar cane , sugar beets , and maize . (orange.com)
  • It is a white, crystalline coal tar compound that is about 500 times sweeter than cane sugar. (kraftfamilychiropractic.com)
  • We constructed an Escherichia coli strain that does not use glycolysis for sugar catabolism. (pnas.org)
  • Fructose undergoes the Maillard reaction , non-enzymatic browning, with amino acids . (orange.com)
  • However, it is known that glucose and other simple sugars combine with proteins as a first step, and that sugars combine with amino acids and other compounds to initiate the process. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • These biotechnological processes are usually based on the use of simple sugars like glucose as a raw material. (biomedcentral.com)
  • they are polymeric compounds made up of the simple sugars and can be hydrolyzed to yield simple sugars. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Figure 1 shows the structure of a simple sugar, glucose. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose was also synthesized by using HA as the donor and either 2-benzyloxyethanal or 2-hydroxyethanal as acceptors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to assess the growth rate of C. albicans (CA) in the presence of different concentrations of glucose and fructose, two of the main pathophysiologic and nutritionally relevant sugars in diabetic patients, in order to obtain a better understanding of the nutrient acquisition strategy and its possible relation to the hyperglycemic status of diabetic patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • METHODS The effects of different concentrations of glucose and fructose (1000 mg%, 500 mg%, 250 mg% and 100 mg% w/v) on the growth rate of CA have been studied by flow-cytometry. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this review is to gather recent findings regarding the effect of fructose intake at high concentrations and its relationship with NAFLD. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but are only present in sufficient concentrations for efficient extraction in sugarcane and sugar beet . (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • There are marked variations in estimates of blood fructose concentrations arising from differences in methods of collection and analysis. (physiology.org)
  • The production of unique microbial sugars began with the formation of NDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose. (wikibooks.org)
  • Keto sugars have one less asymmetrical centre for a given number of carbon atoms than do aldehyde sugars. (britannica.com)
  • i) The asterisk indicating regulated steps in nucleotide sugar formation was incorrectly positioned at the glucosamine-6-PO 4 acetyltransferase and should be located at the fructose-6-PO 4 amidotransferase. (nih.gov)
  • Fructose may be anaerobically fermented by yeast or bacteria . (orange.com)
  • Current studies are being directed at new sugars provided by microbes and bacteria that possess chemical importance. (wikibooks.org)
  • Some microbial sugars are the dideoxysugars and trideoxysugars, made by bacteria, fungi, and plants. (wikibooks.org)
  • An isomerase converts SQ to 6-deoxy-6-sulfofructose (SF). (univie.ac.at)
  • The crystal structure of arabinose-5-phosphate isomerase (API) from Bacteroides fragilis (bfAPI) was determined at 1.7 Å resolution and was found to be a tetramer of a single-domain sugar isomerase (SIS) with an endogenous ligand, CMP-Kdo (cytidine 5'-monophosphate-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate), bound at the active site. (nih.gov)
  • Table sugar, milk, or honey are often added to drinks and many prepared foods such as jam, biscuits and cakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Fructose is found in honey , tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries , and most root vegetables . (orange.com)
  • This was the first time that sugar became available to the common people who previously had to rely on honey to sweeten foods. (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • for thousands of years , humans consumed about 16-24 g of fructose each day, mainly as fruits and honey obtained from foraging and agricultural activity. (physiology.org)
  • These reactions are responsible for the production of unique biosynthesized microbial sugars. (wikibooks.org)
  • This is not surprising since these aspects have always been a prime area of concern to sugar chemists because of the role they play in the reactions of sugars. (springer.com)
  • In an amino sugar, one or more hydroxyl groups are replaced by nitrogen-containing functional groups. (dcccd.edu)
  • The word "fructose" was coined in 1857 from the Latin for fructus (fruit) and the generic chemical suffix for sugars, -ose . (orange.com)
  • The initial product of this reaction is, of necessity, a linear hexose 1,6 bis -phosphate - with the fructose as the hexose as its carbonyl is at C2. (stackexchange.com)
  • Sugars with the carbonyl group attached to a carbon at the end of the chain are aldoses ("aldehyde sugar") such as glucose. (dcccd.edu)
  • Furthermore, NaDCC treatment affected significantly the accumulation of ripening-related primary metabolites such as sugars and organic acids. (springer.com)
  • Surface analysis with XPS revealed no significant changes in the surface structure of the dried MFC cakes but the filtrates after the hydrothermal treatment were complex mixtures of sugars, organic acids and furans. (springer.com)
  • 4-Deoxy-4-fluoro-alpha-D- sorbose (6) was prepared in crystalline form by the action of potassium hydrogen fluoride on 3,4-anhydro-1,2-O-isopropylidene-beta-D-psicopyranose (3) followed by deacetonation. (worldwidescience.org)
  • 5-Deoxy-5-fluoro-L- sorbose (16) was biologically active, producing in mice effects characteristic of deoxyfluorotrioses and of fluoroacetate. (worldwidescience.org)
  • 4-Deoxy-4-fluoro-D-tagatose (15) and 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-D- sorbose (6) produced no apparent effects in mice up to a dose of 500mg/kg. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The inhibitory effect was compared with that of L- sorbose and other rare sugars, and the small intestinal disaccharidases in rats was compared with that of humans as well. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The substances which will be discussed here are often referred to on product labels by many (seemingly) interchangeable terms: artificial/synthetic sweeteners, sugar alternatives, alternative sweeteners, non-nutritive sweeteners, non-caloric/low-cal/low-carb sweeteners, diabetic-safe sweeteners, etc. (westonaprice.org)
  • This is unusual since most of the naturally-occurring sugars are in D-form. (chemeurope.com)